Attucks, Crispus - Geskiedenis

Attucks, Crispus - Geskiedenis



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Attucks, Crispus: Afro-Amerikaanse martelaar: Crispus Attucks was die eerste Amerikaanse martelaar in 'n gebeurtenis voor die Revolusionêre Oorlog self. Attucks, die seun van 'n inheemse Afrikaner en 'n inheemse Amerikaner uit die Natick -stam, hardloop weg van sy slawe -eienaar en word 'n matroos en walvisjagter. Hy het geleer lees en skryf en die basiese beginsels van verskillende soorte regering verstaan. Attucks het vergaderings met ander patriotte bygewoon om belasting wat deur Brittanje gehef is, te bespreek, en het 'n protesbrief aan goewerneur Thomas Hutchinson, die Tory -goewerneur van Massachusetts, geskryf. Op 5 Maart 1770, op Dock Square in Boston, was Attucks saam met 'n groep mans wat die Britse Red Coats getart het. Hy was die eerste man wat gesterf het in die daaropvolgende skermutseling, later die Boston -slagting genoem. As die eerste wat vir die Amerikaanse saak gesterf het, is hy met eer begrawe, en 'n monument op die Boston Common is opgerig om sy offer te verewig.


Crispus Attucks (1723-1770)


Portret van Crispus Attucks

Onthou as die "Eerste wat in die Amerikaanse rewolusie sterf", die lewe van Crispus Attucks is net so omstrede as die debatte wat historici voer wanneer hulle die neger -wegholslaaf bespreek en sy plek in die geskiedenis bevraagteken.

Wie was Crispus Attucks? Was hy 'n held? Was hy 'n patriot wat vir vryheid gesterf het, of was dit net iemand wat op die verkeerde tyd op die verkeerde plek was?

Die waarheid is moontlik nooit bekend nie, maar hierdie feite weet ons wel Hy is 'n negerslaaf gebore en het vermoedelik 'n inheemse Amerikaanse (Indiese) moeder gehad. Hy het die naam Crispus Attucks gekry. Die naam "Crispus" was waarskynlik na die Romeinse adel "Crispus Ceasar", die seun van Konstantyn, omstreeks 300 nC. Die naam "Attucks" was vermoedelik 'n inheemse Amerikaanse woord - baie glo ook die oorsprong van die naam van die stad Natick (Massachusetts).


Die dood van Crispus Attucks by die Boston -bloedbad
deur James Wells Champney, (Amerikaanse kunstenaar, 1843-1908)

Lees die oorspronklike dokumente van Die hofsaak van die Britse soldate wat van die moord van Crispus Attucks en ander patriotte by die Boston -bloedbad.

Die volgende teks is afkomstig van 'n vlugtige slawe-kennisgewing wat op 2 Oktober 1750 in The Boston Gazette-

'N Digter het geskryf oor Crispus Attucks en die Boston -bloedbad


"Crispus Attucks and the Minutemen" strokiesprent uit Fitzgerald Publishing Company se Golden Legacy Series, (1967).

Crispus Attucks word begrawe in die Granary Burial Ground, Boston, MA (VSA).

'N Baie goeie beskrywing van Crispus Attucks, sy betrokkenheid by die 5 Maart 1770 Boston -slagting en ander historiese feite kan gevind word in J.H. Temple se "Geskiedenis van Framingham 1640-1880", (gepubliseer 1887). Die eerste tien bladsye van Hoofstuk V1, (bl. 246-256), onder die titel "War of the Revolution" bevat 'n paar besonderhede van Attucks se lewe in Framingham, 'n paar besonderhede wat Attucks se dood gelei het, en sommige vertel van die nadraai wat gevolg.

Meer Crispus Attucks -verwante skakels:

    - Dokumente en verhaal oor die verhoor van Crispus Attucks se moordenaars, (U.S. Library of Congress).

- PBS onderwysers hulpbronne en inligting.

- uit die boek "Oorspronklike gedigte", Olivia Bush, gepubliseer Providence, Rhode Island, deur Louis A. Basinet Press, 1899.

- 'n organisasie in York, Pennsylvania (VSA), bevorder aktiewe stadsrehabilitasieprojekte en gemeenskapsprogramme. Die webwerf bevat historiese inligting oor Crispus Attucks.


Black History Month: Crispus Attucks

-Gaste -blog geskryf deur Kat Fritz

Ter ere van die feit dat Februarie Black History Month hier in die VSA is, deel ons verhale van swart individue wat bygedra het tot die vorming van Amerika soos ons dit ken. Vandag deel ons die geskiedenis van Crispus Attucks: 'n revolusionêr wat die Amerikaanse dryfveer en begeerte na onafhanklikheid van Engeland aan die einde van 1700 laat ontstaan ​​het.

Crispus Attucks (omstreeks 1723 - 1770)

Crispus Attucks is gedurende die agtiende eeu in slawerny gebore. Sy ma was Nancy Attucks - 'n Natick -Indiër - en sy pa was vermoedelik 'n slaaf met die naam Prince Yonger. Op 5 Maart 1770 het Attucks oproer saam met ander koloniste voor 'n doeanehuis. Die spanning tussen die Britse soldate en die burgerlikes het toegeneem, en die soldate het gewere in die skare afgevuur. Attucks en vier ander is dood, en nog ses is beseer in wat bekend sou staan ​​as die Boston -bloedbad: aksies wat die koloniste se honger na Amerikaanse onafhanklikheid sou laat ontvlam.

