Oorlog van die Eerste Koalisie - Rynfront 1794

Oorlog van die Eerste Koalisie - Rynfront 1794



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Oorlog van die Eerste Koalisie - Rynfront 1794

Hierdie klikbare kaart toon die belangrikste gebeure van die Oorlog van die Eerste Koalisie aan die Rynfront in 1794, 'n rustige jaar waarin die langste van drie beleërings van Mainz begin het.


Slag van Kaiserslautern (1794)

Die Slag van Kaiserslautern (23 Mei 1794) het 'n leër uit die Koninkryk Pruise en Verkiesingsakse onder leiding van Wichard Joachim Heinrich von Möllendorf op 'n enkele Franse Republikeinse afdeling onder Jean-Jacques Ambert van die Weermag van die Mosel. Die Pruise het probeer om hul getalle teëstanders te omsingel, maar die meeste Franse het gevangenskap vermy. Nietemin het die troepe van Möllendorf die Franse in die verhouding nege-tot-een ongevalle toegebring en Kaiserslautern beset. Terwyl die Pruise hierdie triomf op 'n onbelangrike front gewen het, het die Franse leërs gou beslissende oorwinnings in België en Nederland begin wen. Die geveg het plaasgevind tydens die Oorlog van die Eerste Koalisie, deel van die Franse Revolusionêre Oorloë. In 1794 was Kaiserslautern deel van die elektorale Palts, maar vandag is die stad in die deelstaat Rynland-Palts in Duitsland ongeveer 67 kilometer (42 myl) wes van Mannheim geleë.

In Desember 1793 verdryf die Franse die soldate van Habsburg Oostenryk en Pruise uit Franse bodem in die Tweede Slag van Wissembourg en neem hulle posisies buite die oostelike grens. Daardie lente het die Weermag van die Mosel het swaar versterkings na die noordooste van Frankryk gestuur, wat die Rynfront liggies deur troepe onder Jean René Moreaux laat verdedig het. Met die voordeel van die Franse swakheid, was die belangrikste Pruisiese aanval op Ambert gemik wat net soveel van sy troepe as moontlik kon red. Op 23 Mei val ook 'n Oostenryk-Pruisiese leër op die Weermag van die Ryn onder Claude Ignace François Michaud maar is afgeweer by die Slag van Schifferstadt. Nadat hulle Kaiserslautern verloor het, het die twee Franse leërs teruggetrek na posisies nader aan die grens. Nadat die Pruise byna die enigste inisiatief wat hulle in 1794 uitgestal het, bestee het, het hul offensief tot stilstand gekom.


Die Franse rewolusie en Napoleontiese oorloë

Die begin van die Franse rewolusie was die oorgang van Frankryk na 'n konstitusionele monargie, wat die belangrikste gebeure tussen 1789 en 1791 in hierdie geskiedenisles ondersoek het.

Die begin van die Franse rewolusie was die oorgang van Frankryk na 'n konstitusionele monargie, wat die belangrikste gebeure tussen 1789 en 1791 in hierdie geskiedenisles ondersoek het.

Tussen 1792 en 1794 het die Terreurregering tydens die Franse Rewolusie ten minste 30 000 Franse burgersterftes veroorsaak en 'n nuwe politieke stelsel tot gevolg gehad.

Tussen 1792 en 1794 veroorsaak die Terreurregering ten minste 30 000 Franse burgerdood tydens die Franse Revolusie en lei dit tot 'n nuwe politieke stelsel.

Onder leiding van Napoleon Bonaparte as generaal en later in 'n verkose rol, verklaar hierdie tydperk in die Franse Revolusie die vryheid vir die nasie en sy mense.

Onder leiding van Napoleon Bonaparte as generaal en later in 'n verkose rol, verklaar hierdie tydperk in die Franse Revolusie die vryheid vir die nasie en sy mense.

Frankryk het sy invloedsfeer tydens die Oorlog van die Eerste Koalisie verseker deur oorheersende geallieerde Europese magte uit te vind hoe in hierdie geskiedenisles.

Frankryk het sy invloedsfeer tydens die Oorlog van die Eerste Koalisie verseker deur oorheersende geallieerde Europese magte uit te vind hoe in hierdie geskiedenisles.

Leer in hierdie geskiedenisles waarom en hoe die Franse veldtog van Egipte plaasgevind het, insluitend die motivering van Napoleon Bonaparte om heerser van Frankryk te word.

Leer in hierdie geskiedenisles waarom en hoe die Franse veldtog van Egipte plaasgevind het, insluitend die motivering van Napoleon Bonaparte om heerser van Frankryk te word.

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Tag -argiewe: War of the First Coalition

Vanaf Maart 2014 plaas ons weeklikse uittreksels van geskrifte oor oorlog en oorlogvoering uit ons manuskrip en gedrukte versamelings. Van uittreksels uit die Maratha -oorloë tot die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, sal die uittreksels menings weerspieël, sowel van die strydfront as van die tuis.

10 Julie 1808 Wag om te vaar na die Iberiese Skiereiland
In Junie 1808 arriveer twee Spaanse afgevaardigdes in Londen. Hulle was daar om hulp te vra na opstande teen die Franse wat in Spanje plaasgevind het. Hulle aankoms is met groot opgewondenheid in die hele Brittanje ontmoet, met die regering onder druk om die geleentheid aan te gryp. Op 14 Junie is Arthur Wellesley formeel aangestel om 'n ekspedisie te beveel om die Spanjaarde te ondersteun in die stryd teen die Franse magte op die Iberiese Skiereiland. In die gedeelte hieronder, terwyl Wellesley wag om van Cork af te vaar, kan 'n gevoel van dringendheid gevoel word. Die ekspedisie het uiteindelik op 12 Julie met 'n sterk wind uitgekom en op 20 Julie in Coruña aangekom.

Die wind is steeds teenstrydig, maar ons hoop dat dit sal verander om vanaand te vaar. Ons lê nie vas nie en wag nie 'n oomblik nadat die wind mooi sal wees nie.

Ek sien dat mense in Engeland kla oor die vertraging wat tydens die seil van die ekspedisie plaasgevind het, maar eintlik het niks plaasgevind nie, en selfs as alles aan boord was, kon ons nie voor hierdie dag gevaar het nie. ”

WP1/208 Afskrif van 'n brief van luitenant -generaal Arthur Wellesley, Cove, aan Robert Stewart, burggraaf Castlereagh, minister van buitelandse sake vir oorlog en die kolonies, 10 Julie 1808


10-11 Julie 1940 Begin van die Slag om Brittanje
Die Slag om Brittanje, die stryd tussen die Duitse Luftwaffe en die Britse Royal Air Force, het tussen Julie en Oktober 1940 oor Brittanje gewoed. Dit was die eerste groot militêre veldtog wat heeltemal in die lug geveg is. Dit was deel van 'n Duitse plan om lug superioriteit oor Suid -Brittanje en die Engelse Kanaal te wen deur die Britse lugmag- en vliegtuigbedryf te vernietig as 'n voorspel tot die inval in Brittanje.

10 Julie: Vandag is die dag geprofeteer as die van die inval - die begin van die slag van Brittanje. ”

11 Julie: “Die nuus vandag soos ander dae van superioriteit van die RAF - dele van Engeland het gebombardeer - 'n paar 'sterftes - geen getalle meer nie - vandag 'n Engelse spoorlyn - 'n aantal dood. Maar ons bomwerpers gaan na hul plekke en bom met presisie. ”

MS 168 AJ217/36 Journal of Samuel Rich, 10-11 Julie 1940


12 Julie 1793
Die oorgawe van Condé
Die beleg van Condé duur van drie maande en was deel van 'n geallieerde veldtog aan die grense van Frankryk in die lente en somer van 1793. Teen April was die Franse republikeinse beheerde Condé onder toesig van die Pruise onder generaal Knobelsdorf, deur 'n mag van 12 000 man. onder bevel van Clairfayt in die suide en in die noorde deur die prins van Würtemberg. 'N Klein Britse kontingent, onder die hertog van York, was ook in die omgewing.

