Urartu 714-715 vC

Urartu 714-715 vC


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Die antieke koninkryk Urartu

Die Koninkryk Urartu het in die 13de eeu vC ontstaan. Dit is gevorm deur 'n versameling stamme en lande as 'n polities-militêre netwerk wat die gebied rondom Lake Van in die Armeense Hoogland, noord van die Mesopotamiese streek, bewoon het. Die hoofstad was Tushpa-Van, 'n stad wat beskerm word deur die vesting Van, aan die ooskus van die meer van Van. Die drie belangrikste stede in die koninkryk, behalwe Tushpa-Van, was Erebuni, Argishtihinili en Musasir. Argeologiese gegewens uit hierdie streek is yl en die grootste deel van die geskiedenis is versamel uit antieke Assiriese artefakte. Om hierdie rede dek die mees gedetailleerde geskiedenis van die Koninkryk Urartu die tydperk waarin Urartu en Assirië in die 9de en 8ste eeu v.G.J. Die Koninkryk Urartu het in die vroeë 6de eeu vC geval.

Die land waaroor Urartu regeer het, was saamgestel uit baie verskillende groepe mense. Uit voorbeelde van die Urartiese tablatuur is dit bekend dat die mense in Urartu na hulself verwys as 'Biainili'. Urartiese tekste het getoon dat die konings van Urartu hulself dikwels die 'koning van die land Biaini' genoem het, en in Assiriese tekste is die Urartiese konings die 'koning van die land Nairi' genoem. Die land Nairi/Biaini is bekend as die land rondom die Van -meer (of die See van Nairi). Hebreeuse tekste het na Urartu verwys as die 'Koninkryk van Ararat'. Geskiedkundiges glo dat mense van Mitanni, Khurry, Khaldea en Hetitiese bloed gedurende die vroeë geskiedenis gedurende die hele lewensperiode van die koninkryk geleef het. Die latere inwoners daarvan, die wat uiteindelik die koninkryk tot 'n einde gebring het, was die Frigiërs, Moske, Armens, Skithiërs, Alans en Cimmeriërs. Sommige van hierdie groepe is as veroweringsgevangenes na Urartu gebring en is dikwels in die arbeidsmag aan die werk gesit. Ander, soos die Cimmeriane, wat nomades, Moskes en Alans was, het die land uit die noorde binnegeval omstreeks 580 vC.

Die meeste kennis rakende Urartu kom uit 'n reeks kleitablette wat tussen antieke Assiriese ruïnes gevind is. Hulle hou die verslae van Assiriese intelligensie -agente wat na verskillende stede in Urartu gestuur is. Hierdie kleitablette gee ons 'n geskiedenisgeskiedenis vir 'n tydperk rondom 714 vC. Gedurende hierdie tyd was die koninkryk Urartu op sy hoogtepunt in oorheersing, maar die Assiriese koninkryk het onlangs weer sy mag herwin onder die bewind van Sargon II. Deur historiese rekords van die konflikte tussen Urartu en haar bure te bestudeer, kan u die grense skat waarheen Urartu se grense strek. In die noorde strek Urartu naby die Swart See en die Kaukasusberge. In die ooste, die gebied van die meer van Urmia. In die Weste het dit die Taurusberge verteer, en dit het 'n alliansie en 'n grens met die Middellandse See -kusland Tabal gedeel. En in die suide, die Zagrosberge wat die koninkryk van Assirië geskei het.

Die land wat Urartu beheer het, was bergagtig en dig beboste. Daar is ook verskeie riviere en sytakke wat deur die land loop, soos die Araxes, Eufraat, Tigris en Kura. Daar is ook drie groot mere, Van -meer, Sevan en Urmia. Lake Van en Urmia is soutwatermere, sodat hulle genoeg sout en 'n uiteenlopende ekosisteem vir sy streke gebied het. In die vele valleie in die land is katoen, moerbeibome, wingerdstokke, appelkose (persone), perskes, granate, ander vrugtebome, rys en tabak verbou. Sekere dorpe wat fokus op bosbou en die grootmaak van beeste en perde, konings en leërs het hul woude dikwels as jagveld gebruik en perde vir kavallerie en strydwaens opgelei. As gevolg van die bergagtige kenmerke van die land, verskaf mynbou 'n groot hoeveelheid minerale, kristalle, nafta, koper, sout, yster, lood, silwer, goud, boraks, arseen en halfedelstene. Hierdie faktor, gekombineer met die moontlikheid van Hetitiese afkoms, het gelei tot die uitstekende metaalverwerkingsvermoëns en strydwaens van die Urartiërs.

Omdat Urartu so bergagtig was, was dit nie maklik om tussen dorpe en stede te reis nie. Die winters se koue weer en sneeuval het reis nog moeiliker gemaak. Dorpe is geskei in distrikte wat bestuur word deur goewerneurs wat deur die koning gekies is, of viceroys na Rusa I. Die berge het Urartu egter militêre voordele gebied. Dorpe was nie net veilig vir indringende magte wat deur die berge moeilik sou gaan nie, maar baie is ook beskerm deur vestings. Hierdie vestings het ook waak oor die vele handelsroetes wat deur die Urartu geloop het. En in die 9de en 8de eeu vC het Urartu handelsroetes beheer wat na die Middellandse See gelei het. Hierdie handelsroetes was 'n uiters belangrike ekonomiese bate vir die koninkryk en het sy heerskappy in die Nabye Ooste gedurende daardie tydperk verhoog.

Die Koninkryk Urartu was op 'n stadium die grootste en mees dominante staat in die Mesopotamiese streek. Dit was nie 'n enkele nasie nie, maar eerder 'n verenigde regering wat die verskillende onafhanklike distrikte en mense van sy land beheer en beskerm het. Teen die einde van die koninkryk in 585 vC het die nomadiese Cimmeriërs uit die noorde, die Frygiërs uit die Weste en die Skithiërs uit die Ooste Urartu binnegedring, in die hoogland gemeng en die Bianilini en die Armens vermeng, waarvan bekend was dat hulle beset was die gebied wes van die Lake Van. Na die val van Urartu het hierdie nuwe mense daarna die eerste Armeense koninkryk gevorm.


Inleiding

Antieke Armenië, geleë in die suidelike Kaukasus -gebied van Eurasië, is gevestig in die Neolitiese era, maar sy eerste aangetekende staat was die koninkryk Urartu vanaf die 9de eeu vC. Die Orontid -dinastie, wat opgeneem is in die Persiese Ryk van Kores die Grote in die 6de eeu vC, het as Persiese satraps geheers, 'n funksie wat hulle vir hul volgende heersers, die Masedoniërs en die Seleucidiese Ryk, in die 3de eeu vC vervul het. Onder die Artaxiad- en Arsacid -dinastieë het die land floreer, maar was dikwels vasgevang tussen die ambisies van Partia en Rome, en dan die Sasaniese en Bisantynse ryke. Die grense van die staat het oor die eeue aansienlik gewissel, maar gemeenskaplike faktore soos godsdiens en taal is verenig deur langdurige dinastiese stamme, wat aan Armenië 'n unieke identiteit in die oudheid gegee het.


Nadraai

Na die Urartu-Assirië-oorlog was geen politieke entiteit bestem om te oorleef nie. Die konstante verowerings en militêre veldtogte van Assirië het die sentrale mag van die koning verswak na die dood van Ashurbanipal. Na 'n paar jaar wat begin in 627 vC, val Assirië in 'n reeks burgeroorloë wat uiteindelik uitloop op die opstand van Babilon deur Nabopolassar en 'n inval deur die mediaanryk onder Cyaxares.

