Is die Verenigde Koninkryk ooit op Baker Island geëis?

Is die Verenigde Koninkryk ooit op Baker Island geëis?



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Die Wikipedia -artikel en Encyclopedia Britannica -artikel vir Baker Island stem saam dat die Verenigde State in 1857 Baker Baker geëis het, kragtens die Guano Islands Act. In die Wikipedia -artikel word ook beweer dat die Verenigde Koninkryk die eiland tussen 1897 en 1936 geëis het.

Het die Verenigde Koninkryk gedurende daardie tyd Baker Island geëis? Indien wel, hoe is die mededingende aansprake op soewereiniteit opgelos?


Dit lyk asof die antwoord ja is, hoewel die Britse soewereiniteit bloot nominaal was, aangesien daar nie gepoog is om die eiland werklik te beset nie. Hierdie artikel van 1961 deur H.E. Maude bespreek die geskiedenis binne 'n streeksverband. Ek sal die hoofpunte saamvat.

Die geskille tussen die Verenigde State en die Verenigde Koninkryk na aanleiding van die Amerikaanse wet op die Guano -eilande van 1856 het in die steek gelaat toe die paar kommersieel betaalbare guano -deposito's uitgeput was. Sedertdien word byna al die eilande wat deur die Amerikaanse Guano -wet gedek word, in die afwesigheid van 'n aktiewe Amerikaanse belangstelling as Britse besittings beskou.

Hierdie situasie het verander toe die strategiese waarde van die eilande met betrekking tot die trans-Pasifiese burgerlugvaart erken is. Baker Island (en ook Jarvis Island) is onder die administratiewe jurisdiksie van die Verenigde State geplaas deur die presidensiële bevel van 13 Mei 1936; In Maart 1938 het Stephen T. Early, sekretaris van president Roosevelt, aangekondig dat:

Die posisie van die Verenigde State ten opsigte van lande of eilande wat tot dusver onbewoon of ter sprake was oor eienaarskap, is soos volg:

  1. Die eerste aanspraak op titel op onontdekte gebied berus op ontdekking.
  2. Onder hierdie baie eilande in die Stille Oseaan is die eerste keer deur Amerikaanse vlagskepe ontdek.
  3. Die Verenigde State het altyd geglo dat blote ontdekking nie die finale titel gee nie. As dit nie deur redelike beroep gevolg word nie, is dit onvoldoende.
  4. Met betrekking tot die eilande ter sprake, waarvan daar baie is, neem die Verenigde State die reg op besetting aan as gevolg van:

    (a) ontdekking,

    (b) voormalige beroep,

    (c) versuim van 'n ander land om te beset,

    of 'n kombinasie van die drie.

Ek sou raai dat gebeure in 1939 diplomatieke gesprekke tussen die VSA en die Verenigde Koninkryk gelewer het oor die toekoms van die eilande, en Baker Island bly 'n besit van die Verenigde State.


Top 10 kontroversiële territoriale geskille

Die wêreld is op talle maniere verdeel deur seë, kulture, tale, godsdienste en rykdom. Maar die mees omstrede kloof is die politieke grense. Hulle kan teruggevoer word na die vroeë Egiptiese dinastieë en het die geskiedenis wat ons vandag ken, gevorm. As gevolg van hul lang geskiedenis verander grense en word dit voortdurend betwis. Sommige geskille word uiteindelik vreedsaam opgelos, sommige eindig in oorlog, en sommige duur tot vandag toe voort. Hierdie lys bevat 10 omstrede grondgeskille wat tot vandag toe bestaan.

Eise: Georgië teen die Republiek Abchazië en die Republiek van Suid -Ossetië

Beide Abchazië en Suid -Ossetië is wegbreekrepublieke van Georgië in die Kaukasus. Die twee min bekende gebiede het sedert die twintigerjare gesukkel om onafhanklikheid van Georgië, maar slaag steeds nie daarin nie. As gevolg van die Russiese rewolusie in 1917, onder die Sowjetunie, het Abchazië en Suid -Ossetië deel geword van Georgië as twee outonome republieke. Abchasië en Suid -Ossetië verklaar egter onafhanklikheid van Sowjet -Georgië in onderskeidelik 1923 en 1922, na oorloë in die 1920's. Verdere probleme het begin in die vroeë 90's, tydens die afsterwe van die Sowjetunie, toe Georgië onafhanklikheid van die USSR verklaar het en sy ou grondwet aanvaar het. Baie het geglo dat die ou grondwet die outonomie van die streke sou uitskakel, maar dit het eintlik nie gebeur nie. Die probleme het uiteindelik tot oorloë gelei in 1992 en 2008. Na die oorlog van 2008 erken Rusland die lande amptelik as twee afsonderlike en individuele state, en saam met Nicaragua, Venezuela, is Nauru en Vanuatu een van die enigste lande wat die state amptelik erken het . Die VN, EU en NAVO weier egter om Abchazië en Suid -Ossetië as soewereine state te erken.

Eise: Republiek Serwië vs Republiek Kosovo

Hier het ons nog 'n meer beroemde geskil oor grond wat vroeër aan 'n sosialistiese republiek behoort het. Hierdie keer behels dit egter die Sosialistiese Bondsrepubliek Joego -Slawië. Joegoslavië het 'n lang en interessante geskiedenis, maar ons sal ons konsentreer op die agteruitgang van die sosialistiese staat in die 1990's. Tydens die ondergang is 5 nuwe state gevorm: Bosnië en Herzegowina, Kroasië, Masedonië, Slowenië en FR Joegoslavië. FR Joegoslavië bevat ook die outonome streek Kosovo. Oorlog het in 1998-99 uitgebreek toe die & ldquoKosovo Liberation Army & rdquo vir onafhanklikheid geveg het teen die Federale Republiek Joegoslavië. Die VN was baie aan die kant van die KLA en het gehelp met die bombardering van FR Joegoslavië. Na die oorlog het FR Joegoslavië alle aansprake aan Kosovo afgestaan ​​en dit as 'n VN -beheerde gebied aanvaar. FR Joegoslavië verdeel toe in twee individuele state, Serwië en Montenegro, in 2006. Kosovo verklaar toe onafhanklikheid van Serwië, op 17 Februarie 2008, met die hoofstad as Pristina. Dit word amptelik erken deur 80 VN -lidlande, plus Taiwan. Hy is 'n lid van die IMF en die Wêreldbank, maar dit is tegnies steeds 'n gedeeltelik erkende staat.

Eise: Koninkryk Marokko versus Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

Ons trek nou uit Europa na die omstrede Afrika -gebied van die Wes -Sahara, grens aan Marokko, Algerië en Mauritanië. Dit is een van die ylbevolkte gebiede ter wêreld, hoofsaaklik uit woestynvlaktes. Die bevolking word geraam op net meer as 500,000 en baie woon in een stad. Volgens die VN is dit 'n nie-gedekoloniseerde gebied op die & ldquoList of Non-Self-Governing Territories & rdquo. Oorspronklik behoort dit tot die Spaanse Ryk, word dit nou geëis deur Marokko en die Sahrawi Arabiese Demokratiese Republiek, na die Madrid -ooreenkoms, in 1975, toe Spanje ingestem het om sy teenwoordigheid in die gebied te beëindig. Die SADR beheer 20-25% van die gebied, terwyl Marokko die res beheer. 58 state erken die SADR amptelik as die regering van die Wes -Sahara, 22 het hul erkenning teruggetrek en 12 het dit gevries hangende 'n VN -referendum. Die Arabiese liga is die belangrikste en enigste steun vir die aanspraak op Marokko op die gebied. Die SADR het in 1984 by die Afrika -unie aangesluit, wat gelei het tot die onttrekking van Marokko, wat hulle die enigste Afrika -nasie maak wat nie in die unie was nie. Tot vandag toe erken die VN nie die Wes -Sahara as 'n soewereine staat wat deur die SADR beheer word nie.

