Cherokee Nation - Geskiedenis

Cherokee Nation - Geskiedenis



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VERENIGDE STATE, 18 Januarie 1792.

Menere van die Senaat.

Ek het die mededeling van 'n deputasie van die Cherokee Nation of Indiane wat nou in hierdie stad is, voor u gelê, en ek vra u advies of 'n bykomende artikel in die Cherokee -verdrag gemaak sal word met die volgende effek, naamlik:

Dat die bedrag wat die Verenigde State jaarliks ​​aan die Cherokee Nation of Indians moet betaal ten opsigte van die afstanddoening van grond soos vermeld in die verdrag wat op die 2de dag van Julie 1791 met hulle gemaak is, $ 1500 beloop in plaas van $ 1,000 genoem in die verdrag gesê.

Gaan. WASHINGTON.


Die geskiedenis van die Cherokees

Die Cherokees was eens 'n magtige en magtige nasie. In die tyd toe die Cherokees die eerste keer in aanraking gekom het met die blanke (DeSoto in 1540), het hulle 'n oppervlakte van 135 000 vierkante kilometer geëis wat dele van agt deelstate Noord -Carolina, Suid -Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia en Wes -Virginia beslaan. . Teen die einde van die rewolusie het die Cherokees ongeveer die helfte van hul grond verloor. Tussen 1785 en 1835 het die Cherokee -lande tot 'n paar miljoen hektaar gekrimp. Deur die verdrag van New Echota in 1835 is alle lande oos van die Mississippi aan die federale regering afgestaan. (Van die 40 verdrae wat met die Cherokees gesluit is, het die federale regering gekies om elkeen te verbreek.) Kragtens artikel 12 van hierdie verdrag, soos gewysig, op voorwaarde dat die Cherokees wat die verwydering nadelig is, burgers kan word en in die staat van Noord -Carolina (ongeveer 1 200).

Die status van diegene wat in die staat gebly het, was abnormaal. Hulle verband met die hoof van die Cherokee -stam wat na lande wes van die Mississippi verwyder is, is verbreek. Hulle het onderworpe geraak aan die wette van die staat Noord -Carolina, terwyl hulle nie toegelaat is tot burgerskap nie. Enige belangstelling in die lande wat voorheen deur die stam in Noord-Carolina gehou is, is deur die verdrag verkoop en selfs hul regte op selfbestuur het geëindig. Noord-Carolina verleen later 'n handves aan die Cherokees waarin hulle gemagtig is om beperkte selfregeringsbevoegdhede uit te oefen. Die Amerikaanse regering het geld teruggehou, tensy dit na die Indiese gebied sou verhuis of 'n wet van die wetgewer van Noord -Carolina sou verseker dat hulle permanent in die staat kon bly. In 1866 word 'n statuut aangeneem wat hierdie toestemming verleen.

Deur die aankoop van 'n agent het die Eastern Band of Cherokee Indiane die reg op besit van grond in Noord -Carolina verkry, en volgens die statuut van Noord -Carolina van 1866 het hulle dit verkry, met goedkeuring van die Amerikaanse regering toestemming om in die staat te bly. Baie regsgedinge het gevolg en voortgegaan totdat die titel in 1925 aan lande van die Eastern Band oorgedra is as 'n korporasie aan die Verenigde State.

Die gronde wat nou deur die Amerikaanse regering vir die Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in vertroue gehou word, beslaan 56.572,80 hektaar, wat versprei is oor vyf graafskappe en bestaan ​​uit 52 stukke of grense wat in 30 heeltemal geskei gronddele voorkom. Die hele grond word deur die stam gemeen en besittings word aan individue uitgereik. Die Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians bepaal die bestuur en beheer van alle eiendom, eg en persoonlik, wat as 'n korporasie aan die Band behoort.

Soewereiniteit

Om as 'n reservaat beskou te word, sou 'n grondgebied in besit van die regering gewees het en as 'n reservaat vir 'n spesifieke gebruik of doel bedoel word. Lande van die Eastern Band of Cherokee Indiane was nooit in besit van die federale regering nie, maar is deur die Indiane gekoop en word as 'n korporasie by die Amerikaanse regering vertrou. Die Eastern Band of Cherokee Indiane behoort nie tot die staat Noord -Carolina en ook nie aan die regering van die Verenigde State nie, in die ongewone status van soewereiniteit in die Verenigde State.

Aardrykskunde

Die lande is meestal bergagtig met klein valleie langs die riviere en strome wat geskik is vir boerdery-, sake- en ontspanningsplekke. Die hoogte wissel van 1,718 voet tot meer as 5,000 voet.

Klimaat

Gemiddelde laaste ryp gedateer 11 April gemiddelde eerste ryp gedateer 23 Oktober gemiddelde reënval 47,28 (1950-58) gemiddelde temperatuur 54 grade.

Bevolking

Die laaste amptelike inskrywing is in 1974 gedoen. Daar was 8 381 ingeskrewe lede, met 5 550 wat op die Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians -lande gewoon het en 2 831 wat van die Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians -lande woon.

Regering

Hierdie regering bestaan ​​uit die Stamraad en die Uitvoerende Departement. Die Tribal Council het 12 lede wat vir twee jaar verkies word, twee kom uit elk van die volgende townships — Big Cove, Birdtown, Painttown, Wolftown en Yellow Hill en een elk uit die dele van Cherokee County en Graham County. Die Stamraad kies sy eie beamptes, waaronder 'n voorsitter, 'n ondervoorsitter, sowel Indiese as Engelse klerke, 'n tolk, 'n marshall, 'n boodskapper, 'n opsigter en 'n administratiewe bestuurder.

Die Uitvoerende Departement bestaan ​​uit 'n Hoofhoof, 'n Onderhoof en 'n Uitvoerende Adviseur. Die hoofhoof en onderhoof word verkies vir vier jaar deur die stamlede van 18 jaar en ouer. Die Uitvoerende Adviseur word deur die Hoofhoof aangestel en sy aanstelling word deur die Stamraad bevestig.

By die uitoefening van sy talle en ingewikkelde verantwoordelikhede, maak die Stamraad grootliks staat op die werk van verbintenisse wat aangestel is om op spesifieke gebiede te werk. Die Stamraad is basies 'n wetgewende liggaam, maar hul bevoegdheid om die eiendom van die band te bestuur en te beheer, plaas hulle ook in die posisie om geregtelike funksies te verrig, veral met betrekking tot grondaangeleenthede.

Die Uitvoerende Departement funksioneer ook as 'n Uitvoerende Komitee onder leiding van die Hoofhoof. Dit is verantwoordelik vir die uitvoering van die reëls, regulasies en ander optrede van die stamraad en hou die stamregering daagliks funksioneel.

Administrasie

Benewens sy uitvoerende, wetgewende en geregtelike funksies, is die stamregering verantwoordelik vir die suksesvolle werking van die volgende stamoperasies:

  1. OFFICES — Tribal Administrative Office, Inskrywing, Onderhoud en die Cherokee One Feather (die amptelike Tribal -koerant)
  2. CHEROKEE TRIBAL COMMUNITY SERVICES — CTCS Administrative Office, Police Department, Fire Department, and Sanitation Department.
  3. TRIBAL ENTERPRISES — Cherokee Tribal Water and Riool Enterprise, Fish and Game Management Enterprise (sluit Mingo Falls Campground in), Boundary Tree Motor Court, Boundary Tree Service Station, Boundary Tree Dining Room, Boundary Tree Restaurant en die Qualla Civic Center.
  4. PROGRAMME — Stambeplannings- en ontwikkelingsprogram, EDA -titel X, Indiese aksiespan, sakeontwikkelingskantoor, hulp aan die stamregeringsprogram, uitgebreide program vir indiensneming en opleiding, Qualla Indiese grensprojekte en#8211 Kantoor van inheemse Amerikaanse programme, voorsprongprogram, Cherokee -opvolgprogram, stamgesondheidskoordineringsprogram, Otitis Media -program, Cherokee -program vir geestesgesondheid en alkoholrehabilitasie, program vir gesondheidsverteenwoordigers van die gemeenskap en die opleidingsprogram vir mediese hulp.

