Sarsi ATF -111 - Geskiedenis

Sarsi ATF -111 - Geskiedenis



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Sarsi

(ATF-111: dp. 1.330, 1. 205 ', b. 38'6 ", dr. 16'8", s. 16 k. Cpl. 88; a. 1 3 ", 2 40mm., 2 20mm ., 2 bedrywe; cl. Abnaki)

Sarsi (AT-111) is op 25 Januarie 1943 neergelê deur die United Engineering and Dry Dock Co., Alameda, Kalifornië, wat op 12 Junie 1943 gelanseer is, geborg deur mev. Robert E. Christy; herontwerp ATF-111 op 15 Mei 1944; en in opdrag van 24 Junie 1944, luitenant H. J. Perry, Jr., USNR, in bevel.

Na afloop van opleiding in die suide van Kalifornië, het Sarsi noordwaarts gegaan om vloot sleeppligte in die 17de vlootdistrik te aanvaar. Sy het op 19 Augustus by die Aleoetiërs aangekom en teen die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog 45 werksgeleenthede in die Aleoetiërs voltooi en by vier geleenthede eenhede van die Task Forces in die Noord -Stille Oseaan ondersteun wat aanvalle gedoen het teen die Kuriele en vyandelike skeepsvaart noord van Hokkaido. Tydens laasgenoemde is geen slagoffers op die skepe van die aanvalmagte aangerig nie.

By die uitvoering van haar uiteenlopende missies - berging, sleep, personeel en vraghysers - in die Aleoetiese ketting, het die sleepboot vanuit Unalaska, Kodiak, Umnak, Seguam, Adak, Tanaga, Amatignak, Amchitka, Shemya en Attu gery. Na die oorlog bly sy aktief aan diens en bly sy sleep- en vervoerdienste aan skepe en basisse in die Aleoetiërs. In die lente van 1947 keer sy terug na die suide van Kalifornië en begin sy operasies uit San Diego wat haar suid langs die weskus na Panama neem; wes na die Hawaiiaanse, Marshall- en Mariana -eilande, en, vyf jaar later, noordwaarts, terug na die Aleoetiërs. Teen daardie tyd het die oorlog egter na die Stille Oseaan teruggekeer, en die Verenigde State was betrokke by die pogings van die Verenigde Nasies in Korea.

Op 24 Maart 1952 vertrek Sarsi, onder bevel van Lt. W. M. Howard, uit San Diego en vaar wes. Op 18 April het sy by Sasebo, Japan, aangekom. Op die 20ste het sy ammunisie aangeneem, en 'n week later het sy verder gegaan na die Koreaanse skiereiland. Aan die einde van die maand het sy aan die oostekant van Yo-do vasgemeer, in die naderings na die Wonsan-hawe, en as 'n eenheid van Taakgroep 92.2, die ooskusblokkade en Escort Force, het sy sleep, berging, patrollie uitgevoer , begeleiding, boeie tender en vervoertaak. Op 19 Mei keer sy terug na Sasebo waar sy een reddingsmissie en verskeie sleepopdragte na die suidoostelike Koreaanse en Japannese hawens voltooi het. Einde Junie het sy aan die weskus van Korea opereer. In Julie het sy weer tussen Suidoos -Korea en Kyushu opereer; en op 19 Augustus keer sy terug na die Wonsan -omgewing en hervat haar uiteenlopende pligte daar.

Op die 20ste het die tifoon "Karen" die kus getref. Vir die volgende week het Sarsi verskillende vaartuie gesleep; ligte vrag en personeel vervoer; boeie verskuif en nag-, naby-kus-anti-myn- en rommelpatrollies uitgevoer. Die middag van die 27ste het sy van Cimarron (AO-22) gevul- en om 1847 het sy noordwaarts getrek om langs die rand van die myngesweekte waters tussen Wonsan en Hungnam te patrolleer. Om 2200 is alle onnodige ligte geblus. Sy bereik Hungnam sonder voorval, maar toe sy omdraai om terug te keer na Wonsan, ontplof 'n drywende myn, waarskynlik deur die tifoon losgesny, teen haar romp. Skadebeheerpogings was tevergeefs, en Sarsi sak in twintig minute.

Vier mans is dood. Die res, waaronder vier gewondes, het oornag in, of vasgeklou aan, reddingsvlotte lewensredders en die skip se walvisboot. Die walvisboot, wat met die lyne na die vlotte na die see gewys word, het verhoed dat hulle na die vyand se oewer dryf. Reddingsskepe — vernietiger, Boyd en mynveërs, Ywer en Bekwaam - het die oggend aangekom; en het die oorlewendes na 'n vriendelike gebied geneem vir mediese behandeling en herplasing.

Sarsi verdien twee veldtogsterre vir haar diens tydens die Koreaanse konflik.


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        'N 16-duim-salvo van die USS Missouri is gerig op Chongjin, Korea, in 'n poging om Noord-Koreaanse kommunikasie op 21 Oktober 1950 te sny. Amerikaanse vlootfoto

        MacArthur was vasbeslote om sy magte se bevel oor die see uit te buit. Reeds op 4 Julie 1950 belê hy 'n vergadering om 'n voorgestelde landing by Kunsan of Inchon, met die kodenaam "Operation Bluehearts", te bespreek. Dit was in hierdie vroeë stadium onuitvoerbaar, maar die 1ste mariene afdeling was gereed in die Verenigde State en het middel Augustus vanaf San Diego gevaar. Die nuwe plan, 'Chromite', het Inchon as die landingsplek gekies, hoofsaaklik omdat dit slegs 25 myl van Seoul af was, wie se bevryding die Suid -Koreane sou bemoedig en 16 myl van die Kimpo -lughawe af. Aan die ander kant was dit die ergste moontlike keuse vir 'n landing, met 'n groot getybereik, 'n getystroom van 7 tot 8 knope en 'n baie benoude benadering, onder andere nadele. Maar vrymoedigheid het die dag gewen, en MacArthur reken dat die baie ongeskiktheid van Inchon die Noord -Koreane sy verdediging sou laat verwaarloos. Op 15 September, na 'n paar dae van 'versagting' deur geweervuur ​​en bombardemente, het die mariniers aan wal gegaan, en teen die einde van die dag is 13 000 troepe en hul toerusting veilig geland, teen slegs 21 dood en 275 gewondes of ontbreek. Kimpo val op 17 September, gevolg deur Seoul.

        Die harde gevegte is uitgevoer deur grondtroepe, ondersteun deur lugmag, maar Inchon het die verloop van die oorlog verander. Op 23 September het die Noord -Koreane hulle aan die Pusan ​​-omtrek onttrek, wat aansienlike Amerikaanse magte vir aanvallende optrede bevry het, en deur die vyand byna tot by die 38ste parallel terug te dryf, het MacArthur getoon dat 'n behoorlike integrasie van see-, land- en lugmag die enigste manier om beslissende resultate te kry.