Eise: Koninkryk Spanje teen die Verenigde Koninkryk van Groot -Brittanje en Noord -Ierland

Die gebied van Gibraltar word al jare lank beveg vanweë die ideale ligging aan die Gibraltar -seestraat. Die seestraat bied toegang tot die Middellandse See en die Suez, en is van groot belang vir internasionale skeepvaart en handel. Militêre beheer oor die seestraat lê tans saam met die VK en Marokko, in teenstelling met Spanje, alhoewel Spanje aansienlike militêre basisse naby die Straat het. Hierdie besluit is deur die NAVO geneem en word vermoedelik as gevolg van die spesiale verhouding tussen die VSA en die Verenigde Koninkryk, en die status van Gibraltar as 'n Britse Britse oorse gebied & rdquo. 'N Anglo-Hollandse mag het Gibraltar oorspronklik in 1704, tydens die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog, verower. Die gebied het daarna deur die Verdrag van Utrecht in 1713 deur Spanje vir ewig aan Brittanje afgestaan. Sedert die gebied oorgegee is, het die Spanjaarde drie keer probeer om die stad deur beleëring te verower, maar nie een was suksesvol nie. Dit het nou aanspraak op die gebied, hoewel dit steeds Brits is. In 1967 en 2002 is referendum gehou om Gibraltar na Spanje terug te keer, maar 99% van die bevolking het gestem om by beide geleenthede 'n Britse gebied te bly. Daar is geen groot spanning tussen Spanje en die Verenigde Koninkryk oor die gesamentlike eis nie, maar dit bly steeds 'n interessante politieke situasie, aangesien Spanje geen tekens toon dat hy die eis sal laat vaar nie.

Eise: Argentynse Republiek teen die Verenigde Koninkryk van Groot -Brittanje en Noord -Ierland

Hierdie eilande, wat nou verband hou met die Falkland -eilande (sien hieronder), was ook die fokuspunt van die breuk tussen Argentinië en die Verenigde Koninkryk sedert die pioniers in die 18de eeu na die gebied gevaar het. Die Verenigde Koninkryk het in 1775, na 'n reis deur James Cook, en die Suidelike Sandwicheilande, soewereiniteit oor Suid -Georgië geëis in 1775. In 1908 het die Verenigde Koninkryk sowel Suid -Georgië as die Suidelike Sandwich -eilande geannekseer. Die Argentynse eis het ontstaan ​​toe 'n in Argentinië geregistreerde walvisvangsmaatskappy in 1904 sy bedrywighede in Suid-Georgië begin het. In 1906 het die maatskappy 'n huurkontrak met die Falkland-eilande onderteken, en na die anneksasie van 1908 het die Britse Britse walvisvanglisensies begin gebruik. en begin soek na uitbreiding na die Suidelike Sandwich -eilande. Na aanleiding van die Argentynse bewerings, het die Verenigde Koninkryk herhaaldelik (in 1947, 1951, 1953 en 1954) aangebied om die saak na die Internasionale Geregshof in Den Haag te neem, maar dit is deur Argentinië van die hand gewys. Die eilande het tydens die Falklandoorlog in 1982 kortliks onder Argentynse beheer gekom, maar na die oorlog is dit na die Britse beheer teruggekeer. In 1985 was Suid -Georgië en die Suidelike Sandwich -eilande nie meer afhanklik van Falkland -eilande nie en het dit 'n aparte Britse oorsese gebied geword. Argentinië maak steeds aanspraak op soewereiniteit oor Suid -Georgië en die Suidelike Sandwich -eilande, tot vandag toe, die mees onlangse ontwikkeling in 2010 toe die Venezolaanse president, Hugo Chavez, 'n beroep op koningin Elizabeth II doen om die Falkland en Suid -Georgië aan Argentinië te gee.

Eise: Central Tibetan Administration vs. Peoples Republic of China

Die soewereiniteit van Tibet is 'n omstrede en ingewikkelde situasie wat die betrokkenes vereis om so ver terug te kyk as die 13de eeuse Yuan -dinastie. Die mening van die People & rsquos Republic of China en rsquos is dat Tibet sedert die Yuan -dinastie volgens die wet 'n ondeelbare deel van China was. Antieke kaarte ondersteun hierdie bewering, net soos baie ander lande, daarom word Tibet algemeen aanvaar as 'n outonome gebied in China. Die VSA, die Verenigde Koninkryk, die EU en Frankryk aanvaar Tibet in die openbaar as deel van China, saam met baie ander lande. Die Verenigde Koninkryk het egter eers onlangs sy standpunt duidelik gemaak deur te sê: & ldquo Soos elke ander EU -lidstaat en die Verenigde State beskou ons Tibet as deel van die People & rsquos Republic of China & rdquo. Tot en met hierdie aankondiging was die Verenigde Koninkryk die enigste land wat China se beheer oor Tibet nie erken het nie. Die verwarring is die gevolg van die Chinese inval in Tibet in 1950, toe die nuwe kommunistiese regering begin het met die & ldquoLiberation van alle Chinese gebiede & rdquo. Voor die inval het die regering van Tibet die gebied regeer, alhoewel dit as 'n Chinese gebied beskou is, maar na die oorlog het die Volksrepubliek Tibet in China ingelyf met 'n 17 -punt ooreenkoms met die Dalai Lama. Hierdie ooreenkoms het van Tibet 'n outonome gebied onder Chinese beheer gemaak. Daar word egter gesê dat die Tibetaanse afgevaardigdes gedwing is om die ooreenkoms te onderteken (oorgawe onder dwang). Die wêreld was egter huiwerig om Tibet te help, aangesien daar algemeen geglo is dat Tibet en China met behulp van Indië 'n vreedsame oplossing sou vind. Sedert die oorlog was daar baie pogings om in opstand te kom teen die PRC, maar dit was tevergeefs. Selfs met befondsing van die CIA, kon die versetbeweging nie beheer oor Tibet oorneem nie. Die Sentraal -Tibetaanse administrasie bly in ballingskap in Indië, regeer deur die Dalai Lama, en daar is geen teken dat Tibet onafhanklikheid verkry nie.

Eise: Republiek Ciprus vs Turkse Republiek Noord -Ciprus

Daar was eeue lank politieke kwessies en oorloë tussen Griekeland en Turkye, en hierdie geskil is nie anders nie. Die Ottomaanse Turke het die eiland Ciprus in 1571 in beslag geneem, maar het die Griekse kultuur toegelaat. Die eiland is daarna in 1878 aan die Verenigde Koninkryk verhuur, wat Ciprus toe amptelik geannekseer het toe die Ottomaanse Ryk die Tweede Wêreldoorlog aan die Duitse kant betree het. Die 1923 -verdrag van Lausanne het uiteindelik enige Turkse aansprake op die eiland beëindig. Spanning was hoog op die eiland, aangesien beide Grieks en Turks -Cyprioten naby geleë was. As gevolg hiervan het die Britte die eiland langer as enige van die ander kolonies vasgehou om die vrede te probeer behou. In 1954 is 'n Grieks -Cypriotiese weerstandsgroep, die EOKA, gestig om Ciprus met Griekeland te probeer verenig. Hulle het aanvalle op die Britte en die Turke geloods terwyl hulle vir onafhanklikheid geveg het. Dit het daartoe gelei dat 'n Turkse versetgroep ontstaan ​​het wat tot veldslae oor die eiland gelei het. Die Britte het die eiland vasgehou tot 1960, toe die Republiek Ciprus onafhanklikheid verklaar het. Tog was gevegte tussen die Grieks en die Turks -Cyprioten 'n daaglikse gebeurtenis, soveel so dat die Verenigde Koninkryk, Griekeland en Turkye 'n NAVO -mag ingeroep het om die vrede te bewaar.

In 1974 ondersteun die nuwe Griekse militêre Junta 'n staatsgreep wat deur die EOKA van die Griekse vasteland gereël is om die huidige leier, Makarios, omver te werp en beheer oor die eiland te neem. Hulle was suksesvol en Makarios het eers oorleef nadat hy met 'n Britse vegvliegtuig van die eiland ontsnap het. Turkye het in Julie 'n lug- en see -inval op die eiland geloods, in reaksie op die Griekse geleide staatsgreep. Turkye beweer dat hul ingryping geregverdig is ingevolge artikel 2 van die waarborgverdrag, wat Griekeland, Turkye en Brittanje versoek om die onafhanklikheid van die eiland te verseker. Teen Augustus 1974 het die regering wat deur die staatsgreep ingestel is, ineengestort, saam met die Griekse militêre junta. Makarios het weer beheer oor Ciprus oorgeneem, en die ou Griekse regering het weer beheer oor Griekeland geneem. Die Turke het die grootste deel van die 37% van die eiland verower en die de facto -staat van die Turkse Republiek van Noord -Ciprus opgerig. As gevolg van die verdeling het die NAVO 'n vredesmag na 'n buffersone gestuur om die situasie te beheer, maar tot vandag toe is vrede nie herstel nie. Slegs Turkye erken die Turkse Republiek van Noord -Ciprus as 'n staat, en daar is geen tekens van hereniging van die eiland nie.