Dit werk ietwat onafhanklik, maar reageer steeds op die stam en lewer belangrike dienste:

  • 'N Alle vrywillige reddingspan
  • Die Qualla Behuisingsowerheid
  • Die Cherokee Boys Club:
    • Beroepsopleiding en spesiale onderwys
    • Indiensneming en indiensopleiding
    • Ontspanningspark
    • Kinderhuise (3) en d kapel
    • Kontrakdienste (skoolbus skool middagete operasie skool en hospitaal wasgoed skool, agentskap en hospitaal terrein onderhoud.)

    Die belangrikste gesondheidsprogramme by Cherokee word befonds deur die Indian Health Service, U.S. Public Health Service. Die IHS, USPHS bied gereelde kliniese dienste aan buitepasiënte, bedryf 'n algemene hospitaal met 26 beddens, kontrakdienste vir cherokees wat chirurgie benodig en ander gespesialiseerde sorg en 'n kantoor vir omgewingsgesondheid. Baie van die Indiërs beoefen nog steeds die ou maniere van gesondheidsorg deur kruie en formules te gebruik, óf self toegedien óf met behulp van 'n “Medicine Man. ”

    Onderwys

    Opvoeding was lank reeds die topprioriteit vir die Cherokees. Nadat die Cherokees sewentien jaar lank 'n versoekskrif aan die kongres gedoen het, het hulle nou 'n goeie nuwe hoërskool wat deur die Buro vir Indiese Sake gefinansier en bedryf word. Bydraes tot ons Studente -beursfonds het dit moontlik gemaak dat 'n paar van ons stamlede kollege kon bywoon.

    As trustee hou die Buro vir Indiese Sake, die Amerikaanse departement van binnelandse sake, 'n Indiese agentskap in Cherokee. Die doel daarvan is om die ekonomiese en sosiale toestande te verbeter en om leiding te gee om die Indiërs te help om hulself te help. Die BIA bedryf die skole, verbeter en onderhou die paaie namate fondse beskikbaar is, bedryf die maatskaplike welsyns- en uitbreidingsprogramme, bestuur die houtbronne en hou oor die algemeen toesig oor alle aangeleenthede rakende vaste eiendom, insluitend die rekords, opnames, huurkontrakte, sake- en eiendomsregte.

    Inkomste

    Direkte staminkomste kom van die Cherokee -lande deur kwitansies van houtstompe en die verhuring van stamgronde. 'N Vyf persent Tribal -verkoopheffing is die enigste ander hoofinkomste.

    Ekonomie

    Die huidige ekonomie van die Cherokee -mense is gebaseer op die toeristebedryf wat seisoenaal is, begin in Mei en duur tot einde Oktober. Daar is meer as 212 klein ondernemings wat hoofsaaklik op toeriste gerig is en 63 % deur Indiërs bedryf word. Twee ligte nywerhede “The Cherokees ” en “White Shield, ” en die diensbedryf “Cherokee Boys Club ” bied jaarliks ​​werk aan ongeveer 300 Cherokees. 'N Nuwe bedryf, en#8220Warrior Woodcrafts crafts ” is in die vroeë ontwikkelingsfase. Die Cherokees is 'n baie vlytige volk. Byna almal beslaan 'n groot deel van hul tyd in kuns en kunsvlyt, wat van die beste van die Amerikaanse Indiër is. Hulle maak mandjies, erdewerk, kralewerk, vingerweef, steenhoutwerk en houtsnywerk.

    Kultuur

    Baie van die ou kultuur bly bestaan, wat hoofsaaklik uit nie-materiële elemente bestaan. Die meeste, indien nie almal nie, praat of verstaan ​​Engels, maar die Cherokee -taal word in die huise en skole geleer. Sequoyah se lettergreep wat simbole vir klanke gebruik in plaas van letters of woorde, het dit moontlik gemaak dat hierdie taal uit teks geskryf en geleer kan word.

    Boontjiebolle, boontjiebrood, kastaiingbrood en opritte is 'n paar van die inheemse kosse wat nog gereeld in Cherokee -huise geëet word. Baie hou nog steeds vas aan die ou kennis en gebruike. Hulle sing die ou gesange in hul eie musiektaal. Sommige van die ouer vroue dra lang, volledige rokke en 'n helder sakdoek wat op hul koppe vasgemaak is. Soms kan 'n baba op die rug van 'n Cherokee -vrou vasgemaak word.

    Die jaarlikse herfsfees is die hoogtepunt van die toeristeseisoen. Dit gebeur die eerste week in Oktober. Besoekers is verbaas om die merkwaardige uitstallings van kuns, kunsvlyt en tuinprodukte te sien. Op hierdie tydstip bied die Cherokees die ou lewe aan met pyl- en boogwedstryde, vuurwapenwedstryde, ou danse en wat die gewildste sport-Indiese bal is wat soortgelyk is aan Lacrosse, maar eintlik 'n mengsel van alle atletiekwedstryde.

    Gunsteling besienswaardighede bestaan ​​uit die feeste, die “Old Indian Village, ” die buitelugdrama “ Tot in hierdie heuwels, ” forelvis en die nuut voltooide Museum van die Cherokee Indian.


    Cherokee stam

    Cherokee Indiërs. 'N Kragtige losstaande stam van die Iroquoiaanse familie, wat voorheen die hele bergstreek in die suide van Alleghenies gehad het, in die suidweste van Virginia, Wes -Noord -Carolina en Suid -Carolina, Noord -Georgië, Oos -Tennessee en noordoos van Alabama, en selfs tot by die Ohio -rivier aanspraak maak.

    Die Cherokee het lankal geglo dat hul stamnaam 'n korrupsie is van Tsálăgĭ of Tsărăgĭ, die naam waarmee hulle hulself gereeld noem, en wat afkomstig is van die Choctaw chiluk-ki ‘grotmense ’, in verwysing na die talle grotte in hul bergland. Hulle het hulself soms ook genoem Ani´-Yûñ´-wiyá, ‘ regte mense, ’ of Ani´-Kĭtu´hwagĭ, ‘mense van Kituhwa, ’ een van hul belangrikste ou nedersettings. Hulle noordelike familielede, die Iroquois, het hulle gebel Oyata’ge‘ronoñ, ‘bewoners van die grotland ’ (Hewitt), en die Delawares en verwante stamme het hulle genoem KittuwaDit lyk asof hulle identies is aan die Rickohockans, wat in 1658 in die middel van Virginia binnegeval het, en met die antieke Talligewi, van die Delaware -tradisie, wat verteenwoordig is deur die gesamentlike suidwaartse deel van die Ohio -gebied te word. magte van die Iroquois en Delawares.

    Cherokee -taal

    Die taal het drie hoofdialekte:

    1. Elatĭ, of Laer, op die koppe van die Savannahrivier, in Suid -Carolina en Georgia, gepraat
    2. Middel, wat veral gepraat word oor die waters van die Tuckasegee -rivier, in die weste van Noord -Carolina, en nou die heersende dialek op die East Cherokee -reservaat
    3. A´tăli, Mountain of Upper, gepraat in die grootste deel van Bo -Georgia, Oos -Tennessee en die uiterste westelike Noord -Carolina. Die onderste dialek was die enigste met die r klank, en is nou uitgesterf. Die boonste dialek is dié wat uitsluitlik in die inheemse letterkunde van die stam gebruik is.