        Die harde gevegte is uitgevoer deur grondtroepe, ondersteun deur lugmag, maar Inchon het die verloop van die oorlog verander. Op 23 September het die Noord -Koreane hulle aan die Pusan ​​-omtrek onttrek, wat aansienlike Amerikaanse magte vir aanvallende optrede bevry het, en deur die vyand byna tot by die 38ste parallel terug te dryf, het MacArthur getoon dat 'n behoorlike integrasie van see-, land- en lugmag die enigste manier om beslissende resultate te kry. Sy besluit om die geslaan DPRK -magte oor die ou grens na te jaag, alhoewel dit op papier klink omdat die bedoeling was om die vyand se leër te vernietig, was strategies, polities en polities. Die opmars van die VN na Noord -Korea op 9 Oktober, het Chinese ingryping veroorsaak, die oorlog vergroot en die risiko loop dat die toevoerlyne te veel uitbrei. China was eenvoudig te groot om te ignoreer, en die tussenkoms van sy land- en lugmag het die diplomatieke reëls vir Washington en sy Europese bondgenote verander.

        'N Navy AD-3 Skyraider (bo-middel) trek uit 'n duik nadat hy 'n bom van 2 000 pond aan die Koreaanse kant van 'n brug wat die Yalu-rivier by Sinuiju oorsteek, na Mantsjoerië, 15 November 1950, laat val het. Amerikaanse vlootfoto

        Vir die vloot was die eerste nuwe verbintenis om 'n amfibiese landing by Wonsan aan die ooskus te ondersteun, wat bedoel was om sy staalfabrieke, kragstasie en hawe -fasiliteite op te vang. Maar die sukses van Inchon moes nie so maklik herhaal word nie. Die Sowjetunie het voldoende gevorderde myne aan die Noord -Korea verskaf om 'n groot verhoor van verdedigende mynoorlogs moontlik te maak, nie net by Wonsan nie, maar ook by Hungnam in die noorde en Chinnampo aan die weskus. Beide Hungnam en Wonsan het goeie hawens, met 'n vlak rak wat uiters geskik is vir mynbou.

        Die draaikolk van sy propeller omring 'n F4U-4 Corsair-vegvliegtuig terwyl hy gereed is om aan boord van die USS Boxer (CV 21) gelanseer te word voor 'n staking teen kommunistiese teikens in Korea, Juy 21, 1951. Na die agterkant van die vliegdekskip hang 'n Sikorsky H03S-1 helikopter. U.S. Navy se foto

        Die 1ste Mariene Afdeling land op 25 Oktober, vyf dae later as beplan, vanweë die noodsaaklikheid om die hoofkanale van myne af te vee. Maar die opruiming van die hele gebied het altesaam 15 dae geduur, en die ROK Army het die stad verower voordat die mariniers aan wal kon kom. Om te vee het nege myneveërs vereis, waarvan drie gesink is. Die groot voordeel van seekrag is ten minste tydelik vernietig. Om administrateur Forrest P. Sherman aan te haal, "As jy nie kan gaan waar jy wil nie, het jy nie die bevel oor die see nie."

        U.S. Navy F2H Banshees of Fighter Squadron 22 (VF-22) vertrek vir 'n aanval op Noord-Korea terwyl die USS Lake Champlain (CV 39) en die USS New Jersey (BB 62) met die Task Force 77. Foto van die National Museum of Naval Aviation

        Teen 21 November het ROK -grondmagte Hyesan op die grens van Manchuria bereik, die verste punt wat enige VN -magte in die oorlog bereik het, en die VSA en ander VN -magte was teen 24 November slegs 75 myl van die Yalu -rivier by Sinuiju af. Dit sou egter die grens van die VN se vooruitgang wees, want die Chinese magte het twee dae later sterk aangeval en 'n ewe vinnige onttrekking genoodsaak. Vir die eerste keer het VN-vliegtuie MiG-15's teëgekom wat vanaf basisse aan die Chinese kant van die grens werk, 'n irritasie wat gelei het tot oproepe om hul basisse te bombardeer. Nou het dit noodsaaklik geword om die magte so gou as moontlik uit te roei. Winter was besig om in te sluit, wat die posisie van die 1st Marine Division baie kwesbaar maak. Weereens was vlootondersteuning noodsaaklik om die onttrekking te dek, aangesien die mariniers 'n agterhoede -aksie oor die 78 myl tussen die Chosin -reservoir en Hungnam geveg het. Die Amerikaanse vlootdraers het noue ondersteuning gebied Badoengstraat (CVE 116), Leyte (CV 32), en Filippynse See, wat meer as 200 soorte per dag tussen hulle gevlieg het.

        Die USS Essex (CV 9) met 'n besneeuwde dek tydens 'n sneeustorm buite Korea, in 1952. Vliegtuigvervoerbedrywighede tydens die Koreaanse Oorlog word dikwels deur moeilike weer belemmer. Amerikaanse vlootfoto

        Die volgende groot Chinese offensief, bekend as die Nuwejaar -offensief omdat dit op 1 Januarie 1951 van stapel gestuur is, het binnekort die VN -magte teruggekeer na die 38ste parallel. Vir waarnemers het dit te veel na die terugtog na die Pusan ​​-omtrek gelyk, maar hierdie keer het die Verenigde State en sy bondgenote die voordeel gehad van voldoende hulpbronne, veral lugvaartsteun. Op 11 Mei het die Australiese regering ingestem om sy bydrae aansienlik te verhoog deur die ligte vlootdraer HMAS te stuur Sydney en twee vernietigers. Die feit dat die Australiese vervoerder feitlik identies was aan die Royal Navy -draers wat reeds op die stasie was en dieselfde tipe vliegtuie gevlieg het, het die logistiek vereenvoudig en haar in staat gestel om baie vinnig in die bestaande organisasie opgeneem te word. Net so ook die Nederlandse vernietigers Piet Hein en Van Galen is van die Royal Navy verkry en kon dieselfde onderdele gebruik.

        Die skepe van die Royal Navy en die Royal Australian Navy lê vasgemeer van Yokosuka, Japan, nadat hulle teruggekeer het van gevegspatrollies in Koreaanse waters, 26 Januarie 1951. Die skepe is van links na regs: HMAS Warramunga, HMS Charity en HMAS Bataan. Foto van U.S. Navy Historical Center

        Benewens die verskaffing van lugsteun van sy vragmotors, het die Britse Gemenebest -skepe ook baie filiaalmissies aan die ooskus uitgevoer, sodat die Amerikaanse vlootdraers kon konsentreer op die operasies aan die weskus. Ooskusbedrywighede het onder meer die verbod op mynlegging in kuswaters deur Noord -Koreaanse vaartuie ingesluit en strooptogte agter vyandelike lyne deur plaaslike guerrillas ondersteun. Die doolhof van klein eilande was ideaal vir sulke klandestiene aktiwiteite, maar dit was ook kwesbaar vir teenwerking deur die Noord -Koreane, en dit was soms nodig om die guerrillagroepe uit te roei of aanvalle te neutraliseer. In Mei 1953 is 'n Noord -Koreaanse poging om hierdie horings uit hul neste, die eilande Hachwira en Sanchwira in die riviermonding van Chinnampo, uit hul neste te rook, in die wiele gery deur massiewe ingryping. Op 25 Mei het die slagskip USS New Jersey (BB 62), vergesel van die kruiser HMS Newcastle, op die toneel aangekom. Die reuse slagskip het 32 ​​16-duim-skulpe op Amgak en batterye aan die noordekant van die Taedongrivier afgevuur, terwyl die kruiser vyandelike geweerposisies geneutraliseer het met haar 6-duim-gewere. 'N Tifoon het veroorsaak dat 'n aantal vasgemore myne in die verre noorde, naby Changjin en Hungnam, aan die gang geraak het. Dertig is gesien en gesink, maar die vloot het 'n sleepboot getrek Sarsi (ATF 111) slaan een en sink af van Hungnam. Pogings om haar te red, is laat vaar nadat reddingsskepe herhaaldelik op 'n afstand van 5 000 meter onder skoot gekom het.