Daar is min inligting oor die lewe of familie van Attucks, maar historici glo dat hy grootgeword het in 'n stad buite Boston. Aangrype begeer vurig vryheid, so hy het probeer om die slawerny te ontsnap ondanks die gevolge van die tyd. In 1750 het 'n koerantadvertensie in die Boston Gazette het 10 Britse pond (plus uitgawes) aangebied om Crispus aan sy slaaf terug te gee. Gelukkig was die ontsnapping suksesvol: die beveiliging van sy vryheid van die instelling van slawerny vir die res van sy lewe. Hy het 'n seevaarder geword-een van die min beroepe wat toeganklik was vir 'n nie-blanke. Toe hy nie op handelsskepe of walvisvangvaartuie op see was nie, het hy werk gekry as toumaker.

Crispus Attucks - soos baie ander seelui - voel bedreig deur Britse heerskappy. Britse soldate en matrose het gedurende hul diensperiode dikwels deeltyds by die plaaslike bevolking gewerk: posisies steel van die plaaslike arbeidsmag. Daar was ook 'n dreigende bedreiging dat Attucks deur Britse persbendes met geweld in die Royal Navy kon opgestel word: dwalende bande soldate wat mans en seuns sou vang en hulle aan boord van militêre skepe sou vang. Namate die Britte die lone onderdruk en die belasting verhoog het, het die spanning tussen koloniste en die Britte die hoogte ingeskiet, en bloedvergieting blyk onvermydelik te wees.

Op 5 Maart 1770 kom 'n Britse soldaat 'n kroeg binne om werk te soek, maar Crispus Attucks en ander matrose reageer met geskreeu en spot. Die gebeure van die aand is 'n bron van debat, maar daar word geglo dat 'n groep Bostoniërs 'n rooi jas naby Boston se Old State House begin bespot het - een van die oudste strukture in die Verenigde State en die oudste openbare gebou in Boston. (Omdat dit 'n brandpunt vir ekonomiese en politieke nuus was, is die onafhanklikheidsverklaring vanaf die oostelike balkon gelees.)

Soldate van die 29ste Regiment of Foot het tot hul medesoldaat se verdediging gekom toe die situasie toegeneem het. Attucks en ander koloniste het die soldate met stokke en stokke geslaan. Daar is geen duidelike konsensus oor wat daarna gebeur het nie, maar iemand het na bewering gesê: "Vuur", en 'n Rooi jas skiet in die skare. Toe die eerste skoot in die nag klap, het ander Britse soldate begin skiet. Attucks is twee keer in die bors geskiet, met die tweede skoot dodelik. Volgens baie verslae was hy die eerste slagoffer van die Boston -bloedbad.

Toenemende spanning in Boston het gelei tot die Boston -bloedbad van 1770.

Die dood van Attucks en die vier ander mans het die kolonies verenig teen die Britse bewind, wat 'n keerpunt in die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State was. Attucks het 'n martelaar van vryheid geword en die weg gebaan vir die Amerikaanse Revolusie. Samuel Adams - 'n stigtervader van die Verenigde State - het 'n optog gereël om die kiste van Crispus Attucks en die ander slagoffers van die slagting (James Caldwell, Patrick Carr, Samuel Gray en Samuel Maverick) na die Faneuil Hall in Boston te bring om in die staat te lê drie dae voor hul openbare begrafnis. Na raming het 12 000 mense - destyds die helfte van die bevolking van Boston - by die begraafplaas by die optog aangesluit.

Uitsprake en uitbeeldings van die slagting onthul egter baie oor die realiteite van die tyd. John Adams - wat later die tweede president van die Verenigde State sou word - het die soldate verdedig en Crispus Attucks as die aggressiewe aanhitser van die skare beledig. Adams het aangevoer dat Attucks se ras, lengte en bespiering die vrees vir die Rooi jasse regverdig.

Historiese sienings van Attucks is teenwoordig in die vier gravures van die Boston -bloedbad wat in 1770 versprei het. Die gravures het as koloniale propaganda gedien deur die soldate te illustreer as 'n georganiseerde lyn teen 'n weerlose skare. Die eerste was deur Henry Pelham, wat nie erkenning ontvang of betaal is vir sy werk nie. Paul Revere - 'n patriot wat bekend is vir die waarskuwing van koloniale troepe van 'n Britse aanval - het die illustrasie van Pelham feitlik presies gekopieer en dit in die pers gebring dae voordat Pelham dit gedoen het. 'N Ander man, Jonathan Mulliken, het sy eie weergawe, gebaseer op Revere's, vrygestel.

Crispus Attucks

Alhoewel die gravures effens verskil, het al die gravures een detail gemeen: Crispus Attucks is geïllustreer sonder Afro -Amerikaanse of inheemse Amerikaanse kenmerke. 'N Litografie van J.H. Bufford's Lithography Co. gebaseer op 'n illustrasie deur W.L. Champney (1856) verskaf 'n nuwe weergawe van die gebeurtenis met Attucks as die sentrale figuur van die Boston -bloedbad. Dit is veral die eerste uitbeelding van Crispus Attucks as 'n kleurvolle persoon. Ondanks die invloed van die Boston -bloedbad op die Amerikaanse rewolusie, word Attucks nooit in David Ramsay genoem nie Die geskiedenis van die Amerikaanse rewolusie (1789) —die eerste gepubliseerde verslag van die rewolusie.

In 1851, om die dubbelsinnigheid van Attucks te betwis, het sewe Bostoniërs versoek om 'n monument van Attucks op te rig om sy rol as die eerste oorsaaklikheid van die Amerikaanse rewolusie te eerbiedig. Een van die versoekers was William Cooper Nell: 'n Afro -Amerikaanse afskaffer, historikus en skrywer van Die Kleurling Patriotte van die Amerikaanse Revolusie. In die boek beskryf Nell hoe hul versoekskrif geweier is terwyl die monument van Isaac Davis toegestaan ​​is, en merk op dat die verskil tussen die twee mans was dat Isaac Davis 'n Blanke voorstander van die Amerikaanse Revolusie was.