    Cherokee stam geskiedenis

    Tradisionele, taalkundige en argeologiese bewyse toon dat die Cherokee in die noorde ontstaan ​​het, maar hulle is in besit van die suidelike Allegheny -streek gevind toe De Soto die eerste keer in 1540 teëgekom het. Hulle verhoudings met die kolonies van Carolina het 150 jaar later begin. In 1736 begin die Jesuïet (?) Priber die eerste sending onder hulle en probeer hulle regering op 'n beskaafde basis organiseer. In 1759, onder leiding van A´ganstâ´ta (Oconostota), begin hulle oorlog met die Engelse van Carolina. In die revolusie het hulle kant gekant teen die Amerikaners en die stryd feitlik sonder tussenpose voortgesit tot in 1794. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het partye van die Cherokee die rivier Tennessee afgedruk en nuwe nedersettings by Chickamauga en ander punte oor die lyn Tennessee-Alabama gevorm. Kort na 1800 is sending- en opvoedingswerk onder die tema gevestig, en in 1820 het hulle 'n gereelde regeringsvorm aangeneem volgens die van die Verenigde State. Intussen het groot getalle van die meer konserwatiewe Cherokee, wat moeg was vir die aantasting van die blankes, die Mississippi oorgesteek en nuwe huise in die wildernis in die huidige Arkansas gemaak. 'N Jaar of twee later het Sequoya, 'n gemengde bloed, die alfabet uitgevind, wat hulle dadelik tot die rang van 'n literêre volk verhef het.

    Op die hoogtepunt van hul voorspoed is goud ontdek naby die huidige Dahlonega, Georgia, binne die perke van die Cherokee -nasie, en onmiddellik is 'n kragtige roering begin vir die verwydering van die Indiane. Na jare van hopelose stryd onder leiding van hul groot opperhoof, John Ross, was hulle genoodsaak om hulle aan die onvermydelike te onderwerp, en deur die verdrag van New Echota, 29 Desember 1835, verkoop die Cherokee hul hele oorblywende gebied en stem in om te verwyder anderkant die Mississippi na 'n land om daar vir hulle afgesonder te word-die huidige (1890) Cherokee Nation in die Indiese gebied. Die verwydering het plaasgevind in die winter van 1838-1839, na aansienlike swaarkry en die verlies van byna 'n kwart van hul getal, die onwillige Indiërs wat deur militêre mag verdryf is en die lang reis te voet 1 onderneem het. By die bereiking van hul bestemming herorganiseer hulle hul nasionale regering, met hul hoofstad in Tahlequah, met erkenning aan gelyke voorregte van die vroeëre emigrante, bekend as die ou koloniste. ' het 'n toekenning van grond in die oostelike deel van die staat verkry van die Mexikaanse regering. Die latere Texaanse rewolusioniste het geweier om hul regte te erken, en ondanks die pogings van genl Sam Houston, wat die Indiese aanspraak verdedig het, het 'n konflik ontstaan, wat in 1839 gelei het tot die moord op die hoof van Cherokee, Bowl, met 'n groot aantal van sy manne, deur die Texaanse troepe, en die verdrywing van die Cherokee uit Texas.

    Toe die hoofliggaam van die stam na die weste verwyder is, het etlike honderde vlugtelinge na die berge ontsnap, waar hulle 'n tyd lank as vlugtelinge gewoon het, totdat hulle in 1842 deur die pogings van William H. Thomas, 'n invloedryke handelaar, het hulle toestemming gekry om te bly op lande wat vir hul gebruik in die weste van Noord -Carolina afgesonder is.

    Hulle vorm die huidige oostelike band van Cherokee, wat hoofsaaklik woonagtig is in die Qualla -reservaat in die provinsies Swain en Jackson, met verskeie afsonderlike nedersettings.

    Die Cherokee in die Cherokee -nasie is jare lank verdeel in twee vyandige faksies, diegene wat bevoordeel het en diegene wat die verdrag om verwydering teëgestaan ​​het. Hierdie verskille is amper nie aangepas toe die burgeroorlog hulle tref nie. As slawe -eienaars en omring deur suidelike invloede, het 'n groot deel van elk van die vyf beskaafde stamme van die gebied in diens van die Konfederasie aangesluit, terwyl ander by die nasionale regering gehou het. Die gebied van die Cherokee is om die beurt deur albei leërs oorval, en die einde van die oorlog het hulle neergebuig. Deur 'n verdrag in 1866 is hulle weer tot die beskerming van die Verenigde State toegelaat, maar verplig om hul swart slawe te bevry en hulle tot gelyke burgerskap toe te laat. In 1867 en 1870 is onderskeidelik Delawares en Shawnee, wat ongeveer 1750 getel het, uit Kansas opgeneem en by die Nation opgeneem. In 1889 word 'n Cherokee -kommissie gestig met die doel om die stamregerings af te skaf en die gebiede oop te maak vir blanke nedersetting, met die gevolg dat na 15 jaar se onderhandeling 'n ooreenkoms aangegaan is waarmee die regering van die Cherokee -nasie eindelik tot 'n einde gekom het. 3, 1906: die Indiese lande is verdeel, en die Cherokee -Indiane, inheems, word burgers van die Verenigde State.

    Cherokee Nation

    Die Cherokee het 7 stamme, nl:

    1. Ani ’-wa ’`ya (Wolf)
    2. Ani ’-Kawĭ ‘ (Herten)
    3. Ani ’-Tsi ’skwa (Voël)
    4. Ani ’-wi ’dĭ (Verf)
    5. Ani ’-Sah ’a ’ni
    6. Ani ’-Ga ’tagewĭ
    7. Ani ’-Gi-lࢠ’hĭ

    Die name van die laaste 3 kan nie met sekerheid vertaal word nie. Daar is bewyse dat daar in die ou tyd 14 was, wat deur uitsterwing of opname tot hul huidige aantal verminder is. Die Wolf -stam is die grootste en belangrikste. Die sewe stamme word gereeld genoem in die rituele gebede en selfs in die gedrukte wette van die stam. Dit lyk asof hulle 'n verband gehad het met die sewe moederdorpe van die Cherokee, wat deur Cuming in 1730 beskryf is as elkeen 'n hoof, wie se kantoor oorerflik was in die vroulike lyn.

    Die Cherokee is waarskynlik nou (1905) net so talryk as in enige tydperk in hul geskiedenis. Met die uitsondering van 'n skatting in 1730, wat hulle op ongeveer 20,000 geplaas het, het die meeste van hulle tot 'n onlangse tydperk 12,000 of 14,000 gegee, en in 1758 is dit bereken op slegs 7,500. Die meerderheid van die vorige skattings is waarskynlik te laag, aangesien die Cherokee so 'n uitgebreide gebied beset het dat slegs 'n deel daarvan met die blankes in aanraking gekom het. In 1708 beraam Gov. Johnson hulle op 60 dorpe en “ ten minste 500 mans ” 2 In 1715 is amptelik gerapporteer dat hulle 11,210 (Upper, 2,760 Middle, 6,350 Lower, 2,100), insluitend 4000 krygers, en woon in 60 dorpe (Bo, 19 Middel, 30 Onder, 11). In 1720 is dit na raming verminder tot ongeveer 10 000, en weer in dieselfde jaar gerapporteer op ongeveer 11 500, insluitend ongeveer 3 800 krygers 3 In 1729 is dit op 20 000 geraam, met minstens 6 000 krygers en 64 dorpe en dorpe 4.

    Daar word gesê dat hulle in 1739 1000 krygers van pokke en rum verloor het, en hulle het 'n konstante afname ondergaan tydens hul oorloë met die blankes, wat strek vanaf 1760 tot na die einde van die rewolusie. Diegene in hul oorspronklike huise het weer toegeneem tot 16,542 ten tye van hul gedwonge verwydering na die weste in 1838, maar verloor byna 'n kwart op die reis, 311 sterf in 'n stoombootongeluk op die Mississippi. Diegene wat reeds in die weste was, voor die verwydering, is op ongeveer 6 000 geraam. Die burgeroorlog in 1861-65 het weer hul vordering nagegaan, maar hulle het in 'n merkwaardige kort tyd herstel van die gevolge daarvan en het in 1885 ongeveer 19,000 getel, waarvan ongeveer 17,000 in die Indiese gebied was, tesame met ongeveer 6000 aangenome blankes, swartes, Delawares , en Shawnee, terwyl die oorblywende 2 000 nog in hul ou huise in die ooste was.