        ROK vlootmynveër YMS-516 word deur 'n magnetiese myn opgeblaas tydens vee-operasies wes van Kalma Pando, Wonsan-hawe, 18 Oktober 1950. Myne was 'n konstante bedreiging vir VN-skepe tydens die Koreaanse Oorlog. Foto van U.S. Naval Historical Center

        Die winters in die Koreaanse waters was stormagtig, en skepe en personeel het altyd 'n blokkade onderhou en op die stasie rondgedwaal. In Oktober 1952 het die orkaan Ruth sy woede op die Australiese vervoerder uitgegooi Sydney en haar begeleier, die Nederlandse verwoester Van Galen. Die vervoerder het 'n waarskuwing ontvang terwyl sy by Sasebo in Japan was, en sy het dieselfde oggend die hawe verlaat. Laatmiddag het sy gewelddadig gerol ('n maksimum van 22˚ is aangeteken), en vliegtuie op die vliegdek is beskadig. Geskeurde langafstand-brandstoftenks het petrolgasse in die skip se ventilasiestelsel gelek, en water tussen dekke het die enjinkamers bereik. Die orkaan bereik sy hoogtepunt naby middernag, teen 'n tyd dat 'n vuurvlieg oorboord gewas is. Nie ver van die gehawende karweier, die gehuurde Amerikaanse troepevervoer, die SS Kongo Maru, op 'n klein eiland gestrand het, en nog 'n dosyn skepe het in die gebied verwoes. Slegs harde werk deur sleepbote het die skepe in Sasebo van 'n soortgelyke lot gered.

        Die USS Begor (APD 127) en 'n motorlansering staan ​​op die voorgrond terwyl die oorblywende VN -voorraad en hawe -fasiliteite tydens die ontruiming van Hungnam, 24 Desember 1950, opgeblaas word. Foto van U.S. Naval Historical Center foto

        In Julie 1952 verander die Amerikaanse vloot sy beleid oor bombardemente aan die weskus. In die toekoms sou daar nie sonder onderskeid geskiet word nie, en brandondersteuning sou slegs gerig wees op die plekke waar skulpe val. Gedurende die laaste helfte van die jaar is 'n aantal skepe beskadig en het hulle gesterf, omdat die vyand se artillerie meer akkuraat geword het. Omgekeerd het die 7de Vlootleer groot klem gelê op interdik, en daar was selde genoeg vliegtuie om vir lugondersteuning en lugopsporing te spaar. Soortgelyke toestande het aan die ooskus geheers, en op 6 Augustus het die vernietiger USS John R. Pierce (DD 753) is sewe keer getref en tot stilstand gebring.

        Drie Amerikaanse vloot McDonnell F2H-2 Banshees (BuNo 124971. 124972, 124982) van Fighter Squadron VF-172 “Blue Bolts ” word voorberei vir die bekendstelling op die vliegdek van die vliegdekskip USS Essex (CV 9) wat aan die kus werk van Korea. Tussen 23-25 ​​Augustus 1951 het VF-172-vliegtuie vir die eerste keer in aksie getree. Tydens een missie, saam met VF-51 F9F-2's. hulle het Boeing B-29's begelei op bombardemente op groot hoogtes oor Noord-Korea. Foto van die National Museum of Naval Aviation

        Op die land is die Chinese offensief uiteindelik gestaak en dan verder as die 38ste parallel teruggedruk, en teen Julie 1951 is die hoofweerstand van die verset gevestig. Die klimaat was nou gunstiger vir wapenstilstandsonderhandelinge, maar die lang uitgerekte proses was slegs perifere vir die vlootaktiwiteite van die VN-magte. 'N Bizarre kenmerk van die oorlog was die manier waarop vyandelikhede vanaf Februarie 1952 nog 16 maande voortduur, nadat die laaste groot hindernis vir 'n wapenstilstand deur pasiëntonderhandeling verwyder is. In Julie 1953 het die Chinese baie swaar aanvalle geloods, en weereens bied TF 77 waardevolle ondersteuning aan Suid -Koreaanse magte in teenaanvalle. 'N Verlenging van die oorlog van vyf weke het 46,000 slagoffers gekos, meestal Suid-Koreane, en die kommuniste het na raming 75,000 verloor.

        Amerikaanse vlootbeamptes aan boord van die vliegdekskip USS Bon Homme Richard (CV 31) wat 500-pond en 100-pond-bomme op Douglas AD-3 en AD-4Q Skyraider-vliegtuie van aanvalseskader VA-923, Carrier Air Group 102 (CVG-102) versmelt. ), voor 'n aanval op Korea op 10 November 1951. Regs is 'n AD-4W vroeë waarskuwingsvliegtuig (ND-350) van Composite Squadron VC-11 Det. G. Foto van die Amerikaanse departement van verdediging

        Die Koreaanse Oorlog neem 'n unieke plek in die geskiedenis in as die eerste poging van 'n supermoondheid in die kerntydperk om beperkte geweld te gebruik om sy doelwitte te bereik. Daar was baie wat gevoel het dat die eindelose onderhandelinge by Panmunjom 'n bewys was dat die Verenigde State en sy bondgenote van 'n oorwinning beroof is. Maar die verloop van tyd verleen 'n vollediger perspektief op hierdie skynbare mislukking. In werklikheid word Korea nou gesien as die eerste toetssaak van die Westerse Alliansie se vasberadenheid om kommunistiese pogings om klein nasies te ondermyn, die hoof te bied. Alhoewel ons nou weet dat Truman nooit die geringste bedoeling gehad het om MacArthur se standpunte oor die gebruik van kernwapens teen China te implementeer nie, was dit 'n dominante vrees onder die bondgenote van Amerika. Trouens, dit kan beweer word dat die vlootpoging nie net die dag gered het toe die Noord -Koreaanse landmagte in 1950 die 38ste parallel oorgesteek het nie, maar ook 'n bydrae gelewer het tot die 'bestuur' van die konflik. Deur die konflik te beperk, het die vlootmagte dit verhinder om 'n punt te bereik waar 'n vernederende nederlaag vir die Verenigde State as 'n verskoning vir 'n voorkomende kernaanval gebruik kan word, of selfs die laer risiko van 'warm strewe' na die Chinese magte oorkant die Yalu -rivier tot in Mantsjoerije. Teen die agtergrond van die Koue Oorlog kan Korea gesien word as 'n terugslag vir Stalin se strategie om surrogate aan te moedig om sy vyande in stukke te verslaan. Kritici van die wapenstilstand van 1953 miskyk ook gerieflik dat die Republiek van Korea die afgelope 60 jaar floreer het, ondanks onophoudelike vyandigheid van die Pyongyang -regime. Dit is inderdaad die noorde wat 'n ekonomiese ineenstorting ondergaan het, en sy onbevoegdheid word uiteindelik deur Rusland of China erken as 'n redding.

        'N Uitsig oor die Hwachon -dam ná die aanval op die Amerikaanse vloot op 1 Mei 1951 wat die dam oortree het. Amerikaanse vlootfoto

        Korea het die hele reeks vlootkrag ontplooi: vliegdekskepe, slagskepe en kruisers, tot by myneveërs en landingsvaartuie. Vyandige magte was onbeduidend in die sin dat hulle nooit 'n geveg teen so 'n skare kon bied nie, maar wel die plaaslike toestande slim kon gebruik om die blokkerende magte ongerief en selfs verlies te berokken. Alle wapens het bygedra tot die beperkte oorwinning in 1953, maar dit was vlootmag wat deurgaans die ring gehou het.