Die Assiriese Ryk sou vernietig word deur 'n reeks gevegte wat hulle tot die uiterste grense van hul gebied laat stoot het. Wat die grootste ryk in Mesopotamië geword het, het in duie gestort weens die onvermoë om die militêre vereistes te handhaaf om die verowerende land te verdedig. Dit was een van die grootste probleme met alle antieke ryke en is vererger deur die gebrek aan vinnige kommunikasie.

Mesopotamiese ryke (600 v.C.) - Historiese atlas (1923)

Na die inval en sak van Assirië is die oorblyfsels van die beskawing van Urartu in 590 vC deur die Mede en Skithiërs afgedank en vernietig. Dit sou lei tot die totale ineenstorting van hul beskawing en nóg Urartu of Assirië sou in die antieke geskiedenis weer groot politieke magte wees.

Urartu-Assirië Oorlog Urartu in 743 vC Ligging Armeense Hooglande Resultaat Assiriese oorwinning Belligerente Urartu Neo-Assiriese Ryk Kommandante en leiers Rusa I, Argishti II, Rusa II, Sardur III, Erimena, Rusa III, Rusa IV Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Sargon II, Sargon II, Sargon II, Sargon II, Sargon II, Sargon II, Sargon II, Sargon II, Sargon II, Sargon II, Sargon II, Sargon II


Urartu 714-715 vC - Geskiedenis

Die oorspronklike naam van Urartu was Biainele, die hoofstad, die rotsvesting Tu pa (moderne Van). Die land kan as 'n groot reghoek beskou word, met die Van -meer ('Thospitis') as die suidweste, die Urmia -meer ('Matianus') as die suidooste, die Sevan -meer ('Lichnitis') as die noordooste en die meer ildild as die noordwestelike hoek. In die middel was die berg Massis. Hierdie indrukwekkende beraad is in die Middeleeue genoem na die koninkryk: die Ararat, so bekend uit die Bybelse verhaal oor Noag (Genesis 8.4) en die vloed.

Dit blyk dat Urartu vanaf die negende eeu beheer is deur 'n enkele dinastie, wat die koninkryk na die suide uitgebrei het in 'n tydperk toe Assirië swak was. Die Eufraat het Urartu se westelike grens geword. Assirië het egter herstel en in 714 vC is die Armeense koning Rusa verslaan deur die Assiriese koning Sargon, wat byna onbestrede deur die land marsjeer en die standbeeld van die oppergod van Urartië in besit geneem het. (Die gebeurtenis is opgeteken in die Assiriese gelyknamelys.) Na hierdie vernedering het Rusa geweier om te lewe en het selfmoord gepleeg.


Rusa is opgevolg deur Argiete II, wat gekies het vir '' interne uitbreiding ': die land langs die Araxes is ontwikkel - iets wat argeoloë bewys het, wat vasgestel het dat daar veel meer sewende as agtste -eeuse nedersettings is. Na 'n eeu se ontwikkeling het die vrugbare land 'n natuurlike teiken geword vir die nomades wat noord van die Kaukasus gewoon het (onder die Grieke bekend as 'Skithe', Sakesinai of Cimmeriërs.). Argeoloë het ontdek dat baie Urartiese vestings vernietig is voordat 600 pylpunte van 'n tipe wat uit die Oekraïne bekend was, aandui dat die Skithe verantwoordelik was vir die vernietiging.


Die land was 'n maklike teiken vir die opvolgers van die Assiriërs, die Babiloniërs en Mede, nadat die Skithiese inval gely het. Dit is moontlik dat Urartu onderhewig was aan die mediaanse ryk in 585 vC, want in daardie jaar het 'n mediane leër 'n geveg by die rivier Halys in die middel van Turkye teen die Lidiese koning Alyattes geveg. Die werklike anneksasie het moontlik al in 605 plaasgevind, in daardie geval was die mediaan -veroweraar Cyaxares. Alternatiewelik het die werklike anneksasie later plaasgevind, in 547, tydens die bewind van Kores die Grote, die Persiese koning wat die Mediane omvergewerp het. Daar moet op gelet word dat webwerwe soos Avustepe nie net deur die Skithiërs vernietig is nie, maar deur 'n tweede, onbekende vyand.


Urartu leef voort as 'n satrapie, en later as 'n onafhanklike koninkryk met die naam Armenië.


Oorblyfsels van 'n antieke beskawing en#8211-navorsers vind 'n 3000-jarige vesting onder die Turkse meer

Navorsers van die Van Yüzüncü Yıl -universiteit en 'n span duikers het ontdek wat vermoedelik die oorblyfsels van 'n antieke vesting aan die onderkant van die meer van Turkye is. Die hoof van die duikspan en die onderwatervideograaf Tahsin Ceylan het gesê dat ander duikers en argeoloë vir hulle gesê het dat daar niks in die water is nie.

Die span het eintlik 'n uitgebreide terrein van ongeveer 'n kilometer groot gevind. Vestingmure van ongeveer 10 tot 13 voet hoog is onder die meer sigbaar. Ceylan het die ontdekking 'n 'wonderwerk' genoem, en gesê dat argeoloë na die gebied sou reis om navorsing te doen en inligting oor die terrein te verskaf.

Ceylan in 'n onderhoud met die Hürriyet Daily News dat die meer in die loop van 600 000 jaar deur baie beskawings gevestig is. Daar is in antieke tye geglo dat die meer geheimsinnige eienskappe het. Die span werk nou daaraan om die geheime op die webwerf te onthul.

Navorsers glo dat die vesting tussen die 9de en 6de eeu vC deur die Urartu -beskawing gebou is.

Lake Van is naby die grens van Turkye en Iran geleë. Dit is bekend as die grootste soutwatermeer ter wêreld, en is ook die grootste endorheiese watermassa op aarde (wat beteken dat dit die grootste watermassa is wat geen verbinding met die see het nie).

Plaaslike legendes verklaar dat daar Urartu -ruïnes onder die water van die meer is, maar argeoloë het nie geglo dat daar iets is nie. Die span wat verantwoordelik was vir die ontdekking van die vesting, is herhaaldelik meegedeel dat dit 'n vermorsing van tyd was om onder die meer te kyk.

Hierdie ongelooflik bewaarde ketel is 'n oorblyfsel van die ou Urartu -mense. Hierdie stuk rus in die Museum van Anatoliese beskawings, Ankara. EvgenyGenkin – CC-BY SA 3.0

As daar geen uitlaat na die oseaan is nie, kan die watervlak van die Lake Van dramaties styg en daal. Die Urartu het hul beskawing aan die oewer van die meer gebou toe die vlakke laag was. Die duikers kon mure van nege tot veertien voet lank sien, die res was onder modder begrawe. Die span berei voor om ondergrondse opgrawings te begin om meer te wete te kom oor die mense wat in die omgewing gewoon het voordat die watervlakke gestyg het.

Die Urartu was ook bekend as die Koninkryk Van. Hulle land strek vanaf die huidige Turkye deur Armenië en Iran. Daar word geglo dat die Van -meer baie belangrik was vir die Urartu.

'N Deel van 'n antieke Urartu -kasteel in die stad is ook onder water. Toetse is uitgevoer op die kasteel wat toon dat dit amper 3 000 jaar oud is.

Die ware oorsprong van die mense van Urartu is onbekend. Sommige historici meen dat hierdie mense van iewers na die weste na die Armeense plato gemigreer het, destyds meestal bekend as Nairi. Hulle noem hulself Khaldians of kinders van die god Khaldis, net soos die naam van die Assiriërs die naam van hul god Assur weerspieël.

