Trinidad -regering - Geskiedenis

Trinidad -regering - Geskiedenis



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TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

Trinidad en Tobago is 'n eenheidstaat, met 'n parlementêre demokrasie volgens die van die Verenigde Koninkryk Van 1962 tot 1976 het Trinidad en Tobago, hoewel heeltemal onafhanklik, die Britse monarg erken as die hoof van die staat. In 1976 het die land 'n republikeinse grondwet aanvaar, wat koningin Elizabeth vervang het deur 'n president wat deur die parlement verkies is. Die algemene leiding en beheer van die regering berus by die kabinet, gelei deur 'n eerste minister en verantwoordelik vir die tweekamerparlement.
HUIDIGE REGERING
PresidentRichards, George Maxwell
Eerste MinisterBemanning, Patrick
Min. van LandbouRahael, John
Min. van kultuur en toerismeJob-Davis, Eudine
Min. van OnderwysBemanning, Hazel
Min. van energie- en energiebedryweWilliams, Eric
Min. van FinansiesBemanning, Patrick
Min. van Buitelandse SakeGeskenk, Knowlson
Min. van GesondheidImbert, Colm
Min. van BehuisingMontano, Danny
Min. van Arbeid en ontwikkeling van klein en mikro -ondernemingsAchong, Lawrence
Min. van RegsakeRobinson-Regis, Camille
Min. van die plaaslike regeringNarine, Jarrette
Min. van nasionale veiligheidChin Lee, Howard
Min. van Beplanning en OntwikkelingRowley, Keith
Min. van openbare administrasie en inligtingSê, Lenny
Min. van openbare nutsdienste en die omgewingJosef, Martin
Min. van sosiale ontwikkelingBeckles, Penelope
Min. van sport- en jeugsakeBoynes, Roger
Min. van Tobago AffairsDumas, Rennie
Min. van handel en nywerheidVallei, Ken
Min. van Werke en VervoerPiggot, Arnold
Prokureur-generaalMorean, Glenda
Goewerneur, Sentrale BankWilliams, Ewart
Ambassadeur in die VSAArneaud, Michael
Permanente verteenwoordiger by die VN, New YorkSealy, Philip Reuben Arnott


Regering

Voormalige hoof en pro -kanselier van die Universiteit van Wes -Indië ontvang hy twee nasionale toekennings - The Trinity Cross (TC) - Trinidad en Tobago en hoogste nasionale toekenning, en die Chaconia -medalje in die Orde van die Drie -eenheid (CMT) , Goud.

George Maxwell Richards het die eed afgelê as president op 17 Maart 2003. Hy is professor emeritus in chemiese ingenieurswese aan die departement chemiese ingenieurswese, Universiteit van Wes -Indië.

Hy is in 1931 in San Fernando, Trinidad, gebore en het sy primêre opleiding daar ontvang voordat hy 'n uitstalling aan die Queen & rsquos Royal College in Port of Spain gewen het.

President Richards behaal 'n B.Sc in 1955 en 'n M.Sc in 1957 in Chemiese Ingenieurswese aan die University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology en 'n Ph.D in Cambridge, in 1963.

Van Mei 1950 tot September 1951 was hy 'n stafleerling (eksplorasie, produksie en verfyning) by United British Oilfields of Trinidad Ltd., Point Fortin, Trinidad, 'n voorloper van Shell Trinidad Ltd.

Van 1957 tot 1965 beklee die president 'n aantal bestuursposte by Shell Trinidad Bpk.

In Oktober 1970 word hy aangestel as professor in chemiese ingenieurswese en doseer hy tot Mei 1985. Hy beklee ook die pos van adjunkhoof en pro -rektor van Augustus 1980 tot Mei 1985.

President Richards word in Oktober 1984 waarnemende hoof en beklee hierdie pos tot Mei 1985, toe hy as hoof en pro -kanselier aangestel is. Hy beklee hierdie pos tot November 1996.

Sy Eksellensie het in die direksie van 'n aantal maatskappye in Trinidad en Tobago gedien, waaronder die Trinidad Publishing Co., Trinidad en Tobago Oil Company en die National Gas Co., en het ook gedien in die direksies van verskeie diensorganisasies, waaronder die National Training Board, die National Advisory Council en die Institute of Marine Affairs.

Hy was voorsitter van die Salaris Review Commission van die Republiek van Trinidad en Tobago (1997-2003)

Onlangse akademiese toekennings en aktiwiteite - President Richards is aangewys as Alumnus Of The Year & ndash 2003, University of Manchester Institute of Science & amp Technology (UMIST) en is in 2003 tot ere -genoot van die Institution of Chemical Engineers, Londen, aangestel.

Hy is verkies tot 'n ere -genootskap by Pembroke College, die Universiteit van Cambridge op 9 November 2004. Die graad Doctor in Laws (Honoris Causa) is op 4 Januarie 2005 deur die Universiteit van Sheffield aan hom toegeken.

President Richards was 'n aanbevole plenaire spreker op die 7de Wêreldkongres vir Chemiese Ingenieurswese, wat gehou is in Glasgow, Skotland, van 11 Julie tot 14 Julie 2005.

In November 2005 is president Richards aangewys as kanselier van die nuwe Universiteit van Trinidad en Tobago.

Die president is getroud met dr Jean Ramjohn-Richards, 'n mediese spesialis. Hulle uitnemendheid het twee kinders.

Die agbare premier Kamla Persad-Bissessar van Trinidad
en Tobago

Kamla Persad-Bissessar is gebore op 22 April 1952. As klein dogtertjie was sy altyd geïnteresseerd in die lees van romans en was geïntrigeerd deur die ontwikkelende tegnologie van die tyd. Mevrou Persad-Bissessar studeer aan die Iere High School en studeer verder aan die Universiteit van Wes-Indië, Norwood Technical College (Engeland) en die Hugh Wooding Law School. Gevolglik het sy 'n B.A. (Hons.), 'N Diploma in Onderwys, 'n B.A. van die regte (Hons.) en 'n regsopvoedingsertifikaat. In 2006 behaal sy 'n Executive Masters in Business Administration (EMBA) aan die Arthur Lok Jack Graduate School of Business, Trinidad.

Na voltooiing van haar studies het mev Persad-Bissessar die onderwysberoep betree. Haar loopbaangeskiedenis kan beskryf word as mense-gesentreerd en een wat haar energie altyd in die oog van die publiek gefokus het. Terwyl sy in Engeland studeer, werk sy as maatskaplike werker by die Church of England Children's Society of London. Sy het klasgegee aan die St. Andrew High School in Kingston, Jamaika en op die Mona -kampus in Jamaika. Later het sy klasgegee op die St. Augustine -kampus van die Universiteit van Wes -Indië in Trinidad. By die Jamaica College of Insurance was sy ook 'n konsultantdosent. Haar volgende stap was om lesings by 'n tersiêre onderwysinstelling te gee. Na 'n lesing van altesaam ses jaar, word mev Persad-Bissessar 'n voltydse advokaat.

In 1987 betree mevrou Persad-Bissessar die politieke arena. Van 1987 tot 1991 was mev. Persad-Bissessar 'n wethouer vir die St Patrick County Council. Sy verteenwoordig die Verenigde Nasionale Kongres in die opposisie en neem die eed van trou op 'n sitting van die senaat op 1 November 1994. Sedert 1995 is sy parlementslid vir Siparia, as prokureur -generaal, minister van regsake en minister van Onderwys tussen 1995 en 2001. Die Verenigde Nasionale Kongres keer in 2002 terug na die opposisiebanke en op 26 April 2006 word mev. Persad-Bissessar aangestel as leier van die opposisie, die eerste vrou wat ooit die pos in die Republiek van Trinidad en Tobago. Mevrou Persad-Bissessar is op 25 Februarie 2010 'n tweede keer as leier van die opposisie aangestel, byna 'n maand nadat sy tot politieke leier van die United National Congress verkies is.

Op Dinsdag 26 Mei 2010, twee dae na 'n oorwinning by die stembusse, het mev. Persad-Bissessar weer geskiedenis geskep en die eerste vrou geword wat die amp van premier van die Republiek Trinidad en Tobago beklee.