        Die USS Missouri skiet 16-duim-skulpe in vyandelike lyne by Hungnam op 26 Desember 1950 af. U.S. Navy-foto

        Hierdie artikel en sy metgesel oor vlootlesse uit die Koreaanse Oorlog is 'n dekade gelede geskryf deur ons ontslape vriend Antony Preston, wat op Kersdag 2004 oorlede is. Ons herdruk dit hier in die oortuiging dat niemand hierdie verhale kon skryf nie beter.


        Sarsi

        Die Sarsi is 'n Athapaskaan-sprekende Amerikaanse Indiese groep met noue taalkundige verhoudings met die Sekani en Beaver in die weste en noordweste. Hulle tel nou ongeveer vyfhonderd en woon op die Sarcee -reservaat net suidwes van Calgary, Alberta. Ten tyde van kontak, met Matthew Cocking in 1772-1773 en Alexander Mackenzie in 1789, het die Sarsi die dreineringsgebied van die Athabaska-rivier suid tot by die Noord-Saskatchewan-rivier bewoon. Aan die begin van die negentiende eeu was hul belangrikste jagvelde rondom laasgenoemde rivier. Hulle verskil kultureel van die naburige Athapaskan-sprekende groepe deurdat hulle sterk deurdrenk was met die Indiese kulturele kenmerke van die Vlakte, vanweë hul lang verbintenis met die Bloed en Noordelike Swartvoet. Teen die vroeë negentiende eeu het hulle perde en gewere gekry.

        Die Sarsi is in groepe georganiseer, elk saamgestel uit verskeie naverwante gesinne wat saam gejag en kamp opgeslaan het. Die lidmaatskap van die groep was vloeibaar met baie gesplete en bewegende gesinne. Bandleierskap berus op individuele aansien, met geen leier wat absolute magte het nie. Die orkeste het in die somer saamgespan om te jag en seremonies te hou. Gedurende die res van die jaar het die groepe of klein jagpartytjies op hul eie gefunksioneer. Bison was die belangrikste inheemse voedselbron, en gereeld gejag in gemeenskaplike ritte. Bison vel tipis is deur die vroue gemaak. In die twintigste eeu het baie Sarsi in Calgary met boerdery, veeverhoging, houtwerk en loonarbeid gewerk.

        Huwelike is gekenmerk deur geskenkuitruilings. Poligynie is toegepas, net soos die vermyding van leviraat, sororaat en skoonma vir mans. In 1897 is twee afdelings van die Sarsi aangemeld, een by die reservaat in Fort Calgary aan die Boegrivier en die ander by Battleford in die westelike Saskatchewan. Vyf bande is getel: die Bloods (Big Plume's Band bestaande uit gemengde Cree en Blood Indians), die Broad Grass (bestaande uit gemengde Cree en Sarsi Indiane), People Who Hold Aloof (amper alle Sarsi), Baarmoeder (Blackfoot en Sarsi), en die Young Buffalo Robe. Die danse van die manlike samelewings, sowel as die Sun Dance, was die belangrikste stamseremonies. Die dooies het steier begrawe met hul klere en persoonlike besittings. Persoonlike perde is doodgemaak. Bandleiers of bekende krygers is in verlate tipis gelaat. Persoonlike krag is verkry in drome en visioene. In die verlede was die Sarsi verbonde aan die Blackfoot teen die Assiniboin en Cree.


        Plaasvervangers vir Dexron III -transmissievloeistof

        General Motors (GM) het vanaf die veertigerjare die Dexron -reeks outomatiese transmissievloeistowwe vervaardig. GM het die oorspronklike smeermiddel verbeter en deur verskeie fases opgegradeer, waaronder Dexron II en Dexron III. Dexron III (H) en Dexron III/Saturnus is opgraderings na Dexron III vloeistowwe, en Dexron VI het die amptelike plaasvervanger vir Dexron III geword.

        Direkte vervanging

        Dexron VI vervang Dexron III en vorige ontwikkelings van die Dexron -vloeistowwe volledig. GM vervaardig die vloeistof vir verenigbaarheid met transmissies wat vroeëre weergawes van die vloeistof vereis. Dexron VI werk in enige voertuig wat ATF-A (die oorspronklike outomatiese ratkas) of 'n Dexron-variasie benodig. GM se nuutste voertuie vereis egter die gebruik van Dexron VI in die transmissies.

        Ondersteuning

        Dexron -variasies voor Dexron VI is nie versoenbaar nie. GM ondersteun nie die gebruik van 'n ouer weergawe van die Dexron -vloeistof in enige voertuig wat Dexron VI benodig nie. Boonop kan u nie 'n ATF-, Mercron- of ouer variasies van Dexron gebruik in voertuie wat Dexron III vra nie. Dexron III (H) is ten volle versoenbaar met Dexron III, en GM het Dexron III/Saturnus spesifiek ontwerp vir die Saturn -reeks voertuie.

        Advies

        GM het alle lisensiëring vir die vervaardiging van Dexron III in 2006 beëindig. Die maatskappy het GM -voertuigeienaars meegedeel dat enige ander vervaardiger se bewerings oor verenigbaarheid na 2006 sonder amptelike GM -goedkeuring onakkuraat sou wees. GM het die publiek ingelig dat die enigste vloeistof wat verenigbaar is met Dexron III die vervangende Dexron VI is. Die motorvervaardiger, wat daarna toestemming gegee het vir Dexron VI GM, publiseer 'n lys met ondernemings en produkname wat voldoen aan die spesifikasies daarvan vir die vloeistof (sien skakel in die afdeling Hulpbronne).


        Sarsi ATF -111 - Geskiedenis

        Die Chinese immigrant Wong Ning het in 1918 die Manila Aerated Water Factory in die Misericordia (nou Tomás Mapúa) -straat in Manila gestig, wat verskeie variëteite koeldrank vir die plaaslike mark vervaardig het, vermoedelik die sarsaparilla -resep wat na die blik links verwys word. Sarsaparilla (Smilax ornata) is 'n Sentraal -Amerikaanse plant, maar dit is wêreldwyd as 'n gesonde tonikum uitgevoer lank voordat die byvoeging van sodawater dit laat in die laat negentiende eeu tot 'n vroeë variëteit van wortelbier gemaak het. Is die resep van meneer Wong beïnvloed deur drankies wat Amerikaanse besetters na die Filippyne gebring het, of deur die Chinese medisinale afkooksels van sy jeug? Miskien is dit 'n bietjie van albei.

        Nadat die Japannese Manila in 1942 binnegeval het, is Wong Ning weens sy politieke simpatie in hegtenis geneem en is hy in die tronk dood. Na die oorlog het sy oudste seun, Henry Gao-Hong Wong, die onderneming oorgeneem en dit in 1945 die naam Cosmos Bottling Company genoem. Wong broers en susters. Die onderneming bied agt geure aan: sarsaparilla, lemoen, room, soda, suurlemoen, moerbei, druiwe en pynappel.