Hierdie kaart toon die skaal van die antieke Urartu -beskawing. Lake Van naby die sentrum. Hierdie uitstekende kaart is deur Sémhur, CC-BY SA 3.0

Die naam van die koninkryk word van die Assiriërs aan ons oorgedra, nie van die Urartu self nie. Niks is bekend oor die begin van die koninkryk nie. Die mense het uiteindelik bekend geword vir hul metaalwerk. Hulle praat 'n taal wat verband hou met Hurrian (waarvan dit nie bekend is dat dit met enige ander taal ter wêreld verbind is nie). Die Urartu gebruik Assiriese spykerskrif vir hul skryftaal.

Net soos die begin van die koninkryk vir die mis van die tyd verlore gegaan het, is die einde van die koninkryk ook 'n raaisel. Dit is bekend dat die Urartu -koninkryk tussen 585 en 590 vC tot 'n einde gekom het, maar daar is geen verslag van die einde gevind nie, en die presiese datum waarop hulle koninkryk geëindig het, word deur argeoloë betwis.

Dieselfde span wat hierdie vesting gevind het, het verlede jaar in dieselfde meer 'n ander ontdekking gemaak. Hulle het 'n gebied van 1,5 kilometer met vreemde stalagmiete ontdek waarna hulle 'onderwaterfeeskoorstene' verwys het.

Vroeër vanjaar het dieselfde span ook die oorskot gevind van 'n Russiese skip wat vermoedelik in 1948 gesink het.


Min episodes van die geskiedenis is so donker en geheimsinnig soos die Antieke koninkryk Urartu. Die sogenaamde Koninkryk Van styg in die negende eeu vC en floreer in die gebied tussen die mere Van, Urmiah en Sevan, in die streek wat ongeveer ooreenstem met antieke Armenië, en wat tans dele van Oos -Turkye, Iran en die moderne Armeense Republiek. Na die vernietiging van die koninkryk was die verdwyning so volledig dat daar geen duidelike opname was van die Urartiese Ryk wat ooit bestaan ​​het in klassieke werke soos die geskiedenis van Herodotus nie en slegs sketsagtige verwysings in die Bybel.

Die groot ruïnes van Van, met hul geheimsinnige inskripsies, aan die oewer van die groot meer, word deur Moses Khorenatsi, die Armeense kroniekskrywer uit die 5de eeu, verduidelik as die werk van die legendariese Assiriese koningin Semiramis, 'n verhaal wat waarskynlik uit die plaaslike folklore ontleen is. Die eerste aangetekende poging om hierdie ruïnes te bestudeer, is in 1827 deur die Duitse geleerde Friedrich Eduard Schulz gedoen, wat deur die Franse Asiatiese Genootskap gestuur is. Schulz het afskrifte van 'n aantal inskripsies gemaak en dit na Parys teruggestuur. Ongelukkig is Schulz en sy party in 1829 deur bandiete aangeval en is hy vermoor. Hierdie afskrifte is eers in 1840 in Parys gepubliseer, waar daar in die antieke Persiese en Assiriese spykerskrif verskillende inskripsies verskyn het, terwyl die res van die inskripsies in 'n onbekende taal was.

In die middel van die negentiende eeu was antieke Mesopotamië woedend in Europa, en die aktiwiteite van Austen Henry Layard en Paul-Emile Botta het die openbare verbeelding aangegryp met die herontdekking van Assirië en Babilon. Die groot strewe om Assiriese inskripsies te vertaal, het die naam 'Urartri' genoem, maar dit was nog nie geassosieer met die Koninkryk Van nie.

Die Kasteel van Van het die skande van jagters ondergaan, en artefakte, veral brons, het op die oudheidsmark begin verskyn. Hierdie vondste is ywerig gekoop deur mense soos die British Museum en die Hermitage in Moskou, maar is verkeerdelik toegeskryf aan die Assiriërs of selfs die Sassaanse Persiese era. Layard het sy protegé Hormuzd Rassam gestuur om in die laat 1870's en vroeë 1880's by Van en naby Toprakkale te grawe. By Van het die skatjagters hul werk deeglik gedoen, maar in Toprakkale kon Rassam en ander 'n paar vondste terugbring. Ongelukkig is baie artefakte in die berging geplaas of in die Assiriese gedeeltes van die museums vertoon. Boris Petrovsky, die groot Urartiese geleerde van Rusland, het wrang opgemerk dat baie van die argeologie van die Koninkryk Van in die kelder van die British Museum gedoen moes word. Die bydrae van Sowjet -argeoloë in latere jare moet nie vergeet word nie, en vir al hul ideologiese bagasie was hul uitputtende en metodiese benadering 'n welkome teenmiddel vir die aktiwiteite van skattejagters en entoesiastiese amateurs. Hierdie opgrawings het skouspelagtige resultate opgelewer op plekke soos Kamir Blur en Erebuni, wat die begrip van Urartu baie bevorder het.

Die ontsyfering van die Urartiese taal was 'n proses wat so stadig en wankelend was as die ontdekking van Urartiese monumente. Daar was geen Rosetta -klip of Michael Ventris van Urartiaanse ontsyfering nie. Edward Hincks het die eerste stappe in die studie gemaak en die name van verskeie Urartiese konings en woorde soos "stad" geïdentifiseer. Layard se afskrifte van inskripsies by Van, wat in 1850 gemaak is, het AH Sayce gehelp om meer vordering te maak in sy studie van 1882, deur die naam van "die land van Biaini" te identifiseer en dit dus stewig te koppel aan die Urartu wat in Assiriese Kronieke genoem word. Sayce verwerp egter 'n verbintenis met enige Hurriaanse taal, wat deur latere geleerdheid weerspreek word. Die ontsyfering van Urartian word ook belemmer deur die klein hoeveelheid inskripsies in vergelyking met Assirië. Geleerdes uit baie nasies het verdere bydraes tot hierdie groot poging gelewer, sodat uiteindelik aan die einde van die negentiende eeu en die begin van die twintigste eeu die geskiedenis van die Koninkryk Van begin in die lig kom, na meer as twee en 'n half millennia van duisternis.

The Origins and Foundation of the Kingdom of Van

Die toneel waarop die Urartiese koninkryk verskyn het, is duister en yl gedokumenteer. Die meeste veralgemenings wat gemaak kan word, kom uit die onakkurate wetenskappe van die materiële kultuur en taalkundige bewyse. Teen die negende eeu v.G.J. was die magtige Hetitiese Ryk, wat Anatolië van die Egeïese See tot Sirië gestrek het, maar 'n herinnering, maar die Hetitiese kultuur het oorleef in sy vele opvolgerstate, die bure van die Urartiërs, wat provinsiale weergawes van die Hetitiese beeldhouwerk vervaardig en gebruik het die Hetitiese hiërogliewe. Hierdie koninkryke was oorlogsugtig en ambisieus in hul gebied. In die suidooste lê die magtige Assiriese Ryk, die belangrikste militêre mag van die Midde-Ooste.

Van die bergagtige hartland van Urartu rondom die meer van Van kan ons net sê dat daar 'n langtermyn gevestigde bevolking was, wie se materiële kultuur in metaalwerk veral goud 'n mate van gesofistikeerdheid toon. Hierdie bevolking spreek 'n dialek van Hurrian, 'n groep mense wat die streek al etlike eeue lank bewoon het.