'N Grafsteen ter herdenking van die slagoffers van die Boston Massacre – Granary Burial Ground, Boston, Massachusetts

Gelukkig, danksy die ondersteuning van afskaffers, is die Boston Massacre/Crispus Attucks -monument in 1888 opgerig. Die monument bevat 'n illustrasie van die Boston -bloedbad waar Attucks Afro -Amerikaanse en inheemse Amerikaanse kenmerke het.

Crispus Attucks het 'n simbool geword vir afskaffing en die burgerregtebeweging, want hy was 'n patriot wat gesterf het teen oproeriges. In Waarom ons nie kan wag nie (1964), het Martin Luther King jr. Opgemerk dat swart kinders, ondanks swart uitvee in geskiedenisboeke, geweet het dat Attucks die eerste persoon was wat bloed vir hul land gestort het tydens die rewolusie wat die Verenigde State van sy Britse onderdrukkers bevry het. Die rol van Attucks in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis toon 'n duidelike verband tussen patriotisme, vryheid en rasseongelykheid.


Inhoud

Vroeë 1920's Redigeer

Indianapolis was in die vroeë twintigste eeu 'n grootliks gesegregeerde stad, hoewel drie van sy openbare hoërskole swart studente ingeskryf het: Emmerich Manual High School, Arsenal Technical High School en Shortridge High School. Oorbevolking, veral by Shortridge, het die bestuurslede van Indianapolis Public Schools begin besprekings begin oor die bou van 'n nuwe hoërskool. [3]: 11 [4]: ​​4 In 1922, namate die belangstelling vir die bou van 'n heeltemal swart openbare hoërskool toeneem, het die IPS-raad besluit om die idee na te streef en begin met sy planne. [2]: 26–27

Sommige blanke inwoners van die stad, wat nie wou hê dat hul kinders 'n geïntegreerde hoërskool moes bywoon nie, het die skoolraad aangemoedig om 'n nuwe openbare hoërskool spesiaal vir Afro-Amerikaanse studente te bou. Sommige Afro-Amerikaners in die gemeenskap het egter die stigting van 'n heeltemal swart hoërskool hardnekkig gekant en verkies 'n geïntegreerde openbare skoolstelsel. [2]: 22–23 [4]: ​​12 Ten spyte van die verskillende standpunte, het die IPS -raad besluit dat al die stad se Afro -Amerikaanse hoërskoolleerlinge die nuwe skool sal bywoon. [3]: 12–13

Vroeë jare Redigeer

Crispus Attucks High School is noordwes van die middestad van Indianapolis gebou, in die gebied wat bekend staan ​​as die Bottoms, naby die sentrale kanaal en Indiana Avenue, wat die sake- en kulturele spilpunt van die Afro -Amerikaanse gemeenskap was. The Bottoms was ook die grootste en bekendste gebied in die stad se Afro-Amerikaanse gemeenskap. [3]: 11 [5]

Die IPS -direksie het aanvanklik die Thomas Jefferson High School as die naam van die nuwe skool gekies, maar sommige lede van die gemeenskap het beswaar aangeteken teen die keuse en versoekskrifte versprei om die naam na Crispus Attucks High School te laat verander. Die skoolraad het sy besluit omgedraai en die skool vernoem ter ere van Crispus Attucks, 'n Amerikaanse patriot. Sy etnisiteit is nou onseker, maar toe die nuwe skool vernoem is, is daar geglo dat hy 'n swart man is wat tydens die aanval op Britse soldate in Boston, Massachusetts, in Maart 1770 vermoor is tydens wat bekend geword het as die Boston -bloedbad. [2]: 32 [6]: 23 en 26

Al die Afro -Amerikaanse tieners wat by die ander openbare hoërskole in die stad ingeskryf het, soos Arsenal Technical High School, Washington High School en Shortridge High School, is na Crispus Attucks verskuif toe dit in 1927 geopen is met die belofte dat die Attucks -studente 'n 'aparte' maar gelyke "opvoeding. [5] Nadat Attucks geopen is, het IPS-administrateurs nie Afro-Amerikaanse studente toegelaat om enige ander openbare hoërskool in die stad by te woon nie, totdat die integrasie van die skole deur die wet vereis is. [7] [8] Gemeenskapsaktiviste wat die besluit teengestaan ​​het, het die plaaslike skoolraad deur die regstelsel uitgedaag, maar pogings om die stad se skole te skei, het etlike dekades lank voortgegaan nadat die skool geopen is. [3]: 12–13

Studente en fakulteit Redigeer

Benewens sy studente, was Attucks se eerste skoolhoof, Matthias Nolcox, en sy aanvanklike fakulteit Afro-Amerikaners, wat dit die enigste swart universiteit in Indianapolis maak. [5] [4]: ​​15 Nolcox het goed opgeleide onderwysers vir die nuwe skool gewerf uit die tradisioneel swart kolleges in die Suide, sowel as uit hoërskole in ander gebiede van die land. [2]: 32 Terwyl swart studente toegelaat is om kolleges en universiteite by te woon, het die hoërskole nie swart opvoeders aangestel vir hul fakulteite nie, en 'n groot groep te gekwalifiseerde onderwysers moes onderrig op hoërskoolvlak. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Die nuwe hoërskool van Indianapolis was oorspronklik beplan vir 1 000 studente, maar die skatting het vinnig toegeneem tot 1 200 studente, wat vereis dat Nolcox ekstra personeel aanstel om die verwagte toename in die inskrywing te akkommodeer. Die skool met drie verdiepings, rooi baksteen, het op 12 September 1927 geopen met twee en veertig fakulteite en 1,345 studente. Formele toewydingsplegtighede het op 28 Oktober 1927 plaasgevind. Na Attucks het Indiana twee ander swart swart openbare hoërskole in die staat laat oopgaan: Gary's Roosevelt High School en Evansville's Lincoln High School. [2]: 35–36 en 53 [9]