Condé het tot 10 Julie aangehou voordat hy oorgegee het na 'n ernstige bombardement. het tot 30 Augustus 1794 in Oostenrykse hande gebly.

“Op die 10de Condè oorgegee. Die garnisoen moet hierdie dag met ere van oorlog uitstap, hul wapens stapel en krygsgevangenes lei, die offisiere om hul swaarde te behou. Die getal surrender'd is 4008. Ek glo dat dit na Antwerpen gestuur moet word. 'N Groot hoeveelheid fyn artillerie word gevind. Die garnisoen was bedroef omdat voedsel daagliks op 'n klein hoeveelheid brood en 2 oz perdevleis bestaan ​​het. ”

MS 62 Broadlands Argief BR11/20/10Brief van Benjamin Mee aan sy swaer Henry Temple, tweede Burggraaf Palmerston, 12 Julie 1793


12 Julie 1917 Verbeterings in vliegtuie en anti-artillerie om lugoorlog te oorwin
As gevolg van groot ongevalle vir die Royal Flying Corps in die Slag van Arras, was drastiese veranderinge nodig in die Britse anti-artillerie en vliegtuie. Dit is gedoen deur die gebruik van spervuurballonne en die ontwikkeling van vliegtuie.

Barrage ballonne was groot ballonne wat met metaalkabels vasgemaak is wat gebruik word om vliegtuigaanvalle te belemmer deur die vliegtuig te beskadig tydens botsing met die kabels. Sommige het plofbare ladings gedra wat teen die vliegtuig gebruik sou word om te verseker dat dit gesloop word.

Die ontwikkeling van sterk vliegtuie was onder meer die skepping van die South Experimental 5, die Sopwith Camel en die Sopwith Pup. Die South Experimental 5 kan teen hoë snelhede geduik word, en sy vierkantige vlerke het sybeheer by lae lugsnelhede verbeter. Die Sopwith Camel was 'n enkelsitplek tweevliegtuigvegter met 'n kort gekoppelde romp, 'n swaar kragtige roterende enjin en gekonsentreerde vuur van twee gesinchroniseerde masjiengewere. Die Sopwith Pup was ook 'n tweevliegtuigvegter met een sitplek, wat uitstekende vlieëienskappe en goeie beweegbaarheid gehad het. Dit was te wyte aan die lae vleuelvrag. Sy ligte gewig en aansienlike vleueloppervlak het hom 'n goeie klimspoed gegee, en die flinkheid daarvan is verbeter deur die ailerons op albei vlerke te installeer.

Ons hoor juigende nuus dat ons nou meer vliegtuie hier het om ons te beskerm. Almal is skrikkerig, veral in die East End, aangesien gerugte voortdurend aan die gang is, en mense wat uitgevang word om gerugte te versprei, sal dit nogal warm kry.

MS 132 AJ 322 2/1 Brief van Sybil Henriques aan Basil Henriques, 12 Julie 1917


Archibald Hamilton Rowan het probeer om verspreiding van oproerige papier te versprei

Archibald Hamilton Rowan, 'n stigterslid van die Dublin Society of United Irishmen, word op 29 Januarie 1794 verhoor op 'n aanklag van verspreiding van oproerige papier.

Hamilton Rowan word gebore in die huis van sy oupa, William Rowan, in Londen op 1 Mei 1751 en woon daar saam met sy ma en suster vir 'n groot deel van sy vroeë lewe. Hy word in 1768 toegelaat aan die Queens ’ College, Cambridge, maar word uit die kollege geskors en verwoes vir 'n poging om 'n leraar in die River Cam te gooi. Hy word vir 'n tydperk in 1769 na Warrington Academy gestuur.

Hamilton Rowan reis deur die 1770's en 1780's en besoek dele van Europa, Amerika en Noord -Afrika. In 1781 trou hy met Sarah Dawson in Parys, Frankryk. Die egpaar het tien kinders. Hy is die peetvader van die Ierse wiskundige William Rowan Hamilton.

Hamilton Rowan keer in 1784 terug na Ierland om in Rathcoffey naby Clane in County Kildare te woon. Hy word 'n beroemdheid en, ondanks sy rykdom en voorreg, 'n sterk voorstander van die Ierse vryheid. Dieselfde jaar sluit hy aan by die Killyleagh Volunteers, 'n burgermaggroep wat later met radikale hervorming verbind is. Hy kry eers openbare aandag deur die saak van die veertienjarige Mary Neal in 1788 te verdedig. Neal is in 'n bordeel in Dublin gelok en daarna deur Lord Carhampton aangerand. Hamilton Rowan veroordeel Carhampton in die openbaar en publiseer 'n pamflet 'N Kort ondersoek na die lyding van John, Anne en Mary Neal in dieselfde jaar. Hy is 'n indrukwekkende figuur van meer as ses voet lank en neem sy bekendheid toe wanneer hy 'n eetklub in Dublin binnegaan wat verskeie van die teenstanders van Mary Neal bedreig, met sy massiewe Newfoundland aan sy sy en 'n shillelagh in die hand. Die voorval wen hom toejuiging en bekendheid as 'n kampioen van die armes.

In 1790 sluit Hamilton Rowan aan by die Northern Whig Club, en word teen Oktober 'n stigterslid van die Dublin Society of United Irishmen, wat saam met bekende radikale soos William Drennan en Theobald Wolfe Tone werk. Hy word in 1792 gearresteer weens oproerige laster toe hy uitgevang word met die uitdeel van 'n adres aan die vrywilligers van Ierland, en 'n stuk Verenigde Ierse propaganda. Vir hom onbekend, vanaf 1791 het Dublin Castle 'n spioen in die Dublin Society, Thomas Collins, wie se aktiwiteit nooit ontdek word nie. Vanaf Februarie 1793 sluit Brittanje en Ierland aan by die Oorlog van die Eerste Koalisie teen Frankryk, en die Verenigde Ierse beweging word in 1794 verbied.

Die reputasie van Hamilton Rowan vir radikalisme en blaser groei gedurende hierdie tyd toe hy Ierland verlaat om die advokaat van Skotland te konfronteer oor negatiewe opmerkings oor sy karakter en dié van lede van die Society of United Irishmen. As 'n prominente lid van die Ierse gesag, is hy 'n belangrike figuur in die Verenigde Iere en word hy die kontak vir die Skotse radikale samelewings as gevolg van sy besoek. By sy terugkeer na Dublin word hy aangekla en is hy skuldig bevind aan oproerige laster, al word hy uitstekend deur die beroemde John Philpot Curran verdedig. Hy word tot twee jaar gevangenisstraf gevonnis, kry 'n boete van £ 500 en word gedwing om twee sekuriteite te betaal vir goeie gedrag van £ 1,000 elk. In Januarie 1794 gaan hy terug na sy woonstelle in die Newgate -gevangenis in Dublin.

In die daaropvolgende jare spandeer Hamilton Rowan tyd in ballingskap in Frankryk, die Verenigde State en Duitsland. Hy mag in 1806 na Ierland terugkeer. Hy keer terug na die voorvaderlike huis van Killyleagh Castle, County Down, en ontvang 'n held en welkom. Terwyl hy ingestem het om 'n modelburger te wees onder die voorwaardes van sy terugkeer na Ierland, bly hy aktief in die politiek en behou hy sy jeugdige radikalisme. Na sy laaste openbare verskyning op 'n vergadering in die Rotunda in Dublin op 20 Januarie 1829 word hy deur 'n skare opgehef en deur die strate geparseer.

Hamilton Rowan sterf op 84 -jarige ouderdom in sy huis op 1 November 1834. Hy word begrawe in die kluise van die St. Mary ’s Church, Dublin.