Eise: Argentynse Republiek teen die Verenigde Koninkryk van Groot -Brittanje en Noord -Ierland

Die Falkland -eilande was baie nou gekoppel aan Suid -Georgië, maar van groter belang was die belangrikste oorsaak van debat tussen die Verenigde Koninkryk en Argentinië. Die Britse aanspraak op soewereiniteit dateer uit 1690, en die Verenigde Koninkryk het feitlik soewereiniteit oor die eiland uitgeoefen sedert 1833. Argentinië betwis hierdie aanspraak lank nadat dit 'n kort tydjie voor 1833 in beheer van die eilande was. het oorspronklik aan Frankryk behoort, en die beheer het voortdurend verander tussen Spanje, Brittanje en Argentinië (Verenigde Provinsies en die Federasie) tot 1833, toe die Verenigde Koninkryk soewereiniteit geëis het en die Argentiniërs beveel het om te vertrek. Die eilande het toe onder Britse beheer gebly tot 1982, toe Argentinië die eilande binnegeval het (saam met Suid -Georgië hierbo) en die Falklandoorlog begin het.

Die Argentynse begeerte om die eilande te beheer, ontstaan ​​eers na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, tydens die agteruitgang van die Britse kolonies. Hulle het die soewereiniteitskwessie met die VN geopper, wat die twee nasies aangeraai het om vreedsaam met mekaar te onderhandel en tot 17 jaar lank onderhandel het. Verhoudings was positief gedurende hierdie tydperk, met olie wat deur die Argentinië aan die eiland verskaf is, en 'n aanloopbaan wat deur die Britte in Stanley gebou is vir die Argentynse lugrederye. Onderhandelinge oor die soewereiniteit was egter op 'n dooiepunt, aangesien die eilandbewoners vasbeslote was om 'n Britse kolonie te bly. 'N Oorlog is nouliks vermy in 1977, toe olievoorrade na die lughawe in Stanley afgesny is, maar die oorlog het in 1982 verrassend begin. Argentinië was te midde van 'n verwoestende ekonomiese krisis en grootskaalse burgerlike onrus teen die onderdrukkende weermag junta wat die land beheer het. Op 2 April het 'n gekombineerde Argentynse amfibiese mag die eilande binnegeval. Die Verenigde Koninkryk het onmiddellik 'n taakspan saamgestel om die eilande wat deur die meerderheid van die wêreld ondersteun word, weer in te neem. Die VSA het die VN -resolusies gelei wat Argentinië veroordeel het en die Verenigde Koninkryk in die geheim die nuutste missiele voorsien. Frankryk het waardevolle inligting gegee oor die Franse vliegtuie wat deur die Argentynse lugmag gebruik is, en het RAF -vlieëniers opgelei om dit te beveg. Nieu -Seeland het skepe gestuur om die Royal Navy van sy pligte in die Indiese Oseaan te onthef sodat hulle na die Falkland en die Rsquos kon gaan, en Chili het radarboodskappe oor waarskuwings oor inkomende aanvalle verskaf. Baie ander lande ondersteun die Verenigde Koninkryk, soveel so dat Columbia die enigste werklike steun was wat Argentinië gehad het. Die laaste eilande is op 20 Junie herower, en die oorlog was verby. Dit was 'n klein oorlog met groot internasionale betrokkenheid Admiraal Woodward het beroemd gesê & ldquoDit was 'n verdomde ding wat naby was. Die eilande bly onder Britse beheer, maar Argentinië toon geen teken om van sy aanspraak afstand te doen nie.

Eise: Volksrepubliek China vs Republiek China (Taiwan)

Die twee lande deel soortgelyke name, maar die Republiek van China (algemeen Taiwan genoem) verklaar onafhanklikheid van die Volksrepubliek China. Anders as Tibet, het Taiwan egter internasionale steun met sy onafhanklikheidseis. Baie stel voor dat die ROC hernoem moet word tot die Republiek Taiwan, om bande met China te verbreek en te streef na volledige internasionale erkenning. Om die komplekse geskiedenis eenvoudig te stel, voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het Taiwan aan Japan behoort, en die Republiek van China was die versamelnaam vir die vasteland van China. Toe, na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, is Taiwan deur die Japan aan die ROC oorgegee, maar weens die burgeroorlog op die vasteland van China tussen die kommunistiese Volksrepubliek China en die ROC, was dit onduidelik aan wie Taiwan behoort. Die Volksrepubliek China het beheer oor die vasteland van China oorgeneem, maar die eiland Taiwan het die naam Republiek van China as 'n aparte staat gehou en onafhanklikheid van die Volksrepubliek verklaar. Die VSA is een van die belangrikste bondgenote van Taiwan, wat hulle van vliegtuie en wapens voorsien en hulle erken as 'n aparte staat van die VRK. Die Volksrepubliek China beweer dat die ROC -regering onwettig is en weier om sy oproep tot onafhanklikheid te erken. The ROC & ndash met sy eie grondwet, onafhanklike verkose president en groot leër & ndash beskou homself egter as 'n onafhanklike soewereine staat. Die PRC weier om diplomatieke betrekkinge te hê met enige nasie wat die ROC erken. As gevolg hiervan is daar slegs 23 state wat amptelike diplomatieke betrekkinge met die ROC het. In die praktyk beskou die meeste lande die ROC as 'n onafhanklike staat en handhaaf hulle sodoende nie -amptelike betrekkinge daarmee. Taiwan bly tot vandag toe 'n gedeeltelik erkende staat, hoewel daar nie -amptelike betrekkinge met die meeste lande bestaan, hoofsaaklik as gevolg van die weiering van die Volksrepubliek China om 'n verhouding te hê met 'n staat wat Taiwan amptelik aanvaar.

Eise: Staat Palestina versus Staat Israel

Nadat ek die lys se titel gelees het, is ek seker dat almal sou raai dat die Palestynse-Israeliese konflik nommer 1 sou wees. Dit is eintlik wat my geïnspireer het om hierdie lys te skryf. Sonder om te veel argumente te wil voer, is die geskil godsdiensgebaseerd. Die Jode en die Arabiere het al geslagte lank baklei oor die land Palestina, en elkeen glo dat hulle die reg het om daar te woon. Maar ons gaan nie hierop ingaan nie, om voor die hand liggende redes. Om oor die hele geskiedenis van die konflik te skryf, sal op sigself 'n hele lys opneem, en om selfs te probeer suggereer dat & ldquowho daar eers was & rdquo sal te veel verduideliking verg, daarom beveel ek die & ldquo10 Ages of Palestine & rdquo -lys hier op Listverse aan. Die moderne konflik het begin vergeet na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en die volksmoord wat die Nazi's op die Jode gepleeg het. Toe die kampe bevry is, het duisende Jode 'n woonplek nodig gehad en natuurlik het hulle massaal na Palestina gestroom, waar sommige Jode reeds gewoon het, maar met 'n hoofsaaklik Arabiese bevolking. Die Britse mandaat van Palestina het met die Jode geveg om vrede in die streek te herstel, en 'n oplossing te probeer vind wat die twee godsdienste in harmonie kan laat leef. Die mandaat het egter misluk en onttrek in 1947. Die VN het ingegryp om vrede te herstel met die verdelingsplan van 1947, wat 'n beroep op die skepping van twee afsonderlike state gemaak het, en een Arabier en een Jood. Jerusalem sou 'n internasionale, VN -beheerde stad word, wat aan geen van die state behoort nie. Die Jode het die plan aanvaar, maar die Arabiere wou nie saamstem nie. Op 14 Mei 1948 het die Jode onafhanklikheid uitgeroep en die staat Israel tot stand gebring. Die volgende dag het die leërs van Egipte, Sirië, Libanon en Iran Israel aangeval en die 1948 -Arabiese en Israeliese oorlog begin. Na 'n jaar se geveg is 'n skietstilstand verklaar en tydelike grense is gevestig. Jordanië het 'n anneksasie van die Westelike Jordaanoewer en Oos -Jerusalem geannekseer, en Egipte het beheer oor die Gazastrook oorgeneem.