Die vroegste dokumentêre vermelding van die land Urartu kan gevind word in Assiriese bronne. Die Assiriese koning Shalmaneser I (1280 - 1261) het 'n veldtog geloods om die land wat hulle Uratri genoem het, te bedwing, wat 'n bergagtige plek in Assirië beteken. Teen hierdie tyd was dit duidelik dat die bevolking in verskillende koninkryke verdeel is. Die opskrifte van die Assiriese koning Takulti-Ninurta I het aangeteken dat 'n opstand van 43 konings van die lande Nairi onderdruk is. Die vroegste vermelding van die Urartiërs kan in Assiriese bronne gevind word. In hierdie stadium het die inwoners van hierdie bergagtige land Assirië as 'n aggressiewe, indringende indringer beleef, maar die Assiriese kultuur sou Urartu diep beïnvloed. Die Urartiërs het dieselfde spykerskrif aangeneem om hul monumente in te skryf, wat die ou hiërogliewe skrif laat kantel het (alhoewel dit nie heeltemal verdwyn het nie). Die belangrikste is dat die Urartiërs Assiriese militêre praktyke en toerusting aangeneem het, sodat later die Urartiese leërs die koniese helms van die Assiriese tipe gebruik het, wat die Hurriaanse styl van silindriese kuifhelm grootliks vervang het. So sou Assiriese aggressie mettertyd die dryfveer vir hierdie bergbewoners gegee het om te verenig, sowel as die inspirasie vir hul kultuur.

Dit is eers in die bewind van Shalmaneser III (858 - 825) dat die Assiriese verslae 'n idee gee van die politieke verandering wat in Urartu plaasvind. Dit word aangeteken op die geïllustreerde bronsplate, wat eens deel uitgemaak het van die monumentale Balawat -hekke. Die belangrikste gedeeltes word vandag in die British Museum gehuisves. Die bronsreliëfs bied die eerste visuele voorstelling van krygers uit Urartië, getoon met die helms op die helm in die oranje styl. Hierdie verslag noem ook Shalmaneser se belangrikste antagonis as "Aramu the Urartian", wie se koninklike stad Arashku deur Assiriese magte afgedank en verbrand is. Weer vertel die Balawat -poorte die verhaal van Assiriese leërs wat almal verower het, maar daarbinne is dit duidelik dat Urartu nou onder die jurisdiksie van 'n enkele koning was, alhoewel hoe vas sy greep op hierdie koninkryk of konfederasie was, dit nie vasgestel kan word nie.

Selfs al word dit oordryf, is dit duidelik dat die Assiriërs nog 'n verlammende slag vir hierdie jong koninkryk geslaan het. Bewyse dat hierdie situasie begin verander het, kom in 834 vC. Die bejaarde Shalmaneser III, wat deur interne probleme beleef is, kon nie self die ekspedisie lei nie, en daarom stuur hy sy generaal Daian Ashur om Urartu aan te val. Die bron vertel dat 'n nuwe koning Sarduri I van Urartu uitgekom het om die Assiriese leërs te konfronteer. Die uitslag van die geveg was nie bekend nie, maar Sarduri I se bewind het 'n nuwe era vir Urartu ingelui, en vir die eerste keer is die regering van die Urartiese koning getuig van inskripsies binne die Urartiese gebied. Sarduri het sy stempel op Urartu se nuwe era afgedruk deur die stigting van 'n nuwe versterkte hoofstad in Van (Tushpa), waarvan die oorblyfsels vandag nog staan, op 'n rots wat die verwoeste stad Old Van oorheers. Op hierdie rots is daar 'n inskripsie waarin Sarduri sy daad opgeteken het en homself beskryf as "Sarduri, seun van Lutipri, die manjifieke koning". Hieruit kan ons sien dat Urartu nou 'n verenigde koninkryk was met imperialistiese ambisies op die manier van Assirië. Die opskrif was veral nie net in navolging van Assiriese koninklike inskripsies nie, maar ook in die Assiriese taal. Daar is tans geen manier om te weet of Sarduri verwant was aan Aramu, of dat hy die stigter van 'n nuwe dinastie was nie.

Meuna, die Groot Oorwinnaar en Bouwer

Ondanks sy prestasies het Sarduri waarskynlik 'n redelik beskeie koninkryk regeer, en dit is vasgestel in 'n tyd van Assiriese swakheid. Daar was niks om te waarborg dat dit nie uitgesluip sou word as die politieke wind verander nie. Die opvolgers van Sarduri I moes hierdie kern byvoeg en die Koninkryk Van ontwikkel as 'n mag om mee rekening te hou. Sarduri is opgevolg deur sy seun Ishpuini, maar tydens die bewind van Sarduri se kleinseun Menua ondergaan Urartu die grootste uitbreidingstydperk. Die naam van Menua kan gevind word op die grootste aantal inskripsies wat hierdie vooruitbeleid registreer. Bewyse van Menua se verowerings en geboue kan gevind word so ver oos as Qalatgar, onder die Urmia -meer in die moderne Iran in die ooste. In die weste het Menua sy naam ingeskryf op 'n bergvesting in Palu, naby die stad Elaziğ, naby die moderne Malatya, ongeveer 400 kilometer wes van Van. Onder Menua is die Urartiese mag ook noordwaarts gestoot tot by Bushbulak, maar nog nie tot by die Sevan -meer nie. Daarbenewens het Menua meer geboue as enige ander Urartiese koning genoem.

Die sogenaamde "Horhor Chronicle" wat in klip by Van-kasteel ingeskryf was, het aangeteken dat Menua se seun Argishti I die koninkryk noordwaarts uitgebrei het tot by die Sevan-meer, waar die Urartiese bewind gekonsolideer is deur die bou van die vestingstede Erebuni en later Argishtihinili. Interessant genoeg bevat die rekords van buit nie net minerale rykdom en diere nie, maar ook duisende mense. Hulle het ongetwyfeld die yl bevolking van die koninkryk aangevul vir die enorme bouprojekte.

Urartu se tydperk van plaaslike oorheersing berus op onstabiele fondamente. Die bergagtige aard van die Urartiese hartland dui op 'n relatief lae bevolking, vergeleke met die breë uitgestrektheid van Assiriese gebied in die huidige noordelike Irak, wat baie groter en landbou -ryker was. Urartu is ook saamgesweis uit kleiner komponente wat verenig het om die konstante Assiriese aanvalle te weerstaan. Die bronne is te yl om ons te vertel of hierdie verenigingsproses samewerkend was of gedwing is. Dit is egter duidelik dat Assiriese aggressie per ongeluk 'n saadjie geplant het, en dit was ontwikkelings in Assirië wat hierdie saad laat ontkiem het.

Teen die einde van die regering van die Assiriese koning Shalmaneser III het sy seuns begin stry en baklei oor die nalatenskap van die ou koning. Die daaropvolgende stryd het aanleiding gegee tot 'n tydperk van verswakte konings, ambisieuse goewerneurs en 'n kragtige weduwee koningin Sammurammat (koningin Semiramis van klassieke kennis). Uiteindelik het Tiglath Pileser III (745 - 727) die troon ingeneem na 'n opstand in Kalhu en 'n sterk heerser van die ou skool geword. Vanaf hierdie tydstip was die dae van Urartu se bloeityd getel, alhoewel die koninkryk nog 'n eeu en 'n half voor die finale afsterwe gehad het.

Op sommige maniere het die inwoners van die lande van die Uratri en Bianili eenwording deur vier eeue se aanval op hulle afgedwing, en hulle was nie alleen nie Aram-Damaskus was die fokus van 'n kortstondige Levantynse alliansie teen Assirië.