Grootte van die Franse leër, 1445-1794

Ek het 'n paar nuttige figure gevind in die ou artikel & quot; Berekening van die Franse leërgroei tydens die Grand Siecle & quot; deur John Lynn, die eerste keer gepubliseer in French Historical Studies, Vol. 18, 1994, bl. 881-906. Ek het gedink ek sal dit deel as iemand anders dit nuttig vind as 'n verwysing. Hierdie syfers is geneem uit verskillende bladsye van die artikel. Ek kan die reël aanhaal en die oorspronklike bron daarvan noem, indien nodig, maar tensy dit spesifiek versoek word, moet ek in die algemeen volstaan ​​met die titel en die outeur van die kort artikel. Die meeste van die syfers is direk uit die primêre bronne geneem, en die skrywer het opgemerk dat dit in die algemeen die ondersoek kan behou.

Voor die Industriële Revolusie was Frankryk die mees bevolkte staat in Europa, met ongeveer 1/4 van die Europeërs wat daarin gewoon het. Hoewel ander lande natuurlik min of meer gemilitariseer kan word as hulle (veral sterk verstedelikte state soos dié in die Lae Lande en Italië) en hierdie syfers nie definitief is vir verskillende stelsels nie, is dit steeds 'n goeie algemene verwysing vir premoderne leërs. . Let daarop dat die bevolking van Frankryk in die 15de eeu 12-15 miljoen was, 15-20 miljoen in die 16de eeu, in die 17de eeu ongeveer 20 miljoen gestyg het en teen die einde van die 18de eeu tot 27 miljoen gestyg het. Alle syfers is van die weermagsterkte van die papier, die werklike sterkte kan soms laer wees ('n gedeelte van die artikel handel oor die gepaste afslagkoers) en milisies, reserwes en vlootpersoneel word glad nie getel nie:

1445-1475: 14 000 (gemiddelde staande vredestydmag)
1495: 22-27,000 (slegs inval)
1499: 23-29,000 (slegs inval)
1515: 41,000
1544: 69-77,000
1552: 60,000
1568: 80,000
1589: 50-60,000
1610: 55,000
1630: 39,000
1634: 100,368
1635: 168,100
1636: 205 400 (172 000 infanterie, 33 400 kavallerie)
1637: 160,010
1638: 148,180
1639: 211,950
Gemiddelde dertigjarige oorlog: 150-160,000
1665: 60,000
1667: 85,000
1668: 134,000
1678: 279.610 (219.250 infanterie en 60.360 kavallerie)
1688: 207,000
1693: 438,000 (343,323 infanterie, 67,334 aangewese kavallerie,

27 000 offisiere wat meestal kavallerie was)
1702: 220,502
1707: 373,000 (318,000 infanterie, 55,000 kavallerie)
1710: 381.229 (323.665 infanterie, 57.564 kavallerie)
1794: 1,169,000 (plus 1,200,000 in die National Guard omstreeks 1789)

Op bl. 883, merk die skrywer ook op dat 'n ander historikus, Corvisier, tydens die oorlog van die Spaanse opvolging ongeveer milisie en vlootpersoneel getel het, ongeveer dieselfde as die weermag. Dus, ten minste vir die 18de eeu, kan u die bogenoemde syfers ongeveer verdubbel om die volledige militêre instelling te kry.

Petey55

'N Moe pa.

Ek het 'n paar nuttige figure gevind in die ou artikel & quotRecalculating French Army Growth during the Grand Siecle & quot deur John Lynn, die eerste keer gepubliseer in French Historical Studies, Vol. 18, 1994, bl. 881-906. Ek het gedink ek sal dit deel as iemand anders dit nuttig vind as 'n verwysing. Hierdie syfers is geneem uit verskillende bladsye van die artikel. Ek kan die reël aanhaal en die oorspronklike bron daarvan noem, indien nodig, maar tensy dit spesifiek versoek word, moet ek in die algemeen volstaan ​​met die titel en die outeur van die kort artikel. Die meeste van die syfers is direk uit die primêre bronne geneem, en die skrywer het opgemerk dat dit in die algemeen die ondersoek kan behou.

Voor die Industriële Revolusie was Frankryk die mees bevolkte staat in Europa, met ongeveer 1/4 van die Europeërs wat daarin gewoon het. Hoewel ander lande natuurlik min of meer gemilitariseer kan word as hulle (veral sterk verstedelikte state soos dié in die Lae Lande en Italië) en hierdie syfers nie definitief is vir verskillende stelsels nie, is dit steeds 'n goeie algemene verwysing vir premoderne leërs. . Let daarop dat die bevolking van Frankryk 12-15 miljoen was in die 15de eeu, 15-20 miljoen in die 16de eeu, in die 17de eeu ongeveer 20 miljoen gestyg het en teen die einde van die 18de eeu tot 27 miljoen gestyg het. Alle syfers is van die weermagsterkte van die papier, die werklike sterkte kan soms laer wees ('n gedeelte van die artikel handel oor die gepaste afslagkoers) en milisies, reserwes en vlootpersoneel word glad nie getel nie:

1445-1475: 14 000 (gemiddelde staande vredestydmag)
1495: 22-27,000 (slegs inval)
1499: 23-29,000 (slegs inval)
1515: 41,000
1544: 69-77,000
1552: 60,000
1568: 80,000
1589: 50-60,000
1610: 55,000
1630: 39,000
1634: 100,368
1635: 168,100
1636: 205 400 (172 000 infanterie, 33 400 kavallerie)
1637: 160,010
1638: 148,180
1639: 211,950
Gemiddelde dertigjarige oorlog: 150-160,000
1665: 60,000
1667: 85,000
1668: 134,000
1678: 279 610 (219 250 infanterie en 60 360 kavallerie)
1688: 207,000
1693: 438,000 (343,323 infanterie, 67,334 aangewese kavallerie,

27 000 offisiere wat meestal kavallerie was)
1702: 220,502
1707: 373,000 (318,000 infanterie, 55,000 kavallerie)
1710: 381.229 (323.665 infanterie, 57.564 kavallerie)
1794: 1,169,000 (plus 1,200,000 in die National Guard omstreeks 1789)

Op bl. 883, merk die skrywer ook op dat 'n ander historikus, Corvisier, tydens die oorlog van die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog milisie en vlootpersoneel getel het, ongeveer dieselfde as die weermag. Dus, ten minste vir die 18de eeu, kon u die bogenoemde syfers ongeveer verdubbel om die volledige militêre instelling te kry.

Falkenhayn

Raak lus vir die reëls

Ek het 'n paar nuttige figure gevind in die ou artikel & quot; Berekening van die Franse leërgroei tydens die Grand Siecle & quot; deur John Lynn, die eerste keer gepubliseer in French Historical Studies, Vol. 18, 1994, bl. 881-906. Ek het gedink ek sal dit deel as iemand anders dit nuttig vind as 'n verwysing. Hierdie syfers is geneem uit verskillende bladsye van die artikel. Ek kan die reël aanhaal en die oorspronklike bron daarvan noem, indien nodig, maar tensy dit spesifiek versoek word, moet ek in die algemeen volstaan ​​met die titel en die outeur van die kort artikel. Die meeste van die syfers is direk uit die primêre bronne geneem, en die skrywer het opgemerk dat dit in die algemeen die ondersoek kan behou.

