7 Desember 1942

7 Desember 1942



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7 Desember 1942

Desember 1942

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> Januarie

Besette Europa

Royal Marine Commandos begin hul beroemde deurdringing van die Gironde -rivier (die Cockleshell Heroes).

Nieu -Guinee

Swaar gevegte by Buna



Pearl Harbor gebombardeer

Om 7:55 uur Hawaii -tyd verskyn 'n Japannese duikbommenwerper met die rooi simbool van die opkomende son van Japan op sy vlerke uit die wolke bo die eiland Oahu. 'N Swerm van 360 Japannese oorlogsvliegtuie het gevolg op 'n geweldige aanval op die Amerikaanse vlootbasis in Pearl Harbor. Die verrassingsaanval het 'n kritieke slag teen die Amerikaanse Stille Oseaan -vloot getref en die Verenigde State onherroeplik in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog getrek.

Met diplomatieke onderhandelinge met Japan wat onderbreek het, het president Franklin D. Roosevelt en sy adviseurs geweet dat 'n dreigende Japannese aanval waarskynlik is, maar niks is gedoen om die veiligheid by die belangrike vlootbasis in Pearl Harbor te verhoog nie. Dit was Sondagoggend, en baie militêre personeel het 'n pas gekry om godsdiensdienste buite die basis by te woon. Om 07:02 het twee radaroperateurs groot groepe vliegtuie opgemerk wat uit die noorde na die eiland vlug, maar met 'n vlug B-17's wat destyds van die Verenigde State verwag word, word hulle aangesê om nie alarm te maak nie. Die Japannese lugaanval was 'n verwoestende verrassing vir die vlootbasis.

'N Groot deel van die Stille Oseaan -vloot is nutteloos gemaak: Vyf uit agt slagskepe, drie vernietigers en sewe ander skepe is gesink of ernstig beskadig, en meer as 200 vliegtuie is vernietig. Altesaam 2 400 Amerikaners is dood en 1200 is gewond, baie terwyl hulle dapper probeer het om die aanval af te weer. Japan se verliese was ongeveer 30 vliegtuie, vyf duikbote en minder as 100 manskappe. Gelukkig vir die Verenigde State was al drie die Stille Oseaan -vlootdraers op die see om opleiding te doen. Hierdie reuse vliegdekskepe sou ses maande later wraak neem op Japan tydens die Slag van Midway, en die gety teen die voorheen onoorwinlike Japanse vloot in 'n skouspelagtige oorwinning omkeer.

Die dag nadat Pearl Harbor gebombardeer is, het president Roosevelt voor 'n gesamentlike kongresvergadering verskyn en verklaar: 'Gister, 7 Desember 1941, 'n datum wat in berugte sal leef, word die Verenigde State van Amerika skielik en doelbewus aangeval deur vloot en lugmagte van die Keiserryk van Japan. ” Na 'n kort en kragtige toespraak het hy die kongres gevra om 'n resolusie goed te keur waarin die oorlogstoestand tussen die Verenigde State en Japan erken word. Die Senaat het met 82 tot 0 vir oorlog teen Japan gestem, en die Huis van Verteenwoordigers het die resolusie met 'n stemming van 388 tot 1. goedgekeur. Die enigste meningsverskil was verteenwoordiger Jeannette Rankin van Montana, 'n vroom pasifis wat ook teen die Amerikaanse toetrede tot die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Drie dae later verklaar Duitsland en Italië oorlog teen die Verenigde State, en die Amerikaanse regering reageer in natura.

Die Amerikaanse bydrae tot die suksesvolle Geallieerde oorlogspoging het oor vier lang jare gestrek en meer as 400 000 Amerikaanse lewens gekos.


Verjaarsdae in die geskiedenis

Verjaarsdae 1 - 100 van 281

    Gennadi Vassilyevich Sarafanov, USSR, kosmonaut (Soyuz 15) Martin Frost, (Rep-D-TX, 1971-) Alassane Ouattara, voormalige premier van Ivoorkus Hugh Shelton, 15de voorsitter van die gesamentlike stafhoofde John Marsden, Australiese prokureur, gay aktivis († 2006) Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah, premier van Koeweit (2011-hede), gebore in Koeweit, Koeweit Terenci Moix, Spaanse skrywer, gebore in Barcelona, ​​Spanje († 2003)

Stephen hawking

8 Januarie Stephen Hawking, Engelse fisikus (Black Holes & Baby Universes), gebore in Oxford, Engeland († 2018)

    Vyacheslav Dmitriyevich Zudov, Sowjet-kosmonaut (Sojoez 23), gebore in Bor, Rusland Junichiro Koizumi, Japannese politikus (premier, 2001–06), gebore in Yokosuka, Japan Lee Kun-hee, Koreaanse sakemagnaat en voorsitter van Samsung Group, gebore in Uiryeong County, Suid -Korea Aleksandr Yakovlevich Petrushenko, Russiese kosmonaut Vladimir Sergeyevich Kozelsky, Russiese kosmonaut (Soyuz 24 backup), gebore in Aleksandrovskoye Stavropol kray, Sowjetunie Bernardine Dohrn, voormalige leier van die Weather Underground, gebore in Milwaukee, Wisconsin Michael Mayor Switserse astrofisikus (ontdek 1ste eksoplanet), 2019 Nobelprys vir fisika, gebore in Lausanne, Switserland Amichand Rajbansi, Suid-Afrikaanse politikus, gebore in Durban, Suid-Afrika († 2011) Carol Bellamy, Amerikaanse politikus (stadsraad pres-D- 1978 -85), gebore in NYC, New York Tony P. Hall, Amerikaanse politikus (Rep-D-OH, 1979-), gebore in Dayton, Ohio James & quot; Jimmy & quot; Grashow, Amerikaanse beeldhouer en houtkapper, gebore in Brooklyn, Ne w York Ita Buttrose, Australiese joernalis en sakevrou, gebore in Potts Point, Australië Ivan Ivanovich Bachurin, Sowjet -kosmonaut, gebore in Kharkov -oblast, Oekraïense SSR Willy Bogner Jr., Duitse modeontwerper en filmmaker (On Her Majesty's Secret Service), gebore in München, Duitsland Jens Nygaard Knudsen, Deense Lego -ontwerper van die minifiguur, gebore in Denemarke (d. 2020) Nigel Walmsley, voorsitter (Carlton UK Television) William McLennan, uitvoerende hoof (Central Statistical Office) Tasuku Honjo, Japannese immunoloog (Nobelprys vir medisyne 2018), gebore in Kyoto, Japan Arnaldo Tamayo-Méndez, Kubaanse kosmonaut, eerste Latyns-Amerikaanse in die ruimte (Soyuz 38, 1980), gebore in Baracoa, Guantánamo, Kuba FR Hartley, visekanselier (Cranfield Universiteit) Richard Needham, Britse parlementslid Satya Paul, Indiese modeontwerper en entrepreneur wat die moderne sari uitgevind het, gebore in Layyah, Punjab , Brits-Indië († 2021) [1] Susan Hill, Engelse dramaturg (Magic Apple Tree) Sarah Brady, Amerikaanse wapenbeheeraktivis, gebore in Kirksville, Missouri James Loewen, Amerikaanse sosioloog en historikus, gebore in Decatur, Illinois Ton de Kok, Nederlandse politikus (CDA) Michael Bishop, Britse uitvoerende hoof (British Midland Airways), gebore in Bowdon, Cheshire Archie Andrews, strokiesprentkarakter (Archie) Chananjit Vohra, Keniaanse/Britse hotelmagnaat/multi-miljoenêr Ehud Barak, premier van Israel skenking d E. Williams, Amerikaanse vlootbeampte en NASA -ruimtevaarder (STS 51D, STS 34), gebore in Lafayette, Indiana (d. 2016) Margaret Wright, hoofkommissaris (Guide Association) Michael Bloomberg, Amerikaanse filantroop, politikus en uitvoerende hoof van Bloomberg LP, gebore in Boston, Massachusetts