In Urartu se geval het dit egter gelei tot die heerskappy van een dinastie en die ontwikkeling van 'n koninkryk met 'n duidelike identiteit. Dit word weerspieël in die ontwikkeling van 'n artistieke styl wat onmiddellik herkenbaar is as Urartian. Dit was duidelik paleiskuns van die heersende dinastie, en het net soveel te danke aan Assiriese modelle as die Urartiese staatskaping. Sommige opvallende artefakte oorleef egter, soos 'n groep bronsbeeldjies van gode, leeus, maar meestal wonderlike mitiese wesens wat die liggame van bulle, leeus en arende met die menslike vorm kombineer. Hierdie stukke was eens deel van 'n enkele troon, wat vermoedelik deur skatjagters by Toprakkale ontdek is en is nou versprei tussen versamelings in Parys, Londen, St. Petersburg en New York. Wat die urartiese monumentale kuns betref, oorleef byna niks nie, met die uitsondering van die standbeeld van die God Teisheba, nou in die Van -museum, maar ons weet dat dit uit Assiriese rekeninge bestaan ​​het. Die gesentraliseerde heerskappy van die konings van Van het ook 'n impak op die landskap van Urartu gehad. Die erfgename van Sarduri was groot hidroingenieurs en was verantwoordelik vir die bou van 'n aansienlike aantal kanale om die land te besproei. Daar was duidelike trots op hierdie ondernemings, aangesien dit deur die Urartiese konings in hul inskripsies opgeteken is. Die Şaram-Su-kanaal, wat dateer uit die heerskappy van Menua, strek vanaf die Hoşap-vallei tot by die Van-meer, 'n afstand van 45 myl, en is vandag nog steeds in gebruik, meer as twee en 'n half millennia later.

Die Assiriese herlewing

Met die koms van die bewind van Tiglath Pileser III in 745 vC, het 'n herlewing in die lot van Assirië plaasgevind ten koste van Urartu. Vroeg in sy bewind skryf Tiglath Pileser op dat hy Urartu en haar bondgenote verslaan het in die slag van Arpad in 743 en in 735 'n ekspedisie teen die hoofstad Tushpa gelei het, waarin die Assiriërs die stad buite verwoes het, maar die vesting nie kon aanvat nie. die klip. Sarduri II het die hoogtepunt van die hoogtepunt en die agteruitgang van die koninkryk gelei, maar hoe sy heerskappy tot 'n einde gekom het, is onbekend. Sy seun Rusa I sou nog selfs donkerder dae voorsit. Na 'n paar stil jare keer die Assiriese bedreiging terug in die vorm van Sargon II. Assiriese rekords toon uitgebreide spioenasie -aktiwiteite terwyl Sargon inligting oor sy vyande versamel het, veral Urartu. In 714 vC was die planne voltooi en 'n massiewe Assiriese leër het uit Kalhu uitgetrek, met die doel om Assiriese aansien buite die noordelike grens te herstel. Ons word geseën met 'n gedetailleerde weergawe van hierdie ekspedisie, nou in die Louvre, waarin Sargon nie net die gevegte en ontberinge van sy leër opteken nie, maar ook een van die mees gedetailleerde beskrywings van Urartu self gee, om by te voeg tot hul lakoniese inskripsies . Sargon se leërs het Rusa se magte by die berg Uaush (vandag die berg Sahand) verslaan. Die indringers sny daarna deur die lande van Urartu en draai om die Van -meer, en vernietig dorpe, wingerde, boorde en kanaalstelsels. Daar is geen rekord dat Van self aangeval is nie, maar Sargon se laaste gebaar was miskien wreedder omdat hy die nabye bondgenoot Musasir van Urartu verwoes en die tempel van Haldi, Urartu se hoofgod, vernietig het. Sargon se verslag beweer dat toe Rusa gehoor het van hierdie ontheiliging en die "verwydering van die God Haldi" na Assirië, hy sy eie lewe geneem het, hoewel ons dit nie kan verifieer nie. Wat die Assiriese verslag wel openbaar, is die ongelooflike rykdom van Urartu en sy bondgenote.

Die Koninkryk Van was verneder, maar dit was steeds 'n belangrike mag. Die nuwe koning, Argishti II, het moeite gedoen om die aansien van die koninkryk te herstel oor wankelende goewerneurs en weerbarstige sytakke. Die bewind van Argishti II het ook getoon dat die Urartiërs nog steeds vestings en monumente bou. Sommige geleerdes van Urartu het bevraagteken of die Assiriese weergawe van die gebeure die volle verhaal vertel, en dat Urartu, selfs in die lig van hierdie aanvalle, veerkragtiger was. Die bergagtige aard van die koninkryk het beteken dat die Urartiërs in bergvestings kon terugtrek en hul kuddes na verborge valleie kon neem. Die besoeker aan hierdie streek word getref dat 'n mens van 'n hoogtepunt letterlik tientalle kilometers kan sien, en 'n leër skaars ongemerk kan nader. Assiriese rekords sê dikwels dat hulle die Urartiërs opgesluit het in vestings, wat kan aandui dat sodra die Urartiërs in 'n vesting vasgekeer was, daar min was wat hulle kon doen, aangesien die Assiriese belegstegnieke wat so goed in Palestina gewerk het, onwerkbaar was in die berge van Urartu.

Die einde van Urartu.

Die Assiriese aanval was ongetwyfeld vernietigend, maar Kings in Tushpa het daarin geslaag om hul gesag oor die gebiede van Urartu te behou. Aan die teenoorgestelde kant van die koninkryk neem 'n veel meer dodelike vyand die vorm van transhumance aan. Vanaf die einde van die agtste eeu vC het die mense van die steppe, noord van die Swart See, beweeg. Stories of these migrations were still told in classical times, as Herodotus recounts that Scythians were forced southwards by the Massagetae, and fell upon a people called the Cimmerians, chasing them down into Asia Minor. Herodotus is famously unreliable, but part of the tale is supported by the facts. The Cimmerians hit Urartu first. Rusa I was compelled to devote attention to the defences of the northern frontier, and Assyrian records tell of an Urartian defeat at the hands of the Cimmerians in Rusa's reign. By the 7th century BCE the Cimmerians appear to have been accommodated, and were settled by Lake Van, and there is archaeological evidence that the Urartians employed Scythian mercenaries.

Assyria was also subject to attacks by these mounted nomads, and similarly fought the Scythians and hired them as mercenaries. At this time of instability relations with Assyria warmed, and Rusa II sent emissaries to congratulate King Ashurbanipal for his victory over the Medes in 654 BCE. The Kingdom of Van was still complete, although the last phase of Urartian history is somewhat shadowy. Rusa II and his son Sarduri III built an impressive second capital near to the rock of Van, on the hill of Toprakkale, named Rusahinili. It was also in the 7th century that the great defensive city of Teishebaini was built west of Lake Urmiah, on Urartu's north eastern edge. After this point we have the names of five consecutive rulers, but know nothing of their achievements, if any. What is clear is that an era of turbulence was reaching its peak, which would shatter the existing political map. Assyria was the first to fall. This empire, hated by its enemies, was crushed by an alliance of Babylonians and Medes. Herodotus contributes that the arrival of a Scythian army was the deciding factor in the fall of Ninevah, the last Assyrian capital, in 612 BCE.

The fall of the Kingdom of Van is shrouded in darkness. Urartu is thought to have succumbed in around 585 – 590 BCE, there is no written account and this timescale is not undisputed. Although the end of the Urartu is mysterious, we do have a witness to the fall. Boris Piotrovsky headed the excavation of the city of Teishebaini, now Karmir Blur in modern Armenia. Here we have the remains of a city that was besieged, and the archaeologists believe, was consumed in a great conflagration during a final night attack. Along with many treasures and everyday artefacts we have the remains of many Urartians, young and old, who had taken to the citadel when the city was attacked. Embedded in the walls are many arrowheads of the Scythian style, which indicate the identity of the attackers. Although Teishebaini was on the edge of the kingdom, the evidence is that the capital Rusahinili fell to a siege at around the same time, although the site was far less well preserved. At this point Urartu disappears from history, and frustratingly we cannot be sure who struck the final blows. Some Urartian treasures have turned up in Scythian burial mounds in the Caucasus, no doubt the result of plunder, and there is evidence that the power vacuum was filled by the emergent Median Empire. For the time being it is reasonable to assume that these two peoples were involved in Urartu's destruction.