Verdere probleme het in 1956, tydens die Suez -krisis, ontstaan ​​toe Israel, met die hulp van Frankryk en Brittanje, die Sinai -skiereiland binnegeval het. Die VN het hulle beveel om terug te trek en hulle het (weer te veel gebeur om in detail te gaan). Teen 1966 het die Arabies-Israeliese betrekkinge versleg, wat uiteindelik gelei het tot die Sesdaagse oorlog, in 1967. (Nog meer het hier gebeur, ek kan net 'n ander lys maak oor Arabies-Israeliese konflikte). Na die oorlog het Israel die Sinai -skiereiland en die Gazastrook suksesvol verower uit Egipte, Wesbank en Oos -Jerusalem uit Jordanië en die Golanhoogte uit Sirië. Ses jaar later het die Yom Kippur -oorlog uitgebreek en die betrekkinge het tot in die 90's sleg gebly. Die Staat Palestina is in 1988 deur die Palestynse Bevrydingsorganisasie verklaar, maar hulle het geen beheer oor die Palestynse gebiede uitgeoefen nie. Sedertdien het die PLO hom beywer vir die erkenning van die staat, met behulp van die grense van 1967. Tans erken die Arabiese Liga en groot meerderhede van Suid -Amerika, Afrika en Asiatiese lande die Palestynse Staat. Dit is nie verbasend dat Europese en Noord -Amerikaanse state Palestina nog nie erken het nie. Die VN het beplan om 'n geruime tyd in 2011 te stem oor die status van die staat Palestina, en ons moet maar wag.

Opmerklike vermeldings: Noord -Korea vs. ), 'N klein eiland Dokdo & ndash wat betwis word deur Suid -Korea en Japan.


Geallieerdes val die Italiaanse vasteland binne

Die Britse 8ste weermag onder veldmaarskalk Bernard L. Montgomery begin met die geallieerde inval van die Italiaanse skiereiland, steek die Straat van Messina uit Sicilië oor en land by Calabria 𠄼toe ” van Italië. Op die dag van die landing het die Italiaanse regering in die geheim ingestem tot die geallieerdes se voorwaardes vir oorgawe, maar tot 8 September is geen openbare aankondiging gemaak nie.

Die Italiaanse diktator Benito Mussolini het hom voorgestel om Fascistiese Italië in 'n nuwe Romeinse Ryk op te bou, maar 'n reeks militêre nederlae in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het sy regime in werklikheid 'n marionet gemaak van sy sterker as -vennoot, Duitsland. Teen die lente van 1943 was die opposisiegroepe in Italië verenig om Mussolini omver te werp en vrede met die geallieerdes te sluit, maar 'n sterk Duitse militêre teenwoordigheid in Italië dreig om sodanige optrede te weerstaan.

Op 10 Julie 1943 begin die Geallieerdes hul inval in die as-beheerde Europa met landings op die eiland Sicilië, buite die vasteland van Italië. Montgomery se 8ste leër het min weerstand gekry deur gedemoraliseerde Siciliaanse troepe, aan die suidoostelike deel van die eiland, terwyl die Amerikaanse 7de leër onder generaal George S. Patton aan die suidkus van Sicilië geland het. Binne drie dae was 150 000 geallieerde troepe aan wal. Op 17 Augustus het Patton voor Montgomery in Messina aangekom, die geallieerde verowering van Sicilië voltooi en die sogenaamde Race to Messina gewen.

In Rome het die Geallieerde verowering van Sicilië, 'n streek van die koninkryk van Italië sedert 1860, gelei tot die ineenstorting van die regering van Mussolini. Vroegoggend op 25 Julie is hy deur die Fascistiese Grootraad gedwing om te bedank en is later die dag gearresteer. Op 26 Julie het marskalk Pietro Badoglio beheer oor die Italiaanse regering oorgeneem. Die nuwe regering het onmiddellik geheime onderhandelinge met die Geallieerdes aangegaan, ondanks die teenwoordigheid van talle Duitse troepe in Italië.

Op 3 September het die 8ste leër van Montgomery begin met die inval van die Italiaanse vasteland en die Italiaanse regering het ingestem om aan die Geallieerdes oor te gee. Volgens die bepalings van die ooreenkoms sou die Italianers sagmoedig behandel word as hulle die Geallieerdes help om die Duitsers uit Italië te verdryf. Later die maand is Mussolini gered uit 'n gevangenis in die Abruzzo -gebergte deur Duitse kommando's en is hy aangestel as leier van 'n Nazi -marionetstaat in Noord -Italië.

In Oktober het die Badoglio -regering oorlog teen Duitsland verklaar, maar die opmars van die Geallieerdes deur Italië was 'n stadige en duur saak. Rome val in Junie 1944, waarna 'n dooiepunt ontstaan ​​het toe Britse en Amerikaanse magte die meeste van hul hulpbronne in die Normandie -inval ingegooi het. In April 1945 begin 'n nuwe groot offensief, en op 28 April word Mussolini deur Italiaanse partisane gevange geneem en summier tereggestel. Duitse magte in Italië het op 1 Mei oorgegee, en ses dae later het die hele Duitsland oorgegee.


Weermag en grens

Nadat die keiser Domitianus die garnisoen in ongeveer die jaar 90 verminder het, het drie legioene hul permanente basis bly in York, Chester en Caerleon. Die legioene vorm die grondslag van die Romeinse militêre mag, maar hulle is in garnisoenplig aangevul deur talle kleiner hulpregimente van kavallerie en infanterie, hetsy 1000 of 500 sterk. Laasgenoemde het die muur versper en was gestasioneer in 'n netwerk van ander forte wat vir polisiewerk in Wallis en Noord -Engeland opgerig is. Met 15.000 legioenen en ongeveer 40.000 hulpverleners, was die leër van Brittanje baie kragtig; dit het ekonomiese sowel as politieke resultate gehad. Hadrianus se muur was die indrukwekkendste grenswerk in die Romeinse Ryk. Ondanks 'n tydperk in die daaropvolgende twee heerskappye toe 'n ander grens op die lyn tussen Glasgow en Edinburgh gelê is - die Antonine -muur, gebou uit gras, was die muur van Hadrian die permanente grens van Romeinse Brittanje. Die noordelike stamme het slegs twee keer daarin geslaag om dit te verbygaan, en dan op oomblikke toe die garnisoen elders geveg het. In die laat -Romeinse tydperk, toe seevalle toegeneem het, het die muur sy voorrang verloor as 'n verdediging vir die provinsie, maar dit word voortdurend gehou tot aan die einde van die 4de eeu. Maar alhoewel hulle nie later as die jaar 180 na Hadrian se lyn getrek het nie, het die Romeine nooit die belangstelling in die suide van Skotland laat vaar nie. In die 2de eeu was hul oplossing militêre besetting. In die derde, na 'n aktiewe veldtog (208–211) deur die keiser Septimius Severus en sy seuns waartydens permanente basisse aan die ooskus van Skotland gebou is, was die oplossing wat die keiser Caracalla aanvaar het, die regulering van die verhouding deur verdrae. Hierdie, miskien ondersteun deur subsidies, is toegepas deur toesig oor die hele Laeveld deur patrollies gebaseer op forte buite die muur. Gedurende die 4de eeu word meer en meer staatgemaak op vriendelike inheemse state, en patrollies is teruggetrek.


Onbewoonde gebiede van die Verenigde State (7):

Baker Island: 'N Atol in die Stille Oseaan. Dit lê net noord van die ewenaar, ongeveer halfpad tussen Hawaii en Australië. Dit is 'n nasionale toevlugsoord vir seevoëls, kusvoëls en seediere soos skilpaaie.

Howland Island: 'N Koraal -eiland in die Stille Oseaan, effens noordwes van Baker -eiland geleë. Howland Island sou 'n brandstofaanvulling vir Amelia Earhart wees tydens haar vlug om die wêreld in 1937, maar Earhart en haar vliegtuig het geheimsinnig verdwyn sonder om die eiland te bereik. Vandag is Howland Island 'n nasionale wildreservaat.