        In die laat 60's het Cosmos Sarsaparilla amptelik sy naam verander na 'Sarsi', wat sedertdien 'n algemene term geword het vir baie sarsaparilla -frisdrank in Asië. Net so is die Cosmos -cola hernoem "Pop Cola" en lemoensmaak het geword "Sunta."

        In die sewentigerjare was Cosmos 'n borg van die Miss Asia -kompetisie en het hy baie van sy wenners in die advertensies gespeel. 'N TV -advertensie wat baie Filippyne van hierdie tyd onthou, bevat 'n volksresep van Sarsi gemeng met 'n rou eier.

        Die Wong -familie verkoop die handelsmerk aan die voedselkonglomeraat RFM Corporation in 1989. 'n Oorspronklike advertensie uit die vroeë 90's bied Sarsi as 'n drankie vir diegene wat 'n bietjie anders wil wees:

        Na 'n paar jaar van swak winste, verkoop RFM die handelsmerk in 2001 aan 'n vennootskap van die San Miguel Corporation en Coca-Cola, die Coca-Cola Bottlers Philippines Inc, eienaars van Royal Tru vrugtesoda. Na verskeie herorganisasies en voorraadverkope die handelsmerk is nou in besit van die Mexikaanse bottelaar Coca-Cola FEMSA.

        Hierdie goed is so vol speserye, dit is wonderlik! Dit ruik na 'n Asiatiese apteek met gedroogde gemmer en anys. Dit het 'n droë geur eerder as soet, amper korrelrig, bitter en medisinale. Dit laat Moxie na 'n soet en gladde drankie lyk.

        Meer 'n aardse en kruie sarsaparilla as 'n romerige wortelbiergeur. Dit het 'n sterk geur en verfrissend, maar 'n bietjie pons word nie deur die te veel soetigheid belas nie.

        Koolzuurhoudende water, suiker, karamelkleur, natriumbenzoaat (preserveermiddel), natuurlike en kunsmatige geure, aspartaam ​​(merk Nutrasweet) en sitroensuur.

        Cosmos Bottling Corporation
        1890 Paz Guazonlaan
        Otis, Paco, Manila
        1007 Metro Manila
        Filippyne


        8 feite oor geweerbeheer in die VSA

        Die regsgrondslag vir die besit van vuurwapens in die VSA is vervat in die tweede wysiging van die Grondwet. Maar hoe word gewere gereguleer? DW kyk na wie dit kan koop en verkoop - en hoe een skuiwergat die wapenbeheer ondermyn.

        Geweerbeheer is een van die mees verdelende kwessies in die Amerikaanse politiek. Met elke massaskietery - gedefinieer as vier of meer slagoffers wat sonder onderskeid vermoor is - groei antagonisme tussen beide kante van die geweerbeheer -argument.

        Voorstanders van strenger geweerregulasies vrees vir hul veiligheid in 'n land waar daar gemiddeld 88 gewere per 100 mense is, volgens die 2011 Small Arms Survey. Die Brady -veldtog om geweergeweld te voorkom, beraam dat ongeveer 114,994 mense elke jaar in die VSA geskiet word. Dit sluit moorde, aanrandings, ongelukke, polisie -ingryping, selfmoordpogings en selfmoorde in.

        Teenstanders van regulatoriese argumente vrees egter ook 'n verlies aan veiligheid. Hulle beweer dat die beperking van die reg om wapens te dra, burgers nie in staat kan stel om hulself in hul daaglikse lewens te beskerm nie, of in 'n ergste geval teen 'n regering wat die mense teenstaan.

        Alhoewel regulasies van staat tot staat verskil, is daar 'n paar belangrike voorwaardes vir die verkryging van wapens in die VSA.

        Die National Shooting Sports Foundation skat dat daar meer as 10 000 skietbane in die VSA is

        1. Is daar 'n minimum ouderdom?

        Die Gun Control Act van 1968 (GCA), wat vuurwapens op federale vlak reguleer, vereis dat burgers en wettige inwoners minstens 18 jaar oud moet wees om haelgewere of gewere en ammunisie aan te skaf. Alle ander vuurwapens - byvoorbeeld handwapens - kan slegs aan mense van 21 jaar en ouer verkoop word.

        Staats- of plaaslike amptenare kan hoër ouderdomsbeperkings implementeer, maar mag nie die federale minimum verlaag nie.

        2. Wie is beperk tot die aankoop of besit van vuurwapens?

        Vlugtelinge, mense wat as 'n gevaar vir die samelewing beskou word, en pasiënte wat onwillekeurig toegewyd is aan geestesinstellings, is onder diegene wat nie vuurwapens mag koop nie. Mense met vorige skuldigbevindings wat 'n gevangenisstraf van meer as een jaar insluit, of oortredings wat meer as twee jaar gevangenisstraf bevat, word ook verbied om vuurwapens te koop.

        Federale wet blokkeer ook die verkoop van wapens aan mense wat die afgelope jaar skuldig bevind is aan die onwettige besit of gebruik van beheerde middels. Dit sluit dagga in, wat, hoewel dit in baie Amerikaanse state gewettig is, volgens die federale wet onwettig bly.

        Wapenwinkeleienaars moet lisensies van die ATF verkry om te werk

        Ander beperkings geld vir mense wat deur die howe 'n verbodsbevel uitgereik is om teistering, agtervolging of dreigement van mense wat hul burgerskap verloën het, oneerlik ontslaan deur ongemagtigde migrante en mense wat die VSA tydelik besoek het met visum wat nie immigrant is nie, byvoorbeeld as toeriste.

        3. Reguleer die federale of staatsregering vuurwapens?

        Die tweede wysiging dien as die regsgrondslag vir die "reg van die mense om wapens te hou en te dra."

        Though state and local governments regulate whether residents may, for example, carry guns in public, laws regulating who may receive or possess guns are set out at the federal level.

        The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), a division of the Department of Justice, administers the GCA. The ATF also regulates the standards for issuing licenses to gun vendors.

        Shotguns, rifles, machine guns, firearm mufflers and silencers are regulated by the National Firearms Act of 1934. The purchase of semi-automatic weapons is legal in most states, as are automatic weapons made before 1986.

        4. Who may sell firearms?

        Like handgun owners, dealers interested in obtaining a Federal Firearms License (FFL) must be at least 21 years of age. They must have premises for conducting business and must alert a local law enforcement official at the time of submitting their applications to the federal bureau that regulates firearms. Just like gun owners, they must fulfill the same criteria regarding their history of prior convictions and mental state. The license fee costs $200 (€170) for an initial three-year period and $90 for each subsequent three-year-long renewal.

        Selling firearms online also falls under these regulations. Although the purchase may be paid for online, the gun itself must be shipped to a registered FFL holder, who then conducts the necessary background check before handing the firearm over to its owner.

        Some states have loosened laws so that owners may conceal handguns in public

        However, the law is unclear on what constitutes selling guns for profit. Any individual may sell firearms without a license if his or her motive isn't to make profit for livelihood through repeated and regular sales.

        5. Is a background check required to purchase a firearm?

        Ja. The amendment to the 1968 Gun Control Act — known as the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act of 1993 — requires holders of FFLs to conduct a background check. Potential firearm purchasers fill out a federal form known as the ATF 4473, which checks for prior convictions and other red flags. FFL holders then use the information provided on the form in the background check.

        States may decide whether the background check is carried out solely by the FBI's National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) or a combination of the NICS and state agency information. Roughly 30 states rely solely on the NICS.