    Van hierdie oostelike orkes was 1,376 op Qualla -bespreking, in Swain en Jackson Counties, Noord -Carolina, is ongeveer 300 aan die Cheowahrivier, in Graham County, Noord -Carolina, terwyl die res, gemengde bloed, oor die ooste van Tennessee, Noord -Georgia, versprei was , en Alabama. Die oostelike groep verloor ongeveer 300 deur pokke aan die einde van die burgeroorlog. In 1902 is daar amptelik gerapporteer dat 28,016 mense van Cherokee -bloed, insluitend alle mengsels, in die Cherokee -nasie in die gebied aangemeld is, maar dit sluit 'n paar duisend individue in wat voorheen deur die stamhowe verwerp is.

    Daar het ook ongeveer 3000 aangenome swart vrymanne in die land gewoon, meer as 2 000 aangenome blankes en ongeveer 1700 aangeneem Delaware, Shawnee en ander Indiërs. Die stam het 'n groter deel van die wit mengsel as enige ander van die vyf beskaafde stamme.

    Vir verdere studie

    Die volgende artikels en manuskripte sal addisionele lig werp op die Cherokee as 'n etnologiese studie en as 'n volk.


    Cherokee Nation - Geskiedenis

    Die Cherokee -mense het 'n lang geskiedenis met wat vandag bekend staan ​​as die Suidelike Appalachiese berge. Hieronder kan u oor ons lees in Cherokee of Engels, of klik om dieselfde inligting in Cherokee en Engels te hoor. Bykomende erfenisskakels word onderaan hierdie bladsy verskaf.

    Byna 13 000 ingeskrewe lede vorm die Eastern Band of the Cherokee Nation.

    Ons is afstammelinge van diegene wat tydens die Spoor van Trane weggekruip het

    Ons grondgebied was lankal meer as 135 000 myl lank

    Maar stadig het ons ons grond verloor.

    Anders as die inheemse stamme in die weste en#8230

    Ons het in huise van modder en hout ledemate gewoon.

    Gevederde hooftooisels is ook nie deel van ons erfenis nie.

    Eers na die aankoms van die Europeërs het ons die gebruik van hul klere aangeneem.

    In 1821 het Sequoyah ons geskrewe taal geskep.

    Hy het simbole gemaak vir elke klank in ons taal.

    Vyf-en-tagtig karakters vorm ons leergang.

    Op skool, jare gelede, mag ons ouer manne nie ons moedertaal praat nie.

    Maar nou leer ons skole ons kinders om Cherokee te praat.

    Vandag vorm meer as 68 000 hektaar ons huis.

    Ons noem ons tuiste Land of Blue Smoke.

    Ons nooi u uit om ons kultuur en erfenis van Cherokee te besoek en te leer.

    Baie dankie aan Garfield Long van die EBCI Cultural Resources Department en Eddie Bushyhead van die EBCI Cherokee Language Program vir die vertaling.


    Geskiedenis

    Die inheemse groep, bekend as die Cherokee, bestaan ​​al honderde, miskien duisende jare. Daar is baie meningsverskil oor hul oorsprong. Sommige sê dat hulle uit die noorde getrek het. Die antropoloog dr. Timothy Jones sê hulle was 1500 jaar gelede in die Midde -Weste. 'N Hoof van een van die eilandlande van die Stille Oseaan sê dat sy kan bewys dat alle inheemse mense van Noord -Amerika oorspronklik Polinesies was. Een ding is seker: hulle is 'n volgehoue ​​volk.

    Daar is nie veel bekend oor hul geskiedenis totdat hulle die Spanjaarde in die 1500's teëgekom het nie. In die daaropvolgende jare het Europese kontakte toegeneem. Aangesien die Cherokee en die besoekers van oor die Atlantiese Oseaan afkomstig was van twee baie verskillende kulture, was wrywing onvermydelik.

    Aanvanklik sou die een of ander vreemde nasie die Cherokee hof vir hul ondersteuning. Met die afsluiting van die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog het die inwoners van die nuwe Verenigde State van Amerika die land egter min of meer stewig in hul hande gehad. Hulle het nie meer die behoefte gevoel om die guns van die Cherokee aan te trek nie. Trouens, hulle beskou alle inheemse mense toenemend bloot as 'in die pad'.

    Van toe af het die verdrae tussen die VSA en die Cherokee al hoe meer onregverdig en beperkend geword. Groter en groter gedeeltes grond moes aan die VSA, dikwels miljoene hektaar tegelyk, afgestaan ​​word om die 'witman' tydelik versadig te hou.

    Uiteindelik het twee gebeurtenisse, beide in 1828, die lot van Cherokee verseël: 1) Goud is ontdek op Cherokee -land in Georgië en 2) Andrew Jackson, 'n advokaat en grondspekulant met 'n gebroke morele kompas, het president van die Verenigde State geword. Die druk om die Cherokee en ander te verwyder, het te groot geword, en in 1830 is die Indiese wet op verwydering deur die kongres aanvaar. Die hooggeregshof het die wet van die hand gewys en dit as ongrondwetlik verklaar. Andrew Jackson ignoreer die hofbeslissing en gaan voort met planne om al die sogenaamde 'Five Civilized Tribes' uit die suidoostelike deel van die VSA te verhuis, waarvan die Cherokee een daarvan is.

    Die Choctaw was eerste. Volgens hul verdragsbepalings was goeie kos, baie dokters en voldoende vervoer na 'n gebied in die huidige Oklahoma. Dit was duur en geen enkele ander stam het die vervulling van daardie deel van hul verdrag gekry nie.

    Die Cherokee was die laaste stam wat verskuif is, hoofsaaklik omdat hulle tot die einde toe weerstand gebied het. Talle briewe is geskryf, hofsake aangebied, besoeke aan Washington is onderneem. Nie een was suksesvol nie. Uiteindelik, in Junie 1838, vertrek die eerste groep Cherokee langs die rivier na hul nuwe 'huis'. Dit het 'n trek wes begin wat by die Cherokee bekend geword het as 'die roete waar ons gehuil het'. Vir die meeste mense is dit 'die spoor van trane'.

    Baie van die mense uit die eerste groep het nie oorleef nie. Net nadat hulle vertrek het, het die Suidoos 'n geweldige droogte getref en dit was onaangenaam om die oorblywende twee groepe uit te stuur. Hulle was in plaas daarvan toegesluit in 'n kompleks vir die duur van die droogte. Tussen dertien duisend en vyftien duisend Cherokee was vir twee maande in 'n onvoldoende ruimte saamgepak met onvoldoende voorraad voedsel, water en higiëniese geriewe. Baie het gesterf.

    In Augustus breek die droë toestande aan en die laaste twee groepe begin land toe. Nie hulle of die groep het voorheen genoeg kos, water of klere gehad vir die reis wat hulle konfronteer nie. Omdat verdragsbepalings nie meer 'n oorweging was nie, is elke hoek gesny om geld te bespaar. Die kos was bederf, die water besmet, hulle moes hul eie vervoer voorsien; die enigste klere of komberse wat hulle gehad het, was wat hulle saamgebring het. Die woorde van 'n reisiger in Kentucky, een van die landroetes na die bestemming, vertel 'n deel van die hartseer verhaal:

    Ons het gevind dat die pad letterlik gevul is met die optog van ongeveer drie kilometer lank. Die siekes en swakes is in waens vervoer. . . baie ry te perd en menigtes gaan te voet - selfs bejaarde wyfies, skynbaar amper gereed om in die graf te val, reis met swaar laste aan die agterkant - op die soms bevrore grond en soms modderige strate, sonder bedekking vir die voete behalwe wat die natuur hulle gegee het.”

    In Maart 1839, na 'n reis van miskien duisend myl, het die laaste Cherokee by hul nuwe plek aangekom. Altesaam vierduisend het op die pad hul lewens verloor. Die vrou van die Cherokee -hoof, John Ross, was een van die slagoffers.

    Die gepaste naam "Trail of Tears" was 'n ware swart kol in die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State. Ongelukkig is dit nie die enigste met betrekking tot die Cherokee en al hul broer en suster "First Peoples" nie. Die United Cherokee Nation of Indians werk baie hard om te verseker dat dit die laaste is.