Mevrou Persad-Bissessar is getroud met dr. Gregory Bissessar en het een seun.Staatshoofde en kabinetslede van buitelandse regerings
Datum van inligting: 5/Julie/10

Pres. George Maxwell RICHARDS
Eerste min. Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR
Min. van die kunste en multikulturalisme Lincoln DOUGLAS
Min. van Kommunikasie Jamal MOHAMMED
Min. van gemeenskapsontwikkeling Winston PETERS
Min. van Onderwys Tim GOPEESINGH
Min. van Energy & amp Energy Affairs Kevin RAMNARINE
Min. van die omgewing en waterbronne Ganga SINGH
Min. van finansies en die ekonomie Larry HOWAI
Min. van voedselproduksie Afwykende MAHARAJ
Min. van Buitelandse Sake Winston DOOKERAN
Min. van geslag, jeug en kinderontwikkeling Marlene COUDRAY
Min. van Gesondheid Fuad KHAN
Min. van behuising, grond en amp mariene aangeleenthede Roodal MOONILAL
Min. van Justisie Herbert VOLNEY
Min. van Labour & amp; Small & amp Micro-Enterprise Development Errol MCLEOD
Min. van Regsake Prakash RAMADHAR
Min. van Plaaslike Regering. Surujrattan RAMBACHAN
Min. van nasionale diversiteit en sosiale integrasie Clifton DE COTEAU
Min. van nasionale veiligheid Jack WARNER
Min. van Beplanning Bhoendratt TEWARIE
Min. van die People & amp Social Development Glen RAMDHARSINGH
Min. van Openbare Administrasie. Carolyn SEEPERSAD-BACHAN
Min. van openbare nutsdienste Nizam BAKSH
Min. van wetenskap en tegnologie Rupert GRIFFITH
Min. van Sport en jeugsake Anil ROBERTS
Min. van tersiêre opleiding en vaardigheidsopleiding Fazal KARIM
Min. van Tobago Development Delmon BAKER
Min. van Toerisme Stephen CADIZ
Min. van handel, nywerheid en beleggings Vasant BHARATH
Min. van Vervoer Chandresh SHARMA
Min. van werke en infrastruktuur Emmanuel GEORGE
Min. van die staat in die ministerie van plaaslike regering. Rudranath INDARSINGH
Min. van die staat in die ministerie van voedselproduksie Jairam SEEMUNGAL
Min. van die staat in die ministerie van die omgewing en waterbronne Ramona RAMDIAL
Min. van die staat in die ministerie van nasionale diversiteit en sosiale integrasie Embau MOHENI
Min. van die staat in die ministerie van nasionale veiligheid Collin PARTAP
Min. van die staat in die ministerie van mense en sosiale ontwikkeling Vernella ALLEYNE-TOPPIN
Min. van die Staat in die Kantoor van die Eerste Minister. Rodger SAMUEL
Prokureur genl. Anand RAMLOGAN
Goewerneur, Sentrale Bank Ewart WILIAMS
Ambassadeur in die VSA Neil PARSAN
Permanente verteenwoordiger by die VN, New York Rodney CHARLES

Die ambassade van die Republiek van Trinidad en Tobago is geleë op 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 (tel. 202-467-6490 faks. 202-785-3130).

Toe Trinidad in 1498 deur Columbus verken is, is dit bewoon deur die Arawaks -Carib -Indiane wat in Tobago gewoon het. Trinidad het in Spaanse besit gebly, ondanks strooptogte deur ander Europese lande, totdat dit in 1802 aan Brittanje afgestaan ​​is. Tobago het verskeie kere tussen Brittanje en Frankryk oorgegaan, maar dit is uiteindelik in 1814 aan Brittanje gegee. Slawerny is in 1834 afgeskaf. Tussen 1845 en In 1917 word duisende werkers uit Indië gebring om op suikerrietplantasies te werk. In 1889 is Trinidad en Tobago 'n enkele kolonie.

Gedeeltelike selfregering is in 1925 ingestel, en van 1958 tot 1962 was die land deel van die Wes-Indiese Federasie. Op 31 Augustus 1962 word dit onafhanklik en op 1 Augustus 1976 word Trinidad en Tobago 'n republiek wat in die Statebond bly. Alhoewel die land 'n stabiele demokrasie is en die hoogste lewenstandaard in die Karibiese Eilande geniet danksy olie -inkomste, het spanning tussen Oos -Indiërs en swartes 'n groot rol in die politieke lewe onderstreep. In 1970 het oproer en 'n leërmag teen die Oos -Indiese bevolking 'n noodtoestand veroorsaak, wat twee jaar lank geduur het.

Eric Williams, vader van die nasie en leier van die People's National Movement (PNM), wat grootliks deur swartes gesteun word, was van 1956 tot sy dood in 1981 regeer. In Desember 1986 het die veelrassige National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), gebaseer in Tobago, het 'n parlementêre meerderheid gewen en belowe om die meeste staatsondernemings te verkoop, die staatsdiens te herorganiseer en die afhanklikheid van olie te verminder.

In 1990, om die NAR -regering te protesteer, het ongeveer 100 radikale swart Moslems die polisiestasie opgeblaas in 'n poging tot staatsgreep waarin die premier en ander amptenare ses dae lank as gyselaars aangehou is. Die NAR is in 1991 verslaan en die PNM het weer aan bewind gekom. In 1995 het die Oos -Indiese en ndash -gebaseerde party, die United National Congress (UNC), onder leiding van Basdeo Panday, 'n koalisieregering saam met die NAR gevorm. In 2000 wen Panday nog 'n termyn amper.

In Desember 2001 het die regerende UNC Party en die PNM Party elk 18 setels gekry. Die twee partye het ooreengekom om president Robinson toe te laat om die premier te kies om die doodloopstraat te beëindig. Maar toe Robinson Patrick Manning van die PNM kies vanweë sy morele en geestelike waardes, roep die opposisie woedend op tot nuwe verkiesings. In die verkiesing in Oktober 2002 verklaar Manning se party die oorwinning. Maxwell Richards, 'n universiteitsdekaan, is in 2003 deur die parlement as president verkies.

In April 2006 is die voormalige premier Panday tot twee jaar tronkstraf gevonnis weens bedrog in die openbare amp. Richards, wat onbestrede was, is herkies in Februarie 2008. Toe Trinidad in 1498 deur Columbus verken is, is dit bewoon deur die Arawaks Carib -Indiane wat Tobago bewoon het. Trinidad het in Spaanse besit gebly, ondanks strooptogte deur ander Europese lande, totdat dit in 1802 aan Brittanje afgestaan ​​is. Tobago het verskeie kere tussen Brittanje en Frankryk oorgegaan, maar dit is uiteindelik in 1814 aan Brittanje gegee. Slawerny is in 1834 afgeskaf. Tussen 1845 en In 1917 word duisende werkers uit Indië gebring om op suikerrietplantasies te werk. In 1889 is Trinidad en Tobago 'n enkele kolonie.

POLITIESE VOORWAARDES

Die nasie met twee eilande, Trinidad en Tobago, ondergaan steeds werklike BBP-groei as gevolg van ekonomiese hervormings, streng monetêre beleid, fiskale verantwoordelikheid en hoë oliepryse. In 2006 het die land 'n reële BBP-groeikoers van 12% beleef, wat gevolg het op 'n groei van 8% in 2005. Die regering onder leiding van PNM sit sy gesonde makro-ekonomiese beleid voort. Langtermyngroei lyk belowend, aangesien Trinidad en Tobago sy olie- en gasbronne verder ontwikkel en die bedrywe wat afhanklik is van aardgas, insluitend petrochemie, kunsmis, yster/staal en aluminium. Bykomende groeipotensiaal bestaan ​​ook in finansiële dienste, telekommunikasie en vervoer. Sterk groei in Trinidad en Tobago die afgelope paar jaar het tot handelsoorskotte gelei, selfs met hoë invoervlakke as gevolg van industriële uitbreiding en 'n groter verbruikersvraag. Die skulddiensverhouding was in 2004 matig 4,7% en het in 2005 tot 2,5% gedaal. In 2006 het werkloosheid tot 5% gedaal van 6,7% in 2005. Die wesensinflasie bereik 'n hoogtepunt van 10% (op 'n jaargrondslag) Oktober 2006, dan matig tot 8,0% vanaf Maart 2007. Voedselprysinflasie het in Maart 2007 tot 18,8% (jaar-tot-jaar) afgeneem, van 22% in Oktober 2006. Gedurende 2006 het die Sentrale Bank rentekoerse agt verhoog tye vir die jaar. Sedert September 2006 het die Bank die koers egter op 8,0%gehandhaaf. Daar is geen valuta- of kapitaalbeheer nie, en die sentrale bank handhaaf die TT -dollar in 'n ligte, stabiele swaai teenoor die Amerikaanse dollar. Die wisselkoers op 10 Mei 2007 was TT $ 6,31 tot US $ 1.