Van die begin af was oorbevolking 'n aanhoudende probleem by Attucks. Die IPS -direksie het toestemming gegee om die IPS -nommer 17, 'n skoolgebou langs Attucks, te hervorm om die oorloop van studente te huisves. Nolcox was die hoof van albei fasiliteite. [2]: 39 Thomas J. Anderson vervang Nolcox as die skool se tweede skoolhoof van Julie tot September 1930. 'n Tussentydse skoolhoof het kortliks die pligte van Anderson aangeneem totdat Russell A. Lane, wat as een van die oorspronklike Engelse onderwysers van die skool aangestel is, aangewys is as die nuwe skoolhoof later die herfs. [2]: 47–48

Lane het steeds goed opgeleide fakulteite vir die skool aangestel. In 'n tyd toe die meeste ander hoërskole in die stad onderwysers met voorgraadse baccalaureusgrade gehad het, het verskeie van Attucks se onderwysers meestersgrade of PhD's gehad. [5] [6]: 39 Gedurende hierdie beginjare was Attucks se persentasie onderwysers met gevorderde grade hoër as enige ander skool in die omgewing. [10]: 9 Teen 1934 het Attucks twee en sestig fakulteitslede gehad, waarvan sewentien meestersgrade en twee doktorsgrade gehad het. [3]: 32 In 1935–36 het die skool gegroei tot agt en sestig fakulteite en 2 327 studente. 'N Eerstejaarsentrum is in 1938 by die hoërskool gevoeg om te help met die oorvol toestande. [2]: 52

Kurrikulum en geleenthede Redigeer

Attucks bied 'n uitgebreide kurrikulum aan, insluitend kursusse in algemene onderwys soos wiskunde, wetenskappe, taalkuns, kuns, musiek, liggaamlike opvoeding, sowel as huishoudkunde- en industriële kunskursusse om beroepsopleiding te bied. Vanweë sy fakulteit en gevarieerde kurrikulum, het Attucks bekend geword vir sy uitnemendheid in akademici, benewens sy suksesvolle atletiekprogramme. [2]: 11 en 43 [3]: 12–13

Die Indianapolis -opnemer, die plaaslike koerant vir die Afro -Amerikaanse gemeenskap, het skoolgeleenthede gepubliseer, wat gehelp het om die verskillende aktiwiteite van Attucks onder die aandag van die publiek te bring. Die skool het 'n bymekaarkomplek geword en 'n bron van trots vir die Afro -Amerikaanse gemeenskap van die stad. Die atletiekspanne van die skool, veral die basketbalprogram, 'verteenwoordig die Afro -Amerikaanse gemeenskap in Indianapolis'. [3]: 12–13 [11]: 2

Om die studente aan te moedig en ondersteuning vir die skool te betoon, het verskeie bekendes die skool besoek en die byeenkomste van die leerlinggroep toegespreek. Bekende besoekers was Jesse Owens, Langston Hughes, Thurgood Marshall, George Washington Carver en Floyd Patterson, asook ander opvallende atlete, skrywers, wetenskaplikes, politici en burgerregte -aktiviste wat die vorige Sondag in die nabygeleë stad kom spreek het. Senate Avenue Young Men's Christian Association se reeks sprekers, genaamd "Monster Meetings". [2]: 45 [10]: 13

1940's en 1950's Edit

Desegregasie van die stad se skole het in die laat veertigerjare en tydens die burgerregtebeweging van die 1950's en 1960's 'n belangrike kwessie geword. Ondanks die staatswetgewer se verpligte desegregasiewette in 1949, het die IPS-raad 'n geleidelike desegregasieplan goedgekeur en bly Attucks 'n geheel-swart hoërskool, hoofsaaklik as gevolg van residensiële segregasie. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het die inskrywing van die hoërskool begin afneem van 2 364 studente in 1949 tot 1 612 in 1953. [11]: 3 [2]: 59–60 en 62–63 Attucks het in 1956 twee blanke opvoeders by die fakulteit gehad en bly aanhou die enigste "hoërskool in die stad met 'n enkel-ras studentekorps." [11]: 3 [2]: 64

1950's basketbal span staat kampioenskappe Edit

Die Indiana High School Athletic Association, die beheerliggaam vir atletiekspanne in die staat, weier tot 1942 lidmaatskap van private, parochiale en all-black hoërskole, toe die volle lidmaatskap oopgemaak het om al die drie- en vierjarige state van die staat in te sluit hoërskole. Met die verandering in lidmaatskap kon Attucks en die ander swart swart hoërskole in die staat, sowel as die Katolieke hoërskole in Indiana, vir die eerste keer deelneem aan basketbaltoernooie wat deur IHSAA goedgekeur is. [3]: 14 [6]: 37 en 44 Attucks het in die vyftigerjare goeie sukses in basketbal behaal en twee Indiana Mr. Basketballs vervaardig: Hallie Bryant [12] en Oscar Robertson. [13] Benewens Bryant en Robertson, is verskeie ander Attucks -spelers en -afrigters opgeneem in die Indiana Basketball Hall of Fame. [14]