Kim Jong-il

16 Februarie Kim Jong-il, opperleier van Noord-Korea (1994-2011), gebore in Vyatskoye, Sowjetunie [betwiste geboorteplek en geboortedatum, 1941] (d. 2011)

    Huey P. Newton, Afro-Amerikaanse aktivis, revolusionêr en medestigter van die Black Panther Party, gebore in Monroe, Louisiana (1989) Ken Kramer [Kenneth Bentley Kramer], voormalige Amerikaanse Republikeinse lid van die Huis van Verteenwoordigers, gebore in Chicago, Illinois, Claude Miller, direkteur (Garde a Vue, Little Thief, Wild Child), († 2012) David O'Dowd, hoofkonstabel (Northamptonshire)

Mitch McConnell

20 Februarie Mitch McConnell, Amerikaanse politikus, (Senator-R-KY, 1985-, en Senaat Majority Leader 2015-), gebore in Sheffield, Alabama

    Peter Leonard, Australiese joernalis en nuusleser, gebore in Yass, Nieu-Suid-Wallis († 2008) Beau Boulter, (Rep-R-TX, 1985-) John Lewis, hoofmeester (Eton College) Joop van den Ende, Nederlandse teaterprodusent , gebore in Amsterdam, Nederland David K ​​Williamson, Australiese draaiboek/dramaturg (Removalists) Joe Lieberman, (Sen-D Connecticut) Stuart Henry, Britse platejoggie Adriaan van Dis, Nederlandse skrywer (Nathan Sid, In Africa), gebore in Bergen aan Zee, Nederland Charlayne Hunter-Gault, Amerikaanse joernalis en buitelandse korrespondent (McNeil-Lehrer), gebore in Due West, Suid-Carolina Robert H. Grubbs, Amerikaanse chemikus en Nobelpryswenner, gebore in Marshall County, Kentucky Richard Bowman Myers, voorsitter van die gesamentlike stafhoofde John Irving, Amerikaanse kortverhaalskrywer (The World According to Garp The Cider House Rules), gebore in Exeter, New Hampshire Kwang Jo Choi, die stigter van Choi Kwangdo en is een van die twaalf oorspronklike meesters van Taekwon-Do. Vladimir Vasilyevich Kovolyonok, USR, kosmonaut (Soyuz 25, 29/31, T-4) Charles C. Krulak, 31ste kommandant van die US Marine Corps Michael & quotMike & quot Resnick, Amerikaanse wetenskaplike skrywer (Sideshow Eros Ascending), gebore in Chicago, Illinois Felipe González, premier van Spanje, 1982-96, gebore in Sevilla Paul Preuss, Amerikaanse wetenskapfiksieskrywer (Medusa Encounter, Starfire) Tommy F. Robinson, Amerikaanse politikus (Rep-D-AR, 1985-91), gebore in Little Rock, Arkansas, Charles R. Boutin, Amerikaanse politikus (Maryland), gebore in Troy, New York

Ratko Mladić

12 Maart Ratko Mladić, Bosnisse Serwiese generaal tydens die Bosniese Oorlog (skuldig bevind aan oorlogsmisdade 2017), gebore in Božanovići, Kroasië

    Dave Cutler, Amerikaanse sagteware -ingenieur, gebore in Lansing, Michigan John Whittaker, Engelse eiendomsontwikkelaar (Peel Holdings) James Soong, Taiwanese politikus

John Wayne Gacy

17 Maart John Wayne Gacy, Amerikaanse reeksmoordenaar wat 33 jong mans doodgemaak het, gebore in Chicago, Illinois († 1994)

    Sidney K Barthelmy, Amerikaanse politikus (?) David Minge, (Rep-D-Minnesota) Ali Abdullah Saleh, Jemenitiese politikus en 1ste president van Jemen (1990-2012), gebore in Bait el-Ahmar, Koninkryk Jemen († 2017 ) Dick Pound, Kanadese voorsitter van die World Anti-Doping Agency Walter Rodney, Guyaanse historikus en politieke figuur († 1980) Erica Jong [Mann], Amerikaanse skrywer (Fear of Flying), gebore in NYC, New York Raymond J. McGrath , Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers uit New York, gebore in Valley Stream, New York Sir John E. Sulston, Britse molekulêre bioloog, mede-ontvanger van die 2002 Nobelprys vir Fisiologie of Geneeskunde (rondewurmgenoomvolgorde), gebore in Fulmer, Buckinghamshire (d . 2018) Michael Jackson, Britse skrywer en joernalis, gebore in Wetherby, Yorkshire († 2007) Neil Kinnock, leier van die Britse opposisie (Labour Party), gebore in Tredegar, Wallis Daniel Dennett, Amerikaanse filosoof, gebore in Boston, Massachusetts Conrad Schumann, Oos -Duitse grenswag, gebore in Zschochau, Sakse, Nazi -Duitsland (d. 1998) Larry Pressler, Amerikaanse politikus, Amerikaanse senator van Suid -Dakota, gebore in Humboldt, Suid -Dakota, George Esson, hoofkonstabel (Dumfries & Galloway) Michael Savage [Michael A Wiener], Amerikaanse gasheer en kommentator, gebore in The Bronx , New York Ulla Hoffmann, Sweedse politikus Samuel R. Delany Jr, Amerikaanse wetenskaplike skrywer (Torings van Toron Neveryona), gebore in Harlem, New York Graham Bright, Britse privaat sekretaris van die politikus van die Britse premier John Major, gebore in Horndon-on -the-Hill, Essex, Engeland Hiroyuki Sakai, Japannese sjef wat spesialiseer in die Franse kombuis (Iron Chef), gebore in Izumi, Kagoshima, Japan Kitty Kelley, Amerikaanse joernalis en skrywer (Ongemagtigde biografie van Frank Sinatra), gebore in Spokane, Washington Douglas Trumbull, Amerikaanse filmregisseur (Silent Running, Brainstorm), gebore in Los Angeles, Kalifornië Eduard Visser, Nederlandse skrywer (Fyffes word nou Chiquita genoem) Earl Hilliard, Amerikaanse politikus (Rep-D-Alabama), gebore in Birmingham, Alabama Ni ck Auf der Maur, Kanadese joernalis en politikus, gebore in Montreal, Quebec (d. 1998) Anatoly Nikolajevitsj Berezovoi, Sowjet-kosmonaut (Sojoez T-5), gebore in Enem, Rusland († 2014)