Trinidad en Tobago het 'n oorgang gemaak van 'n olie-gebaseerde ekonomie na een wat op aardgas gebaseer is. In 2006 was die produksie van aardgas gemiddeld 4 miljoen standaard el per dag (mmscf/d), vergeleke met 3,2 mcf/d in 2005. Die petrochemiese sektor, insluitend aanlegte wat metanol, ammoniak, ureum en aardgasvloeistowwe produseer, het steeds groei in ooreenstemming met die produksie van aardgas, wat steeds uitbrei en in die volgende paar jaar moet voldoen aan die behoeftes van nuwe nywerheidsaanlegte, insluitend yster, aluminium en etileen. In Desember 2005 het die Atlantic LNG vierde produksiemodule of & quottrain & quot vir vloeibare aardgas (LNG) begin met die produksie. Trein 4 het die totale produksievermoë van Atlantic LNG met byna 50% verhoog en is een van die grootste LNG -treine ter wêreld met 5,2 miljoen ton LNG per jaar. Trinidad en Tobago is die vyfde grootste uitvoerder van LNG ter wêreld en die grootste verskaffer van LNG aan die VSA, wat 70% van alle LNG wat in die VSA ingevoer is, lewer. was 41,5% van die BBP aan die einde van daardie jaar.

Die groei in die nie-energiesektor in 2006 vertraag tot 6,5%, van 8,7% in 2005. Vervaardiging was die mees dinamiese, met 'n groei van 11,8% in 2006, wat vir die derde agtereenvolgende jaar gelei is deur voedsel, drank en tabak (19%) en bedryfsaktiwiteite (11,1%). Die dienstesektor het met 5,9%gegroei, gelei deur groei in die konstruksiesektor as gevolg van die regering se investering in behuising en infrastruktuur deur Trinidad en Tobago, en deurlopende projekte in die energiesektor. Die prestasie in die landbousektor was wisselvallig en swak, met 'n afname van 0,6% in produksie wat hoofsaaklik te wyte was aan die krimp en herstrukturering van die suikerbedryf. Die regering poog om die ekonomie te diversifiseer om die afhanklikheid van die energiesektor te verminder en om selfonderhoudende groei te bewerkstellig. Die diversifikasiestrategie fokus op sewe belangrike bedrywe: seiljagvis en visverwerking, mariene musiek en vermaaklikheidsfilms, kos en drank en drukwerk en verpakking. 'N Nasionale navorsings- en ontwikkelingsfonds sal gestig word om innovasie en belegging in 'n tegnologiepark te stimuleer wat opgerig word.

Trinidad en Tobago het 'n oop beleggingsklimaat. Sedert 1992 is bykans alle beleggingshindernisse uit die weg geruim. Die regering verwelkom steeds buitelandse beleggers. Die regering het 'n dubbelbelastingooreenkoms, 'n bilaterale beleggingsverdrag en 'n intellektuele eiendomsregooreenkoms met die Verenigde State. Die voorraad Amerikaanse regstreekse beleggings in Trinidad en Tobago was $ 1,98 miljard vanaf 2005. Totale invloei van direkte buitelandse beleggings in die afgelope dekade was gemiddeld $ 700 miljoen per jaar. Onder onlangse en deurlopende beleggingsprojekte is verskeie Amerikaanse ondernemings betrokke: ISG Trinidad het in November 2004 begin werk in 'n fabriek wat die kapasiteit het om jaarliks ​​500 000 ton warm brikette te vervaardig. In Desember 2006 het Nucor begin met die vervaardiging van direk verminderde yster vir aflewering na die VSA by sy fabriek in Trinidad, wat 'n produksievermoë van 2,0 miljoen ton per jaar het. Twee aluminiumsmelteraanlegte word ook beplan, waarvan een in besit van Alcoa is. Die eerste groot besigheidsklashotel wat in 'n paar jaar geopen is, dra die Marriott Courtyard-handelsmerk. 'N Hotel wat deur Hyatt bestuur word, sal na verwagting einde 2007 oopmaak, deel van 'n ontwikkelingsprojek van verskeie miljoene dollars in Port of Spain.

Die infrastruktuur van Trinidad en Tobago is volgens streeksstandaarde voldoende. Die uitbreiding van die Crown Point -lughawe in Tobago word beplan, wat volg op die opening van die Piarco -terminale op Trinidad in 2000. Daar is 'n uitgebreide netwerk van geplaveide paaie. Verkeer is 'n erger probleem in Trinidad, aangesien die padnetwerk nie geskik is vir die hoeveelheid voertuie nie en slegs 'n rudimentêre massavervoerstelsel bestaan. Hulpprogramme is redelik betroubaar in stede, maar sommige landelike gebiede ly aan kragonderbrekings, watertekorte in die droë seisoen en oorstromings in die reënseisoen weens onvoldoende dreinering. Verbetering van infrastruktuur is een van die regering se begrotingsprioriteite, veral die rehabilitasie van landelike paaie en brûe, landelike elektrifisering, vloedbeheer en verbeterde dreinering en riool. Die regering evalueer bod vir 'n spoorwegstelsel en sal na verwagting middel 2007 'n kontrak vir die ontwerp- en beplanningsfase van die projek toeken.

Telefoondiens is modern en redelik betroubaar, hoewel dit aansienlik duurder is vir verbruikers as vergelykbare Amerikaanse dienste, insluitend vir draad-, draadlose en breëbanddienste. Verandering in die draadlose mark het begin toe die nuwe telekommunikasie-owerheid twee ondernemings uitgenooi het om mededinging te bied aan die huidige monopolie in besit van TSTT (mede-besit van Cable & amp Wireless). Twee draadlose verskaffers, Bmobile en Digicel, is reeds in bedryf, terwyl 'n derde lisensiehouer, Laqtel, nie diens begin het vanaf Mei 2007 nie. Langafstand-, kabel- en internetdienste is nog nie gedereguleer nie, maar die regering het aangedui dat dit wel sal gebeur so ook in die markte, begin met kabel -TV. Internet het wyd gebruik geword, met breëbandtoegang beskikbaar in luukse besigheids- en woongebiede, asook 'n aantal draadlose plekkies. & Quot Verbeterings in diens en prys is waarskynlik, namate TSTT hom voorberei op die koms van mededinging om internetdienste.

Amptelike openbare vakansiedae 2008-2014

Die amptelike openbare vakansiedae wat gedurende 2008 - 2014 in Trinidad en Tobago gevier word, word hieronder gelys. Hieronder word ook 'n paar belangrike notas beskryf wat u in gedagte moet hou ten opsigte van die amptelike vakansiedae in Trinidad en Tobago en rsquos.


Inhoud

Die oorspronklike naam vir die eiland in die taal van die Arawaks was Ek is wat 'Land of the Hummingbird' beteken het. [7] Christopher Columbus het dit herdoop La Isla de la Trinidad ('The Island of the Trinity'), wat 'n gelofte nakom wat hy afgelê het voordat hy op sy derde reis gegaan het. [8] Dit is sedertdien verkort tot Trinidad.