Voor die Industriële Revolusie was Frankryk die mees bevolkte staat in Europa, met ongeveer 1/4 van die Europeërs wat daarin gewoon het. Hoewel ander lande natuurlik min of meer gemilitariseer kan word as hulle (veral sterk verstedelikte state soos dié in die Lae Lande en Italië) en hierdie syfers nie definitief is vir verskillende stelsels nie, is dit steeds 'n goeie algemene verwysing vir premoderne leërs. . Let daarop dat die bevolking van Frankryk in die 15de eeu 12-15 miljoen was, 15-20 miljoen in die 16de eeu, in die 17de eeu ongeveer 20 miljoen gestyg het en teen die einde van die 18de eeu tot 27 miljoen gestyg het. Alle syfers is van die weermagsterkte van die papier, die werklike sterkte kan soms laer wees ('n gedeelte van die artikel handel oor die gepaste afslagkoers) en milisies, reserwes en vlootpersoneel word glad nie getel nie:

1445-1475: 14 000 (gemiddelde staande vredestydmag)
1495: 22-27,000 (slegs inval)
1499: 23-29,000 (slegs inval)
1515: 41,000
1544: 69-77,000
1552: 60,000
1568: 80,000
1589: 50-60,000
1610: 55,000
1630: 39,000
1634: 100,368
1635: 168,100
1636: 205 400 (172 000 infanterie, 33 400 kavallerie)
1637: 160,010
1638: 148,180
1639: 211,950
Gemiddelde dertigjarige oorlog: 150-160,000
1665: 60,000
1667: 85,000
1668: 134,000
1678: 279 610 (219 250 infanterie en 60 360 kavallerie)
1688: 207,000
1693: 438,000 (343,323 infanterie, 67,334 aangewese kavallerie,

27 000 offisiere wat meestal kavallerie was)
1702: 220,502
1707: 373,000 (318,000 infanterie, 55,000 kavallerie)
1710: 381.229 (323.665 infanterie, 57.564 kavallerie)
1794: 1,169,000 (plus 1,200,000 in die National Guard omstreeks 1789)

Op bl. 883, merk die skrywer ook op dat 'n ander historikus, Corvisier, tydens die oorlog van die Spaanse opvolging ongeveer milisie en vlootpersoneel getel het, ongeveer dieselfde as die weermag. Dus, ten minste vir die 18de eeu, kon u die bogenoemde syfers ongeveer verdubbel om die volledige militêre instelling te kry.

Hierdie artikel word weergegee in die geredigeerde bundel "The Military Revolution Debate" onder redaksie van Clifford Rogers. Daar is 'n artikel of twee IIRC wat probleme met Lynn se berekeninge veroorsaak.


Franse rewolusionêre oorloë

Geskiedkundiges stem nie saam oor die evaluering van die faktore wat die rewolusie teweeggebring het nie.
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. en die begin van die Napoleontiese era, die dekade van 1792 �. Die oorloë het begin as 'n poging om die rewolusie te verdedig en het ontwikkel tot oorwinningsoorloë onder die ryk. Die vrede wat in 1801 𔃀 verkry is, word algemeen beskou as die Franse Revolusionêre Oorloë van die Napoleontiese Oorloë, maar die karakter van die konflik het slegs geleidelik verander.

Die oorsprong van die oorloë

Die Franse Revolusie wek die vyandigheid van buitelandse vorste, edeles en geestelikes, wat die verspreiding van republikeinse idees in die buiteland vrees. & Eacutemigr & eacute & eacutemigr & eacute
, in die Franse geskiedenis, 'n vlugteling, gewoonlik royalist, wat uit die Franse Revolusie gevlug en in 'n vreemde land gaan woon het. Die & eacutemigr & eacutes bestaan ​​uit alle klasse, maar is buite verhouding uit die bevoorregtes getrek.
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. intriges het daartoe gelei dat die Oostenrykse en Pruisiese heersers die verklaring van Pillnitz (Aug. 1791) afgelê het, en verklaar dat, as al die magte by hulle sou aansluit, hulle bereid was om Lodewyk XVI in sy regmatige gesag te herstel. Die Franse openbare mening is opgewek. Toe die Girondiste Girondiste
of Girondins
, politieke groep gematigde republikeine in die Franse Revolusie, so genoem omdat die sentrale lede afgevaardigdes van die Gironde -afdeling was. Girondistiese leiers het kontinentale oorlog voorgestaan.
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. beheer oor die bediening verkry (Maart 1792) en keiser Francis II in Oostenryk toegetree het, het oorlog byna onvermydelik geword. Baie van die rewolusioniste wou dit hê, met die opvallende uitsondering van Robespierre Robespierre, Maximilien Marie Isidore
, 1758 󈟊, een van die leidende figure van die Franse Revolusie. Vroeë lewe

As 'n arm jeug kon hy deur 'n beurs regte in Parys studeer.
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. & mdashwho het geglo dat oorlog die permanensie van die nuwe orde sou verseker en revolusie in die buiteland sou propageer, en deur die royaliste, wat gehoop het dat die oorwinning die magte van Lodewyk XVI sou herstel.

Oorlog met Oostenryk

Op 20 April 1792 verklaar Frankryk oorlog teen Oostenryk. Die Franse leërs het nie organisasie en dissipline gehad nie, en baie edele offisiere het geëmigreer. Die geallieerde Oostenrykse en Pruisiese magte onder Charles William Ferdinand Charles William Ferdinand,
1735 �, hertog van Brunswick (1780 �), Pruisiese veldmaarskalk. Hy het groot sukses behaal in die Sewejarige Oorlog (1756 en#821163) en was die opperbevelhebber (1792 󈟊) van die Oostenryk-Pruisiese leërs in die Franse Revolusionêre Oorloë.
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. , hertog van Brunswick, het vinnig die grens oorgesteek en op Parys begin opmars. Die hertog het 'n manifes uitgereik waarin hy gedreig het om Parys aan te val as die koninklike familie beseer word. Hierdie manifes het die Franse woedend gemaak en bygedra tot die skorsing van die koning (Aug. 1792). Die comte de Rochambeau Rochambeau, Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de
, 1725 �, maarskalk van Frankryk. Hy het aan die oorloë van koning Lodewyk XV deelgeneem en is in 1780 bevorder tot luitenant -generaal, toe koning Lodewyk XVI hom, met ongeveer 6 000 gereelde, gestuur het om generaal Washington in die
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. , bevelvoerder oor die noordelike sektor, en die markies de Lafayette Lafayette, of La Fayette, Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, markies de
, 1757 �, Franse generaal en politieke leier. Hy is gebore uit 'n gesiene familie en het vroeg die weermag betree.
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. , onder bevel van die sentrum, bedank. Hulle bekwame opvolgers, die generaals Dumouriez Dumouriez, Charles Fran en ccedilois
, 1739 �, Franse generaal in die Franse Revolusionêre Oorloë. Nadat hy in die Sewejarige Oorlog geveg het, was hy in diens van koning Lodewyk XV op verskeie geheime missies.
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. en Kellermann Kellermann, Fran & ccedilois Christophe
, 1735 �, maarskalk van Frankryk, geb. Straatsburg. Hy het in die Sewejarige Oorlog gedien en bekendheid verwerf in die Franse Revolusionêre Oorloë toe hy en generaal Dumouriez die Pruise by Valmy (1792) stop.
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. , het die gety omgedraai toe hulle die indringers by Valmy (20 September) afgeweer het. Dumouriez vorder na die Oostenrykse Nederland (België), en hy gryp dit na die slag van Jemappes (6 November), terwyl Custine Custine, Adam Philippe, comte de
, 1740 󈟉, Franse generaal. Hy dien in die Sewejarige Oorlog en in die Amerikaanse Revolusie. Hy is verkies tot die State-Generaal (1789) en het in die Franse Revolusionêre Oorloë gedien en in 1792 Frankfurt en Mainz ingeneem.
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. verower Mainz en vorder op Frankfurt.