Jacob Zuma

12 April Jacob Zuma, Suid-Afrikaanse politikus, president van Suid-Afrika (2009-18), gebore in Nkandla, Suid-Afrika

    Ataol Behramoğlu, Turkse digter en skrywer, gebore in Çatalca, Istanboel, Turkye Valentin Vitaliyevich Lebedev, ruimtevaarder (Soyuz 13, 35, T-5)
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Die Japannese aanval op Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, op 7 Desember 1941, het feitlik almal in die Amerikaanse weermag verstom. Japanse bomwerpers wat deur Japan gelanseer is, het Pearl Harbor heeltemal onvoorbereid gevind. President Franklin Roosevelt het die kongres vinnig toegespreek om 'n oorlogsverklaring te vra, soos geïllustreer in hierdie klank -uittreksel. Alhoewel hy nooit Europa genoem het of die feit dat Duitsland nog nie oorlog teen die Verenigde State verklaar het nie, het die Pearl Harbor -aanval hom in staat gestel om die groter ingryping in die Europese oorlog wat hy lankal wou hê, te begin.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt: Gister, 7 Desember 1941 — 'n datum wat in berugte sal lewe, is die Verenigde State van Amerika skielik en doelbewus aangeval deur vloot- en lugmag van die Keiserryk van Japan.

Die Verenigde State was in vrede met die nasie, en op versoek van Japan was hulle nog in gesprek met sy regering en sy keiser op soek na die handhawing van vrede in die Stille Oseaan. 'N Uur nadat die Japannese lugskader op die Amerikaanse eiland Oahu begin bombardeer het, het die Japanse ambassadeur in die Verenigde State en sy kollega 'n formele antwoord aan 'n onlangse Amerikaanse boodskap aan ons minister van buitelandse sake gestuur. Hoewel hierdie antwoord verklaar dat dit nutteloos lyk om die bestaande diplomatieke onderhandelinge voort te sit, bevat dit geen bedreiging of sweempie van oorlog of gewapende aanval nie.

Daar sal aangeteken word dat die afstand van Hawaii tot Japan duidelik maak dat die aanval baie dae of selfs weke gelede doelbewus beplan is. Gedurende die tussentyd het die Japanse regering doelbewus probeer om die Verenigde State te mislei deur valse verklarings en uitdrukkings van hoop op voortgesette vrede.

Die aanval gister op die Hawaii -eilande het ernstige skade aan Amerikaanse vloot- en militêre magte aangerig. Ek is jammer om te vertel dat baie Amerikaanse lewens verlore gegaan het. Daar is ook berig dat Amerikaanse skepe op die oop see tussen San Francisco en Honolulu getorpedeer is.

Gister het die Japannese regering ook 'n aanval op Malaya geloods.

Gisteraand het Japanse magte Hong Kong aangeval.

Gisteraand het Japannese magte Guam aangeval.

Gisteraand het Japannese magte die Filippynse eilande aangeval.

Gisteraand het Japannese magte Wake Island aangeval.

En vanoggend val die Japannese Midway Island aan.

Japan het dus 'n verrassingsaanval onderneem wat oor die hele Stille Oseaan -gebied strek. Die feite van gister en vandag spreek vanself. Die mense van die Verenigde State het reeds hul opinies gevorm en verstaan ​​goed die implikasies vir die lewe en veiligheid van ons land.

As opperbevelhebber van die weermag en vloot het ek beveel dat alle maatreëls getref word om ons te verdedig. Maar ons hele nasie sal altyd die karakter van die aanslag teen ons onthou. . .

Bron: Met vergunning van die Franklin D. Roosevelt -biblioteek, Hyde Park, New York.


7 Desember 1942 - Geskiedenis

'Nadat sy in 1986 met haar soektog na Reed begin het, het Nadelson en 'n medewerker
uiteindelik 'n dokumentêr oor hom vir die BBC vervaardig. In die natuur
kronkelende "Comrade Rockstar", wat 15 jaar gelede die eerste keer in Engeland gepubliseer is, het sy
sukkel soms om te onthou wat sy op 'n bladsy of selfs 'n bladsy geskryf het
paragraaf gelede, en die boek is vol asemrowende foute: senator Joseph
McCarthy het nie in die huiskomitee oor on-Amerikaanse aktiwiteite gedien nie
"Generaal Jimmy Walker" het nie die John Birch Society en *Pearl gevind nie
Harbor is nie op 7 Desember 1942 gebombardeer nie.*"[Nadruk bygevoeg-DT]
http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/09/books/review/09mall.html

Miskien was die laaste een, anders as die ander foute, net 'n tikfout. Maar dit het my gelei
om na te dink: Kan u u 'n scenario voorstel-verkieslik een waarin die Europese
oorlog begin volgens skedule in September 1939-waarin die Stille Oseaan-oorlog plaasvind
begin u inderdaad met die bombardering van Pearl Harbor op 7 Desember 1942? Ek het 'n
een keer 'n plasing oor Hull wat sy drie maande lange modus vivendi aanbied
http://groups.google.com/group/soc.history.what-if/msg/cf6bd16671c8adc1 en
soos Rich Rostrum uitgewys het, sou die krisis met drie maande vertraag word
betekenisvolle effekte
http://groups.google.com/group/soc.history.what-if/msg/eb1423ba4e59d8d6 maar
kan iemand 'n aanneemlike scenario sien waar die krisis eintlik vertraag word
presies een jaar.

Dit sal waarskynlik moet staatmaak op 'n verandering in die Amerikaanse beleid en besluit
maak - vertraag of wysig die embargo wat die Japannese veroorsaak het
aanval met ongeveer 'n jaar.

Maar ek weet eenvoudig nie genoeg oor die ins en outs van die Amerikaanse beleid nie,
politiek en besluitnemingsprosesse om presies 'n idee te hê.

Ek sou egter nie dink dat dit buite die moontlikhede is nie. maar
staan ​​gereed om gekorrigeer en gestort te word (en hoop om te leer
iets in elk geval!)


Baas Stooges Attack Oortydbetaling!

Van Arbeidsaksie, Vol. 6 nr. 49, 7 Desember 1942, pp. ف   & amp ق.
Getranskribeer en amp gemerk deur Einde O ’ Callaghan vir die Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism Online (ETOL).

Sonder camouflage is die aanval na die verkiesing teen die week van veertig uur werklik 'n moorddadige aanslag op lone.

Werkers werk eintlik meer ure as veertig in. Trouens, hulle werk te lank en word te moeg, soos die 11 000 industriële ongevalle ELKE DAG getuig.

Wat die base en die politieke versterkers van die baaswins pla, is dat die werkers anderhalf uur betaal word vir werk na die veertig uur.