    'Die mense is opgeneem in houtvee, op die gebied van die Cherokee -nasie, in letterlike veestalle.'
    - Gayle Ross (Cherokee)


    Inhoud

    Geskiedenis Redigeer

    Die Cherokee -mense woon al duisende jare in Georgië in die huidige suidoostelike Verenigde State. In 1542 het Hernando de Soto 'n ekspedisie deur die suidooste van die Verenigde State uitgevoer en met ten minste drie Cherokee -dorpe in aanraking gekom. [2] [3] Die Engelse immigrante na die Carolinas het begin handel dryf met die stam vanaf 1673. [4] Teen 1711 het die Engelse wapens aan die Cherokees gelewer in ruil vir hul hulp in die stryd teen die Tuscarora -stam in die Tuscarora -oorlog . [5] Die handel in Cherokee met die Engelse koloniste van Suid -Carolina en Georgië het toegeneem, en in die 1740's het die Cherokee oorgegaan na 'n kommersiële jag- en boerdery -leefstyl. [fn 1] [7] In 1775 is 'n dorpie in Cherokee beskryf met 100 huise, elk met 'n tuin, boord, kweekhuis en varkhokke. [8] Na 'n oorlog met die koloniste onderteken die Cherokee 'n vredesverdrag in 1785. [fn 2] [10] In 1791 word die Verdrag van Holston onderteken deur Cherokee -leiers en William Blount vir die Verenigde State. [vn 3] [12]

    Cherokee Nation Edit

    Teen die begin van die eeu het die Cherokee nog steeds ongeveer 140 000 km2 grond in Tennessee, Noord -Carolina, Georgia en Alabama besit. [13] Intussen het blanke setlaars wat gretig was na nuwe lande, aangedring op die verwydering van die Cherokee en die opening van hul oorblywende grond vir vestiging, in ooreenstemming met die belofte wat die Verenigde State in 1802 aan die staat Georgia gemaak het dat Georgië wel 'n verdrag met die Cherokee. [14] President Thomas Jefferson het ook begin kyk na die verwydering van die stam uit hul lande. [15]

    Die kongres het baie klein krediete gestem om die verwydering te ondersteun, maar die beleid het verander onder president James Monroe, wat nie voorstander was van grootskaalse verwydering nie. [16] Terselfdertyd het die Cherokee 'n paar elemente uit die Europees-Amerikaanse kultuur aangeneem. [fn 4] Gedurende hierdie tydperk tot 1816 is talle ander verdrae deur die Cherokee onderteken. In elk het hulle grond aan die Verenigde State afgestaan ​​en toegelaat dat paaie deur Cherokee -gebied aangelê word, maar ook die bepalings van die Holston -verdrag nagekom het. [18]

    In 1817 begin die Verdrag van die Cherokee Agency [19] die begin van die Indiese verwyderingsera vir die Cherokee. [20] Die verdrag beloof 'n 'akker vir akker' landhandel, as die Cherokee hul vaderland sou verlaat en na gebiede wes van die Mississippirivier sou verhuis. [fn 5] [22] In 1819 het die stamregering 'n wet uitgevaardig wat bykomende grondsessies verbied, wat voorsiening maak vir die doodstraf vir die oortreding van die wet. [23] Teen die 1820's het die grootste deel van die Cherokee 'n boerdery -leefstyl aangeneem wat soortgelyk is aan dié van buur -Europese Amerikaners. [24]

    Staat Georgia Redigeer

    Teen 1823 het die staatsregering en burgers van Georgië begin oproer vir die verwydering van die Cherokee -nasie, in ooreenstemming met die ooreenkomste van 1802 met die federale regering. [25] Die kongres het geantwoord deur $ 30,000 toe te ken om die titel van Cherokee te vernietig om in Georgië te land. [25] In the fall of 1823, negotiators for the United States met with the Cherokee National Council at the tribe's capital city of New Echota, located in northwest Georgia. Joseph McMinn, noted for being in favor of removal, led the U.S. delegation. [26] When the negotiations to remove the tribe did not go well, the U.S. delegation resorted to trying to bribe the tribe's leaders. [fn 6]

    On December 20, 1828, the state legislature of Georgia, fearful that the United States would not enforce (as a matter of federal policy) the removal of the Cherokee people from their historic lands in the state, enacted a series of laws which stripped the Cherokee of their rights under the laws of the state. They intended to force the Cherokee to leave the state. Andrew Jackson, who had long favored removal, was elected US president in 1828, taking office in 1829. In this climate, John Ross, Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation, led a delegation to Washington in January 1829 to resolve disputes over the failure of the US government to pay annuities to the Cherokee, and to seek federal enforcement of the boundary between the territory of the state of Georgia and the Cherokee Nation's historic tribal lands within that state. Rather than lead the delegation into futile negotiations with President Jackson, Ross wrote an immediate memorial to Congress, completely forgoing the customary correspondence and petitions to the President.

    Ross found support in Congress from individuals in the National Republican Party, such as senators Henry Clay, Theodore Frelinghuysen, and Daniel Webster, as well as representatives Ambrose Spencer and David (Davy) Crockett. Despite this support, in April 1829, John H. Eaton, the secretary of war (1829–1831), informed Ross that President Jackson would support the right of Georgia to extend its laws over the Cherokee Nation. In May 1830, Congress endorsed Jackson's policy of removal by passing the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the president to set aside lands west of the Mississippi River to exchange for the lands of Indian nations in the east.

    When Ross and the Cherokee delegation failed to protect Cherokee lands through negotiation with the executive branch and through petitions to Congress, Ross challenged the actions of the federal government through the U.S. courts.

    In June 1830, a delegation of Cherokee led by Chief John Ross (selected at the urging of Senators Daniel Webster and Theodore Frelinghuysen) and William Wirt, attorney general in the Monroe and Adams administrations, were selected to defend Cherokee rights before the U.S. Supreme Court. The Cherokee Nation asked for an injunction, claiming that Georgia's state legislation had created laws that "go directly to annihilate the Cherokees as a political society." Georgia pushed hard to bring evidence that the Cherokee Nation couldn't sue as a "foreign" nation due to the fact that they did not have a constitution or a strong central government. Wirt argued that "the Cherokee Nation [was] a foreign nation in the sense of our constitution and law" and was not subject to Georgia's jurisdiction. Wirt asked the Supreme Court to void all Georgia laws extended over Cherokee lands on the grounds that they violated the U.S. Constitution, United States-Cherokee treaties, and United States intercourse laws.

    The Court did hear the case but declined to rule on the merits. The Court determined that the framers of the Constitution did not really consider the Indian Tribes as foreign nations but more as "domestic dependent nation[s]" and consequently the Cherokee Nation lacked the standing to sue as a "foreign" nation. Chief Justice Marshall said "The court has bestowed its best attention on this question, and, after mature deliberation, the majority is of the opinion that an Indian tribe or nation within the United States is not a foreign state in the sense of the constitution, and cannot maintain an action in the courts of the United States." The Court held open the possibility that it yet might rule in favor of the Cherokee "in a proper case with proper parties".