Eerste koalisie

Laat in 1792 het die Konvensie 'n dekreet uitgevaardig wat hulp verleen aan alle mense wat hul vryheid wil herstel. Hierdie besluit, die teregstelling van Lodewyk XVI (Jan., 1793) en die opening van die Schelde -riviermonding (in stryd met die Vrede van Westfalen) het Groot -Brittanje, Holland en Spanje uitgelok om by Oostenryk en Pruise aan te sluit in die Eerste Koalisie teen Frankryk. Sardinië het reeds oorlog verklaar nadat Frankryk Savoye en Nice beset het (Sept., 1792). Op 1 Februarie 1793 verklaar Frankryk oorlog teen Brittanje en Holland en op 7 Maart teen Spanje. Dinge draai vinnig teen Frankryk. Dumouriez, verslaan in Neerwinden (18 Maart) deur die Oostenrykers, verlate na die vyandelike opstand, het in die Vend & eacutee uitgebreek Vend & eacutee
, departement (1990 pop. 509,356), W Frankryk, aan die Baai van Biskaje, in Poitou. Die buitelandse eilande Noirmoutier en Yeu is by die departement ingesluit. Die Vend & eacutee is grootliks 'n landbou- (melkery-, veeteelt-) en beboste gebied en het baie strandoorde
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. en Custine verloor Mainz aan die Pruise (23 Julie).

In die noodgeval is die eerste komitee vir openbare veiligheid (6 April) gestig, en a lev & eacutee en masse ('n konsep van liggaamlike mans tussen 18 en 25 jaar) is in Augustus uitgevaardig. Die komitee, geïnspireer deur die leierskap van Lazare Carnot Carnot, Lazare Nicolas Marguerite
, 1753 �, Franse revolusionêr, bekend as die organiseerder van oorwinning vir sy rol in die Franse Revolusionêre Oorloë. Carnot, 'n militêre ingenieur, het die militêre genie van die rewolusie geword en was hoofsaaklik verantwoordelik vir die
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. , verhoogde leërs van ongeveer 750 000 man was revolusionêre kommissarisse verbonde aan die bevele wat verslaan is, soos Custine, tereggestel "om die ander aan te moedig."

Teen die einde van 1793 is die bondgenote uit Frankryk verdryf. In 1794 word die nuwe Franse bevelvoerders, Jourdan Jourdan, Jean Baptiste
, 1762 �, maarskalk van Frankryk. Hy het in die Amerikaanse rewolusie geveg, en in die Franse rewolusionêre oorloë het hy die leër van die noorde na Wattignies beveel (1793), 'n beslissende oorwinning op Fleurus (1794) behaal en die leër van Sambre-et-Meuse gelei
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. en Pichegru Pichegru, Charles
, 1761 �, Franse generaal in die Franse Revolusionêre Oorloë. Hy was suksesvol aan die Rynfront (1793) en het Nederland binnegeval (1794), Amsterdam binnegegaan (1795) en die Nederlandse vloot gevang wat in die ys gevries het.
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. , het die offensief geneem. Nadat Jourdan die Oostenrykers by Fleurus verslaan het (26 Junie 1794), het hy langs die Ryn beweeg tot by Mannheim Pichegru die Lae Lande ingeneem het. Op 16 Mei 1795 verander Holland in die Bataafse Republiek Bataafse Republiek,
naam vir Nederland in die jare (1795 �) na die verowering deur die Franse tydens die Franse Revolusionêre Oorloë. Die Verenigde Provinsies van Nederland is in 1795 herbou as die Bataafse Republiek en het onder Franse besetting gebly en
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. , vrede gemaak het. Pruise het op 5 April 1795 'n aparte vrede onderteken (die eerste Verdrag van Basel), en die linkeroewer van die Ryn oorgegee aan Frankryk. Spanje het op 22 Julie vrede gemaak (tweede Verdrag van Basel).

Oorlogvoering teen Oostenryk en Sardinië duur voort onder die nuutgestigte Gids Gids,
groep van vyf mans wat die uitvoerende mag in Frankryk gehad het volgens die grondwet van die jaar III (1795) van die Franse Revolusie. Hulle is gekies deur die nuwe wetgewer, deur die Raad van Vyfhonderd en die Raad van Oudes elke jaar een direkteur, gekies
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. . Frankryk het geleidelik 'n plan ontwikkel wat 'n drieledige aanval vereis: Jourdan sou suidwaarts van die Lae Lande af kom Jean Victor Moreau Moreau, Jean Victor
, 1763 �, Franse generaal in die Franse Revolusionêre Oorloë. Ten spyte van sy suksesse op die Ryn en in Duitsland (1796 󈟍), is hy ontslaan omdat hy kompromitteer inligting oor generaal Pichegru weerhou het ná die staatsgreep van 18 Fructidor (1797).
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. sou toeslaan by S -Duitsland en Napoleon Bonaparte sou Piemonte en Lombardy verower, die Oostenrykse Alpe oorsteek en saam met Moreau en Jourdan. Gedurende 1795 het die Franse die bondgenote op alle fronte verslaan, maar in 1796 het die nuwe Oostenrykse bevelvoerder, aartshertog Charles Charles,
1771 �, aartshertog van Oostenryk, broer van die Heilige Romeinse keiser Francis II. Ten spyte van sy epilepsie, was hy die bekwaamste Oostenrykse bevelvoerder in die Franse Revolusionêre en Napoleontiese oorloë, maar hy was gestrem deur onverstandige besluite wat hom uit Wene opgelê is.
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. , het die offensief aangeval en eers Jourdan verslaan, daarna Moreau, wat albei teen September 1796 na die Ryn teruggetrek het.

Aan die Italiaanse front, waar 'n swak verskaffer van die Franse weermag tot Bonaparte se aankoms in 1796 besig was met desultory en defensiewe operasies, volg die een oorwinning op die ander (vir meer inligting oor die Italiaanse veldtog, sien Napoleon I Napoleon I
, 1769 �, keiser van die Franse, geb. Ajaccio, Korsika, bekend as "die klein korporaal." Vroeë lewe

Die seun van Carlo en Letizia Bonaparte (of Buonaparte sien onder Bonaparte, familie), die jong Napoleon is (1779) na Franse militêre skole gestuur by
. Klik op die skakel vir meer inligting. ). Sardinië het in Mei 1796 ingedien en in April 1797 is die voorlopige vrede van Leoben met Oostenryk deur Bonaparte onderteken, net soos Moreau sy offensief in Duitsland hervat het. Die wapenstilstand is bevestig deur die Verdrag van Campo Formio Campo Formio, Treaty of
, Oct., 1797, peace treaty between France and Austria, signed near Campo Formio, a village near Udine, NE Italy, then in Venetia. It marked the end of the early phases of the French Revolutionary Wars.
. Click the link for more information. (Oct., 1797). Britain, however, remained in the war, retaining naval superiority under such able commanders as Samuel Hood Hood, Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount,
1724�, British admiral. Entering the navy in 1741, he served with distinction in the Seven Years War. In 1781 he was sent to the West Indies as second in command to Lord Rodney.
. Click the link for more information. , Richard Howe Howe, Richard Howe, Earl,
1726󈟏, British admiral elder brother of Viscount Howe. He won early recognition in the Seven Years War for his operations in the English Channel.
. Click the link for more information. , John Jervis Jervis, John, earl of St. Vincent
, 1735�, British admiral. His most famous action as commander of the Mediterranean fleet was his defeat in 1797 of 27 Spanish ships off Cape St. Vincent with only 15 vessels.
. Click the link for more information. , and Horatio Nelson Nelson, Horatio Nelson, Viscount,
1758�, British admiral. The most famous of Britain's naval heroes, he is commemorated by the celebrated Nelson Column in Trafalgar Square, London.
. Click the link for more information. . Bonaparte's plan to attack the British Empire by way of Egypt was doomed by Nelson's naval triumph at Aboukir in Aug., 1798.