Alle praatjies oor 'n week van agt-en-veertig uur is soveel stof in die oë en#8211 gegooi deur die ergste vyande van arbeid. Waarna hulle mik, is om weg te neem van werkers wat daagliks hul lewens in gevaar stel en 'n paar dollar te belê – die paar dollar wat die werkers nou betyds verdien.

Hoeveel verdien werkers in elk geval? Met hierdie oorvloedige oortydbetaling, loop hulle welvaart in? 'N Goeie vraag waarop daar 'n baie feitelike antwoord is!

Ja, daar is 'n oorlogsopbloei. Ja, werkers kry tyd en 'n bal meer as veertig uur betaal. MAAR MET AL DIT “ PROSPERITY, ” 16,000,000 WERKERS IN DIE VERENIGDE STATE VERDIEN MINDER AS $ 16 'N WEEK!

Hierdie syfers is vir Julie 1942, uitgereik deur die minister van arbeid Perkins. En hierdie syfers beteken dat op die hoogtepunt van die oorlogsopbloei 'n derde van die werkende mag in die land 'n ou salaris kry. Dit is kapitalisme vir u!

Goed. Laat ons op die skaal kom. Laat ons kyk hoe die beter-afgevaardigdes werk

Die gemiddelde lone in alle vervaardigingsbedrywe het in September $ 37,88 per week bereik. Uit hierdie klein bedrag moet die volgende lang lys items betaal word: kos, klere, huur, vermaak, opvoeding huishoudelike meubels en meubeldokters, tandartse, hospitaalskuld en inkomstebelasting op versekering, oorwinningsbelasting, stygings in oorlogsobligasies en verbruikersbelasting. Is iets dalk weggelaat? Wel, hou net die verandering aan.

Sekretaris van Arbeid, Perkins, breek hierdie syfer effens af en onthul dat die gemiddelde lone vir die vervaardiging van nie-duursame goedere slegs $ 29,71 beloop en nie $ 37,88 nie. Met 'n vrou en kinders en die lys van benodigdhede hierbo, kan hierdie werkers nie juis rykdom inhou nie.

Deesdae beteken nie-duursame goedere meestal burgerlike produksie. Laat ons dus sien hoe die ander werkers, die bevoorregte oorlogswerkers, in die skoot van luukse woel.

Elsa Maxwell & die dame rubriekskrywer wat uit niks weet nie, behalwe hoe om te storm, het onlangs in die sogenaamde pro-labor geskryf New York Post die volgende wonderlike leuen oor lone: Ervare werkers gemiddeld van $ 100 tot $ 200 per week. ” So Elsa Maxwell, die partytjie-kenner van die hoë samelewing.

Sekretaris Perkins het egter statistiese verantwoordelikhede wat 'n mate van agting vir die waarheid vereis. Sy verseker ons dat die gemiddelde weeklikse loon in September $ 44,47 was in die produksie van duursame goedere, wat deesdae meestal oorlogsproduksie is.

Gaan terug en kyk na die lys van benodigdhede wat $ 44,47 moet dek! Met $ 44,47 kan 'n werker natuurlik 'n bietjie beter vaar as met $ 29,71. Hy kan baie beter doen as met $ 16 –, wat amper niks is nie. Maar hy sal nie veel geld hê om onder die matras weg te steek nie. As hy kan klaarkom sonder om die leningshaaie te gebruik, sal hy 'n baie goeie finansiële bestuurder wees.

Die arbeidshaat in die kongres word $ 200 per week uit openbare fondse betaal. Byna almal het 'n paar ander inkomstebronne en eerlik en andersins. Hulle kry een en ander fooie. Hulle kry opbrengs op beleggings. Waar kom hulle aan die beurt om arbeidskwessies oor te betaal? En wat van die groot industriële seuns wat die magte agter die troon van die kongres is? Daar is Tom Girdler van Republic Steel slegs in salaris $ 275,000 in 1941, en Ferguson van Newport News Shipbuilding word $ 127,000 betaal en Love of Burlington Mills beloon met 'n salaris van $ 179,652 – en Grace of Bethlehem “earning & #8221 'n salaris van $ 537,734 en#8211 om 'n paar lukraak te neem.

Waar kom hierdie vetgemaakte bloedsuiers, wat hul winste uit arbeid en arbeid kry, en val die werkers 'n bietjie oortyd aan!

Die base en hul politici glo duidelik dat die werker en sy gesin wesens van minderwaardige vlees is. Hulle beskou hulself as die “Aryan ” klas in die Amerikaanse samelewing – met die werkers wat as hul ewige slawe geskep is!

Die afgelope week was daar 'n onheilspellende stilte in die oorlog wat hierdie vyande van arbeid teen die week van veertig uur en teen die werknemers se oortydbetaling voer. Ongetwyfeld word voorbereidings getref vir die volgende ontmoeting.

Berei georganiseerde arbeid ook voor op 'n teenoffensief? Dit is wat dit moet doen!


Resolusie oor Jim Crow Good, maar kort tande

Van Arbeidsaksie, Vol. 6 nr. 49, 7 Desember 1942, p. ك.
Getranskribeer en amp gemerk deur Einde O ’ Callaghan vir die Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism Online (ETOL).

Naas Roosevelt en die verskillende sprekers van die regering was dit eintlik die Staliniste wat die middel van die verhoog beset het tydens die onlangse CIO -byeenkoms in Boston. Dit was nie te danke aan 'n definitiewe plan van die Staliniste self nie, maar aan die lotgevalle van oorlog en die prokureur -generaal Biddle. Die kollig was op Curran en Bridges, en in mindere mate op die Staliniste van vakbonde.

Curran het in die kollig gekom omdat hy die hoof van die National Maritime Union is. Tweeduisend lede van hierdie vakbond het op see verlore gegaan sedert die Verenigde State die oorlog betree het. Driehonderd van hulle was negerseemanne. Dit was natuurlik heeltemal gepas en gepas dat die CIO, en die hele arbeidersbeweging, die opoffering wat hierdie werkers gemaak het, herdenk. Nie een van die dinge wat ons oor Stalinisme te sê het, is gerig op hierdie manne of op hul kamerade onder die lewendes op land en see wat vasgevang is in die net van die Tweede Imperialistiese Wêreldoorlog nie.
 

NMU kry gedenkplaat

Murray van die CIO het 'n gedenkplaat aan die NMU oorhandig. Daar was ook 'n “ -gedenkteken vir die CIO -lede in die koopvaardier wat in diens van ons volk gesterf het. ” By die aanbieding van die gedenkplaat aan Curran het Murray die voorleggingstoespraak gelewer waarin hy die heldhaftigheid van die manne prys. wat die skepe beman wat oorlogsvoorrade oor die hele aarde vervoer. Hulle is die seuns, ”, sê Murray, wat van hul lewens, van hul bloed en van hul ledemate gee om Amerika en sy bondgenote te help om hierdie oorlog te wen. ”

Alhoewel dit waar is dat hierdie seuns hul lewe gegee het, is daar niks in die resolusie of in die toespraak van Murray gesê dat daar twyfel by enigiemand bestaan ​​dat hierdie oorlog nie presies die soort is nie oorlog word beweer. Alhoewel daar baie gesê is oor die byeenkoms, selfs deur so 'n oorlogsondersteuner as senator Pepper, om twyfel te skep, selfs in die gedagtes van die mees stomp of entoesiasties, was die resolusie en Murray se toespraak heeltemal stil oor die vraag of of nie, dit is regtig 'n oorlog vir demokrasie.