    Chief Justice John Marshall wrote that "the relationship of the tribes to the United States resembles that of a 'ward to its guardian'." [28] Justice William Johnson added that the "rules of nations" would regard "Indian tribes" as "nothing more than wandering hordes, held together only by ties of blood and habit, and having neither rules nor government beyond what is required in a savage state." [29]

    Justice Smith Thompson, in a dissenting judgment joined by Justice Joseph Story, held that the Cherokee nation was a "foreign state" in the sense that the Cherokee retained their "usages and customs and self-government" and the United States government had treated them as "competent to make a treaty or contract". [30] The Court therefore had jurisdiction Acts passed by the State of Georgia were "repugnant to the treaties with the Cherokees" and directly in violation of a congressional Act of 1802 [31] and the injury to the Cherokee was severe enough to justify an injunction against the further execution of the state laws. [32]


    Inhoud

    A well-known story told by Loudermilk is that, when he was asked by the Viva! NashVegas radio show about the origins of the song "Indian Reservation," he fabricated the story that he wrote the song after his car was snowed in by a blizzard and he was taken in by a small group of Cherokee Indians. [6] A self-professed prankster, [7] he spun the tale that a Cherokee chieftain, "Bloody Bear Tooth," asked him to make a song about his people's plight on the Trail of Tears, even going so far as to claim that he had later been awarded "the first medal of the Cherokee Nation," not for writing the song, but for his "blood." [6] He went on to fabricate the detail that on that day the tribe revealed that his "great-great grandparents, Homer and Matilda Loudermilk" were listed on the Dawes Rolls (the citizenship rolls of the Nation). [6] Had this detail of his tall tale been true, he would have been a citizen of the Cherokee Nation, which he was not. [6]

    In spite of the song's title, the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians and the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma are not known as "reservations", [8] and singing that they may some day "return" is at odds with fact that these Cherokee Nations still exist. [8]

    The lyrics vary somewhat among the recorded versions. Rainwater's version lacks the "Cherokee people!" chorus, but includes instead a series of "Hiya hiya ho!" chants. Fardon's version is similar to the Raiders' through the first verse and chorus, but differs in the second verse, which includes the lines "Altho' they changed our ways of old/They'll never change our heart and soul", also found in Rainwater's version. Rainwater includes some of the elements found in the other versions in a different order, and his first verse has words not found in the others, such as "They put our papoose in a crib/and took the buck skin from our rib".

    At the end, where the Raiders sing ". Cherokee nation will return", Fardon says "Cherokee Indian. ", while the line is absent in Rainwater's version, which ends with "beads. nowadays made in Japan." In addition, Fardon sings the line: "Brick built houses by the score/ No more tepees anymore", not used in the Raiders' version.

    Cherokee people have never lived in tipis, [9] nor do they use the term "papoose". [10] These are stereotypes and misconceptions, with the reservations and tipi assumptions usually based on Hollywood portrayals of Plains Indians. [9] [11] However the Cherokee are a Southeastern Woodlands Indigenous culture. [9]

    Among the things taken away from the Cherokees include the Tomahawk and the Golden Knife. Also, English replaced their native tongue. In addition, in the Raider's version, it's mentioned that "though I wear a shirt and tie, I'm still a red man deep inside"

    The music is in a minor key, with sustained minor chords ending each phrase in the primary melody, while the melody line goes through a slow musical turn (turning of related notes) which ends each phrase, and emphasizes the ominous minor chords. Underneath the slow, paced melody, is a rhythmic, low "drum beat" in double-time, constantly, relentlessly pushing to follow along, but the melody continues its slow, deliberate pace above the drum beat.

    The instrumentation varies among versions. Rainwater's recording is acoustic with strings and backing vocals supporting the melody. Fardon's version adds a brass section and percussion, while reducing the background singing. The Raiders used similar instruments to Fardon, and includes an electronic organ that holds the melody line.

    In 1971, Mark Lindsay, the lead singer of Raiders, was looking for new material to his solo career (that included the Top 10 "Arizona"). The Columbia A&R head, Jack Gold, offered "Indian Reservation" to him, which the latter was already familiar because of the Don Fardon version. [12] Lindsay tried to record it with his producer Jerry Fuller. But Fuller was unavailable to produce the record, so Lindsay decided to produce it himself.

    In the recording, Lindsay cut the basic track with session musicians of the Wrecking Crew, and later overdubbed backing singers and strings arranged by John D'Andrea. According to Lindsay, the organ's riff in the ending of the song is reminiscent of Janis Ian’s “Society’s Child”, because when Lindsay suggested a riff similar to the Janis Ian song, the song's arranger Artie Butler, who also played organ in the track, suggested that they re-used it, as he stated that he was the organist on "Society's Child". [13]

    Lindsay decided to bill it as a Raiders single, and had fellow member Paul Revere promoting it in several radio stations across the country. After four years without a Top 10 hit since "Him or Me – What's It Gonna Be?", "Indian Reservation" reached the top of the charts on July 24, becoming the first and only number one hit of (Paul Revere & the) Raiders. [14]

    Personnel Edit

      – lead vocals producer
  • Unknown – backing vocals – drums – guitar – bass guitar – piano, organ basic track arrangements – vibraslap, vibraphone – strings arrangements
  • The Raiders' "Indian Reservation" entered the Billboard Hot 100 on April 10, 1971. It climbed to number 2 on July 3, where it stayed for three consecutive weeks, stuck behind Carole King's double single "It's Too Late"/"I Feel the Earth Move". [5] On July 24, it reached the top spot for a single week. "Indian Reservation" spent a total of 22 weeks on the Advertensiebord Hot 100 chart. [4]

    Weekly charts Edit

    Chart (1971) Peak
    position
    Kanada RPM Top Singles [15] 2
    Kanada RPM Adult Contemporary [15] 14
    New Zealand (Listener) [16] 14
    US Advertensiebord Hot 100 [5] 1
    US Cash Box Top 100 [17] 1

    Chart (1968, 1970) Peak
    position
    Australië 4
    Canada [18] 18
    UK Singles Chart (Official Chart Company) [19] 3
    US Advertensiebord Hot 100 [5] 20

    Chart (1979) Peak
    position
    German Hitparade [20] 7

    Chart (1981) Peak
    position
    UK Singles Chart (Official Chart Company) [21] 51

    Year-end charts Edit

    Chart (1971) Ranglys
    Kanada RPM Top Singles [22] 27
    US Advertensiebord Hot 100 [23] 6
    US Cash Box [24] 3

    Billy ThunderKloud & the Chieftones recorded the song in 1976 for Polydor Records, taking their version to number 74 on Hot Country Songs. [25]

    A Disco-version was recorded by the German band Orlando Riva Sound in 1979. It was a national chart-success, reaching number 7 and staying five weeks in the German Top 10. [20]

    The English punk band, 999, released their version on November 14, 1981 on the Albion Ion label, and it reached number 51 in the UK chart. [26]

    Indigenous electronic music group the Halluci Nation has sampled the song on several occasions. [27]


    Cherokee Nation - History


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    A Brief History of the Georgia Cherokees,
    subsequently State recognized as the

    Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokee

    In the early 1800's and late 1700's the whites began to encroach on the Cherokee lands. They married Cherokee women and raised families. As a result of that, they were welcomed into the Cherokee Nation. Their children were considered Cherokee in all ways. Especially when one considers that among the Cherokee, the children of a union, when between Cherokee and white were considered as members of the mother's clan. The Cherokee practiced a matrirocial society. When gold was discovered in Georgia in 1828, the Cherokee nation was flooded with white miners/immigrants. Many took Cherokee wives and raised large families. The children under Cherokee law and tradition were Cherokee in all ways.

    Prior to the forced removal of full blood Cherokees in 1838, there was a minimum of forty years that the white race intermarried with the Cherokee race, producing many Cherokee descendants. Even English soldiers brought children within the Cherokee nation, prior to the American Revolution. Those descendants were NOT removed, as most people believe on the now infamous Trail of Tears. Only households with a Cherokee at its head were removed. Mixed families with a White as the head of household were not removed, thus leaving thousands of mixed blood Cherokee still living within the confines of the State of Georgia. Those descendants remained and married not only whites but mixed blood Cherokees themselves. Georgia had passed many laws that discouraged Cherokee descendants from proclaiming their Cherokee heritage. And yet, the Cherokee descendants did proclaim their heritage within their own communities and families, throughout north Georgia, keeping their history and traditions alive for future generations. They remained tsaligi (Cherokee). They continued to practice their beliefs and customs, even when it was illegal by the State Government and the Federal Government as well, their religious traditions and beliefs, in secret and behind closed doors, on farms and lands far back into the Georgia mountain vallys, far from the sight of the State and Federal governments eyes. They continued to be tsaligi (Cherokee). One needs to look no further than the Chapman and Siler rolls, the Guion-Miller and the Baker rolls of Cherokees living east of the Mississippi river during the 1840 and 1850's and on up to 1925, the date of the Baker roll, to find the evidence of Cherokees still residing in Georgia after the so called removal of ALL Cherokee from the State of Georgia. Georgia along with the Federal Government was racist from the very beginning. Any hint of Indian blood had to be denied. Indians were not considered as competent witnesses in courts of law. They could not pass on lands that they owned to their heirs, they could not vote nor practice their Native American traditions in the form of worship, etc. Native Americans were only given the right to vote in 1947, recognizing them as American citizens. This type of racism caused the Cherokee descendants to have to deny their Cherokee heritage to the outside world. Yet we are still here in the State of Georgia. The State recognized this fact in 1993 when it passed the recognition bill, recognizing the descendant s of Cherokee in Georgia as the Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokee. Since that time, we have openly organized ourselves as the Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokee. We are incorporated, we have 501c3 status. We have a speakers bureau that conducts history talks to all North Georgia Schools and Colleges, State Parks, Social Clubs, Business Clubs and Historical societies, etc. The tribe has its own website, we own the names GTECI.com, georgiatribeofeasterncherokee.com, georgiatribeofeasternindians.com, georgiacherokee.com. We communicate regualrly with our members via the U.S. Mail, the Internet, email and telephone. We charge no speaking fees to educate the people of Georgia on the history of the Cherokee people, our people, the TSALIGI.