Second Coalition

Meanwhile, France again aroused the anger of the European powers by creating the Cisalpine Republic Cisalpine Republic
, Italian state created by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1797 by uniting the Transpadane and Cispadane republics, which he had established (1796) N and S of the Po River.
. Click the link for more information. and the Roman Republic and by invading Switzerland, which was transformed into the Helvetic Republic Helvetic Republic
, 1798�, Swiss state established under French auspices. In Sept., 1797, several exiled Swiss leaders in France (notably Frédéric César de La Harpe) formally urged the French Revolutionary government (the Directory) to help in
. Click the link for more information. . Under the leadership of Czar Paul I a Second Coalition was formed by Russia, Austria, Britain, Turkey, Portugal, and Naples. France defeated Naples and transformed it into the Parthenopean Republic Parthenopean Republic
[from Parthenope, an ancient name of Naples], state set up in Naples in Jan., 1799, by the French Revolutionary army under General Championnet and by liberal Neapolitans after the flight of King Ferdinand IV (later Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies).
. Click the link for more information. (Jan., 1799), but in N Italy the Austrians and the Russians drove out the French, and in Aug., 1799, General Suvorov Suvorov, Aleksandr Vasilyevich
, 1729�, Russian field marshal. Suvorov entered the army as a youth and rose rapidly through the ranks. He fought in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768󈞶, helped suppress the peasant rebellion led by Pugachev in 1775, and was created
. Click the link for more information. crossed the Alps into Switzerland, where Archduke Charles had already won (June 4𔃅) a victory at Zürich over Masséna Masséna, André
, 1758�, marshal of France, b. Nice. Of humble origin, he entered (1791) the French army and rose rapidly because of his brilliant tactical abilities.
. Click the link for more information. . However, disunity between the Austrians and the Russians resulted in disastrous defeats in Switzerland, and Suvorov, after a masterly retreat through the Alps, returned to Russia (Sept.–Oct., 1799).

At this juncture Bonaparte returned from Egypt and by the coup of 18 Brumaire became First Consul (Nov., 1799). The coalition was weakened by Russia's withdrawal, and Napoleon feverishly prepared a campaign to recoup French losses. The campaign of 1800 was decisive. In Italy, Napoleon, after crossing the St. Bernard Pass, crushed the Austrians at Marengo (June 14) in Germany, Moreau crossed the Rhine and demolished allied opposition at Hohenlinden (Dec. 3, 1800). With the Peace of Lunéville&mdasha more severe version of the Treaty of Campo Formio&mdashAustria was forced out of the war (Feb. 9, 1801).

Great Britain, however, continued victorious, taking Malta (Sept., 1800) and compelling the French to surrender in Egypt (Aug., 1801). When Denmark, encouraged by France, defied British supremacy of the seas, Lord Nelson destroyed the Danish fleet in the battle of Copenhagen (Apr. 2, 1801). Nevertheless, the British were war-weary and, after Pitt's retirement, consented to the Treaty of Amiens (Mar. 27, 1802), by which all conquests were restored to France. But the absence of a commercial agreement and Britain's refusal to evacuate Malta was to lead to the resumption of warfare in 1803. Peace had already been made with Naples (Mar., 1801) and with Portugal (Sept., 1801), and in Oct., 1802, France signed a treaty restoring Egypt to the Ottoman Empire.

Bibliografie

See T. C. W. Blanning, The French Revolution in Germany (1983) G. Lefebvre, The French Revolution (2 vol, tr. 1962󈞬) J. H. Rose, William Pitt and the Great War (1911, repr. 1971).


Napoleon Inflicts The Greatest Defeat in Prussian Military History

The twin battles of Jena-Auerstadt proved a major turning point for not only the Napoleonic wars, but also for 19th century Europe as a whole. Immediately, it brought about the end of Prussian resistance to Napoleon. But in the long term shocked the Prussian military system, showing their younger officers that something had to change. After this battle, Prussia began taking steps towards becoming the dominant military power in Northern Europe, eventually uniting all of the German states into the German Empire.

The War of The 4th Coalition, as the conflict between October 7th, 1806 and July 1807 was called, saw an alliance between Russia, Prussia, Great Britain, Saxony and Sweden against France. The Prussians first marched south on October 9th, as a show of force against Napoleon’s control over the Rhineland and Austrian territories. But the Prussian military wasn’t in a fit state for prolonged conflict at this point.

For most of the 18th century, the Prussian army had gained a reputation for the successful use of highly skilled mercenaries. Many of the Germanic states had armies for hire, and it was in no way hard to hire an army for a single campaign. Under Frederick the Great they enjoyed many victories in the Seven Years War.

By the 4th Coalition, most of the Prussian general staff had come of age under Frederick the Great and were staunch traditionalists. Adding to this, was the disorganized command structure of the Prussian army. There were three chiefs of staff and endless squabbling between them. Because of this, while they had mobilized before Napoleon, they immediately lost the initiative. There were multiple plans of attack to defeat the French forces, but the high command couldn’t decide on which one to implement. This wasted precious time, and by October 13th, 1806 it was too late.

Frederick the Great, his battle acumen and skill led Prussia to victory after victory in the 18th century. But war had changed by the Napoleonic period, and many of the Prussian generals still clung to the old ways. This proved disastrous at Jena- Auerstadt.

Napoleon’s forces had been marching north, with little resistance. One of his generals, Lannes, had found an advance Prussian force near the town of Jen on the 13th of October. He reported this to Napoleon, who ordered him to take up a strong position. The French troops took up a line of battle on the hills north of Jena, overlooking the plains below them. Initial contact was with only about 5,000 Prussian troops, with 15,000 marching up behind them. By the next morning, they would face around 40,000 Prussians, and Napoleon believed this to be the main enemy force in the region. He began pulling in his reserves, hoping for a decisive victory to crush the Prussians early on.

Battles of Jena and Vicinity

Louis Nicolas Davout, the commander of the III Corps, received orders to march from his position at Naumburg, north of Jena, to Apolda. Napoleon wanted this force, only 27,000 men, to encircle the Prussians retreating from Jena, to fully secure the victory. Davout’s troops set out around 0400 on the 14th, headed southwest.

Two hours later, Lannes, under orders from Napoleon, advanced towards the Prussians. Along with the French generals Suchet and Gazan, he captured the towns northwest of Jena. But the Prussians counterattacked and forced Lannes, who had pushed out past the French line, to fall back in line with Suchet and Gazan. The Prussians then pushed the attack, but were repulsed by French light infantry which had been hidden from view. Marshal Michel Ney now arrived on the battlefield, with an additional 3,000 men.

He was originally ordered to support Lannes’ right flank, but seeing that Suchet was already in position there, moved to the left. He pushed out past the French line with a combination of infantry and cavalry. While he was initially successful, he overextended himself and was quickly encircled by Prussian troops. Napoleon ordered units from the center to reinforce Ney’s weakened position, giving him a chance to retreat. This left the French center exposed, but Napoleon sent his Imperial Guard into the gap.

Napoleon speaking to his Imperial Guard. These troops answered to Napoleon directly, and he used them as an extension of his own strategy in battle. This adaptability allowed him to recover from the potentially disastrous advance of Marshal Ney at Jena.

The Prussian infantry could have exploited this weakness, but their leaders were sticking too stiffly to their plan, and leaders in the field had too little opportunity to use their own initiative. This would eventually cost them the battle, as the French were able to solidify their position, and repulse the ensuing Prussian assaults. By the end of the day, the French had broken the Prussian line, killing 10,000 men, taking 15,000 prisoners, and capturing 150 pieces of artillery at Jena.

Marshal Murat, leading a cavalry blow during the final push at Jena. French troops present Napoleon with captured Prussian banners at the end of the battle of Jena.

During all of this, another battle was raging to the north. Davout’s III Corps had come in contact with Prussian cavalry and artillery early in the morning and formed a defensive position at Hassenhausen. The Prussians were initially successful, with around 50,000 men, had nearly twice that of Davout. They forced the French into the town of Hassenhausen itself. Then everything went downhill for the Prussians.

Davout with his troops near Auerstadt. His adaptability, and those of his subordinates allowed a small group of French troops to defeat a Prussian force almost twice their size.

Davout’s forces arrived in full around Hassenhausen. Their artillery had come into position, and they were ready to put up a defense. The Prussians attempted to launch a large-scale assault, but due to poor communication couldn’t coordinate between commanders. Their cavalry attacked to the north, only to be met by squares of French infantry. The Prussian infantry attacked to the south, but both were repulsed.