Dit lyk asof peper effens versteur is. In 'n opmerking oor die verklaring van Churchill dat hy nie premier geword het om by die begrafnis van die Britse Ryk in te sit nie, het hy gesê: “. As ons nie opreg is as ons sê dat ons veg vir demokrasie nie, berei ons ons voor om nog 'n generasie te verraai. ” Is die generasie wat in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog geveg en gesterf het, verraai? Indien wel, watter waarborg het die manne wat in hierdie een veg dat hul geslag nie verraai word nie? Die werkers van die wêreld moet hierdie vraag vir hulleself beantwoord.

Gedurende die aanbiedingstoespraak van Murray, terwyl hy die gedenkplaat aan Curran gee, het hy die verklaring afgelê “ Dit is wat ek persoonlik van u dink, dit is wat die CIO van u en u vakbond dink. ” Dit was soortgelyk van vreemde opmerking en dit beteken natuurlik nie dat Murray van mening verander het oor die kommunisme nie. Dit is eerder dat die Staliniste op hul reis om die sirkel Murray ontmoet het ter ondersteuning van die imperialistiese oorlog en bevind hulle in sy omhelsing. Miskien was dit egter nie toevallig dat bogenoemde verklaring deur Murray aan Curran nie sy weg gevind het in die gedrukte verrigtinge van die konvensie nie.
 

Bridges kry kollig

Harry Bridges bevind hom ook in die kollig tydens die byeenkoms. Hy was lof vir lof en heilige goedkeuring deur Murray en die ander groot skote, waaronder David MacDonald. Is hierdie lof aan Bridges verleen omdat hy EEN keer 'n militante arbeidsleier was wat 'n paar militante massastakings gelei het? Niks van die aard nie. Die leiding van die CIO het geëis dat die deportasiebevel teen Bridges opgehef word, en dat hy 'n burger word, want en SLEGS OMDAT hy die oorlog ondersteun. Sy arbeidsrekord is nie genoem nie, en daar is nie eens gesinspeel dat sy deportasie moontlik bepaal is as gevolg van sy VERLEDE militante aktiwiteite nie.

Dit is nie bewys tot bevrediging van arbeid en baie burgers waarmee Harry Bridges ooit verbonde was nie, of lid is van enige ondermynende organisasie of groepe wat vir die doel die regering van die Verenigde State omverwerp. Harry Bridges het die regering van die Verenigde State lojaal ondersteun ter ondersteuning van hierdie oorlog. Australië sal Harry Bridges terug verwelkom. Hulle glo dat hy 'n hulp sou wees om die oorlog te wen. ”

Wat het Murray twee jaar gelede van Bridges gedink? Wat sou sy houding oor Bridges wees as hy 'n resolusie in sy internasionale wedstryd ondersteun het teen die Roosevelt-Murray “no-strike ” ooreenkoms wat die CIO afgedwing het? Wat dink Murray sou die houding van Australië teenoor Bridges wees as hy weer 'n militante arbeidsleier sou word tydens of na die oorlog?

MacDonald het gesê dat die manier waarop hy daarna kyk, is dat “Mnr. Bridges is selfs nou 'n goeie, ordentlike Amerikaanse burger. ” Bittner was van mening dat die saak van Bridges 'n beskuldiging teen die regering van die Verenigde State is. Dit was waar van hulle almal. Hulle is nou vir Bridges omdat EN SLEGS OMDAT hy 'n voorstander is van die imperialistiese oorlog.

Hulle het natuurlik 'n idee dat alles nie heeltemal reg is met die deportasieprosedures van Bridges nie. Hulle weet dat die saak ontstaan ​​het in die dae toe die Staliniste die Verenigde Nasies nie in die oorlog ondersteun het nie. Hulle weet ook dat die base gevrees het dat Bridges nog 'n staking sou belê en wou hom daarom uit die land haal. Maar hulle noem dit nie. Dit kan die inspanning van die oorlog inmeng. ” Hulle is nou nie bekommerd oor of Bridges 'n Stalinis is of nie. Hulle sal dit in reserwe hou totdat die oorlog verby is.
 

Bespreking oor rassediskriminasie

Een van die interessantste besprekings in die byeenkoms was oor die kwessie van die neger en die CIO. Daar was 'n resolusie oor “diskriminasie ” wat gedeeltelik gesê het dat ons van die demokrasieë die fascisme in die binneland en in die buiteland beveg deur alle rasse, alle godsdienste en alle mense in 'n verenigde liggaam van stryders vir demokrasie te versmelt. Enige diskriminerende praktyke in ons geledere, teen die negers of ander groepe, help die vyand direk deur verdeeldheid, onenigheid en verwarring te skep. hernu sy belofte om voort te gaan met die stryd om beskerming in die wet en in werklikheid oor die regte van elke rasse- en godsdienstige groep om ten volle deel te neem aan ons sosiale, politieke en industriële lewe. ”

Daar was beswaar teen hierdie besluit. Die bewering is gemaak, veral deur sommige van die neger -afgevaardigdes, dat dit nie sterk genoeg was nie. Yancy, van die werknemers van die vervoerdiens, het dit gesê

Ons is dit eens dat herhaling noodsaaklik is, maar ons dink terselfdertyd dat ons van pligte moet wegkom en hierdie herhaling van ons beleid uit die raamwerk moet verwyder en dit in werklike en praktiese aksie moet implementeer. Ons is van mening dat hierdie resolusie hernu moet word en dat dit versterk moet word deur bykomende feite, soos uiteengesit in die resolusie van die uitvoerende raad soos voorgelê en aanvaar. ”

Die resolusie is bespreek deur Murray, Brophy, Bittner en baie afgevaardigdes van die vloer. Townsend, president van die werknemers van die vervoerdiens en lid van die uitvoerende raad van die CIO, het dit aan die byeenkoms gesê

Dit is 'n taak van elkeen om te besef hoe ernstig hierdie probleem is. Ons gaan die gebruik van hierdie mannekrag (neger) verwaarloos en as u self meer van u vooroordele dink as u van u vryheid, verloor u die vryheid. Ek waarsku u dat as daar nie meer mense is wat die kongres van nywerheidsorganisasies uitmaak as om hierdie brandende vraag lippe te gee nie, dan iets sal gebeur wat ons almal spyt sal maak. ”

Walter Reuther het oor die resolusie gepraat dat die resolusie en die feite in die opmerkings van Murray by die mense in die fabrieke moet kom, want

“ tensy hulle die dinge verstaan ​​waaroor ons in hierdie resolusie praat, sal hulle hoogs klinkende, vrome resolusies bly. Ek dink dat dit vandag elke afgevaardigde se plig is om terug te gaan na hul onderskeie organisasies en te sien dat hulle die stryd teen rassediskriminasie aanpak, nie as 'n sekondêre oorweging nie. maar hierdie stryd teen rassediskriminasie moet bo -aan die lys wees met vakbondveiligheid en ander vakbondseise. ”

Dit was duidelik dat hierdie probleem van diskriminasie teen die negers in die vakbonde en in die fabrieke die leierskap begin bekommer het, tesame met hul kommer oor die kongres, die WLB en ander regeringsinstansies. Diskriminasie teen die neger het die vervolging van die oorlog begin inmeng. Hulle gesindheid is dat diskriminasie uit die weg geruim of ten minste verminder moet word as neger -steun vir die oorlog gewen moet word.