Die Attucks Tigers haal in 1951 vir die eerste keer die IHSAA -staats basketbalwedstryd, maar verloor teen Evansville se Reitz High School, 66–59. [3]: 23 [2]: 77 Op 19 Maart 1955 wen die Attucks -span, onder leiding van toekomstige professionele ster en die National Basketball Association Hall of Famer Oscar Robertson, die IHSAA se staatskampioenskap en verslaan Gary's Roosevelt High School, 97-64 en word die eerste swart skool in die land wat 'n staatstitel verower het. Robertson het Attucks na 'n ander kampioenskap in 1956 gelei en Lafayette se Jefferson High School met 79–57 geklop en die eerste staatskampioenspan in die IHSAA -geskiedenis geword wat 'n seisoen onoorwonne voltooi het sedert die staatstoernooi in 1911 begin het. [6]: 137, 140, 161 en 164 Die Attucks Tigers het sy derde IHSAA -basketbal -kampioenskap in 1959 gewen. [10]: 40 Omdat die skool se swart studente -atlete met oorwegend wit spanne gespeel en wedstryde gewen het, het historici daarop gewys dat die suksesvolle basketbalprogram van Attucks ook 'mobiliseer' swart gemeenskap "en dien as" rolmodelle vir swart jeugdiges ". [10]: 6

1960s -1990s Redigeer

Teen die 1960's het die rasse- en klasseskeiding van Indianapolis gelei tot veranderinge by Attucks Aangesien die stad se swart middelklas na ander woonbuurte verhuis het, is 'n paar van hul kinders by die hoërskole Shortridge en Arsenal Tech ingeskryf, terwyl die kinders van armer Afro -Amerikaners Attucks bygewoon het. [10]: 14 Boonop het die IPS -raad voortgegaan om die voorstelle van die federale regering vir die integrasie van sy skole te ignoreer. In 1970 het regter Hugh S. Dillin, Amerikaanse distrikshof, "IPS skuldig bevind aan die bestuur van 'n geskeide skoolstelsel." [11]: 4 Alhoewel IPS in 1970 'n geïntegreerde sekondêre kampus op Cold Springsweg geopen het om sommige van die oorbevolking by Attucks te verlig, bly die hoofskoolgebou 'n afgesonderde skool, terwyl die appèl na die beslissing van die federale hof voortgesit word. As gevolg van die lang appèlproses, dui bronne aan dat dit moeilik is om 'n presiese datum vir Attucks se formele desegregasie te spesifiseer. Skoolhistorici meen dat die eerste blanke studente in 1971 by Attucks se hoofkampus ingeskryf het, hoewel ander voorgestel het dat dit in 1968 plaasgevind het. [6]: 172 [10]: 15 [2]: 147

In 1981 het IPS -administrateurs dit oorweeg om die hoërskool te sluit as gevolg van vinnig dalende inskrywing. Die studentegroep van Attucks was 973 in 1980, maar die inskrywing het gedaal tot 885 in 1985. [2]: 148–50 Hoewel baie teen die idee was, word Attucks in 1986 van 'n hoërskool na 'n hoërskool omskep en 'n middelbare skool geword in 1993. [6]: 172–73 [4]: ​​16 Die gebou is in 1989 in die National Register of Historic Places geplaas en die Indiana Historical Bureau het in 1992 'n staatshistoriese merker by die skool opgerig. [11]: 4 [ 15]

2000s -hede Wysig

Attucks keer terug na 'n hoërskool in 2006, [4]: ​​16 toe IPS -superintendent Eugene White die stigting van die Crispus Attucks Medical Magnet aankondig, wat die skool verander van 'n middelbare skool na 'n mediese voorbereidingskool vir graad 6-12. Die aanwysing as 'n mediese magneetskool is deels te wyte aan die nabyheid van die skool aan die kampus van die Indiana University School of Medicine en die gepaardgaande hospitale. Die verandering is aangebring deur elke jaar een graad by te voeg. Die eerste klas van die magneetskool het in 2010 sy eerste klas behaal om die volledige mediese magneetprogram te voltooi wat in 2013 afgestudeer is. [ aanhaling nodig ] Attucks het sy basketbalprogram in 2008 herstel as 'n IHSAA Klas 3-A-skool. Die span het op 25 Maart 2017 die Klas 3-A-titel verower, sy eerste basketbal-kampioenskap sedert 1959. [6]: 173 en 175–77

Buitenste wysig

Die skool beslaan 'n oppervlakte van twee vierkante meter en is in drie fases gebou: 'n drie-verdieping, plat dak hoofgebou met 'n E-vormige plan aan die oostekant, gebou in 1927, 'n drieverdieping-toevoeging in die weste van die hoofgebou en 'n gimnasium met twee verdiepings, gebou in 1938 en 'n nuwer gimnasium met twee verdiepings wat in 1966 gebou is. (of Tudor Revival) en klassieke herlewingstyle van argitektuur. Die hoofgebou is hoofsaaklik uit rooi baksteen gebou en bevat terracotta-gegraveerde geglasuurde geglasuurde beglawe. Die rooi baksteen-toevoeging wat in 1938 gebou is, het soortgelyke argitektoniese besonderhede, maar gebruik kalksteen in plaas van terra cotta. Die nuwer rooi baksteen gimnasium wat in 1966 gebou is, het vertikale en horisontale bande van beton. [5]

Die hoofgevel, ooswaarts, dateer uit 1927 en het 'n middelste gedeelte en byna identiese uitsteeksels aan elke kant. Die voorportaal met een verdieping in die middelste gedeelte het drie paar ingangsdeure met waaiers en 'n terracotta-gordelbaan wat 'n terracotta-balustrade hierbo skei van 'n rondboogterra-cotta-arkade, onder. Elkeen van die middelste gedeeltes se twee boonste verdiepings bevat panele met terracotta-omskrywing rondom 'n groep van drie vensters. Terra-cotta-panele op die tweede bevat 'n lier, lourierblare en viole in basreliëf. Terra-cotta-panele bo die vensters op die derde verdieping bevat die woorde "Attucks High School" wat in die ou Engelse lettertipe ingeskryf is. Vensters langs die hoofgevel is in drieë gegroepeer ('n paar kleiner vensters aan weerskante van 'n dubbele venster). 'N Gordelbaan loop oor die hele hoofgevel bokant die lateie en vensters op die eerste verdieping. Vensters op die boonste verdieping het terrakotta bo-op die lateie en vensters. [5]