    The last Cherokee Capital was located in Calhoun, Georgia (Now known as New Echota ) The most prominent Cherokee Chief was only 1/8 Cherokee. He was John Ross , a resident of Georgia.
    Elias Boudinot , the editor of the Cherokee Newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix, was a resident of Georgia.
    Major Ridge , a prominent Cherokee, who signed the removal treaty, was a resident of Rome, Georgia.
    Sequoyah , the inventor of the Cherokee Syllabary, which resulted in the Cherokee being enabled to read and write, was a resident of Georgia.
    Nancy Ward , the most beloved woman, hero to red and white alike, a resident of Georgia, leaving many descendants.
    James Vann, the most notable Cherokee Chief was a native of Georgia. Sien Vann House , in Chatsworth, Georgia.

    In fact the most notable Cherokees resided in the State of Georgia. And as a result left many descendants in Georgia.

    The present Executive Director is 1/8 Cherokee himself, and a descendant of Nancy Ward. His ancestors can be found on the Chapman and Siler and Baker rolls of Cherokee Indians in North Georgia, Union County, under Sneed and Ward, and in North Carolina. In fact, many of our members do trace their dependency back to many prominent Cherokee ancestors.
    The Tribe is actively seeking land to establish a ceremonial complex, a museum, history and visitor center, and a repatriation cemetery, (for Indian remains) which would benefit the Entire State of Georgia and the entire Southeast United States.
    Georgia has taken a back seat too long in proclaiming their Cherokee history and Cherokee residents/citizens, and allowed North Carolina to proclaim themselves as the only Official Cherokees left in the Southeast.

    The name Tsaligi is the name the Cherokee people gave themselves. It means the principle people. We as Cherokee descendants in Georgia still consider ourselves as the Principle people. TSALIGI now and forevermore.


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    The Housing Authority of Cherokee Nation (HACN) has created the Emergency Rental Assistance Program (ERAP) in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. ERAP is available to assist eligible Native American renter households who have suffered financial hardship as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic with rental payments. Assistance may be used to cover a portion of past due rental payments, future rental payments, and rental deposits.

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    Eligibility Criteria

    Burgerskap: At Least one household member must be a Cherokee Nation citizens.

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    For more information about ERAP, please contact us at [email protected] or by phone at 918-456-5482 ext. 1135.


    Cherokee Nation - History

    With a current enrollment of approximately 240,000 members, the Cherokee Nation is Oklahoma's largest Indian group and the second largest in the United States. The Cherokee Nation is the direct, lineal descendant of the sovereign tribal government that presided over much of the southeastern United States before European colonization. The major concentration of contemporary Cherokees lies in fourteen northeastern Oklahoma counties within the original 1835 tribal treaty boundaries. The other federally recognized Cherokee government groups are the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma and the Eastern Band, headquartered in North Carolina. However, most Cherokees living throughout the United States are enrolled members of the Cherokee Nation and identify with their historic Oklahoma roots.

    The Cherokee population did not always appear so sound. Indeed, often throughout history tribal survival was in doubt. In 1838–39 more than one-fourth of the tribe died on the trek from the Southeast to the Indian Territory. Through it all—colonial battles, smallpox epidemics, the struggle to retain historic southeastern homelands, expulsion on "the trail of tears," involvement in the American Civil War, the theft and allotment of tribal lands, the coming of Oklahoma statehood, the starvation and depravation of the Great Depression, and the scattering of tribal citizens during and following the Second World War—the Cherokee Nation survived.

    In a historic migration fragment the tribal journey is shown to have begun in the far north. Cherokees are pictured fighting freezing rains and winds to arrive in their southern homeland. While the prehistoric origin of the Cherokee is shrouded in mystery, we know that their language is Iroquoian and that they shared many traditions with these northern cousins.

    Most of the ancient Cherokee villages were situated along streams in scattered areas throughout the Appalachian Mountains. The life of the traditional Cherokee was guided by a faith in supernatural forces that linked humans to all other living things. Values rested on a relationship of people and place, family and clan, and community and council. Historically, villages operated as autonomous units, joined together for ceremonials and wars. Villages with their seven clans were laid out around a large town or council house with small individual dwellings surrounding these centers.

    The Cherokees owned little personal property. Hunting and warfare were central to the life of the aboriginal Cherokees the tribe had embraced limited agriculture and planted fields, which supplemented the hunt. Males hunted women gardened, cooked, made pottery, and reared children. The tribe was matrilineal women had use of the land and one's clan membership came through the mother. A "beloved woman" and Council of Women had substantial power, including the right to declare war, which led the British to call the tribe "a petticoat government."

    Disorganized bands of Cherokees forged themselves into a strong national political state, created their own native alphabet, adopted a written constitution, and ultimately provided political, social, and economic leadership not only for the tribe but also for the nation. That they became known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes" is testimony to their ingenuity. They saw, paradoxically, that in change was their only hope of survival as a people.

    The Cherokees were the largest Indian tribe on the southern frontier of English America. By the eighteenth century the tribe numbered more than ten thousand and lived in sixty or more scattered villages. Through a series of treaties the Cherokee land holdings were reduced until the 1820s, when the major body of the tribe (approximately sixteen thousand) was concentrated primarily in Georgia and Tennessee. They were "removed" after a series of congressional and court battles and were driven by the U.S. military over what became known as "the Trail of Tears" (1838–39).

    Before the removal the Cherokee resolved to keep their government in operation throughout the exile and upon arrival in the Indian Territory. Here they joined six thousand Western or Old Settler Cherokees who had voluntarily migrated beginning as early as 1808, settling in Arkansas then the Indian Territory that became Oklahoma. The Cherokee joined their two governments under the Act of Union (1839). Since then this government has continuously operated as the Cherokee Nation. To the present the survival of this one united Cherokee government is celebrated each year on September 6 at the National Holiday in Tahlequah.

    Since removal to the Indian Territory the Cherokee Nation has remained committed to its sovereign nationhood, despite loss of one-fourth of its population on the Trail of Tears, federal seizure and allotment of tribal lands, forced merger into a state, and prohibition of the electoral franchise in selection of their own chief. Governing its people in the Indian Territory since 1839, the Cherokee Nation passed through six eras. The first marked the reestablishment of a united Cherokee Nation (1839–48).

    After their Supreme Court victory in the case of Worcester v. Georgia (1831) and the subsequent refusal of Pres. Andrew Jackson to follow the court, the Cherokee Nation split into factions. One, known as the Ridge Party, signed the Treaty of New Echota (1835) and provided the alleged basis for tribal removal the other, known as the Ross Party, resisted voluntary removal and presided over the ultimate process of migration on the Trail of Tears. Once they were in the Indian Territory, civil war erupted between the factions, resulting in the deaths of the leaders of the Treaty Party. A smoldering peace came to the Cherokee Nation after the U.S. government forced the factions to sign a treaty of agreement in 1846. Even then, bitter partisans nursed hatreds that started again when the Cherokees were drawn into the American Civil War.