Dit is vandag die belangrikste motivering agter hul kommer oor rassediskriminasie: die solidariteit van arbeid, swart en wit, is nodig om die oorlog te wen. Oor die meer belangrike saak van die noodsaaklikheid vir die solidariteit van arbeid om groter veiligheid te verkry, toegewings van die base en 'n beter lewe vir die Amerikaanse werkers as geheel, was hierdie leiers vreemd stil.


Europese teater (7 Desember 1942)

Nadat Japan terugval van sy aanval op Amerika, gee dit Duitsland tyd om voor te berei op die uiteindelike ingryping van Amerika. In Januarie/Februarie maak die Duitsers groot planne vir toekomstige militêre operasies in Europa, aangesien die gevegte tot stilstand gekom het weens die harde Russiese winter. Hulle maak eers hul planne vir hul nuwe someroffensief in die Sowjetunie, Case Blue.

Hierna word 'n besluit geneem oor die Joodse bevolking en ander ongewenste: uitroeiing op groot skaal.

Met die lente begin die Sowjets 'n offensief in die stadium vir die 6de leër, maar dit misluk uiteindelik en die Duitsers begin hul someroffensief, met die hoofdoel om die olievelde van die Kaukasus -gebied in te neem. Terwyl die Duitsers aanhou om na Stalingrad te vorder, het die Russe gereed gemaak vir 'n moeilike stryd. Teen die middel van November was die Sowjette in Stalingrad omring en 'n wrede veldslag tussen straat en straat begin. Die Sowjette het twee offensiewe begin, die omsingeling van Duitse troepe by Stalingrad in Operasie Uranus en een naby Moskou, Operasie Mars. Die aanvallers was nutteloos en toe die Sowjets te lank wag, kom daar Duitse versterkings uit Moskou en 'n verligtingpoging, operasie Winter Storm breek suksesvol in die sak van Stalingrad in, en die stad val teen einde Desember. In die Verenigde Koninkryk word Amerikaanse hulp baie verskaf terwyl die Amerikaners weinig by die Sowjetunie kan kom weens die Duitse skepe en vliegtuie in Noorweë. In Washington moet FDR nou 'n manier vind om in die oorlog te kom, en dit kom op 7 Desember met die Japannese aanval, maar FDR weet dat dit maande sal neem om die weermag, vloot en lugmag volledig te mobiliseer.

After Stalingrad falls, Allied morale is bad and within a few weeks into the new year, Leningrad falls to German forces with Operation Northern Lights and the Soviets begin to evacuate the Caucasus region and prepare for a massive counter-offensive to save Moscow and the whole of Russia. After winter ends the Soviets begin a massive offensive in early Spring but with much of the German army at the front-line the offensive fails and the Germans begin their summer offensive, Operation Light Blue.The offensive does little and a stalemate ensues from Leningrad to the Caspian Sea. Meanwhile in the west, after a quiet 1942, 1943 becomes a living hell. A second Battle of Britain ensues and much of the same tactics are used except there are far more Luftwaffe planes, withdrawn from the Eastern Front and including several Heinkel HE 280 Jet Fighters and much of the UK is surrounded by U-boats and battleships, cruisers and destroyers. The Royal Family is evacuated to Canada and some of the British Parliament consider making peace, most notably Halifax and his supporters. Churchill convinces them to keep fighting but resentment to the war rises. By September, the British have only a few airfields left as the Germans have so many planes attacking the small RAF (Royal Air Force) cannot bear the burden of the attack. On October 10, Britain's last airfield is destroyed and the Germans do not find out for three days. After an air reconnaissance flight air superiority is claimed and Hitler gives the go-head for "Operation Sealion" the invasion of Britain. The Germans begin preparation for the invasion and expect it to be able to take place by March 17 of next year. One problem arises though the Americans are supposedly finally mobilized and will try to send more aid and actual troops and planes to fight off the expected invasion.

As a new year comes by the Germans now have a two-front war now the Americans are mobilised and ready to fight. On February 10, the Nazis begin deporting Jews and the "Final Solution" but the Allies still don't really no what will happen to the Jews as their spies haven't been able to get close enough to the documents concerning the Jewish deportation. The Allies though have other things to worry about the expected invasion is not far off and final preparations must be made before it is to late. All the British know is that it is around spring and they suspect most likely in March but they don't know specifics. On March 12 the Germans test a new form of Fuel Air Explosive Bomb to see if it works. The test is on Moscow, carried by a prototype ME 264 Amerika Bomber and it works as the Kremlin burns. They now plan to use it on London and British troops/equipment. Meanwhile in Russia, the bomb kills many and Stalin decides to hold a meeting about what kind of course of action should be taken from this point on and he supplies a few choices: Keep fighting to the last man, surrender now, or try a massive counter-offensive and if it fails surrender. Five days after the FAE attack on Moscow, Germany invades the British Isles. The force consists of many elements: about 10,000 Waffen-SS troops from the Leibstandarte and Das Reich Divisions along with the 17th Infantry division and 6th Mountain division, about 7,000 paratroops from the first and second Fallschirmjager Divisions, and the navy shelling all the beaches being invaded, Luftwaffe planes dropping bombs and FAEs on London and British defenses, back-up fighter planes that will fight what is left of the Royal Air Force and they will also bomb random parts of southern-England, and tanks that will be carried behind British lines by ME 321 Gigant Gliders along with about 3,500 specialist Waffen-SS paratroops that will attack the British lines. At around 7:30am the British are defeated in their counterattacks at the first beachhead around Folkstone & Dover and what's left retreats to London. By noon on the same day, half of the beachheads have been secured as much of the British army retreats to London and other towns and cities. Attacks by FAEs damage much of London and the city is lit-a-blaze. By night time, the British are in full retreat as the first stage of the invasion is clearly a success for Germany. By late March, London is like Stalingrad and much of southwestern-England has been conquered and the Americans decide to begin talks with Eire to allow them to be a base for American troops and if Britain loses a base for refugees, citizens and soldiers alike, and a base for British resistance and airfields for the Royal Air Force. After two weeks get a response from Erie, a yes.

This a big political victory as now a decision must be made about what to do about the situation in London and the rest of Great Britain as the Germans are advancing rapidly. By the first week of April the government has fled to Canada. Churchill holds a meeting with the American and British commanders. Churchill says that since the Americans will have planes and troops fighting by the last week of April, he promises to keep fighting until then when if the tide doesn't change fast it may lead to a repeat of WW1 and gas may even be used for defensive purposes.