Die noordelike fasade toon die oorspronklike gedeelte met drie verdiepings in die ooste met twee vlerke aan 'n middelste gedeelte. Daar is ingange in elke vleuel en nege vensters op elke verdieping van die middelste gedeelte. Die twee boonste verdiepings van die oorspronklike gebou het vensters in drie terracotta-panele. Olielampe en ander versierings in basreliëf versier die panele wat die eerste en tweede verdieping van mekaar skei. Elke verhaal van die byvoeging van rooi baksteen en kalksteen uit 1938 het vier groepe vensters, elk met vier vensters en kalksteenbesonderhede. Die toevoeging van drie verdiepings berus op 'n kalksteen fondament. Die gimnasium met twee verdiepings, wes van die 1938-toevoeging, is ingerig met 'n kalkboog. Die woord "Gymnasium" is in 'n ou Engelse lettertipe op 'n kliptafel bo die boog ingeskryf. 'N Nuwer gimnasium, gebou uit baksteen met betonbande, is in 1966 wes van die ouer gimnasium aangebring. Die hoofingang van die nuwe gimnasium is aan die noordekant. 'N Sy -ingang is op die suidelike hoogte van die gebou. Die suidelike fasade bevat die hoofgebou wat in 1927 gebou is (soortgelyk aan die noordelike fasade) en 'n kweekhuis met een verdieping, ook oorspronklik van die gebou. Onderling bygevoegde toevoegings aan die suidelike fasade sluit in die toevoeging uit 1938, diensareas en laaibokke wat op verskillende tye gebou is. Daar is ook 'n rooi baksteen-rookstok met vyf verdiepings. [5]

Binneversorging

Die oorspronklike skoolgebou uit 1927 het klaskamers met dubbel gelaaide gange wat op 'n plein rondom die ouditorium gerangskik is. Opvallende kenmerke van die oorspronklike interieur sluit in die voorportaal met sy terrazzo-vloere en 'n driehoekige boog met terrakottakolomme. Die gepleisterde plafonne van die voorportaal en die ouditorium het balke. [5] Die Crispus Attucks -museum is ook in 'n ander gedeelte van die gebou gevestig. [4]: 16


The Silence of the Ellipses: Why History can not be about Telling Our Children Lies

SAM WINEBURG ([email protected] @samwineburg) is die Margaret Jacks professor in onderwys en (met vergunning) geskiedenis aan die Stanford Universiteit, Palo Alto, CA. Hy is die skrywer van Waarom geskiedenis leer (as dit al op u telefoon verskyn) (Universiteit van Chicago Press, 2018).

Die verhaal van Crispus Attucks en sy rol in die Boston -bloedbad open die hoofstuk genaamd & ldquoThe Coming of the Revolution & rdquo in Die Amerikaners (Danzier et al., 2014), uitgegee deur Holt McDougal/Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, een van die drie uitgewersbeeste wat die Amerikaanse mark oorheers. Sy portret is geklee in 'n formele baadjie en 'n geplooide wit hemp, aan die kant van die bladsy, alhoewel die portret 'n blote versinsel is. Min seemanne het die vrymoedigheid gehad, om nie eers van die middele te praat nie, om in 1770 vir formele portrette te gaan sit. Meer soldate het gou aangekom, en die skare het klippe en sneeuballe na hulle begin gooi. Attucks stap dan vorentoe. & Rdquo 'n Aanhaling van John Adams kom daarna, waarin die Founding Father Attucks 'n & ldquohero & rdquo noem:

Dit val vas. . . blykbaar onderneem het om die held van die nag te wees en om hierdie leër met baniere te lei. . . tot by Kingstraat met hul klubs. . . . Hierdie man met sy partytjie het gehuil, en moenie bang wees vir hulle nie, & rdquo. . . Hy was hard genoeg om op hulle te val, en het met die een hand 'n bajonet beetgekry en met die ander hand die man platgeslaan.

Attucks & rsquos -aksie het die troepe aangesteek. Een bevel om nie burgerlikes te skiet nie, het een soldaat en daarna ander op die skare afgevuur. Vyf mense is dood en verskeie is gewond. Volgens 'n koerantberig was Crispus Attucks die eerste wat gesterf het.

Attucks & rsquo -voorkoms in handboeke is 'n relatief onlangse verskynsel. Hy is uit die geheue uit die 1770's tot in die 19de eeu uitgesluit, in 1851 opgewek deur William Cooper Nell, 'n Afro -Amerikaanse joernalis en historikus, skrywer van die Dienste van bruin Amerikaners in die oorloë van 1776 en 1812. Teen die middel van die eeu het Attucks verskyn as 'n simbool vir swart en wit afskaffers. In 1888 onthul die Boston & rsquos Black -gemeenskap 'n monument ter ere van hom (oor die besware van die Massachusetts Historical Society, wat van mening was dat die 'ldquofamous mulatto 'n onstuimige persoon was en 'n geskikte kandidaat vir monumentale eerbewyse & rdquo Die New York Times, 1888, bl. 4).

Dit was eers in die burgerregtebeweging van die 1960's dat Attucks 'n gereelde kenmerk in handboeke geword het. Onder die eerstes was Henry Graff en rsquos 1967 Die vrye en die dapper, wat verklaar het dat & ldquoAttucks en sy mede -slagoffers die eerste martelare geword het in die Amerikaanse stryd teen Brittanje. & rdquo 'n Oorsig van sewe handboeke wat tussen 2003 en 2009 gepubliseer is, het bevind dat almal behalwe een Attucks in hul vertelling van die Boston -bloedbad (Kachun, 2017) ).