Caribs en Arawaks het in Trinidad gewoon lank voor Christopher Columbus die eilande op sy derde reis op 31 Julie 1498 teëgekom het. Die eiland het tot 1797 Spaans gebly, maar dit is grootliks deur Franse koloniste uit die Franse Karibiese Eilande, veral Martinique, gevestig. [9] In 1889 word die twee eilande 'n enkele Britse kroonkolonie. Trinidad en Tobago verkry selfbestuur in 1958 en onafhanklikheid van die Verenigde Koninkryk in 1962. [10]

Belangrike landvorme sluit in die heuwels van die noordelike, sentrale en suidelike rye (Dinah -reekse), die Caroni-, Nariva- en Oropouche -moerasse en die Caroni- en Naparima -vlaktes. Belangrike rivierstelsels sluit die Caroni-, Noord- en Suid -Oropouche- en Ortoire -riviere in. Daar is baie ander natuurlike landvorme soos strande en watervalle. Trinidad het twee seisoene per kalenderjaar: die reënseisoen en die droë seisoen. El Cerro del Aripo, op 940 meter (3,084 voet), is die hoogste punt in Trinidad. Dit is deel van die Aripo -massief en is geleë in die noordelike reeks op die eiland, noordoos van die stad Arima. [11]

Die demografie van Trinidad en Tobago weerspieël die diversiteit van hierdie mees suidelike land in Wes -Indië. Dit staan ​​soms bekend as die "Rainbow Country" [12] of met meer liefde "'n callaloo" (plaaslike dialek vir 'n heerlike gereg berei deur 'n verskeidenheid bestanddele te meng). [ aanhaling nodig ] Daar is 'n wye verskeidenheid etnisiteite, godsdienste en kulture.

Vanaf die 2011 -sensus van Trinidad en Tobago was die bevolking 35,43% Oos -Indiër, 34,22% Afrika, 7,66% gemengde Afrika en Oos -Indiër en 15,16% ander gemengde. [1] Venezuela het ook 'n groot impak op die kultuur van Trinidad gehad, soos die bekendstelling van die musiekstyl op die eiland. Baie groepe oorvleuel. Byvoorbeeld, 'Dougla' is 'n persoon van Afrika en Oos -Indiese afkoms wat kan identifiseer as deel van een van die twee groepe. [13] [14] [15]

Godsdiens Redigeer

Godsdiens in Trinidad en Tobago bestaan ​​uit 'n uiteenlopende verskeidenheid denominasies, waaronder Rooms -Katolieke, Anglikaanse en ander Christelike denominasies, sowel as Hindoe- en Moslemgeloof. Daar is 'n minderheid mense wat volgelinge is van tradisionele Afrika-godsdienste, Afro-Amerikaanse godsdienste, Orisha (Yoruba), Amerindiese godsdienste, Judaïsme, Sikhisme, Jainisme, Chinese volksgodsdiens (Confucianisme en Taoïsme), Boeddhisme, The Church of Jesus Christ of Heiliges van die laaste dae en die Bahá'í-geloof. [4] Katolisisme is die grootste godsdienstige denominasie van die land. [16]

Die verskeidenheid denominasies volg dekades lank hierdie patroon: Protestant 32,1%(Pinkster/Evangelies/Volle Evangelie 12%, Baptiste 6,9%, Anglikaanse 5,7%, Sewendedag Adventiste 4,1%, Presbiteriaanse/Gemeentelike 2,5%, ander Protestante 0,9%) , Rooms -Katoliek 21,6%, Hindoe 18,2%, Moslem 5%, Jehovah se Getuie 1,5%, ander 8,4%, geen 2,2%, ongespesifiseerde 11,1%. [17]

Daar is verskeie feeste met die musiek van die Karibiese Eilande en die staalpan, wat sy oorsprong in Trinidad het en die land se nasionale instrument is. Hierdie feeste [18] sluit die wêreldbekende Carnival, J'ouvert en Panorama in, die nasionale staalpankompetisie. Trinidad het ook baie openbare vakansiedae, soos Indiese aankomsdag, Emansipasiedag, Onafhanklikheidsdag, Republiekdag, Arbeidsdag, Tweede dag, Nuwejaarsdag, Divali, Phagwah, Eid al-Fitr, Corpus Christi, Goeie Vrydag, Paasfees, Paasfees Maandag, Kersfees en Spiritual Baptist/Shouter Liberation Day. Plekke van kulturele belang sluit in die berg Saint Benedict en die tempel in die see. [19] [20]

Die eiland Trinidad het 'n ryk biodiversiteit. [21] Die fauna is oorweldigend van Suid -Amerikaanse oorsprong. Daar is ongeveer 100 spesies soogdiere, waaronder die Guyanese rooi huilap, die pekery, die rooibokhert, die ocelot en ongeveer 70 vlermuissoorte. [22] Daar is meer as 400 voëlspesies, waaronder die endemiese Trinidad piping-guan. Reptiele is goed verteenwoordig, met ongeveer 92 aangetekende spesies, waaronder die grootste slangspesie ter wêreld, die groen anakonda, die brilkaaiman en een van die grootste akkedisse in die Amerikas, die groen leguaan. Trinidad is ook die grootste nesplek vir leerskilpaaie in die westelike halfrond wat hulle op die oostelike en noordelike strande van Trinidad nestel. Daar is 37 aangetaste paddaspesies, waaronder die klein El Tucuche goue boomkikker, en die meer wydverspreide groot rietpadda. Ongeveer 43 spesies varswatervis is uit Trinidad bekend, waaronder die bekende guppy. Na raming is daar minstens 80 000 geleedpotiges en minstens 600 spesies skoenlappers. [23]

Die ekonomie van Trinidad en Tobago is gediversifiseerd, wat grootliks gebaseer is op olie, aardgas, nywerheid en landbou. Dit is een van die voorste gasgebaseerde uitvoersentrums ter wêreld, een van die top vyf uitvoerders van vloeibare aardgas en die grootste aardgasput aan land is onlangs in die suide van Trinidad ontdek. Dit het Trinidad in staat gestel om voordeel te trek uit die grootste mineraalreserwes in sy gebied. Dit is 'n olieryke land en ekonomies stabiel. [24] [ verifikasie nodig ]

Die Venezuela -tersiêre kom is 'n afsakkom tussen die Karibiese en Suid -Amerikaanse plate en word in die noorde begrens deur die kusreekse van Venezuela en die noordelike reeks Trinidad, en in die suide begrens deur die Guayana -skild. [26] Hierdie Guayana-skild het fynkorrelige klastiese sedimente verskaf, wat met die insinking 'n regionale negatiewe swaartekragafwyking en groeifoute gevorm het. [27] Olie- en gasontdekkings van die Pliocene Moruga -groep sluit in Teak (1968), Samaan (1971), Poui (1972) en Galeota. [28] Hierdie velde bestaan ​​hoofsaaklik uit antikliniekvalle wat uit dieptes van 1,2 tot 4,2 km (0,75 tot 2,61 myl) diep onder die water kom, en Teak beskik oor 'n koolwaterstofkolom wat amper 1 km dik is. [27]