Jarvis -eiland: 'N Koraal -eiland in die Stille Oseaan, net suid van die ewenaar en ongeveer halfpad tussen Hawaii en die Cook -eilande. Dit is 'n nasionale toevlugsoord vir seevoëls, kusvoëls en seediere.

Johnston Atoll: Bestaan ​​uit vier eilande bo -op 'n koraalrifplatform. Dit is ongeveer 860 myl suidwes van Hawaii geleë. Koraalbaggerwerk is gebruik om die grootte van Johnston Island te verdubbel en die grootte van Sand Island te verdubbel. Die kunsmatige eilande Akau en Hikina is ook geskep met koraalbagger. Alhoewel Johnston Atoll dekades lank deur die Amerikaanse weermag beheer is, word dit vandag as 'n National Wildlife Refuge toegedien.

Midway Atoll lugfoto deur die Amerikaanse Fish and Wildlife Service. Klik om te vergroot.

Kingman Reef: 'N Gedeeltelik onderwater rif wat ongeveer 'n derde van die pad tussen Hawaii en Amerikaans-Samoa in die Noord-Stille Oseaan geleë is. Bo die seevlak is die rif dikwels oorstroom en kan dit nie permanente plant- en dierelewe ondersteun nie. Dit is egter 'n National Wildlife Refuge vir 'n uiteenlopende verskeidenheid seediere.

Midway Atoll: Dit is vernoem omdat dit 'n atol is, halfpad tussen Asië en Noord -Amerika. Dit is ook ongeveer halfpad regoor die wêreld vanaf die eerste meridiaan. Midway Atoll is deel van die Hawaiiaanse argipel, maar nie deel van die staat Hawaii nie. Alhoewel daar geen permanente inwoners is nie, is daar wel residensiële fasiliteite beskikbaar vir personeel van die Amerikaanse Fish and Wildlife Service. Die atol is 'n National Wildlife Refuge wat Hawaïese monnikrobbe, groen seeskilpaaie, spinner dolfyne, inkvis, seekat, skaaldiere, visse, verskillende seevoëls en die grootste kolonie Laysan -albatrosse ter wêreld huisves.

Palmyra -atol: 'N Groep van ongeveer 50 eilandjies in die Noord -Stille Oseaan, net suidoos van Kingman Reef. Daar is geen permanente inwoners nie, maar daar is fasiliteite en 'n navorsingsstasie vir tydelike inwoners, soos wetenskaplikes en geleerdes. Die atol is 'n nasionale wildreservaat.

Wake Island soos gesien uit 'n vliegtuig. Foto in die openbare domein deur Tech. Sers. Shane A. Cuomo van die Amerikaanse lugmag. Klik om te vergroot.


Die pad na onafhanklikheid

Die pad na onafhanklikheid in die Bahamas het na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog begin. In die 1950's is politieke partye gestig, en in 1964 het die Britse parlement die eilande as selfregerend verklaar. As gevolg hiervan het Sir Roland Symonette die eerste premier geword. Op 7 Januarie 1964 is 'n nuwe grondwet aanvaar wat die eiland outonomie verleen het. Lynden Pindling word die eerste inheemse premier van die Bahamas in 1967. In 1968 vervang die premier as premier, en 'n jaar later verklaar Pindling dat die land onafhanklikheid van Brittanje sal soek. In dieselfde jaar het die land vir die tweede keer 'n nuwe grondwet aanvaar. The British House of Lords voted to grant Bahamas independence, and on July 10, 1973, the Bahamas became fully independent and immediately joined the Commonwealth of Nations. A month later it joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, and became a member of the United Nations in September 1973.


The History Guy

British Soldiers in Afghanistan

Great Britain is really only a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, but it is of course, the largest part. Great Britain itself is an island off the northwest coast of Europe and is comprised of three countries united into one kingdom. Those three countries are: England, Scotland, and Wales.

For many centuries, these three nations, along with Ireland, waged war against each other. Eventually, the English defeated the Scots and the Welsh (and the Irish), and a series of Acts of Union were passed that eventually resulted in what would later be known as the United Kingdom. In 1535, England and Wales were united as one kingdom, and in 1707, the Act of Union brought Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain.

This page presents a listing, with some details, of many of the wars of Great Britain (including separate English and Scottish wars) from early history to the present.

The Norman Conquest of England (1066-1072)

The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)-The Hundred Years' War was actually a series of wars between England and France which lasted 116 years. Most historians break this conflict into four distinct wars.

Anglo-French War (1337-1360)

Anglo-French War(1369-1373)

Anglo-French War (1412-1420)

Anglo-French War (1423-1453)

Wars of the Roses (1455-1485)-- A series of civil wars in which two royal houses (families) fought for control of England. The House of Lancaster (Tudor family) defeated the House of York.

English Civil War (1641�)-- Actually three related civil conflicts between the English Parliament and its supporters against the Royalist followers of King Charles I and King Charles II. The war resulted in the temporary overthrow of the English monarchy.

Anglo-Dutch War (1652-1654)--

Anglo-Dutch War (1664-1667)--

Anglo-Dutch War (1672-1674)--

War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718�) - Pitted Britan, the Holy Roman Empire, France, the Dutch Republic, and Savoy against Spain .

War of the Austrian Succession (1742�) - Great Britain, Austria and Holland warred against France and Prussia.

Seven Years' War (1756�) - Great Britain and Prussia fought against Austria, France, Russia, Sweden, and Spain.

War of the First Coalition (1792-1798)-Britain, Austria, Prussia, Spain, Russia, Sardinia and Holland combined to fight Revolutionary France. Russia left the Coalition in 1794 to deal with troubles in Poland. French victories forced Holland, also known then as the Batavian Republic, to leave the Coalition in 1795. Prussia and Spain made peace with France in 1795 and Austria signed the Treaty of Campo-Formio in 1798, surrendering the Austrian Netherlands (now Belgium) to France.

War of the Second Coalition (1798-1801)-Britain, Austria, Russia, Portugal, Naples and the Ottoman Empire combined to fight Revolutionary France. Spain later joined France against Portugal. This alliance against France formed to counter French moves in Italy formation of the Roman, Ligurian, Cisalpine and Helvetic Republics in Switzerland and Italy, and the deposition of Papal rule in Rome. Naples was conquered by the French in early 1799 and declared to be the new Parthenopean Republic. Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Turkish Egypt and won the Battle of the Pyramids, continuing his march into what is now Israel and Lebanon. British Admiral Horatio Nelson wiped out the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile in 1798. Due to French victories on land against both Turkish and British troops, the Ottoman Empire made peace with France at the Convention of El-Arish in 1800.

Anglo-French War (1803-1814)--While other European nations waged war and then sued for peace against Napoleonic France, Britain was in a continual state of war against France from 1803 through the first defeat of Napoleon in 1814.

Peninsular War (1807-1814)-This war began with the French Invasions of Portugal and Spain, and also included Great Britain, who sent forces to help the Portuguese and Spanish drive out the French. From the British perspective, the Peninsular War was a part of the long-running war between Britain and France from 1803 to 1814.

The Chesepeake Affair (June 22, 1807)--Naval battle between USS Chesapeake en HMS Luiperd

Little Belt Affair (May 16, 1811)--Naval battle between USS President en HMS Little Belt

Die oorlog van 1812 (1812-1814)--2nd war between the United States and Great Britain

War of the Seventh Coalition (1815)-After Napoleon's return to France from exile, Britain, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Austria, the Netherlands and a number of smaller German states combined to fight Napoleon and France. The allies defeated Napoleon once and for all at the Battle of Waterloo.

First Anglo-Afghan War (1838�)--

First Opium War (1839-1842)--British-Chinese War

The Crimean War (1853�)--Britain, France, and Sardinia joined together to aid the Ottoman Empire, which was under attack by Russia.

Second Opium War (1856-1860)----British-Chinese War.

Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878�)--War between Britain and Afghanistan.

First Boer War (1880�) --British forces battled Dutch-descended Boers in southern Africa.

The Second Boer War (1899-1902)--Britain vs. The Boer Republics (Orange Free State and Transvaal) in what is now South Africa.

Somali "Mad Mullah" Jihad (1899-1905)--Somali tribesmen led by religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd Allah Hasan waged a desert guerrilla war against Britain, Italy and Ethiopia. Following repeated defeats by the Somalis, the colonial powers offered him territory in Italian Somaliland in exchange for peace. He resumed his war in 1908 and harassed the occupiers of his country until 1920.