Die Amerikaners bevat nie net Attucks nie, maar hy doen die ekstra myl deur sy portret en die aanhaling van John Adams op te neem. Weet niks anders nie, sou lesers aanneem dat John Adams hulde bring aan 'n gevalle martelaar toe hy Attucks die & ldquohero van die nag noem. & Rdquo Tog kan niks verder van die waarheid wees nie. Adams se woorde was eintlik deel van sy opsomming tydens die verhoor van die agt Britse soldate wat van moord beskuldig is, 'n verhoor waarin Adams as advokaat vir die verdediging gedien het.

By die aanvaarding van die saak het Adams te staan ​​gekom voor 'n formidabele uitdaging: hoe om die jurie en die natuurlike trou met die gesneuwelde slagoffers te ondermyn en hulle te laat identifiseer met die beledigde Britse soldate. Hy het dit gedoen deur 'n wig te dryf tussen opstandige Bostoniërs en die gekwis van moerse seuns, negers en molatoes, Ierse teegroepe en vreemde jakkals (dit wil sê ongemanierde nie-blankes, nederige Katolieke en onbesonne seelui) wat verantwoordelik is vir die bloedvergieting (Verhoor van die Britse soldate, 1824). Hierdie hooligans was 'n ander voorraad as die goeie mense van die stad. & Rdquo Inderdaad, het Adams gesê, & ldquo Hoekom moet ons skrop om so 'n stel mense 'n skare te noem, kan ek swanger word, tensy die naam vir hulle te respekvol is. & Rdquo

Volgens Adams was Crispus Attucks 'n goeie held: die soort held wat die hoof van so 'n geknal van negers gelei het, en nog baie meer. soos hulle saam kan versamel, en 'n held wat sy & ldquomyrmidons en rdquo beveel wat 'louter en huzzaing' was en die lewe bedreig. . . gooi elke rommel wat hulle in die straat kan pluk. & rdquo Adams het herhaaldelik die troepe van die vreesaanjaende nie-blanke liggaam toegedraai en uitgeroep dat die dreigende figuur van die & ldquostout Attucks genoeg was om enige mens te skrik, en insluitend die beleërde Britse soldate.

Dit kan 'n nuttelose oefening wees om na te gaan waar handboeke sonder voetnote hul inligting kry. Nie so met Die Amerikaners. Die handboek en skrywers van rsquos het aangehaal The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution, first published in 1973, by the University of Massachusetts historian Sidney Kaplan and his wife Emma, as the source for the Adams quote. Fairness demands that we consider the possibility that it was the Kaplans who doctored Adams&rsquo quote, and that the textbook authors, failing to check the original, merely reproduced it. Yet, while noting that the local press singled out Attucks for both praise and blame, the Kaplans wrote that for John Adams &ldquoit was all blame.&rdquo In their quote from Adams&rsquo summation, they leave intact the charged racial language referencing Attucks&rsquo menacing figure (&ldquoa stout Molatto fellow, whose very looks was enough to terrify any person&rdquo) and role as instigator (the &ldquohead of such a rabble of Negroes, &c. as they can collect together&rdquo). Die Amerikaners, on the other hand, hides these references in the ellipses.

With the Kaplans&rsquo text in hand, the authors of Die Amerikaners made a choice. Instead of helping young Americans see how a Black (or mixed race) body was stamped from the beginning, to invoke Ibram X. Kendi&rsquos phrase, they performed laser surgery on Adams&rsquo words in an act that would do Winston Smith proud.

I have to imagine that in editing John Adams&rsquo words, The Americans&rsquo authors thought they were doing something noble: giving American children of all hues a hero who is a person of color. But the sly three dots of an ellipsis cannot erase the stain of racism any more than a bathroom spray can eliminate the stench of a skunk. Editorial subterfuge only forestalls a reckoning.

As Farah Peterson (2018) notes, Black people are allowed onto the stage of American history only if they satisfy certain conditions: &ldquowhen they intersect with the triumphal tale of the creation of a white American republic.&rdquo By depicting Crispus Attucks as a hero, lauded by John Adams, Die Amerikaners presents an image of a Founding Father and a Black patriot standing together as fellow lovers of liberty. A more honest approach would present Adams&rsquo words more completely and prompt an examination of the hoary legacy of race-baiting, stretching from Crispus Attucks to the Scottsboro boys to Michael Brown.


Who is Crispus Attucks? (with pictures)

Crispus Attucks (1723 – 1770) went down in history as the first black man to fight for the independence of America from the hands of the British. Little is known of this man, but he is credited with leading the fateful event known as The Boston Massacre, on 5 March 1770. This event is thought of by many as the backbone of the American Revolution, which paved the way for an independent America.

Vroeë jare

Attucks was born in 1723 in Framingham, Massachusetts to parents who were slaves belonging to Colonel Buckminster many say his father was brought to America from Africa as a slave, and his mother was a Nantucket Indian also forced into slavery. Crispus reportedly had two siblings, an older sister named Phebe, and a younger brother who died from a fever when Attucks was seven years old. Crispus and his father toiled in the vast plantation fields and farms, while his mother and sister cleaned the Colonel’s house. They received no education, because the Colonel feared that literacy would eventually lead to rebellion.

Young Crispus abhorred the fact that he was a slave. He began shirking his daily duties, daydreaming instead of the day he would escape his life of servitude. The Colonel became increasingly frustrated with Attucks' lack of responsibility and finally sold him to Deacon William Brown, also from Framingham. Crispus was 16 years old at the time.