Die Northern Range is 'n reeks metamorfe gesteentes in die Bo-Jurassic-Lower-Kryt wat oos en suid val. Die suidelike grens van die reeks word gekenmerk deur 'n fout wat strek vanaf die El Pilar -foutstelsel in Venezuela. Suid van hierdie fout is die Northern Basin, of Caroni Syncline, wat bestaan ​​uit tersiêre sedimentêre gesteentes wat onkonformabel oor die sedimentêre gesteentes van die Jura en die Kryt lê. Suid van hierdie wasbak is die Central Range, bestaande uit sedimentêre gesteentes in die boonste tersiêre gebied wat onkonformeer bo -op die onderste Eoseen en Paleoseen gesteentes lê. Suid van hierdie reeks is die Naparima -vlakte, 'n stootgordel van oligoseen- en laer tersiêre beddens. Koolwaterstofdraende anticlines sluit in dié wat verband hou met Pitch Lake, Forest Reserve, Point Fortin, Penal, Barrackpore en Balata Fields. Die Los Bajos -fout is 'n moersleutelfout, met 'n verplasing van Laer Plioseen van 6,51 myl, begrens in die noorde deur die Siparia -sinklyn en in die suide deur die Erin -sinklyn. Ten slotte bestaan ​​die Southern Range uit antiklinale voue, insluitend die Rock Dome-Herrera anticline en die Moruga-West Field. Oos van hierdie rotskoepel is 'n vlak vou wat die Lizard Springs -veld bevat. Suid van hierdie voue is 'n ander vou-neiging wat die Moruga-Oos-, Guayaguayare-, Strand- en Galeota-veld bevat. Suid van die Morne Diablo-Quinam Erin-veld weswaarts is 'n sterk gevoude anticline wat verband hou met skalie-diapirisme, wat wes suidweswaarts strek tot by die Pedernales-veld in die suidooste van Venezuela. Die noordoostelike deel van die suidelike reeks skei in 'n noordelike neiging wat die Lizard Springs, Navette en Mayaro Fields bevat, terwyl die suidelike tendens die Beach Field bevat. [28]: 5–9

Trinidad word beskou as een van die beste plekke ter wêreld om Atlantiese tarpon te vang. [29]


Tydlyn: Trinidad en Tobago

1498 - Christopher Columbus besoek die eilande en noem Trinidad na die drie pieke in sy suidoostelike hoek en Tobago na 'n plaaslike tabakspyp.

1532 - Spanje koloniseer Trinidad en stel 'n goewerneur aan om dit te regeer.

1630's - Die Nederlanders vestig hulle op Tobago en plant suikerriet.

1781 - Die Franse verower Tobago van die Spaanse en verander dit in 'n suikerproduserende kolonie.

1797 - 'n Britse vlootekspedisie vang Trinidad uit Spanje.

1802 - Spanje gee Trinidad af aan Brittanje ingevolge die Verdrag van Amiens.

1814 - Frankryk gee Tobago af aan Brittanje.

1834 - Slawerny het werkers wat uit Indië ingebring is, op suikerplantasies afgeskaf.

1889 - Trinidad en Tobago is administratief gekombineer as 'n enkele Britse kolonie.

1945 - Universele stemreg ingestel.

1956 - Eric Williams, 'n gematigde nasionalis, stig die People's National Movement (PNM).

1958 - Trinidad en Tobago sluit aan by die Brits-geborgde Wes-Indiese Federasie.

1959 - Brittanje gee Trinidad en Tobago interne selfregering met Williams as premier.

1962 - Trinidad en Tobago verlaat die Wes -Indiese Federasie word onafhanklik met Williams as premier.

1967 - Trinidad en Tobago sluit aan by die Organisasie van Amerikaanse State.

1968 - Trinidad en Tobago en ander Engelssprekende Karibiese state vorm die Caribbean Free Trade Area, wat in 1973 deur die Caribbean Common Market vervang is.

1970 - Die regering verklaar 'n noodtoestand na gewelddadige protesoptredes deur 'Black Power' -ondersteuners wat 'n oplossing vir werkloosheid en 'n einde aan buitelandse invloed op die ekonomie eis. Honderde weermagsoldate muiter ter ondersteuning, maar hul opstand stort binne enkele dae in duie.

1972 - Noodtoestand opgehef.

1975 - Stakings deur werkers in die olie-, suiker-, vervoer- en elektrisiteitsektor maak die ekonomie lam.

1976 - Trinidad en Tobago word 'n republiek met die voormalige goewerneur-generaal, Ellis Clarke, as president en Eric Williams as premier.

1980 - 'n Uitslag van brandaanvalle, brandstigting en politieke skietery tref die land.

1981 - Minister van Landbou, George Chambers, word premier ná die dood van Williams.

1986 - Die in Tobago gebaseerde National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR) onder leiding van Arthur Robinson wen die algemene verkiesing.

1987 - Noor Hassanali word president.

1990 - Meer as 100 Islamitiese radikale blaas die polisie se hoofkwartier op, neem die parlementsgebou in beslag en hou Robinson en ander amptenare etlike dae lank gyselaar in 'n afbrekende poging tot staatsgreep.

1991 - Patrick Manning word premier nadat sy PNM -party die algemene verkiesing gewen het.

1995 - Die Indiese Verenigde Nasionale Kongres (UNC) en NAR vorm 'n koalisie met Basdeo Panday as premier.

1999 - Doodstraf herstel.

2000 - Basdeo Panday wen nog 'n termyn in algemene verkiesings.

2001 Desember - Algemene verkiesing lewer 'n ongekende staking, met die regerende party en die opposisie wat 18 setels elk wen.

2002 April - Eerste Minister Patrick Manning versoek dat die parlement opgeskort word te midde van voortgesette dooie punt oor die verkiesing wat onder meer plaasvind.

2002 Oktober - Derde algemene verkiesing in drie jaar eindig maande van politieke dooiepunt. Eerste Minister Patrick Manning se regerende People's National Movement verklaar oorwinning.

2003 Maart - President Maxwell Richards word beëdig nadat hy in Februarie deur parlementslede verkies is.

2003 Augustus - Caroni, 'n staatsbeheerde suikeronderneming, staak met die verlies van meer as 8 000 poste.

2005 April - Regional leaders gather to inaugurate the Trinidad-based Caribbean Court of Justice, a final court of appeal intended to replace Britain's Privy Council. The court hears its first case in November.

2005 October - At least 10,000 people take part in a protest - named the Death March - against a soaring rate of violent crime.

2006 April - Former Prime Minister Basdeo Panday is sentenced to two years in prison for failing to declare an overseas bank account while he was in office. The conviction is quashed on appeal.

2007 January - Plans are announced to close the centuries-old sugar industry. Production had been hit by cuts in European subsidies.

2007 November - The governing People's National Movement is re-elected.

2007 December - Former Prime Minister Basdeo Panday is committed to stand trial over corruption charges relating to a construction project at Trinidad and Tobago's main airport.

2008 April - Mr Panday is ordered to face a retrial regarding false financial declarations made between 1997 and 1999.

2010 May - People's Partnership coalition wins snap elections. Kamla Persad-Bissessar becomes country's first female prime minister.

2011 August - State of emergency imposed, with an overnight curfew in six crime "hotspots", following a spike in violent crime.`

2011 November - Prime Minister Kamla Persad-Bissessar says the security forces have uncovered a plot by "criminal elements" to assassinate her and several government ministers.


The Judicial Branch Of The Government Of Trinidad And Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago has a hierarchical judiciary structure and at its helm is the Supreme Court of Judicature. The Prime Minister and the leader of opposition advise the President on choosing the Chief Justice. The Chief Justice is the head of the judiciary. The Supreme Court is composed of the High Court in addition to a Court of Appeal. The magistracy has separate civil and criminal courts having original jurisdiction and headed by a Chief Magistrate. Final appeal in some particular matters is given by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council which sits in London. Members of Caricom chose Trinidad and Tobago to be home to the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ), an institution intended to replace the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. The government has however faced difficulties in instituting the necessary legislation to establish the CCJ.


A national identity

Coat of arms

The coat of arms features national birds scarlet ibis (Trinidad), cocrico (Tobago) and hummingbird three ships of Columbus and Trinity Hills&rsquo &ldquothree sisters&rdquo peaks fruited coconut palm native to Tobago and national motto: &ldquotogether we aspire, together we achieve&rdquo.

National anthem

Forged from the love of liberty in the fires of hope and prayer,
with boundless faith in our destiny, we solemnly declare:
Side by side we stand, islands of the blue Caribbean Sea.
This, our native land, we pledge our lives to thee.
Here every creed and race finds an equal place, and may God bless our Nation.
&ndash Patrick Castagne, 1962

National flag

The Trinidad & Tobago flag features strips of red (fire, vitality of the sun) white (water, purity and power of the ocean) and black (earth, one people united on islands&rsquo soil)

National flower

The chaconia (&ldquowild poinsettia&rdquo or &ldquopride of Trinidad & Tobago&rdquo) is a flaming red forest flower.