The Boxer Rebellion (1899-1900)-- The Chinese secret religious and nationalistic Society of the Righteous Harmonious Fists (Boxers), initiated a rebellion against both foreign colonizers, missionaries and their own government in 1899. By 1900, the Chinese government had co-opted the rebels and directed their violent fury entirely upon the foreign presence in China. The Boxers, aided by Chinese Imperial troops, besieged the diplomatic legations (embassies) of the Western powers and Japan, sparking a truly international response. A retaliatory relief expedition composed of troops from: the United State, Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary, Russia and Japan invaded China and captured the capital of Peking (now called Beijing).

World War One (1914-1918)--The first "official" world war was originally known as "The Great War," and also as "The World War."

Russian Civil War--Britain, along with the United States, France, and Japan, intervened unsuccessfully in the civil war in Russia that brought the Communists to power.

Anglo-Irish War (1919�)--Resulted in the formation of the Irish Free State, and the division of Ireland, with the six northern counties (Ulster), chosing to remain a part of the United Kingdom.

Third Anglo-Afghan War (May-August, 1919)--

Cold War (1945-1990)--Britain, along with the United States and other Western nations, formed the backbone of anti-Communist resistance in the Cold War.

Greek Civil War (1944-1947)--British forces became involved in the early stages of the Greek Civil War when they liberated Greece from German occupation toward the end of 1944. As the Germans withdrew, competing Greek factions fought for control. The British sided with the re-established Greek government against the Communist rebels. Due to financial pressures and their own need to recover from World War Two, Britain announced a withdrawal of forces in 1947. The Greek Civil War continued until 1949, with the United States taking over the role of protector for the government. British combat involvement primarily took place in 1944 and 1945. The Greek Civil War continued until the Greek government defeated the rebels in 1949.

Malayan Emergency (1948-1960)

Koreaanse Oorlog (1950-1953)--Britain contributed significant military forces to the United Nations cause.

Anglo-Egyptian War of 1951-1952 (1951-1952)--Egyptian guerrillas, aided by the governement carried out a campaign against British forces stationed at the Suez Canal and agains other symbols of Britain and the West. On January 25, 1952, British troops retaliated against Egypt by attacking an Egyptian police station, killing 50 and wounding 100. The conflict ended with a change in the Egyptian government and the eventual withdrawal of British troops. This conflict led to Britain's involvment in the 1956 Anglo-French-Israeli invasion of Egypt in 1956. (see below)

Mau Mau Insurgency in Kenya (1952-1956)

Suez War of 1956 --(1956)--Britain and France invaded Egypt (in conjunction with Israel), in an ill-planned attempt to take control of the Suez Canal from Egypt.

Cyprus Emergency (1955-1959)

Muscat and Oman Intervention (1957-1959)--British troops aid the government of Muscat and Oman (now known simply as Oman), against rebels. British troops withdrew after a successful campaign.

Jordan Intervention (1958)--Britain airlifted troops to Jordan in response to a request for aid from the Jordanian king. King Hussein felt threatened by the recent union of Syria and Egypt, as well as the violent revolution in Iraq in which the Iraq king, a member of Hussein's family, was brutally murdered. After the situation calmed down, British troops left Jordan.

Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation (1962�) --

Ugandan Army Mutiny (1964)--The army of Uganda, which had recently become independent of Britain, mutinied against the government of President Milton Obote in January of 1964. Unable to control the situation, Obote called for help from British forces who put down the revolt.

Aden Conflict (1964-1967) --South Yemeni rebels waged guerrilla warfare against British colonial rule.

Conflict in Northern Ireland (1969-1998)--Low-level assymetric warfare (largely urban guerrilla warfare, with some rural combat) in which British military forces campaigned against the Irish Republican Army (IRA). The conflict ended via a political settlement in 1998.

Falkland Islands War (1982)-The military dictatorship in Argentina mistakenly believed that Britain, led by Prime Minister Margaret "Iron Lady" Thatcher, would not wage a war over the tiny Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic. When the Argentines invaded the British-owned and British-inhabited Falkland Islands in April of 1982, the British responded by sending the Royal Navy and other military units to liberate the islands from the Argentine invaders. The British defeated the Argentines and liberated the islands. As a direct result of the disasterous war with Britain, the Argentine dictatorship fell and was replaced by a democracy.

Gulf War (1991)--Britain was one of the major Western allies to resist Iraq's invasion of Kuwait

The Bosnian War (1995�) --NATO operation to protect Bosnia from Bosnian Serb rebels and regular Serbian military forces.

The Kosovo War (1999) --NATO operation to protect Kosovar Muslims from Serbian militias and regular Serbian military forces.

Afghanistan War (2001-Present)--Britain joined with the United States and other allies to oust the Taliban and al-Qaida from power in Afghanistan in the wake of al-Qaida's September 11 attacks on the United States.

Wêreldoorlog teen terreur (2001-Present) --Britain and many other nations around the world are engaged in military, political, economic, and diplomatic efforts to combat Islamic Militancy in Afghanistan and elsewhere.

2007 Glasgow International Airport attack (June 30, 2007)--Two Islamic Militants drove a vehicle filled with propane canisters through the entrance to Glasgow International Airport in Scotland. Five people were injured, and one of the militants died of burns and injuries.

London Terror Bombings (July 7, 2005)--Islamic militants exploded bombs in the London subway system and on a double-decker bus in reaction to Britain's involvment in the Iraq War. The bombings claimed 52 victims, and caused nearly 700 casualties. The four suicide bombers also died.

London Terror Bombings (July 21, 2005)--Islamic militants exploded four bombs in London, and a fifth bomb failed to explode properly. No casualties.

Iraq War (2003-2009)--Britain, along with the U.S., Australia, and Poland, invaded Iraq to drive out the regime of dictator Saddam Hussein. British forces ended their participation in the war in Iraq on April 30, 2009.

Libyan War (2011)-The UK joined with other NATO nations and pro-Western Sunni Arab nations to aid Libyan rebels overthrow Libyan dictator Muammar Ghaddaffi.

Islamic State War (2014-Present)--In response to the threat posed by the Islamic State (in Iraq and Syria, among other locations), the British Parliament on September 26, 2014 voted to begin Royal Air Force airstrikes against the Islamic State (AKA ISIL or ISIS) in northern Iraq at the request of the Iraqi government. British airstrikes on ISIS in Syria began after the December 2, 2015 Parliament vote to begin operations in that country. British allies in this ongoing war include the United States, France, and multiple other coalition nations.

Mali War (2020)- British troops are deployed in Mali to assist the UN mission there that is fighting the Jihadist rebels. The Mali War itself began in 2012 with a Jihadist/Taureg rebellion against the government. France has nearly 5,000 troops in Mali, and the British SAS currently has a small force in-country, with another 250 long-range recon troops on the way.


“X” Marks The Spot

Michael A. Haas/Wikimedia The Spring Creek Correctional Center in Seward, Alaska, where Robert Hansen was incarcerated.

While searching Hansen’s home, police found an aviation map of the area hidden in the headboard of the bed. It was marked with tiny “X’s” denoting the kill and burial sites of his victims.

Some of the “X” marks matched up with where police had found bodies. There were 24 “X’s” in all.

What’s more, in his psychological profile of the killer, Douglas had predicted that the murderer would keep souvenirs from his prey. Sure enough, in the basement of Hansen’s home, police found a stash of jewelry. In the stash was a necklace that belonged to one of the victims.

Faced with the evidence in 1984, Hansen confessed to murdering 17 women and raping another 30 women over a 12-year period.

Hansen was sentenced to 461 years plus life in prison without parole in 1984. He was imprisoned at Spring Creek Correctional Center in Seward, Alaska, where he died in 2014.

As part of a plea bargain, the “Butcher Baker” was only ever charged with four of the 17 murders he confessed to — and some believe he actually killed more than 20 women.

In exchange for the reduced conviction, Hansen agreed to assist police in locating the remaining bodies plotted on his kill map. Unfortunately, five of the bodies have still not been found to this day, and Hansen took the secret of their locations to his grave.

After learning about Robert Hansen, the Butcher Baker, read about Ed Gein, another horrifying murderer who got what was coming to him. Then, check out the big game hunter who was trampled by his prey.