        In 2016, Texas introduced a law allowing concealed weapons on university campuses

        Estimated to take under 10 minutes by phone or online, the check gives the FFL holder an immediate answer: approve, delay or deny. A delay indicates the need for further research for three business days, after which point FFL holders can act at their own discretion if the research proves inconclusive.

        The Brady law, however, does not apply to someone who is obtaining a firearm from an individual without an FFL.

        6. Do states require permits to purchase firearms?

        Only a dozen of the US's 50 states require purchase permits for handguns. Of those states, only three — California, Connecticut and Hawaii — require permits for the purchase of rifles and shotguns.

        California, for example, requires applicants to pass a written test and enroll in a gun safety class to obtain purchase permits. States with this requirement do not recognize the "concealed carry reciprocity" policies of some states, which allow gun owners licensed in one state to bring their weapons to another.

        7. Do states require permits to carry firearms?

        Most states require permits to carry handguns. Concealed carry and open carry vary by state. Some states allow residents to carry handguns without permits.

        By contrast, virtually no state requires a permit to carry rifles and shotguns. Massachusetts and New Jersey require people carrying rifles and shotguns to bring along a form of ID or a firearms identification.

        The role of semiautomatic weapons in mass shootings has raised concerns about the types of arms sold to civilians

        8. What is the 'gunshow loophole'?

        The law on selling, receiving and possessing firearms is clear. Yet not every individual providing the gun in a transfer requires an FFL, which in turn means that not every buyer is legally subject to a background check. This potentially enables guns to fall into the hands of users who might otherwise not be allowed to own a firearm.

        According to the ATF, anyone can sell a gun without an FFL from their home, online, at a flea market or at a gun show as long as he or she is not conducting the sale as part of regular business activity. One example would be someone who sells a firearm from his or her personal collection. Others who are exempt include those giving guns as gifts. Only individuals whose "principal motive" is to make a profit via sale must obtain an FFL.

        Commonly referred to as the "gunshow loophole," this ambiguity also explains how a purchase can occur without a background check — and without breaking the law. A 2017 survey by Harvard and Northeastern universities estimates that roughly one in five transactions occur without a background check.

        A gun may also be purchased on behalf of a third party as long as it is a gift and as long as the recipient does not violate federal restrictions on gun ownership to the best of the gift giver's knowledge. The same applies to the general transfer of guns. Children younger than 18 may possess guns that were given to them by parents or guardians as gifts provided that they have written permission.


        Sarsi ATF-111 - History

        NEWSLETTER 37 - January 2, 2008

        President's Corner: By Jim Miller.
        I think outside the box most of the time and especially when it comes to digging for car info. In one of my past lives I used to go to Paper shows, you know old magazines, posters that kind of thing. It also led to stamp and postcard shows. You don't find many car guys at places like these so the pickings were pretty good plus it was before computers and e-bay so you could see what you were getting and do a little haggling. A case in point are some English cigarette cards from a 1938 series titled "Speed" that included some land speed racers. I've attached them for you to look at. Captions were on the back describing the cars and it makes for interesting reading. I've also included one featuring a Mercedes-Benz W125 Grand Prix Car since its chassis was used with a streamlined body for runs on the Autobahnenat with speeds up to 248 mph.

        Card 16 of the set titled "Flying Spray" reads- Captain Eyston is a great believer in the future of the heavy-oil engine and demonstrated on Flying Spray the potential of this type. In 1936 he beat the World speed record for Diesel-engined cars with a mean speed over the flying kilometer of 159.1 mph and over the flying start mile at 158.87 mph. His visit to the Bonneville Salt Flats in 1937 was remarkable for the fact that he took two cars with him and successfully attacked different records with both of them, thus completing the speed "hat trick." In appearance the car is very like his famous long distance record breaker, Speed of the Wind. The driver sits well back behind the big bonnet which houses the 17-litre engine.

        Card 18 of the set titled "Mormon Meteor" reads During a 24-hour run on the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah, Mormon Meteor driven by the American, Ab Jenkins, averaged 157.27 mph thus beating 14 World long distance records and 115 class records. The car is equipped with a 12-cylinder air-cooled engine of 720 h.p. and weighs 2 1/2 tons. Streamlining is obtained by cowling, but apart from the tiny cowl in front of the driver's face, there is very little protection and Jenkins has to wear a very tight-fitting helmet to prevent the wind "clawing." Ab Jenkins is credited with very valuable knowledge of the dried-up lake at Bonneville, now reguarded as the World's premier speed track. He is usually on the spot to challenge any British driver who essays to beat his long-distance records.

        Next up is an old postcard from before WWI showing four cars in a match race at Oramond/Daytona Beach (Ormond Beach ?). I have no clue to the exact date or who the racers are. It is we historians who have to find the answers..

        Card 22 of the set titled "Mercedes-Benz" reads With the possible exception of Tazio Nuvalari, his great Italian rival, Rudolf Caracciola is the best known of all road racing motorists. For years he has been the accepted leader of the triumphant German team, whose successful entry into the racing game he initated by winning the Royal Automobile Club's Tourist Trophy Race in Northern Ireland, September, 1929. His car, strikingly eloquent of power, with its workmanlike body and 6,000 c.c. engine, has a remarkable record of achievement behind it. In 1937 he won the Italian Grand Prix averaging an astounding speed of 81.95 mph, and in the same year he won the German and Swiss Grand Prix races and the German Mountain Championship.

        Back-tracking a little, here's something to go with the Jenkins card. It's a drawing for the techies and model builders from a ཞ first edition Curtis-Wright Conqueror Aviation Engine instruction book of the front of the engine that powered the Duesenberg built record car.

        To end my ramblings for this issue I'll touch on another facet of land speed racing. Roundy round track records. I look back at the AAA and they sanctioned all kinds of speed events on circle tracks in the states and the FIA did the same in Europe. From one lap to driving in circles for days. Here's a newspaper clipping from my collection with a date of June 14, 1928. It relates the story of one George Stewart, aka Leon Duray who took his front drive Miller 91, the sixth one made, to the Packard Motor Company's just finished proving grounds outside Utica, Michigan for the track's inauguration. He proceded to set a new World closed circuit record of 148 mph that stood until 1934 when an Auto Union broke it at the new Avus track near Berlin. Leon had set a new track record at Indy two weeks earlier with the 91 at 122 mph and it wasn't beaten until 1937. The car went on to gain more fame as the Packard cable Special but that's another story. Have some bubbly and a Happy New Year

        Although an LSR attempt was never made with Bill Frederick's Valkyrie J-46 jet car, the Valkyrie went on to have a long drag racing career under several owners, including Mickey Thompson. In 1962, the Valkyrie was driven at Long Beach by Gary Gabelich against Romeo Palamides' Untouchable in the first all jet drag race. In 1964 the car that broke Breedlove's 407 mph record was Walt Arfons' Wingfoot Express J-46 car. The attached black and white photos were shot in November 1974 at Orlando Speedworld. The color photos were taken at Lakeland in February 1977. Sincerely, Franklin Ratliff (sent in by Doug Stokes)

        Please add Mike Bastian to your list. Mike is the GM of a heat treating concern located in South Gate and has been involved with a Vintage Drag Fueler running in the Nostalgia events. His shop provides heat treating service to many of people involved in racing from Thursday Night Door Slammers to Formula One. Thanks, Bob Falcon Bob and Mike: Welcome to the SLSRH Newsletter.