National birds

The scarlet ibis (Trinidad) and the cocrico (Tobago).

National instrument

National pledge

I solemnly pledge to dedicate my life to the service of God and my country.
I will honour my parents, my teachers, my leaders and my elders, and those in authority
I will be clean and honest in all my thoughts, my words and my deeds.
I will strive in everything I do
to work together with my fellowmen, of every creed and race,
for the greater happiness of all, and the honour and glory of my country.


Trinidad Government - History

Spain received the island of Trinidad as part of the fief of Christopher Columbus and controlled the island for nearly 300 years (see The European Settlements, ch. 1). The Spaniards subdued and enslaved the native Caribs and Arawaks but until the late 1700s paid little attention to Trinidad as other ventures were more profitable. As a result, Trinidad's population was only 2,763 in 1783. Amerindians composed 74 percent of that total (2,032). Although African slaves were first imported in 1517, they constituted only 11 percent of the population (310) in 1783. Indeed, the slave total was barely larger than the 295 free nonwhites who had emigrated from other islands. The remaining 126 Trinidadians were white.

In an effort to make Trinidad more profitable, the Spanish opened the island to immigration in 1776 and allowed Roman Catholic planters from other Eastern Caribbean islands to establish sugar plantations. Because French Catholic planters on the islands that had been granted to Britain after the Seven Years' War (1756-63) were subject to religious and political discrimination, they were attracted by Spanish promises of land grants and tax concessions in Trinidad. In seeking immigrants, Trinidad linked landownership to the ownership of slaves the more slaves, the more land. Land grants were also given to free nonwhite immigrants, and all landed immigrants were offered citizenship rights after five years. As a result of this new policy, thousands of French planters and their slaves emigrated to the island in the 1780s and 1790s. By 1797 the demographic structure of the island had changed completely. The population had expanded dramatically to 17,718, about 56 percent of whom were slaves. There were also 4,476 free nonwhites and 2,151 whites. The Amerindian community declined by 50 percent from the level achieved 14 years earlier and represented only 6 percent of the total population. As of 1797, there were hundreds of sugar, coffee, and cotton plantations producing for export (see Growth and Structure of the Economy, this ch.).

The British, who were at war with Spain and France, conquered Trinidad in 1797 during the Caribbean unrest that followed the French Revolution. Trinidad was formally ceded to Britain in 1802. After debating how to govern the new island, the British finally decided on crown colony (see Glossary) rule under a governor (see Political Traditions, ch. 1). As this was occurring, investors and colonists expanded the sugar plantations to take advantage of high sugar prices. During the first five years of British rule, the number of sugar estates increased markedly. The British census of 1803 counted 28,000 people, a tenfold increase in 20 years of these, there were 20,464 slaves, 5,275 free nonwhites, and 2,261 whites. About half of the free people and most of the slaves spoke French, and the rest of the population was divided between Spanish and English speakers. The Amerindian population continued to decline, with several hundred members scattered in rural settlements.

A decade after slavery was abolished in 1834, the British government gave permission for the colonies to import indentured labor from India to work on the plantations. Throughout the remainder of the century, Trinidad's population growth came primarily from East Indian laborers. By 1871 there were 27,425 East Indians, approximately 22 percent of the population of Trinidad and Tobago by 1911 that figure had grown to 110,911, or about 33 percent of all residents of the islands. Small numbers of Chinese, Portuguese, and other groups also immigrated, contributing to the multiracial character of the island.

Tobago, Robinson Crusoe's island, changed hands twenty-two times between 1626 and 1814, as various European countries tried to secure possession of its safe anchorages. Its population in 1791 was 15,102, about 94 percent of whom were slaves. The British finally acquired Tobago permanently in 1814, after several previous attempts to conquer the island. The British continued to govern through a local assembly that they had installed during an earlier conquest of Tobago in 1763. Under this arrangement, political control rested with a number of British civil servants and the assembly, elected by a tiny electorate and supported by the sugar plantations.

By the late nineteenth century, Trinidad and Tobago were no longer profitable colonies because sugar was being produced more cheaply elsewhere. In 1889 the British government united Trinidad and Tobago in an effort to economize on government expenses and to solve the economic problems of the islands. In 1898 Tobago became a ward of Trinidad, thereby losing its local assembly, which was not reinstated until 1980. Subsequently, Britain ruled Trinidad and Tobago as a crown colony until 1956. Between 1889 and 1924, the government of Trinidad and Tobago included, in addition to its governor, a wholly appointed Legislative Council. The first step toward self-government was taken in 1925 when there were limited elections to the Legislative Council and to the governor's Executive Council.

As noted, the populations of both Trinidad and Tobago owe their main origins to massive eighteenth- and nineteenth-century importations of African slaves and East Indian indentured servants who were needed to work on the sugar plantations. When the sugar industry declined, unemployment became widespread. In the early twentieth century, oil replaced sugar as the major export oil is a capital-intensive industry, however, and it did not solve the problem of unemployment in Trinidad and Tobago.

The labor movement began to assume importance after World War I, spurred by the return of Trinidadians who had fought with the British armed forces. The most important of these was Captain Andrew Arthur Cipriani, a white man of Corsican descent, who had served as commander of the West India Regiment. Cipriani resented the fact that the West India Regiment was not allowed to fight for the British Empire but instead was sent to Egypt, where its forces served as labor battalions. Upon his return to Trinidad, Cipriani organized the masses, giving them national pride and teaching them to oppose colonialism. He revitalized the Trinidad Workingman's Association, which was renamed the Trinidad Labour Party (TLP) in 1934 by 1936 the TLP had 125,000 members. Because Cipriani was white, he was able to transcend the black-East Indian racial dichotomy and became known as "the champion of the barefoot man." In the first elections held for the Legislative Council, Cipriani was elected in 1925 and remained a member until his death in 1945. He was also elected mayor of Port-of-Spain eight times. In these two offices, Cipriani struggled against racial discrimination and fought for constitutional reform, universal suffrage, and better rights for workers.

During the 1930s, Trinidad and Tobago suffered severely from the effects of the worldwide depression. Living standards deteriorated as workers were laid off from the plantations. The situation was aggravated by unjust labor practices. Wages on the sugar estates and in the oil fields were kept low while shareholder dividends in London rose. Workers moved away from Cipriani's moderate policies, and the labor movement became radicalized. Between 1934 and 1937, there were strikes and riots on the sugar plantations and in the oil fields throughout the Caribbean. Tubal Uriah Butler, a black Grenadian who had been expelled from the TLP for extremism, emerged as the leader of the black oil workers, who were the best paid and most politicized laborers on the island. Butler called for racial unity among black workers and organized strikes, heading a highly personalized party that was known as the "Butler Party." Although the British labeled Butler as a "fanatical Negro" during the 1930s, Trinidad and Tobago has since recognized him as a man who sensitized the common man to the evils of colonialism. The strikes in Trinidad and Tobago in the 1930s included many incidents of racial violence, culminating in twelve deaths and over fifty injuries in 1937.

The British responded by deploying marines from Barbados and appointing two successive commissions from London to investigate the causes of the riots in Trinidad and Tobago and elsewhere in the Caribbean. Both commissions noted the low wages and poor working conditions throughout the region. The second commission, chaired by Lord Moyne, which completed its report in 1940, was very critical of the British colonial system in the Caribbean and recommended housing construction, agricultural diversification, more representative government for the islands, and promotion of a middle class in preparation for eventual self-government (see Labor Organizations, ch. 1). Although the Moyne Commission's findings were not made public until after World War II, some of its recommendations were put into effect under the Colonial Development Welfare Act of 1940.

The British government had encouraged the formation of trade unions in the belief that labor organization would prevent labor unrest. After the islandwide strikes of 1937, Butler succeeded Cipriani as the leader of the Trinidadian labor movement. Butler's associate, Adrian Cola Rienzi, an East Indian, organized both oil workers under the Oilfield Workers Trade Union (OWTU) and the sugar workers under the All Trinidad Sugar Estates and Factory Workers Trade Union (ATSE/FWTU). Railroad and construction workers were organized under the Federated Workers Trade Union (FWTU), and a number of smaller unions were also formed.