At this point a new people appeared in the sources, the Armenians. Herodotus alleges they came from Phrygia in the west, but whatever the case they became dominant, giving their name to the region. As for the Urartians, although their achievements and identity were forgotten rapidly, the people themselves apparently remained where they were, and their monuments stood idle so that even locals could not say who built them.


Clearing up some misconceptions about Urartu

This is a post I've been thinking of creating for a while. I've seen quite a few comments in this subreddit (and others) recently that have an untrue or overly simplistic view of Urartu. I thought that it might be beneficial to have some quick points as references for people.

The Urartians did not call themselves Urartians. It's thought that they called themselves Shuri of Suri. This may be related to the Armenian word for "sword", could be related to some other weapon, could be a reference to Shupria (which was a region to the west of Lake Van), or could mean something else entirely. I personally wonder if the Nairian tribe Sharuria (which predated Urartu) is somehow connected (Sharuria would be the Assyrianized version of the name).

Urartu wasn't really a kingdom but a confederacy of numerous tribes of various ethnic/cultural backgrounds, just like Nairi. Unlike Nairi, it seemed to be a little bit more centralized, mainly because the kings of Urartu held their domain together through force.

There were at least 2 and possibly 3 or more Urartian royal dynasties. The first dynasty, that of the founder Arame/Aramu, who consolidated/conquered the Nairi tribes, was based out of the city of Arzhashkun. This initial dynasty wrote in Assyrian/Akkadian and not Urartian, and the god most often associated with Urartu, the chief god Khaldi, had not yet been introduced. It's been speculated that Arame was possibly pronounced as, or a regional dialect of, Arama--which is Indo-European (compare Sanskrit Rama, obviously Armenian Aram would be the modern version of Arama). Arama also didn't call his domain Shurili of Bianili maar Nairi, so clearly there was some continuity between the Nairi Confederation and Urartu. It seems possible that Arame was an ethnic Armenian. The name of his capital, Arzheshkun is likely of Armenian etymology (Arjesh "bright, white" in Armenian+Assyrian geographic suffix -kun). The 2nd or 3rd king, Sarduri, moved the capital to Tushpa (Tosp).

There was a Nairi tribe called Uiram. This could be a version of Aram rendered in cuneiform (where vowels as we know them are interchangeable) or perhaps (my theory) this was Ayram (heroic people?) Obviously this would be an Armenian tribe.

There was another Nairi tribe called Duisuni/Diauehi. Armen Petrosyan and others have etymologized this as "the tribe of Duis or Daias" which would mean, "born of/kin of god(s)" or "born of/kin of daylight" ("day" and "diety" come from the same root). Daiasuni was located in the general region where Hayasa had previously been some centuries before.

Urartologist Paul Zimansky speculated that the Urartians (i.e. the people that introduced the Urartian language to the Armenian Highlands) had been a relatively small tribe from northern Iraq (probably near modern Rawandiz). This is likely where Ardini/Musasir, the holy city of their chief god, Khaldi, had been located. It's unclear when they entered the Armenian Highlands, but presumably it was well before the 860s BCE when Urartu as established.

The Urartian language is the only known relative of the Hurrian language, which had apparently died out some centuries before the establishment of Urartu. Oddly enough, Urartian was most similar to the initial versions of Hurrian (Old Hurrian)--from about a millennium before Urartu--than later dialects. Together, the Hurrian and Urartian languages constituted the only two known languages in the Hurro-Urartian language family (although Kassite may belong to this family). Some linguists like Igor Diakonoff and John Greppin speculated that Proto-Hurro-Urartian and Proto-NE Caucasian were connected, either through relation or through contact. However, the relationship, if any, is a matter of controversy. Despite this, this theory has since been mischaracterized by nationalists who claim that the Urartian language is the parent to, or a dialect of, certain NE Caucasian languages. Proponents of these claims love to suggest that the name Biani (Van) and Erebuni (Yerevan) come from NE Caucasian broodjie (meaning "nest"). However, the NE Caucasian word broodjie comes from the Armenian word buyn, forms of which exist in other Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit and Albanian (in other words, this is likely a word NE Caucasians borrowed from Armenian or another Indo-European language).

The first references to Khaldi were actually within otherwise Akkadian names. The Cult of Khaldi probably wasn't introduced to Urartu until the 3rd or 4th king of Urartu, Ishpuini (who was also the first king to write in Urartian and not Akkadian). There have been numerous theories regarding the meaning of Khaldi. The name could theoretically be a version of Ardi (Armenian for "sun god"--R and L can be interchangeable). Another theory postulates that the root of Khaldi is Hal--a version of Helios (again, with the addition of Armenian di). Yet another theory (by Michael Astour) speculates that Khaldi comes from Hurrian heldi ("high").

Despite not being an Indo-European language, there seems to have been an early Indo-European influence on the Urartian language. In addition to Arame, it is apparent in names like Argishti (likely actually pronounced Argisti--meaning "shimmering god"--compare to Areg, Argus, and possibly Arka en regis, ti would be the same as di) and maybe Menua (which has been compared to Armenian Manavaz as well as Greek Minas). Many Urartian gods seem to be borrowings from Indo-Europeans like Hittites, Luwians, and potentially Armenians and Indo-Iranians (perhaps Mitanni?) as well as Hurrian pantheons, such as Siuini, Bagbarti/Arubani, Selardi, etc. Expectedly, Urartian religion also seems to have been influenced by Semitic beliefs.

TLDR: The people that introduced Urartian to the Lake Van region were not initially Armenians but they probably came into contact with Armenians early on, were influenced by Armenians, and ruled over Armenians for a couple of centuries before the Armenians re-gained control with the help of Iranians and Cimmerians. The first king of Urartu, Arame, may have been Armenian, and some of the later kings, such as Argisti, may have been Armenian, at least partially. In other words, it seems very likely that Armenian-speakers were present in the greater Armenian region prior to Urartu, during the Nairi-era at least, if not before.


Tag Archives: urartu

…it depicts the humiliation of one man by another.

Some sources identify the prostrate figure as Hanunu, a king who ruled Gaza in the 8th Century BCE. Others simply identify him as a captured enemy.

Either way, the one thing everyone agrees on is that the foot placed upon his neck belongs to Tiglath-Pileser III (745 – 727 BCE), an Assyrian king who laid the groundwork for modern imperialism and began a long line of Assyria’s greatest kings.

Whooooooo Was He/Who-Who Who-Who?

Tiglath-Pileser III is the first king we’re covering at All Mesopotamia that has been mentioned on the Assyrian King List (as well as the first Assyrian king to be mentioned in the bible). Though his reign is nowhere near being the first to occur within the traditional (and disputed) timeline of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (934 – 610 BCE or 912 – 612 BCE), some scholars believe this era began with Tiglath-Pileser III’s ascent to the throne in 745 BCE.

Being the third ruler in Assyria to carry the name Tiglath-Pileser—which is the Hebraic form of the Akkadian Tukulti-apil-Ešarra, which translates to “my trust/support is in the son of Esharra,” which refers to Ninurta, the god of war and hunting—you’d think he was related to at least one of the other two Tiglath-Pilesers. But he wasn’t. The first and second Tiglath-Pilesers ruled during what scholars have labeled the Middle-Assyrian period one was during the 11 th Century BCE, the other in the 10 th Century BCE, respectively.

The gap grows wider and the direct relation is completely taken off the table when we remember that the third Tiglath-Pileser’s reign was in the 8 th Century BCE.

Nonetheless, there is blood in this story.