On the Eastern Front the Soviets begin their offensive and see improvements as more troops have been devoted by the Soviets to this attack, along with new Tanks like the T34-85, the Stalin II and the ISU 152, and the Germans are heavily occupied with the west. progress is made as Leningrad is Besieged, this time by the Soviets, and Moscow is freed from long Range Artillery Fire Germans are pushed back. When the Germans realize what is happening they decide to use FAE bombs tactically on Russian forces and an influx of troops come from occupied areas like Poland and Denmark to hold down the Russians. On April 25, the Russians are pushed back to almost pre-offensive lines and heavy bombing attacks begin to fall all across the front-line. By May 2, the Soviets have reportedly lost nearly one million soldiers/civilians since the bombing runs have been in effect. Stalin decides that at this rate he will never stop the Nazis and on May 7, the Soviets surrender to the Nazis and the war in the east is officially over.

By this time in England, the Germans have surrounded London and the Germans are beginning to invade Wales and Scotland. As for the American troops, they have arrived and are slowly filing into London but are used as replacements for British Troops. The American air force is quickly blooded, but suffers heavily at the hands of new German ME 262 Jets but it has slowed the invasion force. The news of Soviet surrender shocks the Allies as now the whole of Germany's Might will be set upon America and Britain. For the rest of the month, both sides hold inside meetings about what their next moves will be and the Germans will also work out the peace treaty with the Soviets. The new border between the two nations will be at the Ural Mountains to the Ural River to the Caspian Sea. The Soviets are angered but must accept or face even worse consequences. The Soviet Army will also be restricted to just 150,000 men and will be inspected every five years for the amount of soldiers so that they are not breaking the treaty. The Treaty of Smolensk is signed on May 25 and by this time, Churchill has decided to hold an emergency meeting concerning the war. They meet on June 1 and discuss the options they currently have. Since London is surrounded and troops on both sides are being slaughtered, they decide to evacuate the populace underground and have them put on their gas masks as the Army will release Mustard and Chlorine gas on the city, troops will also hide in buildings with full clothing and gas masks and while the Germans suffer in pain they will flee the city. As for the rest of the island, it has been decided to stand and fight until the last man. On June 12, the British release the gas and the soldiers and civilians flee the city as the Germans are slowly killed. The Germans are unable to stop the evacuation as they must flee to survive. After the gas clears, the Germans have nearly 5,000 dead from the gas while the British only have the unlucky few dead, which there were not many. For the rest of the month the land and sea are quiet but the skies are filled with blood as there are dogfights every night.

The battles in the skies are just a decoy as Hitler has planned retaliation for the attack. The plan is to release massive amounts of Sarin and Tabun gas on Glasgow and Cardiff and some on Allied troops near the cities. On July 4 the attack takes place and the Germans also begin to march into Wales and the areas near Glasgow. As the month goes by, thousands die of the gas on both sides as it spreads throughout the island nation except in the southern and northeastern parts of the country. In August the Germans secure the area around Glasgow and Cardiff. By September 11, the Germans have secured the city of Cardiff and the local government in Wales surrenders the territory of Wales. On September 28 the United States and Britain release more gases on German forces and they build massive trenches around the city of Glasgow as they prepare for a massive battle that will decide the fate of the island nation and the rest of the world. In October the Germans launch a massive campaign and also drop some gas and firebombs on the city of Glasgow and decide to have some forces take the rest of Scotland while the city is under siege. The Germans are able to take up all of western Scotland and begin to take the rest of the north but are met with fierce resistance at Edinburgh which is in north-central Scotland as much of what is left of the British force not in Glasgow is there ready to fight. As a battle ensues the British government begs America and Canada to supply more troops to help the war effort. They both immediately send both nearly 10,000 troops to liberate the island. They arrive by November 12 but by then the situation is critical. In Glasgow, if they don't find a way to beat the Germans soon then surrender will be inevitable and in Edinburgh it is expected that the Nazis will conquer the city in a day or two. On November 16 Einstein tells American officials that he may be able to build an atom bomb by spring 1945 but it won't be operational until late summer of 1945. The Americans can't make time go faster so they work with what they have. As for the Germans they are far from building a nuke but they are fibbing that they will have one soon. On Thanksgiving Day the city of Glasgow falls as the Germans are able to surround British, American, and Canadian forces. The Allies will have to surrender Britain if Edinburgh falls and hopefully though will be able to get Erie into the war. A few days after Glasgow falls, the city of Edinburgh falls and the Allies flee the island at the city of Wick in an area where no Germans are near by but they leave behind a select few to try to stop the Germans and give the Allies some time to prepare for the oncoming defeat. On December 11 the Allies gain a new ally, Eire. The nation becomes a base and the European Theater is no more and it becomes the Atlantic Theater.


Atlantic Theater (December 7, 1942)

Let op: This is a continuation of the European Theater. The main reason of the continuation is because of the fact that Europe is now no longer a battlefield.

After the British, American, and Canadian forces leave Britain for Germany to take they then flee to Erie where airfield are filled with planes, docks filled with warships, and towns filled with Allied soldiers and surprisingly the Irish are happy that they are in the war, now that they have some protection and have some Allies close to home. The Germans immediately annihilate the force that was left behind as the Germans conquer the island and prepare for the expected invasion of Erie. On February 13 the Nazis begin bombing Ireland everywhere as the precursor to the invasion. Ireland is burned to bits and they feel that they have been betrayed by the Allies as their country is being destroyed and when the ambassador talks to Churchill at a meeting between the two he says,"Why have you let us suffer?". Churchill simply replied, "It is not our fault. It is the war that has done this to you." After the meeting it becomes clear that Erie is not a good ally but it will not be abandoned. By St. Patrick's Day, the anniversary of the invasion of Britain, the Allies are in a grave situation as the Nazis are clearly preparing to invade the last Allied stronghold near Britain but the Allies make a grave mistake as they have forgotten about Iceland and Greenland. The Germans decide to invade Iceland and then attack Erie from all sides. On April 1 the Nazis launch a massive invasion of Iceland and within a few days of the attack the Allies flee the island as now the Nazis have supply lines cut off. The Allies now decide to lighten the force in Erie and begin evacuating the populace as an invasion is clearly on its way. After weeks of little combat, on May 2 the Axis invade Erie and quickly take the cities of Belfast and Dublin within hours of the first landings. By May 10, the Germans have taken all of the northern part of the island and have begun landings along the western and southern parts of the island. On May 25, the Germans capture the last of the "Emerald Isle" and the Germans immediately send troops to Iceland to prepare for their next targets,Amerika. As the months go by, the Allies and Axis on both sides are preparing for the big fight and meanwhile Churchill, though in America, is supplying a resistance in Britain and by December a terrorist attack on the Nazis will happen in London. On September 10, the American, British, and Canadian naval fleets engage German U-boats near Newfoundland and this leads to increased fear in Allied nations as the war is getting closer to home. On December 31, when German troops are celebrating the new year in London, a terrorist attack occurs that obliterates much of the army's headquarters and after this, the Brits will never be treated the same again. Meanwhile FDR dies of a brain hemorrhage and Truman is immediately sworn in as President of the United States.