Following a recommendation of the Moyne Commission, government was made more representative. Constitutional reform in 1925 had provided for six elected members on the twenty-five-member Legislative Council, but franchise restrictions limited voters in the 1925 election to 6 percent of the population. In April 1941, the number of unofficial elected members on the Legislative Council and the governor's Executive Council was increased, giving the elected members a majority. Some of these elected members were included on official committees and the governor's Executive Council, although the governor retained ultimate authority and veto power.

Trinidad and Tobago had been profoundly changed by World War II. For the first time since British annexation, the islands were widely exposed to another foreign influence. The 1941 Lend-Lease Agreement (also called the Bases-for-Destroyers Agreement) between the United States and Britain included ninety-nine-year leases of the deepwater harbor at Chaguaramas to the United States Navy and of Waller Field in central Trinidad to the United States Army (see Historical Background, ch. 7). Many United States and Canadian personnel were brought in to work at these bases, and thousands of Trinidadian workers were employed at the bases for higher wages under better conditions than ever before (see Patterns of Development, this ch.). As a result, by the end of World War II many Trinidadians had become used to a higher standard of living and wanted to keep it.

Although the election in 1946 was the first under universal adult suffrage, less than half of the registered voters cast ballots. The trade unions did not consolidate into a cohesive political entity. The labor vote fragmented, as blacks and East Indians divided and as racial slurs became a common part of campaign rhetoric. Butler, who had been detained throughout the war, was released from jail and campaigned for the Legislative Council, but he was defeated by Albert Gomes, a trade unionist of Portuguese descent. The labor movement was unable to gain a majority because no leader could command the widespread support of both the blacks and the East Indians, a pattern that continued throughout the ensuing forty years. The middle class--comprising primarily blacks and a smaller number of East Indians--came to dominate the political scene in the crucial elections that led to independence and has dominated it into the late 1980s.


Trinidad Government - History

Karen E. Eccles, PhD and Debbie McCollin, PhD, eds.

Mona, Jamaica: UWI Press, 2017

World War II and the Caribbean focuses on one of the most exciting periods in the history of the region as the Caribbean territories faced incredible upheaval and opportunity during the war years. Local operations, cultural mores and the region&rsquos international image were forever changed by its pivotal role in the war effort. The chapters in this volume respond to the need for information and analysis on the wide-ranging impact of the war on territories in the region (English, French, Spanish and Dutch). The contributors cover topics such as the economic consequences of wartime activity (the food crisis and the decline of the agricultural sector), while highlighting the opportunities that arose for industry and enterprise in the Caribbean the accommodations made by the European imperial nations and their attempts to tighten control over their Caribbean territories during the war the intervention of the Americans in the region the social impact of the war (the migration of German-speaking refugees and other groups) and the effects on Caribbean societies of this contact and the impact of the war on public health and the broad spectrum experiences of women (as volunteers, nurses and sex-workers).

Valencia, Spain: Editorial Aduana Vieja, 2017.

A work that offers new approaches and proposals for the study of the life and work of José Martí (1853-1895) through an approach to the connections and global inspirations of his idea of ​​the freedom of Cuba and the unity of Latin America.An analysis of the bridges between what was Marti's personal experience and the universal currents of the late nineteenth century, on issues such as government and citizenship, independence and spirituality, the Eastern conception of the world, the North American civil war or the African diaspora.

In The Fires of Hope Essays on the Modern History of Trinidad and Tobago

Kingston and Miami: Ian Randle Publishers (2016)

Experienced scholars, historians and fresh voices in the field of Caribbean history combine in this collected work to create a rich tapestry of the modern history of Trinidad and Tobago. The result is a work of broad-based perspectives as the contributors explore some of the most significant periods, issues and systems of post-emancipation and modern Trinidad and Tobago The early chapters delve into the post-emancipation period- enslavement, colonial administration, Indian Indentureship- and the early 20th century internal and external developments related to resistance, foreign nationalism and religious incursions which guided the independence experience. Dr. Eric Williams, arguably the central character of the Independence story, is the subject of special focus as is the evolution of cultural expressions like mas, calypso and literature. The perennial and seemingly intractable Tobago constitutional issue is also examined with new insights. The work is given a particularly unique appeal by the inclusion of areas that have typically been overlooked in the independence discourse, such as health, the banking and credit union system, teacher education, migrant Trinidadian communities, security systems and the impact of crime. What began as a commemorative volume, emerging out of a 2012 independence jubilee hosted by The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, has been transformed into the most comprehensive text available on the period, filling a long-standing gap in the modern history of Trinidad and Tobago.

Palgrave Macmillan 1st ed. 2016

This book focuses on seven of the prominent figures that both in action and in ideology reshaped nationalism, anti-colonialism, imperialism, and the construction of an Afro-Caribbean identity. Through a connective analysis of the activists and intellectuals, Ideology, Politics, and Radicalism of the Afro-Caribbean illustrates how the improvement of the working classes in the Caribbean spread across the world and was impacted by a transnational exchange of ideas and resources. The ideologies which were introduced by these leaders are noted as not being limited to one specific country, but rather part of a larger cultural movement in Pan-Africanism.

The University of the West Indies Press, November 2015.

A nationalist campaigner, civil rights advocate, diplomat, lecturer and orator, journalist, poet, author of children&rsquos stories, visionary champion of anti-colonial Latin American and Caribbean thought, all are expressions of José Martí&rsquos (1853&ndash95) extraordinary life in fighting for Cuba&rsquos definitive independence. This work opens a new path in studies of Martí's efforts to build a modern democratic Cuba by widening the lens under which the Cuban hero has been examined. In joining these different facets of Martí and by going beyond the national and hemispheric, García de la Torre introduces the largely ignored global influences and dimensions that marked the revolutionary&rsquos work and ideas.

Palgrave Macmillan 2015 edition (November 18, 2014)

This book provides evidence that Labour in Trinidad and Tobago played a vital role in undermining British colonialism and advocating for federation and self-government. Furthermore, there is emphasis on the pioneering efforts of the Labour movement in party politics, social justice, and working class solidarity.

Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2013.

Skillfully weaving an African worldview into the conventional historiography of British abolitionism, Claudius K. Fergus presents new insights into one of the most intriguing and momentous episodes of Atlantic history. In Revolutionary Emancipation, Fergus argues that the 1760 rebellion in Jamaica, Tacky&rsquos War&mdashthe largest and most destructive rebellion of enslaved peoples in the Americas prior to the Haitian Revolution&mdashprovided the rationale for abolition and reform of the colonial system. Fergus shows that following Tacky&rsquos War, British colonies in the West Indies sought political preservation under state-regulated amelioration of slavery. He further contends that abolitionists&rsquo successes&mdashfrom partial to general prohibition of the slave trade&mdashhinged more on the economic benefits of creolizing slave labor and the costs of preserving the colonies from destructive emancipation rebellions than on a conviction of justice and humanity for Africans.In the end, Fergus maintains, slaves&rsquo commitment to revolutionary emancipation kept colonial focus on reforming the slave system. His study carefully dissects new evidence and reinterprets previously held beliefs, offering historians the most compelling arguments for African agency in abolitionism.

Kingston and Miami: Ian Randle Publishers (2012)

Hinduism is the second largest socio-religious denomination in Trinidad and Tobago, yet much of the fundamental dimensions of Trinidad Hinduism remain undocumented and a virtual enigma for most of the non-Hindu population. In The Ramayana Tradition and Socio-Religious Change in Trinidad, 1917 1990, Sherry-Ann Singh, demystifies Hindu thought and practice in Trinidad and charts the evolution of a significant section of the Indian diaspora. Using the Ramayana, one of the two great epics of India, and the most popular Hindu religious text in Trinidad, Singh deconstructs the major misconceptions surrounding Trinidad Hinduism. Rather than examining Hinduism in Trinidad as a secondary dimension of the Indian experience, Singh employs an insider s view to unmask the socio-religious transformation of the Hindu community. The result is a pioneering exposition of the dimensions of the Ramayana tradition in Trinidad and a charting of the journey of the Hindu community from the bottom of the socio-economic ladder in 1917 at the end of Indian indentured immigration to one that was essentially integrated into the social, political and economic life of Trinidad by 1990.