Navassa Island: The U.S.’s 160-year Forgotten Tragedy

Ken Lawrence founded the Deep South People&rsquos History Project in 1973. Today he studies, collects, and writes about aviation history, air transport, and air mail, which are occasional subjects of his monthly columns in Linn&rsquos Stamp News.

On December 8, 1859, to forestall a Haitian attempt to take possession of Navassa, a Caribbean island south of Cuba, U.S. Secretary of State Lewis Cass made a momentous decision. He officially recognized an American ship captain&rsquos claim filed under the Guano Islands Act of 1856.

The law allowed American citizens to claim and possess islands &ldquonot within the lawful jurisdiction of any other government&rdquo for the purpose of mining guano (accumulated excrement of seabirds, valuable as agricultural fertilizer). In such an instance, &ldquosaid island, rock, or key may, at the discretion of the President of the United States, be considered as appertaining to the United States.&rdquo

In his 1956 book Advance Agents of American Destiny, diplomatic historian Roy F. Nichols noted,&ldquoIn this humble fashion, the American nation took its first step into the path of imperialism Navassa, a guano island, was the first noncontiguous territory to be announced formally as attached to the republic.&rdquo None have been under U.S. administration for a longer time.

Cass&rsquos decision ignored the fact that for more than two centuries Haitian fishermen had landed at the island to harvest shellfish. It also ran counter to every Haitian constitution since 1801, which had declared Haiti&rsquos sovereignty over all its coastal islands including Navassa.

However, since the United States did not recognize the government of Haiti in 1859, these facts on the ground were considered of little consequence. Of greater importance was the perceived existential threat Haiti&rsquos history of successful slave insurrection and emancipation while a French colony posed to American slave owners and their representatives in Washington.

Haiti and U.S. Imperial Ambitions

While slaveholders worried that their slaves might revolt against them as the Saint-Domingue slaves had done in 1791, many American politicians and journalists advocated the conquest and annexation of all the Caribbean islands, especially Hispaniola, as the logicalway to extend American imperial power.

For example, in 1850 James Gordon Bennett, editor of the New York Herald, the largest and most popular daily newspaper in America, had advocated a plan &ldquoto annex Hayti, before Cuba.&rdquo He wrote that a war in pursuit of that aim &ldquowould be a source of fun and amusement, ending in something good for the reduction of the island to the laws of order and civilization. . . . St. Domingo will be a State in a year, if our cabinet will but authorize white volunteers to make slaves of every negro they can catch when they reach Hayti.&rdquo

The Haitian government countered such threats by maneuvering diplomatically among the European powers who risked seeing their hold over their own Caribbean colonies weakened and lost if they failed to thwart American plots against Haiti. But when a Haitian naval delegation attempted to take control of Navassa, President James Buchanan ordered the U.S. Navy to send a warship to Haiti to restore the American guano operation. Haiti&rsquos commercial agent protested, but the State Department dismissed his letters.

An advisor to Haitian President Faustin Soulouque wrote to him candidly, &ldquoEven though the law is on our side in this affair, justice and the legitimacy of our cause will triumph only when certain barriers in the United States are broken down. Even after those fall, we should not believe their promises until they no longer attach economic importance to Navassa.&rdquo

From 1857 to 1898, American companies based in Baltimore and New York mined and sold Navassa&rsquos guano, employing black laborers supervised by white managers.

The 1889 Navassa Revolt and its Consequences

On September 14, 1889, African American workers at Navassa rose in revolt against their cruel white supervisors. By the time the battle ended, four whites lay dead. A fifth would die several days later.

Removed to Baltimore, 43 insurgents were charged with crimes ranging from rioting to murder. Two African-American organizations &mdash the Brotherhood of Liberty and the Order of Galilean Fishermen &mdash hired a legal team of three black and three white lawyers to defend them.

Tried in U.S. Circuit Court, three defendants were convicted of murder and sentenced to hang. Others were convicted of lesser crimes &mdash 14 of manslaughter and 23 of rioting &mdash and sentenced to prison terms. Three were acquitted. The executions were stayed pending an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court styled Jones v. U.S.

In that proceeding Jones&rsquos lawyers challenged the constitutionality of the Guano Act, the authority of the United States government over Navassa, and the jurisdiction of the American court. Among the issues was Haiti&rsquos claim to the island. The high court rejected those arguments and affirmed the conviction.

In language that has freighted international relations ever since, the court declared on November 24, 1890:

. . . if the executive, in his correspondence with the government of Hayti, has denied the jurisdiction which it claimed over Navassa, the fact must be taken and acted on by this court as thus asserted and maintained it is not material to inquire, nor is it the province of the court to determine, whether the executive be right or wrong it is enough to know that in the exercise of his constitutional functions he has decided the question.

Supporters of the defendants mounted a petition campaign, urging President Benjamin Harrison to grant the insurgents executive clemency. Harrison responded favorably. Citing the inhumane conditions imposed on Navassa workers, he wrote, &ldquoThey were American citizens, under contracts to perform labor, upon specified terms, within American territory, removed from any opportunity to appeal to any court, or public officer, for redress of any injury, or the enforcement of any civil right.&rdquo He commuted the death sentences to life imprisonment.

Guano mining continued at Navassa for another eight years, &ldquolonger and more extensively than any other island, rock, or key that ever appertained to the United States,&rdquo according to Jimmy M. Skaggs, author of the 1994 book The Great Guano Rush.

Navassa Island in the TwentiethCentury

By the turn of the twentieth century, Americans had abandoned Navassato castaways, Haitian fishermen, and nature. However, a new purpose revived Navassa&rsquos importance. Anticipating substantially increased maritime traffic after the Panama Canal opening in 1914, some naval authorities feared that in stormy weather Navassa would become a dangerous hazard to navigation. In 1913 Congress authorized construction of a lighthouse on the island.

On January 17, 1916, shortly before construction began, President Woodrow Wilson codified the island&rsquos status as a site for a lighthouse and reaffirmed its status as a possession &ldquounder the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any other government.&rdquo

After World War I the Navy established a radio station at Navassa. In 1929 the lighthouse was automated. During World War II, the Coast Guard stationed a reconnaissance unit and a rescue launch there to defend against German submarines.

Navassa and its &ldquoAppurtenance&rdquo Apparition after World War II

The end of the war restored Navassa to its Wilsonian status as a lighthouse reserve, periodically serviced by the Coast Guard and visited by Haitian trespassers who paid no heed to the American Guano Act. But the heritage of the Guano Act and the Jones v. U.S. Supreme Court precedent continued to cast a long shadow beyond that single small island.

Less than a month after Japan&rsquos surrender President Harry S. Truman proclaimed that &ldquothe Government of the United States regards the natural resources of the subsoil sea bed of the continental shelf beneath the high seas but contiguous to the coasts of the United States as appertaining to the United States, subject to its jurisdiction and control.&rdquo

As if to wring as much international mischief as possible from Truman&rsquos proclamation, the April 1947 issue of Nation&rsquos Business magazine published an article titled &ldquoA Legal Key to Davy Jones&rsquo Locker&rdquo with the teaser subhead &ldquoA forgotten murder provides a background for our announced right to seek oil in the Gulf of Mexico.&rdquo Navassa as a metaphor for the unrestricted exercise of extraterritorial power had superseded the significance of the island itself.

Haitian Hopes Raised and Dashed

Nine years later, Rep. William L. Dawson (R-IL) introduced &ldquoA bill to disclaim any rights of the United States to the island of Navassa,&rdquo which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs in the House of Representatives.

Although the bill stood no chance of being reported out, intellectuals in Haiti seized the opportunity to reprise their country&rsquos claim to Navassa. The cultural journal Optique devoted 28 pages of the August 1956 issue to the subject. An unsigned introductory article reviewed the history of the dispute, summarized Haiti&rsquos legal position, and cited American attitudes both pro and con.

African Americans and advocates of a just and democratic foreign policy tended to sympathize with Haiti&rsquos claim the Eisenhower administration and career State Department diplomats ignored them. A monthly Coast Guard patrol continued to maintain the lighthouse. From time to time, beginning in 1956 and continuing to the present, U.S. amateur radio hobbyists have obtained permission to set up temporary broadcasting stations at Navassa.