Tiglath Pileser III shown in his chariot in this panel from his palace at Nimrud. (Source)

Of course, it’s not uncommon for unrelated kings to share a name, especially when the name is a nod to a deity (and truth be told, Tiglath-Pileser III never linked himself to his first two namesakes), but what makes TPIII’s choice so interesting is the inherent murkiness of his origins. (I will call him TPIII throughout the rest of this post.)

Though he presented himself as the son of Adad-nirari III (811 – 783 BCE), scholars question the truth of this relation, because there are three other guys between Adad-nirari III and TPIII on the Assyrian King List. Also, two of those guys are the actual sons of Adad-nirari III, with his grandson ruling in the gap between their reigns.

Oh, and another thing: in 1892, a stele was discovered that showed TPIII’s name imprinted over one of those three guys’ names. Add to that the scantiness of information about anyone mentioned here, including Adad-nirari III, and you’ve got yourself a fishy situation in some very murky (and bloody) waters.

The Assyrian Shady

So, how did such a shady character become one of the most powerful kings of Assyria?

Let’s start with the name Pulu.

Pulu (or Pul as he appears in the bible) was the governor of Kalhu (Nimrud), the capital of a stagnant and waning Assyrian empire, one that was dealing with regional rulers with too much power, serving (or not) under ineffectual kings who were hardly maintaining what their long-gone predecessors had built.

Meanwhile, Assyria’s army, known the ancient world over as the greatest, also began to lose its luster when in 754 BCE it met its match in the kingdom of Urartu‘s army…and lost.

This loss was a significant disaster for Assyria it grew an already-existing fissure in the empire as its vassal states and allies began to undermine Assyria and look to Urartu as an alternative power to whom they would pledge allegiance. This shift in loyalties also affected Assyria’s coffers, which had been regularly filled with tributes from those very vassal states and allies now looking for other ways to “invest,” if you will. The ripple effect of this loss was long-lasting and reached as far as Babylonia in the south, where in 749 BCE forces were dispatched to protect Assyrian interests.

Needless to say, things just weren’t going well for Assyria during this time, and poor Ashur-nirari V (754 – 745 BCE) had not been king for long before he had to bear the brunt of a half century’s worth of failure and unrest. All this led to civil war, which broke out in 746 BCE and saw the royal family slaughtered, giving way to Tiglath-Pileser III, new king and former governor of Kalhu, aka Pulu.

Really, Machiavelli would’ve given Pulu a nod of approval for slaughtering his way to the top, and, more importantly, setting things up so that the same thing wouldn’t happen to him. Because as we will see, Pulu had baie of work to do, and he wanted (and apparently benodig) it done right.

Since it takes one to know one, TPIII’s first order as king was to take power back from regional rulers.

He started by cutting up the larger, more rebellious provinces into little pieces. Over a period of seven years, TPIII had fashioned some 80 provinces through this technique. He then appointed eunuchs to govern all those provinces.

“Two court officials – who are beardless and, therefore, possibly identifiable as eunuchs – are shown marching toward the king. The second figure motions to the line of men that stood behind him to come forward toward the king.” (Source)

Of course, appointing eunuchs would get another Machiavellian nod, as according to Karen Rhea Nemet-Nejat (and basic biology), eunuchs were a great way to maintain control over who occupies a position of power without the complication of heirs, much less a pedigree that mattered.

As I said before, TPIII is credited by some scholars with the founding of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, which some historians believe is the world’s first true empire (sorry, Sargon of Akkad). It was a period during which Assyria grew to an area stretching from Asia Minor to Egypt by 671 BCE. This, despite being a geographically vulnerable nation.

The expansion and expanse of the Assyrian Empire–they even had Cyprus! (Source)

It was really a “domino effect” that turned a nation with vulnerable geography into the world’s first superpower, one always on the offense rather than the defense. This effect is described well by Dattatreya Mandal in a Realm of History article titled, 󈫺 Fascinating Things You Should Know About The Ancient Assyrian State And Its Army“:

“Simply put, this terrain rich in its plump grain-lands was open to plunder from most sides, with potential risks being posed by the nomadic tribes, hill folks and even proximate competing powers. This in turn affected a reactionary measure in the Assyrian society – that led to development of an effective and well organized military system that could cope with the constant state of aggression, conflicts and raids (much like the Romans).” (Source)

TPIII took over an army that had already perfected siege warfare and had genius battlefield tactics, and even featured the world’s first separate engineer corps. This History On the Net article titled “Assyrian Empire: The Most Powerful Empire in the World,” details that perfection:

“The Assyrians were the first army to contain a separate engineer corps. Assyrians moved mobile ladders and ramps right up against heavily fortified city walls. Sappers and miners dug underneath the walls. Massive siege engines became prized Assyrian armaments.” (Source)

This was also an army that had been incorporating the psychology of fear into its strategy. In an Ancient History Encyclopedia entry, the historian Simon Anglim is quoted on this combination of Assyrian war methods and its effect on warfare as we know it:

“By these methods of siege and horror, technology and terror, the Assyrians became the unrivaled masters of the Near East for five centuries. By the time of their fall, their expertise in siege technology had spread throughout the region.” (Source)

Nonetheless, this great army had just met its match and lost.

Knowing he would just be another ineffectual leader of a doomed empire if he didn’t think outside the box, TPIII created what all scholars indisputably credit him with: the world’s first truly professional army.

You and What Ar–Never Mind

Unstoppable. Not to mention incredible. (Source)

We have to acknowledge that TPIII’s predecessors accomplished a lot with what all armies were at the time: essentially part-time and made up of mostly farmers during their off-seasons, and mercenaries. As the Assyrian empire grew, however, so did its internal problems and need for a full-time force to protect its interests from within as well as without.

Being that he had more than a few corrected provinces to work with now, TPIII introduced a system that required each one of those provinces to designate a certain number of men to be professionally trained, full-time soldiers. In a DailyHistory.org post titled, “How did ancient Professional Armies develop?”, Mark Altaweel details this part of a multi-pronged approach to vamping up the Assyrian army:

“These army units began to have distinct ranks and be part of specialized units within the military,” Altaweel writes. “This included the chariotry, cavalry, and infantry units specialized units also included naval units consisting of Phoenicians. Other specialized soldiers include engineering units used for siege warfare.”

The overhaul extended further, all the way to command. “In addition, the army’s command structure became more sophisticated with developed ranks, similar to modern militaries,” Altaweel writes.

TPIII also made sure to reserve high ranks for pure Assyrians rather than those absorbed through conquest cavalry, heavy infantry, and charioteers were all native Assyrians.

This overhaul, particularly locking in individuals with nothing on their schedule but soldiering year-round, translated into a gargantuan advantage over any other army in the world at the time, all of whom, Altaweel points out, still had a shortage of men during planting and harvest seasons. I can only imagine that to be attacked by the professional Assyrian army often entailed an imminent familiarity with the element of surprise for the attacked.

In the image above, you see a small part of what a siege carried out by the Assyrian army looked like the skill of professionally-trained men with advanced weaponry, alongside technology. It was only through that multi-faceted approach to war and siege that TPIII was able to avenge Assyria’s defeat to the kingdom of Urartu and move on to destroying its difficult ally, the city of Arpad.

Arpad‘s defeat was no easy feat–it took drie jaar to bring that city down. This tidbit serves as a testament to the strength of Arpad, of course, but it also speaks to the otherworldly capabilities of TPIII’s relentless army.

In his “Assyrian Warfare” entry for Ancient History Encyclopedia, Joshua J. Mark puts into perspective what Arpad was up against during its three-year siege, and why its considerable strength was still not enough when facing TPIII’s new and improved army:

“Campaigns such as the long siege of Arpad could only have been carried out by a professional army such as the one Tiglath Pileser III had created and, as the historian [Peter] Dubovsky notes, this expansion of the Assyrian Empire could not have taken place without ‘the new organization of the army, improved logistics and weaponry’ and, in particular, the use of iron weapons instead of bronze.” (Source)

No other army had the resources the Assyrian war machine had: fast-made iron weapons and armor. Note, this could only happen by way of Assyria’s hegemony over iron ore-producing regions while everyone else’s weapons were still made of bronze. This is not including advanced engineering skills, unbeatable tactics and, of course, TPIII’s mind and ambition.