Armando Garcia de la Torre, PhD, edited and translated

Kingston and Miami: Ian Randle Publishers (2012)

Spanish Trinidad is the first ever history of the 300 year span of the Spanish period of Trinidad, written from a strictly Spanish perspective. From the encounter of Christopher Columbus with the first Trinidadian Amerindians during the summer of 1498, to the handover of the island to the British in 1797, Francisco Morales Padrón describes the complex process of the Spanish settlement of the island while searching for El Dorado, the progressive social and economic development of &ldquoLa Trinidad de Barlovento&rdquo (as Trinidad was known until the late 18th century), the significance and relevance of the Caribbean Windward Islands in the Spanish geo-political strategy of its American provinces, and the key role played by Trinidad in the outcome of the European disputes in the West Atlantic after the French Revolution. This English translation of Padrón&rsquos La Trinidad Española, originally published in 2011, illuminates the oft-forgotten years of the island&rsquos life as part of Spain and complements the existing works by scholars and historians from Trinidad and Tobago and the wider English-speaking Caribbean. Padrón&rsquos extensive research in Spanish archives and the presentation of original source documents shed light on the internal and foreign threats and challenges faced by Trinidad throughout the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. It uncovers and examines the policies and efforts that fuelled Trinidad&rsquos economic and demographic transformation from a remote Caribbean outpost to a prized, and ultimately seized, possession of Spain. Comprehensive and expansive, Spanish Trinidad is rich study of the three centuries of Spanish presence in Trinidad and an invaluable contribution to the recorded history of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and the Caribbean.

Beyond Massa : Sugar Management in the British Caribbean, 1770-1834


History and Evolution of ECCE in Trinidad and Tobago

History and Evolution of Early Childhood Education Care and Development in Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago is a small twin island country located in the south of the Caribbean. Prior to independence from Britain in 1962, Trinidad was colonized and brought under Spanish, French and later, British rule (Educational System, 2011) and in 1976 Trinidad and Tobago became a republic nation within the commonwealth realm (George, 2001). Following independence in 1962, Trinidad and Tobago continued to shadow the British system of education (Education System, 2011). In Trinidad and Tobago, education is free for all, and compulsory beginning at age six, and ending at age thirteen (AACRAO, 2008), however, early childhood education, between the ages of three and five is not mandatory, but nevertheless, many people enroll their children in early childhood education centers, in order to prepare them for primary school. According to the Ministry of Education in Trinidad and Tobago (2013), “an Early Childhood Care and Education Centre refers to all facilities providing learning support, care and development services, to children from three to five years of age”. Throughout time, the early childhood educational system of Trinidad and Tobago has evolved since it’s early beginnings many milestones have been attained, standards for the provision of early childhood care and education (ECCE) have been created, maintained and improved, and nevertheless, there are plans for further evolution of the system. History/ The Early Beginnings.

The contextual elements of the early childhood education system in Trinidad and Tobago have radically evolved over time (EDC, 2008). In the early years, up until the 1950’s, unqualified providers were offering early childhood care in private settings that did not follow any sort of standards and regulations, as facilities consistently exhibited substandard conditions (EDC, 2008). Beginning in the 1960’s, efforts boosted the “formalization of a systematic approach to early childhood care and education”, as “the Government of Trinidad and Tobago responded to the need for an early childhood education system” (EDC, 2008, p. 11). After this decision, the government created “a preschool unit, which established community centres as multi-purpose facilities to serve the comprehensive needs of the communities” theses centres offered a range of cultural and educational activities, as well as skills training for all, free of charge (EDC, 2008, P.11). Following this, training and resource centres were made available, in order to prepare, and qualify, ECCE teachers to provide such care and education to the children of the country (EDC, 2008). Later on, after a vast amount of qualified early childhood practitioners were readily available, and policies and regulations were put in place for the ECCE centres in Trinidad and Tobago to conform to, a new vision for early childhood education and care was created (EDC, 2008). Milestones/ Timeline.

After efforts by the Government of Trinidad and Tobago, to create a systemic approach to ECCE, the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago accomplished many milestones within the early childhood education system (EDC, 2008). Following the formalization of a systemic approach in the 1960’s, the government piloted the first two model nursery schools in Trinidad and Tobago, that offered a services to families and communities- one in San Fernando and the other in La Pastora (EDC, 2008). During those pivotal years, many various infrastructures and materials were developed that provided a basis for the development of the systemic approach (EDC, 2008). In the 1970’s the Service Volunteered for All (SERVOL) agency “established a Regional Training and Resource Centre to prepare ECCE teachers, and created sixteen new centres in the areas of Trinidad with the most critical needs” (EDC, 2008, p. 11). The government later began to collaborate with Service Volunteered for All (SERVOL) centres in the.


History:

The earliest attempt at local government in Trinidad was the Royal Cabildo, the seat of governance in the island, established in St. Joseph in 1592 by Spanish colonists. The Cabildo exercised wide executive powers, appointing chief judges on the island, supervising markets, scavenging and street repair, controlling the police, the Royal Gaol, admitting of physicians and surgeons, and levying duties and taxes on grog shops. Taxpayers elected the members of the Cabildo annually. The Cabildo’s operations were much broader in scope than the municipal corporations today. In 1874, the Cabildo moved from St. Joseph to Port-of- Spain.

When Trinidad changed to British rule in 1797, the new authorities under the Ordinance of the Regulation of Municipal Corporation enacted on 19th August 1853 attempted to change the Cabildo into an English-type municipality, by making it first a Town Council, then a Borough Council.

Over the years, new legislation, civil unrest and political organization further changed the shape of local government. In 1927, Trinidad was divided into eight counties by the Division of Trinidad Act. These counties were sub-divided into wards, which functioned as administrative units in the island.

The 1930’s labour riots and the recommendations of the Moyne Commission combined to give rise to the County Councils which were established in 1945(6 in Trinidad and 1 for Tobago). Local Government services in Tobago were provided through the Tobago County Council. The County Councils defined the wards as electoral districts. The County Council Act No 25 of 1967 developed the characteristics of the local government system employed today. With this Act, the wards were
replaced by electoral districts with one Councillor per district the position of Alderman was introduced into the system and a role for a Minister with responsibility for Local government was introduced in the country’s Cabinet.

Die post-independence era saw the abolition of the Tobago County Council in 1980 and the introduction of the more autonomous Tobago House of Assembly. In that same year the oil town of Point Fortin was carved out of the St Patrick County Council and made into a borough. The County Councils Act and the legislations governing the Port of Spain, San Fernando, Arima, and Point Fortin Municipal Corporations were repealed in 1990 and their boundaries rearranged to create an increased number of Municipal Corporations under the Municipal Corporations Act No 21 of 1990. This Act granted corporate municipal status to all Local Government bodies in Trinidad.

There are 14 municipal corporations in Trinidad. The Tobago House of Assembly is responsible for all services provided in Tobago.

Act 21 of 1990 provided for 18 Municipal Corporations: two City, three Borough (the new Borough of Chaguanas was created) and thirteen Regional Corporations. The Municipal Corporations (Amendment) Act No. 8 of 1992 merged some of the regions to make nine Regional Corporations, reducing the number of Municipal Corporations to (14) fourteen.

In 2004, a Draft Policy Paper on Local Government Reform was published by the Ministry of Local Government. It proposed the reform and decentralization of the system with more autonomy, and mechanisms to promote greater citizen participation in Local Government. The proposals included the need for legislative review, boundary redefinition, corporate restructuring and operational changes.

In August 2016 Cabinet approved the Draft Policy on Local Government Reform, which was crafted following public consultations across the fourteen (14) Municipal Corporations. The Draft Policy outlines expanded responsibilities and greater autonomy for the Municipal Corporations modeled after the Tobago House of Assembly.

Legislative amendments necessary for the implementation of this Reform are currently being drafted and are expected to be brought before Parliament in the near future


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