    The era between the Cherokee civil war and the American Civil War is known as "the Golden Age of the Cherokees" (1849–60). Economic, cultural, and social institutions such as the Cherokee Male and Female Seminary symbolized this renaissance. During this time the Cherokees revived a tribal newspaper, the Cherokee Advocate, and published books, pamphlets, and broadsides in Sequoyah's Cherokee syllabary. The tribe established college-level education and public schools. In addition to the planter and merchant class, traditional Indians prospered. The average Cherokee enjoyed a standard of living as high as, if not higher than, their neighbors in Arkansas, Kansas, and Missouri. This prosperity ended during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras (1861–71).

    In 1861 the Cherokees once again became pawns in a white struggle. Cherokee loyalty was divided. Many Cherokee were slaveholders and sympathetic to the Confederate cause. At first the tribe sought to maintain neutrality. Geography and politics made neutrality impossible. Soon the Treaty Party was drawn to the Southern cause and their leader Stand Watie became a brigadier general in the Confederate army. The Cherokee Nation became a site of guerrilla warfare, massive destruction, burnt-over land, and widespread starvation. In excess of seven thousand Cherokee died, leaving as much as 25 percent of the Indian children as orphans.

    Despite the fact that Chief John Ross had gone north and that more than twenty-two hundred Cherokee soldiers had served the Union, the United States adopted a hostile attitude toward the entire tribe. The terms of the Treaty of Fort Smith (1866) were vindictive and harsh. The Cherokee Nation was required to surrender land, open their territory to railroads, and begin the process that would ultimately produce statehood. The costs of this war were as devastating as removal itself.

    After the Civil War the Cherokee struggled to defeat allotment and tribal dissolution (1871–1906). The railroads came to Cherokee country during this era and brought intruders who pressed for the opening of Indian lands to white settlements. The cost of the campaign to hold back this tide drained the Cherokee treasury. In spite of these external pressures the Cherokee Nation came alive with several generations of farmers, herders, and merchants practicing their trades. All this should have created a lasting peace and prosperity, but the Cherokees were subject to the constant harassment from intruders.

    By the time of the Oklahoma Land Run of 1889 the federal government determined to extinguish the Cherokee Outlet, from which the lease income supported the Cherokee Nation. On September 19, 1890, Pres. Benjamin Harrison closed the Outlet to the cattlemen who legally leased these grazing lands from the Cherokees. Thus, the tribe lost the major source of revenue for their school and governmental accounts. Finally, driven to near bankruptcy, the tribe ceded the Outlet. Broken by the sale, the Cherokee Nation lacked the power or financial resources to withstand the onslaught of numerous congressional enactments. Absorption into the State of Oklahoma was only a matter of time despite the resistance of traditional tribal leaders such as Redbird Smith.

    In 1893 the Dawes Commission was established to seek allotment of the lands of the Five Tribes including the Cherokee Congress passed the Curtis Act in 1898 to speed the process. The Oklahoma Enabling Act (1906) provided for admission of Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory as a single state. The Five Tribes Act (1906) abruptly reversed the scheme to terminate the tribes. Instead of eliminating tribal powers, Congress extended both tribe and tribal government, continuing tribal jurisdiction and sovereignty indefinitely in Oklahoma. No laws have since been enacted to restrict these recognized powers. The Cherokee Nation survived as the legal entity of governance.

    While the tribal governmental structure survived, the Cherokee Nation land base was destroyed by allotment. As established by the Dawes Commission, the original final rolls of all political citizens of the Cherokee Nation contained 41,889 full-blood and mixed-blood Cherokees, adopted Delaware and Shawnee, intermarried whites, and freedmen. Tribal land was divided among these people. The official Dawes Commission figures indicate that 4,420,068 acres were allotted among the 40,193 enrolled.

    Statehood and the effort to preserve tribal identity and authority (1907–46) dominated the fifth era of Cherokee government in Oklahoma. The events of allotment and statehood were a disaster for the Cherokee. By the beginning of the Great Depression of the 1930s almost all of the land of the individual Cherokee was gone. Much of this was land rich with oil that made the white land speculator wealthy. The majority of the Cherokee people were now destitute. Great numbers left the Cherokee Nation, many heading to California, with other Dust Bowl Okies. More than half of the Cherokees left Oklahoma during these decades.

    Returning Cherokee veterans from World War II and the possibility of a claim before the Indian Claims Commission (1946) provided the opportunity and the impetus for the tribe to capitalize upon a renewed sense of Cherokee spirit. Jesse B. Milam, the long-serving federally appointed Cherokee chief, utilized the powers of the Five Tribes Act that had retained governmental authority for the tribe. Thus began the era of renewal, retention, and rebuilding of the sovereign, self-governing Cherokee Nation (1946 to the present).

    Under the leadership of Milam and his successors, the Cherokee Nation established programs for businesses enterprise and tribal government, including gaming operations. Since 1970 the tribe was able to elect their own chief, who had since statehood been chosen by a presidential appointment. Cherokees repurchased tribal lands, signed self-governance compacting agreements, wrote a new constitution, built strong law-and-order and health-care systems, and exerted renewed influence within the state of Oklahoma and the United States.

    The Cherokee tribe is presently in the midst of a cultural as well as economic revival. The traditional Cherokee is a stronger and more powerful influence in tribal government than at any time since statehood. Increasingly, Cherokees, whether through self-help community projects or in deliberation of elected tribal council or in the votes for principal chief, are taking control over their own fate and becoming less dependent upon federal and state action. The values that survive are at the heart of the Cherokees' historic tribal existence—among these are family, friends, and a sense of being a people with a place and mission.

    At the beginning of the twenty-first century there were between ten thousand and fifteen thousand Native Cherokee speakers. The number of tribe members able to read and write in the Sequoyahian syllabary was growing. The Cherokee Nation was the greatest economic force and the largest employer in northeastern Oklahoma, contributing close to one-half billion dollars to the region's economy. Today's Cherokee Nation is teaching tribal history and language courses, building a national university, and restoring traditional tribal property while increasing the financial strength and independence of the tribe and tribe members.

    Since 1907 statehood the Cherokee have extended their service and loyalty to the state and nation. Robert L. Owen became one of Oklahoma's first U.S. senators. Will Rogers and Sequoyah represent the state of Oklahoma in the Statutory Hall of Fame in the U.S. Capitol. Adm. Joseph J. "Jocko" Clark, as commander of the carrier Yorktown in World War II, became the highest-ranking person of American Indian descent in U.S. military history. William W. Hastings and Brad Carson served as Oklahoma delegates in the U.S. House of Representatives. Written by poet and playwright Lynn Riggs, the drama of Cherokee life in the Indian Territory, Green Grow the Lilacs, became the basis for the award-winning musical Oklahoma! And, without question, Will Rogers was "the philosopher of America's common man who talked the Nation through the depression." In commerce and industry Chief William W. Keeler was chief executive officer of the Phillips Petroleum Company. In recent years Chief Wilma Mankiller has been influential as a role model for global leadership in the women's movement. Wes Studi remains one of the best-known American Indian film stars.

    Bibliografie

    William L. Anderson, ed., Cherokee Removal: Before and After (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1991).

    Kent Carter, The Dawes Commission and the Allotment of the Five Civilized Tribes, 1893–1914 (Orem, Utah: Ancestry.com., Inc., 1999).

    Robert J. Conley, The Cherokee Nation: A History (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2005).

    Angie Debo, And Still the Waters Run: The Betrayal of the Five Civilized Tribes (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1940).

    Dianna Everett, The Texas Cherokees: A People Between Two Fires, 1819–1840 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990).

    Duane King, ed., The Cherokee Indian Nation: A Troubled History (Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1979).

    William G. McLoughlin, After the Trail of Tears: The Cherokees' Struggle for Sovereignty, 1839–1880 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993).

    Theda Perdue, The Cherokees (New York: Chelsea House, 1989).

    Earl Boyd Pierce and Rennard Strickland, The Cherokee People (Phoenix, Ariz.: Indian Tribal Series, 1973).

    Rennard Strickland, Fire and the Spirit: Cherokee Law from Clan to Court (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1975).

    Grace Steele Woodward, The Cherokees (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963).

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