“Tiglath Pileser III’s brilliant successes in battle lay in his military strategies and his willingness to do whatever it required to succeed in his objectives,” Simon Anglim writes of TPIII’s recipe for success.

Everybody’s Gonna Protect Their Feet

Shoes really make or break an outfit, and the Assyrian army boot really tied the whole professional army thing together. (Source)

For an army to fight year round, it needs to be an all-weather and all-terrain one. This cannot happen without the proper footwear. Enter my favorite and the coolest of TPIII’s innovations and inventions: the army boot.

On the significance and features of the Assyrian army boot, Mark quotes the historian Paul Kriwaczek:

“…the Assyrian military invention that was arguably one of the most influential and long-lasting of all: the army boot. In this case the boots were knee-high leather footwear, thick-soled, hobnailed and with iron plates inserted to protect the shins, which made it possible for the first time to fight on any terrain however rough or wet, mountain or marsh, and in any season, winter or summer. This was the first all-weather, all-year army.” (Source)

Further, in his book, Die Groot Leërs van die Oudheid, Richard A. Gabriel describes the specific ways in which the “jackboot” was beneficial to its wearer:

“The high boot provided excellent ankle support for troops who fought regularly in rough terrain … The boot kept foot injuries to a minimum, especially in an army with large contingents of horses and other pack animals.” (Source)

There’s not much else left to say about this accomplishment by TPIII, except it was such a great one, it wasn’t long before it became an everlasting staple of every military on earth…not to mention my personal favorite style of boot.

With an area stretching as far as the Mediterranean, there was a lot of land full of people for TPIII to work with to make his empire not only bigger, but better.

Along with slaughter and slavery, the norms of war in antiquity, it was common practice and standard procedure in Assyria to deport defeated subjects, particularly if they had abilities and skills beneficial to the empire. This is a policy that TPIII is often credited with instituting, but it was actually first instituted by Adad-Nirari I in the 14th Century BCE. Nonetheless, he did it on such a big scale, it became a part of his legacy.

People of Lachish Deported and Relocated. (Source)

Now, deportation did not have the same connotation it does today. Like I said, to be deported under Assyrian rule was really to be resettled by being sent to a province where the empire needed more settlers with practicable skills.

“We must not imagine treks of destitute fugitives who were easy prey for famine and disease … the deportees were meant to travel as comfortably and safely as possible in order to reach their destination in good physical shape . . . the ultimate goal of the Assyrian resettlement policy was to create a homogeneous population with a shared culture and a common identity – that of ‘Assyrians’.” (Source)

To ensure deportations went smoothly and subjects arrived at their destinations in good physical shape, it took an organized effort that went well beyond just keeping these people moving toward their destination. Take this letter written by an official handling a deportation of Aramaeans ordered by TPIII:

As for the Aramaeans about whom the king my lord has written to me: ‘Prepare them for their journey!’ I shall give them their food supplies, clothes, a waterskin, a pair of shoes and oil. I do not have my donkeys yet, but once they are available, I will dispatch my convoy. (Source)

Even after the arrival of the deported subjects at their final destination, that official’s work of ensuring the welfare of his charges was still not done, as we see in another letter he wrote to TPIII:

As for the Aramaeans about whom the king my lord has said: ‘They are to have wives!’ We found numerous suitable women but their fathers refuse to give them in marriage, claiming: ‘We will not consent unless they can pay the bride price.’ Let them be paid so that the Aramaeans can get married. (Source)

Of course, destroying these peoples’ entire worlds and resettling them where they were to serve their conqueror’s needs does not a brownie point make, but considering the way war usually ended for the defeated in antiquity, well, it’s a little less horrible to be resettled and given a job and, apparently, a life partner.

Though Assyria had absorbed many different peoples through its expansion, there was one particular group Assyrians had done that a lot with: speakers of Aramaic.

Aramaic was a language spoken by those hailing from Aram, a group of city-states in what is modern-day Syria. They were a people Assyria had been picking fights with since the reign of the first Tiglath-Pileser in the 11th Century BCE. TPIII had resettled and assimilated so many Aramaeans as he expanded his empire, it was virtually overrun with them.

Perhaps to make things easier, what with so many people speaking it already, or perhaps because of the ease of Aramaic compared to Assyria’s Akkadian, TPIII eventually made Mesopotamian Eastern Aramaic the official language of the Assyrian Empire. One can only deduce that when the Romans made Latin their lingua franca centuries later, it was TPIII’s example they were following.

He Did it His Way

Tiglath-Pileser III’s reign lasted 17 years, filled with war, conquest, innovation and invention. He had even managed in that time to crown himself king of Babylonia in 729 BCE when a revolt broke out there after the death of its Assyrian ally king Nabonassar (747 – 734 BCE).

Pretty much everything TPIII did was carried out in the same spirit as the one in the opening image of this post–a reinforcement of Assyria’s dominance and hold on the region. By the time he died in 727 BCE from natural causes, TPIII had built an invincible empire that would continue to flourish with a line of equally consequential and notable kings, including his son Sargon II (722 – 705 BCE) and the last of the great kings of Assyria, his great-great grandson Ashurbanipal (668 – 627 BCE).

Mark sums up the legacy of the third Tiglath-Pileser best in his Tiglath-Pileser III article, and perhaps helps scholars’ argument along that the Neo-Assyrian era began with this mysterious yet determined man:

“Tiglath Pileser III’s achievements laid the foundation for the future of the Assyrian Empire, which has come to be recognized as the greatest political and military entity of its time and the model on which future empires would be based.” (Source)


Royalties similar to or like Argishti I of Urartu

Geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the historic Armenian Highlands, present-day eastern Anatolia in Turkey. Eventually conquered by the Iranian Medes in the early 6th century BC. Wikipedia

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The 8th century BC started the first day of 800 BC and ended the last day of 701 BC. Period of great change for several historically significant civilizations. Wikipedia

King of Urartu from 714 BC to 680 BC. He succeeded his father, King Rusa I. Responsible for orchestrating major Urartian counter-offensives against the invading Assyrians. Wikipedia

One of the last kings of Urartu, reigning from 615 to 595 BC. The son and successor of Rusa III. Wikipedia

King of Urartu, succeeding his father Argishti I to the throne. At its peak during his reign, campaigning successfully against several neighbouring powers, including Assyria. Wikipedia

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The first known king of Urartu. Living at the time of King Shalmaneser III of Assyria (ruled 859–824 BC), Arame fought against the threat of the Assyrian Empire. Wikipedia

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Town in the ancient kingdom of Urartu, established during the expansion of the Urartians in the Transcaucasus under their king Argishti I, and named in his honour. It lasted between the 8th and 6th centuries BC. Wikipedia

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List of state leaders in the 9th century BC . Carthage Wikipedia

King of Urartu in Armenian Highlands. The son of Lutipri, the second monarch of Urartu. Wikipedia

Iron Age kingdom centered on Lake Van in eastern Asia Minor. The Orontid Dynasty begins with King Orontes I Sakavakyats (570 BC–560 BC), after the last king of Urartu. Wikipedia

Urartian fortified city, located in Yerevan, Armenia. 1017 m above sea level. Wikipedia

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This article concerns the period 799 BC – 790 BC. Años 790 a. C. Wikipedia


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Kommentaar:

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  3. Aod

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