By 1100 it was clear that the Prussian troops were wavering, two of their commanders had been mortally wounded, and the Prussian king Frederick William assumed command. But the King was wrongfully convinced he was facing Napoleon himself, which terrified him. He refused to make a large scale attack, for fear that the French would have a trick up their sleeve and counter. The French then launched a full-scale attack, breaking the Prussian line, and seizing the day.

In all the Prussians lost 13,000 men near Auerstadt and another 20,000 near Jena. But Auerstadt proved to be the most humiliating defeat, for they nearly outnumbered their opponents 2 to 1. After this day, it became clear to a small group of younger Prussian officers that something had to change. Gebhard von Bluecher, Carl von Clausewitz, August Neidhart von Gneisenau, Gerhard von Scharnhorst, and Hermann von Boyen were all present that day.

The Committee to Reorganize the Prussian Army. After Jena and Auerstadt the Prussian army went back to square one. They began rebuilding with a clear, simplified command structure. Promotion was based on skill, rather than political gain or nobility, and training was improved. They managed to turn a gruesome and embarrassing defeat into continuous victory. The Prussian, and later the German, military was almost undefeated from 1815 to 1914, with the start of WW1.

These would later create a reform committee which revolutionized the Prussian military. They realized that mandatory service was necessary, that individual initiative needed to be taken by commanders at the front, and reliance on mercenaries and conscripts wasn’t a viable option anymore. Their reforms set the stage for Prussia’s military might in the rest of the 19th century, eventually allowing them to crush the French in the Franco-Prussian war, establishing the German Empire as the military powerhouse on the continent.


Roundtable

On the scientists and inventors who brought flying balloons to battle.

Napoleonic Wars operations in Holland surveyed from a captive balloon, by Jan Anthonie Langendyk, 1805. © The Trustees of the British Museum.

On a November evening in 1782, Joseph Montgolfier contemplated the print of Gibraltar hanging above his fireplace. The middle son of a family of prominent bourgeoisie papermakers in the otherwise unimportant northern French city of Annonay, Joseph was an unlikely daydreamer. The drab environs might have sent his mind wandering elsewhere for excitement and possibility, a trait that occasionally landed him in debtors’ prisons over ambitious if ill-planned business ventures, including a brief foray into dye making and a paper mill that died from inattention.

As the embers flickered and the night air cooled, Joseph considered the means by which France might seize this tiny island and thereby control its strait—through which the majority of Europe’s trade passed into Mediterranean. No other acquisition of that size could compare with Gibraltar’s importance as France looked to rebuild its empire. But how to wrest this natural and nearly impenetrable fortress from its current Spanish occupants without a prolonged military campaign?

But just then, according to Charles Coulston Gillispie, the biographer of Joseph and his brother Étienne, Joseph noticed the vectors of heat rising from the fire. It occurred to him the answer might be: by air.

He fashioned a hollow sphere from taffeta and wood, placing at its base a small basket into which he twisted paper ends that he lit with a match. The miniature hot air balloon rose to the rafters—and with it man’s ambition for militaristic control of the skies.

Recognizing the larger implications of his idea even in this fledgling form, Joseph dashed off a note to his brother. Étienne expertly ran the family’s paper business while deftly modernizing its production methods. The two were very much each other’s opposite and as such ideally suited to collaborate on this fantastical invention of precision engineering.

After experimenting with different shapes, sizes, and materials for just under a year, they were ready to launch their first full-size craft. It resembled a contemporary air balloon, though about a third of the size. A small crowd gathered in Annonay’s town square on a rainy June day to watch the launch of the first Montgolfière, as the brothers’ balloon would come to be known. To their astonishment, it began to inflate. It rose to an estimated three thousand feet and flew a mile and a half before landing in a vineyard, where the grape pickers may well have thought the moon had fallen from the sky. By the following summer, news of the brothers’ invention reached Versailles, and King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette requested an exhibition. The Montgolfiers happily obliged.

The royal reveal occurred on a sunny day in September 1783. The monarchs were perched in their box, looking down at the palace’s courtyard as an enormous expanse of cloth ornamented with zodiacal signs interspersed with flaming suns and gilded fleurs-de-lis seemed to stir and rise of its own accord. Meanwhile, the Montgolfiers furiously fed bale after bale of hay into the balloon’s furnace. The balloon soon took shape, then flight, gliding peacefully above Versailles’ opulent gardens. The crowd below was stunned, and more still stared agape at morning newspapers heralding the feat the next day. But some observers took a more sanguine stance toward this lighter-than-air orb, comprehending almost immediately its potential application in war.

Perhaps chief among them was Benjamin Franklin, who had been present at the royal launch. Not long after, he wrote a friend:

Five thousand balloons, capable of raising two men each, could not cost more than have ships of the line and where is the prince who can afford so to cover his country with troops for its defense, as that ten thousand men descending from the clouds might not in many places do an infinite deal of mischief, before a force could be brought together to repel them?

He was not alone in fantasizing about airborne armadas. One English pamphlet published in 1783 argued hot-air balloon aeronauts could observe and report on enemy strength and positioning as well as monitor the movements of one’s own troops. Another the following year proposed “the construction of a grand naval balloon.”

France was not to be outdone by these lofty visions of aerial assaults. Just over one year after this Versailles display, the mathematician and engineer Jean-Baptiste Meusnier de la Place presented the French Academy of Sciences with schematics for a new kind of flying machine driven by an engine and steered by a propeller. In other words, he introduced the world to the idea of a dirigible.

Despite the fervor for militarized airpower, hot-air ballooning in the service of war wouldn’t progress beyond theory for the next ten years. Then the French Revolution changed that.

By 1793 the newly minted French Republic faced the First Coalition, an international alliance composed of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and a number of smaller monarchies that didn’t like the idea of a heretical republic. At home, France’s de facto governing body, the Committee of Public Safety, had been co-opted by Maximilien Robespierre, who was busy hoisting his egalitarian machine of death above the heads of some 16,600 supposed political opponents. Turmoil churned within the civilian population. Desertions in the military spiked. If the Republic was going to prevail, it needed a secret weapon. The revolution’s political leaders in Paris hoped the hot-air balloon would fit the bill.

Numerous aspects of the Montgolfiers’ balloon made it unsuitable for battle. It would be difficult to transport the hundreds of pounds of fuel required to fill the balloons and keep them afloat. The inflation process could take hours—longer still if it rained. If this invention was to have any practical application in war, the revolutionary forces needed a way to produce the fuel on site and inflate balloons beforehand.

The solution, improbable as it might seem given that the calendar had not yet turned to the eighteenth century, was hydrogen.

While hydrogen balloons known as aerostats had been flown before, the contemporary methods of producing the lighter-than-air gas made them unfeasible for the purposes of war. The first scientists to experiment with such balloons manufactured the hydrogen by combining sulfuric acid with iron filings in a corked wine barrel. The reacting contents slowly escaped the barrel through a glass tube that transported the gas into a balloon. This method was obviously dangerous and could literally blow up in an experimenter’s face. The process was also slow and arduous and didn’t produce a tenth of the hydrogen the military would need. On top of that, sulfuric acid was a key component in manufacturing gunpowder, which was already in short supply thanks to France’s multifront war.

Luckily, another method of hydrogen extraction had been tried, though not entirely proven, by Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. The French noblemen and chemist had discovered the fuel could be extracted by passing water over incandescent iron, which oxidized the iron and freed the hydrogen. (His experiments also happened to be the first to yield the composition of water.)

The Committee of Public Safety tasked Lavoisier and a team of fellow scientists to explore this potential avenue of hydrogen production. The researchers quickly showed promising results. Despite his contributions to the cause, Lavoisier was convicted of unrevolutionary activities and guillotined one month after his method proved suitable for the military’s needs.