Clandestine Attack on Cuba from Navassa Island

&ldquoCuban Outbreak of Swine Fever Linked to CIA&rdquo headlined a January 9, 1977, article in Nuusdag, a Long Island, New York, daily paper. It began,

With at least the tacit backing of U.S. Central Intelligence Agency officials, operatives linked to anti-Castro terrorists introduced African swine fever virus into Cuba in 1971. Six weeks later an outbreak of the disease forced the slaughter of 500,000 pigs to prevent a nationwide animal epidemic.

A U.S. intelligence source told Newsday he was given the virus in a sealed, unmarked container at a U.S. Army base and CIA training ground in the Panama Canal Zone, with instructions to turn it over to the anti-Castro group.

The 1971 outbreak, the first and only time the disease has hit the Western Hemisphere, was labeled the &ldquomost alarming event&rdquo of 1971 by the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization. . . .

Another man involved in the operation, a Cuban exile who asked not to be identified, said he was on the trawler where the virus was put aboard at a rendezvous point off Bocas del Toro, Panama. He said the trawler carried the virus to Navassa Island, a tiny, deserted, U.S.-owned island between Jamaica and Haiti. From there, after the trawler made a brief stopover, the container was taken to Cuba and given to other operatives on the southern coast near the U.S. Navy base at Guantanamo Bay in late March, according to the source on the trawler.

Six days later the CIA officially denied the story, which had been widely reprinted, but the Nuusdag reporters had cited so many corroborating sources, with such specific details, that the denial was not widely believed.

A previously unreported documentlends circumstantial support to the Nuusdag story &mdash a 1986 typescript draft of an article by U.S. Coast Guard lighthouse historian Neil Hurley titled &ldquoNavassa Island Light, &lsquoWhere Chickens Only Miraculously Survive the Attacks of Lizards&rsquo.&rdquo

When Hurley&rsquos article appeared in the Winter 1988 issue of The Keeper&rsquos Log, under the title &ldquoNavassa Lighthouse, &rdquothese two sentences from his earlier draft were omitted: &ldquoIn 1971, a U.S. Navy Research team visited the Island to look for animal diseases that could be transmitted to man. They found one bird carrying malaria.&rdquo

It might be a coincidence, but it seems remarkable that the Navy was investigating the possible presence of biological toxins at about the time that agents were reported to have brought dangerous microbes to Navassa for a biological attack on Cuba.

What made the Newsday report credible was the fact that the only place in the Western Hemisphere where the virus was known to have been kept before the Cuban outbreak was the secret Plum Island laboratory off the eastern tip of Long Island. (Nuusdag reporters had been cultivating sources there since the paper&rsquos sole visit in October 1971.)

Die Nuusdag article made no mention of Plum Island, perhaps to protect its reporters&rsquo sources, but other writers quickly made the connection. In his 2004 book about Plum Island, Lab 257, Michael Christopher Carroll wrote that although &ldquono one will say on the record that the virus for the Cuban mission was prepared on Plum Island,&rdquo that was almost certainly its source. &ldquoEfforts to explain away the outbreak as a natural occurrence do not hold up to close examination.&rdquo

What Lies Ahead for Navassa Island?

Haiti has never relinquished its claim to Navassa, and its citizens have continued to flout U.S. authority. Following the example set by their North American peers, in the spring of 1981 members of the Radio Club d&rsquoHaiti were issued the call sign HH0N and flown to the island by helicopter.

Upon arrival they raised the Haitian flag and sang their national anthem. When an American military officer asked to see their authorization to land, they answered, &ldquoWe need no permit to travel in our country.&rdquo The officer relented and welcomed the Haitians to camp. After a seven-day stay. they returned the way they had come.

Today the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Interior Department administers the island as a national wildlife refuge. News reports of a 1998 scientific expedition called Navassa &ldquoa unique preserve of Caribbean biodiversity&rdquo but paid scant attention to Haiti&rsquos claim, or to the heartless history that awaits atonement. We can take the first step along that path by teaching it.


Johnston Atoll

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Johnston Atoll, unincorporated territory of the United States in the central Pacific Ocean, about 825 miles (1,330 km) southwest of Honolulu. It consists of four small islands on a raised coral atoll formation that are partially enclosed on the north and west by a 7.5-mile (12-km) semicircular reef. Two of the four—Johnston and Sand islands—are natural, and the other two are man-made by dredging. The islands’ combined land area is about 1.1 square miles (2.8 square km), Johnston Island constituting the vast bulk of the total. Rainfall is sparse, and there are no sources of fresh water. Vegetation is limited to bunchgrass, herbs, and some introduced palm trees. The surrounding waters are home to a large variety of fishes and to other marine animals such as green sea turtles in addition, vast numbers of seabirds visit the islands.

The uninhabited atoll was discovered in 1796 by an American ship, which ran aground there. Sighted in 1807 by an English mariner, Captain C.J. Johnston, the islands remained unclaimed until 1858, when both the United States (under the Guano Act of 1856) and the Kingdom of Hawaii laid claim. The islands’ guano deposits were worked until the early 20th century. Declared a bird sanctuary in 1926 under the administration of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the atoll was placed under the U.S. Navy in 1934. By 1941 a naval air station had been built, the landing strip taking up almost the full length of Johnston Island. Over the years, the military enlarged both Johnston and Sand islands by dredging and grading, in addition to creating the two small artificial islands. Johnston was transferred to U.S. Air Force jurisdiction in 1948 and was associated with U.S. nuclear weapons tests until 1962. The atoll subsequently became a storage facility for chemical weapons, and it was managed by the Defense Nuclear Agency (now part of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency) from 1974 to 1999, when the U.S. Air Force resumed control. A facility for incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles operated on Johnston Island from the early 1990s to 2000, after which all facilities on the atoll were dismantled and all military personnel (the islands’ only inhabitants) removed. In 2004 Johnston Atoll was decommissioned as a military installation, and it was named a U.S. National Wildlife Refuge. In 2009 it was designated part of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Chelsey Parrott-Sheffer, Research Editor.


Verenigde Koninkryk

“God Save the Queen” (or “God Save the King”, depending on the gender of the ruling monarch) was first publicly performed in London in 1745 to support King George II after he was defeated in a battle in the Jacobean uprising that started that year. The song was used to boost morale and the forces loyal to George II would go on to defeat the Jacobites the following year. The song came to be referred to as the national anthem from the beginning of the nineteenth century.

The words and tune are anonymous, and may date back to the seventeenth century. There are various claimants to authorship of both the words and tune, the words can be found as early as 1545, when the watchword at night was “God save the King”, the reply was “Long to reign over us.” The authorship of the melody has been claimed by many, including John Bull (the author of the earliest piece of music that resembles the work), Henry Carey, Henry Purcell, and Joseph Haydn (although he probably borrowed the tune upon hearing it in London.)

There is no authorised version of the National Anthem as the words are a matter of tradition. The anthem has also never been officially declared as the national anthem of the country, the royal anthem (as this technically is) is used as the national anthem as a matter of tradition, but this is also due to the unique constitutional situation in the United Kingdom, as the nation doesn’t have a formal constitution. The words used are those sung in 1745, substituting ‘Queen’ for ‘King’ (and female pronouns with male ones) where appropriate. On official (and most other) occassions, the first verse only is sung, on a small number of occassions, the third verse is heard as well very rarely is the second verse heard due to its militaristic nature. There exist many other verses, some dating as far back as the first three verses, but the first three are what can best be represented as the “standard” British national anthem.

The British tune has since become one of the world’s most recognizable anthems, and has has been used in other countries – as European visitors to Britain in the eighteenth century noticed the advantage of a country possessing such a recognised musical symbol – including Germany, Russia, Switzerland, the United States (where use of the tune continued after independence as the patriotic song “My Country, ‘Tis of Thee” and one of several unofficial anthems before 1931), and even today by Liechtenstein and as the royal anthem of Norway. The song also was an influence on early anthems used in the Kingdom of Hawaii. (One might say that because of this fact, that the United Kingdom was the creator of the concept of a “national anthem”.) Some 140 composers, including Beethoven, Haydn and Brahms, have used the tune in their compositions.

“God Save the Queen” also serves as the royal anthem for most Commonwealth countries, such as Australia and Canada. (Governors-general of Commonwealth countries usually have bits and pieces of the national anthem strung together played as their anthem.)

Special thanks to: Artakorn Jarusriwanna for providing me with the sheet music.