When the year comes along the world prepares for another year of terrible combat. In Britain, the people are treated like trash even worse than people in other occupied nations but still not worse than the Jews(Since they are being killed in the Holocaust). In the United States, President Roosevelt is becoming more wary of fighting the war and holds a meeting with all of his cabinet members and Winston Churchill. A vote is made and narrowly the men in the room decide to keep fighting but it is ultimately under FDR's control. He decides to stay and fight and prepare for the worst. As for the nuclear program in America it has been stalled because of the attacks in Ireland and Britain and has now been resumed and should be complete by July. On May 5, the United States and Germany have their navies engage in a fierce that goes undecided when both sides have massive losses. The battle takes place near the island of Bermuda. In Germany, Hitler receives news that his nuclear program will be complete in August 1946. He decides he must begin an invasion of America so that he can end the war with a massive victory. His first decision is to invade Bermuda and make it a massive air, sea, and land base so the invasion of America can take place. Truman though notices that there is increased movement near Bermuda and he has troops, planes, and battleships to defend the island at all costs because he knows what will happen if Germany takes the island. Over the next five months the Germans prepare for a massive attack on Bermuda which will be a prelude to the invasion of America. On October 11 the Germans launch their invasion of Bermuda and are met with fierce resistance. The battle lasts for almost thirteen-weeks and both sides have casualties near the fifty-thousand mark. In the end the Germans are able to capture the island and the Allies prepare for their bloodiest battle yet. Again because of an invasion, the atom-bomb was held back on both sides but America completes in November and tests it in the Nevada desert as the Germans fall behind but Germany has had secret weapons hidden V-1 and V-2 rockets along with jet fighters that were ahead of their time. The Americans don't know about this but they are just about prepared for anything. As the last weeks of the year wind down, both sides prepare for another long battle but this one will truly decide the fate of the world.

In the United States the public are scared and many flee to the heart of the country to prepare for the oncoming invasion. As for the government, it flees to St. Louis and sets up temporary headquarters there as they also are planning ahead. In Germany the army, navy, and air force are finishing preparations for the invasion of America also known as "Operation: Black Cross". Aircraft carriers come into the German navy for the first time and planes are quickly loaded as the Germans want the attack to start as soon as possible and get it over with quickly. In America, anti-aircraft guns are placed everywhere from Key West, Florida to Portland, Maine. The navy has ships all along the coast and planes at the ready no matter what our. The National Guard in each state is at the ready and the National Army, Air Force, and Navy are constantly ready for the invasion. America may be ready but can it withstand the might of the fist of Nazi Germany. As for America's A-Bomb it is finally complete and they are ready to use it at any moment. Then the invasion begins: At 6:00am on March 30, German bombers and planes begin bombarding American defenses and attacking American airfields and bombing American cities such as Washington, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Charlotte, Charleston, Atlanta, and Miami. Fifteen-minutes later German ships engage with American ships. Five minutes later the Americans are able to respond and dogfights irrupt in the skies. At 6:45am, German paratroopers land in Washington, Richmond, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Miami, Atlanta, Savannah, Charlotte, Charleston, Jacksonville, and Hartford. All paradrops are a success and as now the set-up for the actual invasion is ready. At around 7:39am the Germans have their transports offload nearly three million troops across the East Coast as the Americans are caught off guard fighting the already attacking Germans. About six hours later at 1:45pm much of the invaded areas of America have seen American troops retreating with high casualties that only grow by the minute. The day goes by exactly as the Americans retreat from a horrible defeat as the Nazi forces overrun much of the East Coast. Within the next three weeks everything east of the Appalachian Mountains are overrun. The Americans decide the A-Bomb must be used now. A group of volunteers who are willing to die will distract German troops in Atlanta where the heart of the southern part of the invasion is based. On April 29 the attack commences and a few hours after the attack an American Bomber carrying the A-Bomb drops it in the heart of Atlanta but the Germans were tipped by a saboteur and the attack only kills civilians that were left for dead. Five weeks after the A-Bomb failure the Germans are at the Mississippi River in Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Illinois which causes the American government to flee to Denver, Colorado. The Americans give up at this point but the will of the soldiers don't want to surrender so more bloodshed occurs until on June 22 when America finally surrenders and the war comes to an end. A peace deal is made and signed by July 4 and the terms are as follows:

  • The American government along with the Canadian government will pay massive reparations to the German regime until all damages are paid for which at the rate the Germans want, it will still take until 2115 until all payments will be made.
  • Germany will keep all conquered lands (except in the United States) and America will remain out of European affairs unless asked to be involved by Germany.
  • America's army, navy, and air force will be limited to a certain amount.
  • And lastly Churchill must be handed over.

The Allies find these harsh terms and instead secretly help Churchill flee to Mexico where he will be semi-safe. They report that he has fled to Japan. The Germans are not trustworthy of the report and give up on the search for Winston Churchill within two weeks. Over the next few months the Americans try to rebuild and the Germans kill off their "enemies" as the world moves on to a three-way Cold War.


Defense Continues to the End on Corregidor


Staff of Finance Office and Signal Corps, U.S. Army, Manila, shared Lateral Number 12 of Melinta Tunnel during the siege of Corregidor, Phillipine Islands, March/April 1942.

With Bataan completely in their hands, the Japanese turned their attention to Corregidor. The Corregidor Island defenders were in relatively better shape than the Bataan units, but by April were also showing the effects of prolonged siege. Continuous bombardment by artillery from Bataan as well as naval and air bombing went on through April. Although fortifications, underground tunnel facilities, and some gun emplacements withstood the bombardments, all installations in the open were destroyed. Ultimately, what Japanese shells didn't do was done by deliberate destruction to prevent the facilities from falling into Japanese hands. As the end clearly approached, code books and records were burned and small arms smashed.

The Japanese began their final assault on Corregidor with a heavy artillery barrage on 1 May. On the night of 5-6 May, two battalions of infantry landed on the northeast end of the island. Despite strong resistance, they established a beachhead that was soon reinforced by tanks and artillery. Army and Navy support personnel fighting as infantry joined a Marine regiment to meet the invasion, but the defenders were quickly pushed back to the Malinta Hill stronghold where their position became untenable.

President Roosevelt had personally authorized General Wainwright to decide on the circumstances of surrender. The last message from Wainwright on Corregidor was received late on 6 May:

". with broken heart and with head bowed in sadness, but not in shame, I report. that today I must arrange terms for the surrender of the fortified islands of Manila Bay, Corregidor, Fort Hughes, Fort Drum, and. " (end of message)

Although it ended in defeat, the successful execution of MacArthur's Bataan plan saved the 75,000 troops on Luzon from immediate defeat, delayed the Japanese timetable for conquest by four months, and kept large Japanese combat forces tied up in the Philippines long after Malaya, Singapore, and the Indies had fallen.

The fate of the Americans and Filipinos who became POWs was a shameful chapter in the history of war, the Bataan Death March.


Kyk die video: 1942. Серия 6 2011