In his place, Nicolas-Jacques Conté, a self-taught inventor, and Jean-Marie-Joseph Coutelle, a brilliant chemist, stepped in to solve the problem of how to scale production. In a matter of months the pair developed a furnace capable of filling an aerostat balloon at an unprecedented rate of forty-eight hours. These balloons could be inflated months before they were needed.

Demonstrating their achievement to the increasingly powerful Committee of Public Safety, Conté and Coutelle took its members up for rides in pairs. Upon returning to earth duly impressed, the politicians voted to establish compagnie d’aérostiers, or the Company of Aeronauts, the world’s first air force.

The timing was propitious. The war was not going well.

The Committee dispatched its newly formed company of aeronauts to join General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan in the Low Countries during the summer of 1794, hoping for a French comeback. Though one of the revolution’s most celebrated figures, Jourdan was coming off a string of minor defeats and had just been driven south by an inferior Austrian-Dutch army. When the aeronauts arrived, he was preparing to face Friedrich Josias, prince of Saxe-Coburg, for an engagement that would come to be called the Battle of Fleurus.

As the opposing forces gathered, the compagnie d’aérostiers constructed a mobile version of Conté and Coutelle’s furnace with cast-iron pipes measuring approximately eight feet in length. Once up and running, they began to inflate L’Entreprenant, a purpose-built spherical balloon with an enormous diameter of twenty-seven feet. While the armies marched toward each other on the morning of June 26, two aeronauts ascended in L’Entreprenant while sixteen soldiers held them fast in place, in effect forming a mobile watchtower.

From their elevated view, they watched Friedrich Josias split his battalions into five columns, a strategy that allowed each to react more quickly to the developing battle conditions. This preflight maneuver worked at first, and the Austrians broke through France’s left and right wing, concentrating their assault on the army’s center column.

Despite being fired on and almost shot down, the airmen of L’Entreprenant reported on the enemy’s movements through flag semaphore and written messages tossed to their compatriots below from ballast-filled bags attached to the balloon. As the battle raged for five, ten, and then fifteen hours, the aeronauts’ observations allowed commanders to adjust their tactics with an accuracy of information previously unknown on the battlefield. This new instrument of war reportedly terrified the Austrians, whose advantage slipped away. When the smoke cleared, the French proved to be the victors.

More than an isolated skirmish, the engagement was a crucial turning point in the war, and the world took note of the aerostat’s contribution. As one commentator in the British Register wrote of France’s employment of an aerostat in battle, “the assembled armies of her enemies have witnessed those advantages, and the gaining of the battle of Fleurus was the consequence.”

Soon after this crucial victory by the republican army the coalition of monarchies withdrew across the Rhine. The French pursued, floating their airborne watchtowers above the battles at Maubeuge, Charleroi, and Gosselins, as well as the 1795 campaign along the Rhine.

But the evolving realities of revolution soon interfered with the progress of state-controlled airpower.

Fueled by fear of international invasion, the Terror lost its raison d’être after the Ancien Régime’s coalition was driven back to whence they came. Robespierre lost his head, and the cooler ones that prevailed had little use for the revolution’s more radical aspects, including its thirst for experiments in military ballooning. By the time Napoleon was crowned first Emperor and France, for all intents and purposes, reverted to its prerevolutionary ways, the compagnie d’aérostiers had been disbanded and the exploits of L’Entreprenant relegated to the history books.

Yet the idea of an air force did not dissipate so easily. In 1803 John Money, one of England’s first aeronauts, urged the British Army to adopt balloons into their field operations. In his widely circulated pamphlet A Short Treatise on the Use of Balloons and Field Observators in Military Operations, he often rendered his arguments in verse.

Great use, he thought, there might be made
Of these machines in his own trade
Now o’er a fortress he might soar
And its condition thence explore
Or when by mountains, woods, or bog
An enemy might lie incog
Our friend would o’er their station hover
Their strength, their route, and views discover

Five years later, on the other side of the channel, one of the original members of the compagnie d’aérostiers put a new twist on that age-old French fantasy of invading England by suggesting they do so aboard a fleet of a hundred balloons.

Hot-air balloons and aerostats did not disappear from battle entirely. In 1807 the Danes endeavored to break an English blockade by attempting to bomb their ships from hot-air balloons. In 1849 the Austrians attempted to lay siege to Venice by way of incendiary bombs strapped to hundreds of unmanned hot-air balloons.

Besieged during the First Italian War of Independence in 1848–49, the defenders of Milan floated pamphlets, proclamations, and general propaganda to the surrounding areas in the baskets of miniature hot-air balloons. Balloons and aerostats were also used for reconnaissance during the American Civil War as well as the First Boer War, just to name two of many instances.

But even though the basic tenets of airpower—reconnaissance, communication, and combat—had been seeded during the French Revolution and established well before the calendar rolled over to a new century, few truly recognized just how significant those initial forays into airborne combat really were.

Not until Kaiser Wilhelm II’s zeppelin bombing raids of London did the world begin to recognize airpower as the future of warfare. Twenty-two years later the Luftwaffe, Royal Air Force, and the U.S. Air Force ended any debate that remained. With astounding rapidity British Spitfires, German Heinkels, and American Wildcats were followed by Sputnik, the Space Age, and the nearly nine thousand satellites that were subsequently launched—some for peaceful purposes, others to guide ICBMs to targets the size of single-car garages.

Below them, spy planes now proliferate in the upper levels of our stratosphere while ever more sophisticated fighter jets fly a thousand feet down. Closer still to the ground are remotely piloted combat drones armed with payloads of the world’s most advanced weaponry. Together these machines form concentric circles of war that we now take to be as intrinsic to Earth as rings are to Saturn.

Though man’s timeless infatuation with the gods of war may well have made the weaponization of the heavens inevitable, one wonders when and by what path were it not for these early instruments of flight. Arriving in the midst of a revolutionary age and right before history became modern, balloons seem to have silently ushered in a new age of global warfare without anyone really noticing that these rudderless aircraft had a definite direction after all.


War of the First Coalition - Rhine Front 1794 - History

The WAR OF THE FIRST COALITION had been started by a decision by the NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, taken on April 20th 1792, to take military action against the emigres en die despots from whom they drew their support, i.e. Prussia, Austria etc. An Austro-Prussian contingent under the command of the DUKE OF BRUNSWICK invaded France, slowly marching on Paris many French officers (mostly noblemen) deserted their ranks and surrendered to (even joined the) invading army.
The publication of the MANIFESTO OF THE DUKE OF BRUNSWICK in the name of King Louis XVI. caused his arrest and deposition (Sept. 21st 1792), in the wake of which the REPUBLIC was proclaimed. The NATIONAL CONVENTION thus found herself with a war at hand from the start. The invading Austro-Prussian forces were halted and turned back in the CANONADE OF VALMY (Sept. 1792). Revolutionary forces (largely expanded by regiments of volunteers and then by the LEVEE EN MASSE) soon temporarily occupied the AUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS , the Rhineland and SAVOY. In places such as MAINZ and BRUSSELS, the revolutionar troops were welcomed as liberators, TREES OF LIBERTY were planted, a Jacobin Club founded in Mainz.

In the War of the First Coalition, French revolutionary forces faced Austrian, Prussian, Spanish, British, Savoyard and Neapolitan forces, which in France herself were supported by the Royalists (who, for instance, handed over the fortresses of the port of Toulon to an Anglo-Spanish- Neapolitan expedition. Young officer NAPOLEON BONAPARTE expelled them after a three month long siege in 1793. The French revolutionary side was supported by foreign reformist emigres, such as the Dutch PATRIOTS which had fled the Netherlands for Paris in 1787.

After a temporary setback, French troops reoccupied the Austrian Netherlands in 1794, the Dutch Republic in January 1795, where the BATAVIAN REPUBLIC was established. In 1795, the PEACE OF BASEL was signed, ending the war France annexed the Austrian Netherlands, Germany to the west of the Rhine, Savoy. France annexed Savoy in 1792, NICE in 1793, the Austrian Netherlands and the Rhineland in 1795.