        Attached are photos of the Valkyrie/U.S. 1 and another J-46 car, Doug Rose's Green Mamba, shot at the Bradenton dragstrip on December 1, 1985. So, 23 years after Gary Gabelich drove the Valkyrie at Long Beach in the first side-by-side jet race, here was Fred Sibley driving that same car in what was, in all probability, one of the last drag races between old school jet cars. Outside of Bob Motz J-79 truck, these two jets remain the most powerful cars I have ever seen. Sincerely, Franklin Ratliff

        Editor's notes: Landspeed Louise Ann Noeth sent in a request to ask if it would be alright to discuss her book in the Newsletter. The policy of the Newsletter is to encourage everyone in land speed racing and hot rodding to contribute what they have done concerning the history and heritage of our sport. We are glad to give Louise some space here in the newsletter. I've written a book review on her book and it ranks as one of the best books ever done on land speed racing. It is one of those books that you start a library around it. The type of book that relates to all the other books out there on the market. The Society of Land Speed Racing Historians hopes to encourage all of you to write, photograph and leave your mark on our sport. We are looking into ways to help you self-publish your own works on land speed racing and hot rodding. Many of our members are successful authors and have written many fine books and as we come across them we will do reviews for all of them. Don Montgomery has finished and self-published eight books so far and each one of them is crucial and central to our history. We will accept all books and reviews here in the Newsletter and give you all the publicity that we can, for a book that is unsold does us no good. A book in someone's library is what we are aiming for. There is a possibility that the society will have its own funding and be able to assist in finding publishers and printers who will take on your projects. While Landspeed Louise is a professional writer and her works are of the highest caliber, that does not mean that we don't find value in your albums and artifacts. You can take what you have, your photographs, memories and scanned research collections and turn them into a book or booklet and we will help you find sources to assist you. Don't worry about whether you are a professional writer or photographer, it is the CONTENT that is important, not whether you are adept at writing skills. What you have to say is vitally important and the Society and its Newsletter stands behind your efforts to publish. The costs are not as high nor as threatening as you might think. It is the publicity and sales network that is difficult, but we have contacts and we will make them available to you.

        Some time back, you asked for details on LSR books. I hesitated in responding because in the summer of 2007 Motorbooks International informed me that it would allow my book: “Bonneville the Fastest Place on Earth” to go out of print after 6 printings. No amount of negotiation could change their mind, so I opted to buy every blessed copy in their inventory over the new couple months. There must have been some magic in the buying strategy, because 1,500 copies were delivered to the warehouse in late November. That means the book has one last fling in this, its seventh printing since 1999. I am grateful for the reprieve but recognize that unless sales are brisk, the book will go out of print in 2008. When that happens, it is my intention to regain the copyright to all materials, update the book to include the last decade, add a DVD and republish on my own. Until than, I offer the following background on the book – more for new folks coming into the sport, than the many august folks who have populated the sport for decades. No one is more stunned at the success of this book's appeal than I. That many, many thousands of copies are on shelves around the world still staggers my consciousness and humbles me to know so many appreciate the work, considering all I did was thread together a story of many people and events at one special place. Lucky me to have been given the chance to do so. There are two different books: hard cover and soft cover. Bonneville - The Fastest Place on Earth, Bonneville Salt Flats – HARD COVER/SOLD OUT. Limited slipcase edition – SOLD OUT. ISBN # 0-7603-1372-5, 156 pages/125 color and 50 b&w photos. James A. Valentine Award, 2002 Society of Automotive Historians, "Excellence in automotive Research." Dry Lakes Racing Hall of Fame, 2001 "Historian of the Year." International Automotive Journalism Conference 2000 Silver Medallion Award - Presented for "Excellence in Automotive Writing, Photography and Historical Accuracy." Classic & Sports Car Magazine 2000 "Book of the Month." Autographed soft cover copies are available for $37. Send check or money order to: LandSpeed Productions, 1761 Dwight Avenue, Camarillo, CA 93010. Allow 4 weeks for delivery. This book is the first of its kind to compile the 102-year racing history of the famed Bonneville Salt Flats. From 1896 to 1998, the book chronicles the efforts of straight-line and endurance record setting on the salt. Tracing the origins of land speed racing all the way back to when a couple horn-rimmed bicycle rallyists made their way over the 22-mile desolate stretch of salt pancake, to the blistering 409 mph world record laid out by a hand-crafted streamlined race car, the story is more than just a tribute to racing machines, it reveals a rich, utterly American slice of life. More than "The Right Stuff," salt racers are "The Real Stuff," people who you are glad to know and marvel at how much they accomplish with so little resources. Salt racers are a mechanized, modern day embodiment of the old west, a family affair where three generations routinely trip the timing lights over 200 mile-per-hour, a sport where age, money and status is relatively meaningless and going as fast as you can means everything! Testimonials: & quotBooks about Utah's Bonneville Salt Flats are nothing new, until this one." Shave Glick, Motorsports Columnist, Los Angeles Times. "LandSpeed Louise has captured the essence of what is magical in the salt's many attractions for special breed of automotive experimenters . . .(we) are deeply indebted to author Noeth for her preservation of that awesome history." Wally Parks, founder and Chairman, National Hot Rod Association. "This is a great book, I really enjoyed it." Jay Leno, Tonight Show Host, NBC-TV. "The book does full justice to the little guys who invade Bonneville every August it is rich in human stories . . ." Mick Walsh, Editor, Classic & Sports Car, UK. "Fascinating Reading . . ." Popular Mechanics Magazine. "The best book ever written about the salt . . . even if you are not a land speed fan, this book makes for great reading." Jeff Smith, Editor, Chevy High Performance. "Louise digs into the heart of the matter . . . a touch of magic." Ed "Big Daddy" Roth. "This new book makes up for what has been lacking it is well-researched and beautifully printed, one you'll want to own." Albert Drake, Author and Reviewer, Old Cars Weekly. "Louise Ann Noeth has captured the unique flavor of this extreme edge of the motorsports world." RACER! Magazine, December 2000. "A masterful job of digging into the personalities and the amazing speed machines . . ." Edward R. Noble, Wheels Section Editor, The Oakland Press. "A labor of love, and could not be duplicated or matched by anyone. . . certainly a gift that you have given us all . . . lasting contributions to the automotive world." Dale Moreau, Street Rodder Magazine.

        Editor's notes: Articles, comments and other written works should be sent to me here at the Newsletter. You can send photographs and scanned materials, but I haven't learned how to use my new system to send it on to the websites. You should send scanned documents and photographs directly to the websites. Please include captions along with the photos so that there is an explanation for the readers. Please remember to support our websites. They offer their services and help by giving us a forum to express our ideas, but they need sponsorship in the form of ads in order to pay their expenses and keep their sites on-air. If you have a business, please advertise with our website operators.

        Gone Racin' with the Berardini Brothers. Story by Richard Parks, photographs by Roger Rohrdanz
        Pat and Tony Berardini raced in the early days of drag racing in the early 1950's, establishing a reputation for skill, speed and consistency. Their parents, Carlo and Philomena Berardini, emigrated from Italy before WWI and settled in Southwest Los Angeles near 80th Street and Avalon Boulevard where their children attended elementary school and then on to Fremont High School. Tony was born in 1915, Pat in 1927, followed by two more brothers and a sister. Carlo encouraged his sons to work hard and Pat began working for Pontrelli's Automotive at the age of 10, sweeping up floors and learning the trade. This was during the height of the Great Depression and any job was highly sought after. The neighborhood teens met over at the Clock Drive-In, in Huntington Park, where they swapped tales of fast hot rods and what was going on at the dry lakes and on the streets. Pat was already skilled at custom car work and auto painting when WWII broke out and was anxious to do his part.
        He joined the Merchant Marines in 1945, when he turned 17. A young George Barris took the job he left behind at Jones' Body, Fender and Custom Shop. Pat recalls the trip to the Philippines, "we were anchored offshore at Leyte Gulf, unloading war cargo, when news of the Japanese surrender came, after the U.S. dropped the atomic bomb on Japan. Everybody was so happy that night. All the ships anchored in the Leyte Gulf turned on their largest searchlights and some were also blinking in Morse code 'V' for victory with their lights. It was a sight to see. There were a lot of happy tears." He would never forget that night. Pat returned home and joined the Navy for two more years with a couple of his buddies. He went to San Diego for his training, and was then transferred to the Aleutian Islands in Alaska, one of the roughest duties in the Navy. The weather was always bad and the seas were rough. He served aboard the USS SARSI ATF 111, a 205-foot fleet tug, and one of his favorite duties was steering the ship in and out of port. The USS SARSI towed ships, and did repair work on all types of Navy and cargo vessels. He was honorably discharged in December of 1947.
        Pat dreamed about opening his own custom body and paint shop and drew a picture of that shop while he was in the Navy, which he still has hanging in his home. He opened his auto sales business in 1949 with his brother Tony in southwest Los Angeles, at 84th and Figueroa Streets. They specialized in early model Fords from 1932 through 1940. Pat did the repairing and painting and the business was a success from the start. When he was ten years old, his brother Tony had bought a ཙ Ford Roadster, and painted flames in black and white, and the #3 on the doors. Remembering that car, Pat purchased a ཛྷ Ford roadster and painted his ཛྷ racecar to match Tony's earlier roadster. It had a 270 C.I. engine with two carburetors and turned times in the middle to high 90's. Howard Johansen, of Howard Cams, built his next engine in 1952.
        Johansen increased the engine to 296 C.I. with 3 carburetors, and the speeds increased to 105 mph. In the latter part of 1953, Iskenderian came out with a new cam named the 404. He renamed his car the 404jr in honor of Isky's new cam and for his son Pat Jr. Pat got Nick Harrell of Harrell Speed Shop to build the engine for the 404jr. It had a 3/8 bore, 5/8 stroke billet crank, Harrell racing heads, Edelbrock 4 carburetor intake manifold, Harman/Collins magneto and a 314 cubic inch engine. They turned speeds in the 107 to 114 mph range, but the car was super quick and the set-up gave them a quicker ET (elapsed time). The 404jr raced very successfully in the street roadster gas class. Pat entered a big meet in 1954 at the Bakersfield Open Gas Roadster Meet, in the gas open-altered class. It was one of the biggest races ever up to that time in the gas class, and to be competitive, they stripped the fenders off to make it lighter and to improve wind resistance. Tony was the over-all winner against cars that were much lighter. Tony wanted his own racecar so he bought a ཙ Ford roadster to race in the open altered gas class. He used the same size engine as Pat used for the 404jr and painted #7 on the doors, and the Berardini brothers now had two very fast drag roadsters. Dick Lenarz, Russ Lenarz, Vic Pollaccia and Al Pollaccia were their pit crew and close friends.
        The Berardini Brothers raced for the thrill of racing. Almost every Sunday they raced at Santa Ana, Saugus or other drag strips, winning about 80 percent of their races. One competitor told them, "the only time we beat you was when you didn't show up." The Berardini brothers show up in the race results of the early 1950's, dominating their classes. They raced against Creighton Hunter, who had a very hot roadster and was always first off the line. In the hot fuel classes there were such names as Ollie Morris, the Bean Bandits, Chrisman Brothers, Dick Kraft, Otto Ryssman and Doug Hartelt. By the mid-1950's change was on the horizon. Don Bell, a good friend of the brothers, was fatally injured at El Mirage dry lake, using their 404jr engine. With their business booming and their families growing they sold their racecars and moved out of the Los Angeles area to Garden Grove, California. After 40 years in the business, Pat finally closed down Berardini Brothers Auto Sales in 1990.
        They were honored at the 12th Annual California Hot Rod Reunion in October of 2003, with the very first NHRA Golden Age Award in recognition of their "dedication, innovation and achievement during the infancy of organized drag racing." Roger and Sissy Morrison, who restored and unveiled this famous car at the NHRA museum, in January 2005, now own Pat's beloved 404jr. The 404jr was awarded the prestigious Bruce Meyer Award at the Grand National Roadster Show. The 404jr was also picked to be one of Ford Motor Company's 75 Most Significant ཛྷ Ford Hot Rods. "I was lucky I didn't get killed," said Pat. "Someone said I wasn't going fast enough, so I shoved my foot all the way into the plywood floorboard and it got stuck, and I was way past the finish line before I hit the kill switch." Tony has since passed away, but Pat is still active in the hot rodding community. Gone Racin' is at [email protected]

        Jonathan Amo, Brett Arena, Henry Astor, Gale Banks, Glen Barrett, Mike Bastian, Lee Blaisdell, Jim Bremner, Warren Bullis, George Callaway, Gary Carmichael, John Chambard, Jerry Cornelison, G. Thatcher Darwin, Jack Dolan, Ugo Fadini, Bob Falcon, Rich Fox, Glenn Freudenberger, Don Garlits, Bruce Geisler, Stan Goldstein, Andy Granatelli, Walt James, Wendy Jeffries, Ken Kelley, Mike Kelly, Bret Kepner, Kay Kimes, Jim Lattin, Mary Ann and Jack Lawford, Fred Lobello, Dick Martin, Ron Martinez, Tom McIntyre, Don McMeekin, Bob McMillian, Tom Medley, Jim Miller, Don Montgomery, Bob Morton, Mark Morton, Paula Murphy, Louise Ann Noeth, Frank Oddo, David Parks, Richard Parks, Wally Parks (in memoriam), Eric Rickman, Willard Ritchie, Roger Rohrdanz, Evelyn Roth, Ed Safarik, Frank Salzberg, Dave Seely, Charles Shaffer, Mike Stanton, David Steele, Doug Stokes, Bob Storck, Zach Suhr, Pat Swanson, Al Teague, JD Tone, Jim Travis, Randy Travis, Jack Underwood and Tina Van Curen, Richard Venza.


        یواس‌اس سارسی (ای‌تی‌اف-۱۱۱)

        یواس‌اس سارسی (ای‌تی‌اف-۱۱۱) (به انگلیسی: USS Sarsi (ATF-111) ) یک کشتی است که طول آن 205' می‌باشد. ی کشتی در سال ۱۹۴۳ ساخته شد.

        یواس‌اس سارسی (ای‌تی‌اف-۱۱۱)
        هنه
        مالک
        Beskrywing: ۲۵ ژانویه ۱۹۴۳
        از کار: ۱۲ ژوئن ۱۹۴۳
        بندر اصلی: ساسه‌بو، ناگازاکی
        مشخصات اصلی
        گنجایش: 1,240 tons
        Naam: 1,589 tons
        Gebed: 205'
        Tema: 38' 6"
        Bespreking: 15' 4"
        سرعت: 16.5 knots

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