Attucks worked diligently for Brown, trading cattle and traveling to seek new business. A decade later, he escaped to freedom when he took a job as a harpoonist on a whaling ship. Despite a fugitive slave notice in the Boston Gazette, Crispus was never caught. The next twenty years of his life are unknown as they were never documented.

Increasing Tension

The American political scene changed in 1767, when the British Parliament introduced the Townshend Acts. Much to the wrath of American businessmen, these acts incurred taxes on certain imported goods like tea and paper. Tension rose even higher when 4,000 British soldiers were deployed in Boston in October 1768. The sight of British redcoats fueled the Americans’ anger.

In February 1770, a redcoat soldier shot into a crowd of mocking Americans and inadvertently killed a young boy. This prompted Crispus’ reappearance in Boston and his first noted moment in history. He rose onto a mounted platform and spoke to the American crowd about gaining freedom from the British.

On 5 March 1770, Crispus called upon Americans to march against imperial authority. His action was allegedly spurred by an event that had occurred earlier that day when an argument between a redcoat and a barber’s apprentice grew heated after the soldier refused to pay for services rendered. This finally ended in the soldier striking the apprentice with the butt of his musket. A crowd of angry witnesses gathered and Crispus led them and others to what later came to be known as the Boston Massacre.

The Boston Massacre

Attucks led a group of almost 60 patriots in a march towards King Street. They stood face to face with Captain Thomas Preston and his eight troops of the 29th Regiment. Muskets and bayonets were drawn as Crispus and his loyal followers attacked the soldiers with snowballs and sticks. When a soldier was struck down, someone cried, “Fire!” and shots rang out immediately, killing Attucks and four other patriots. This event soon became known as the Boston Massacre and Crispus, having been the first to die during the historical event, is now known its leader.

Honoring Crispus

The American public has commemorated Crispus Attucks in many ways. Historians claim that several days after his death, a funeral procession was attended by an estimated 10,000 people to the Old Granary Burial Ground where Crispus was buried. Paul Revere (1734–1818) engraved the famous print known as ‘The Boston Massacre’ just 21 days after Crispus' death while the main purpose of the engraving was to create propaganda for the American Revolution, it also serves as an informal memorial to Crispus as it includes the words "The Bloody Massacre" at the top of the engraving. Poet John Boyle O’Reilly (1844–1890) described Crispus as being ‘the first to defy, and the first to die’ in one of his poems.

In 1888, the Crispus Attucks Monument was built on Boston Common. The Black Patriots Coin Law was enacted in 1996, which paved the way for the production of the Black Revolutionary War Patriots Silver Dollar coin in 1998, honoring of all African American patriots who played a role in the foundation of America, including Attucks.


Floor Plans

NARRATOR 1: This Indiana Bicentennial Minute is made possible by the Indiana Historical Society and the law firm of Krieg Devault.

Black and white film footage shows men playing basketball, followed by images of players holding championship trophies.

JANE PAULEY: Indiana’s had high school basketball champion teams for 105 years but none made a bigger social impact than the Cripus Attucks champs of 1955.

Images and videos of a brick school, basketball players on and off the court, and fans cheering appear on screen.

JANE PAULEY: Attucks was Indianapolis’ all black high school, opened in 1927 but not allowed to compete against white schools until 1942. In ’55, led by Oscar Robertson, the tigers won the state title, repeated the next year, and won it again in 1959. A justice department suit ended school segregation here though Indianapolis Star columnist, Bob Collins, wrote “The success of Attucks basketball integrated the high schools of Indianapolis”. Crispus Attucks student athletes had made their mark on history.

Text on the screen reads visit indianahistory.org for more information, with an image of cheerleaders cheering in the background.

JANE PAULEY: I’m Jane Pauley with this Indiana Bicentennial Minute.

NARRATOR: made possible by the Indiana Historical Society and the law firm of Krieg Devault.


Crispus Attucks made history — and change

For almost three decades Crispus Attucks High School quietly went about its business, serving as Indianapolis' segregated black high school.

Opened in 1927, Attucks produced mechanics, tailors and stenographers, doctors, lawyers, judges, professors, musicians, military officers and politicians. It was a source of pride for the black community, a center for social activities.

Most of Indianapolis hardly noticed.

That is, until March 19, 1955, when Attucks accomplished what every high school in the state of Indiana dreams of.

The Tigers' state basketball championship marked the first time an all-black school won an open state tournament anywhere in the nation. It was also the first state basketball title for a team from Indianapolis.

To millions watching on TV or listening to the radio statewide, the school built to rid Indianapolis schools of black students was being proudly called: "Indianapolis Crispus Attucks."

After the game, in accordance with tournament tradition, the winning team piled onto a firetruck for the triumphant ride from Butler Fieldhouse to Monument Circle.

60 years after first state title, hopes high again at Crispus Attucks

But unlike the Downtown celebration the year before, when Milan had time to bask in the glory and pose for photos, the Attucks team made one quick lap around the Circle and a beeline up Indiana Avenue to Northwestern Park for a bonfire.

The route had been decreed days earlier in a meeting at the Indianapolis Public Schools superintendent's office, attended by representatives of the mayor's office, the Fire Department and the police, who feared riots and wanted the Attucks contingent back in its own part of town as quickly as possible.

"I guess they felt black people would tear up Downtown," said basketball legend Oscar Robertson, the team's best player, for whom that hurt remains keen.

"I was part of Indiana basketball history. I wasn't an asterisk on the side, and neither were the other guys on the Crispus Attucks team. We were a part of the Indiana High School Athletic Association, and we shouldn't have been treated that way."

Willie Merriweather, another star of that team, just remembers being a happy kid.

Now that the school is back in the spotlight for a celebration of the 50th anniversary of that championship, memories and attitudes are as different as the people who experienced the racial discrimination of the time.

Yet all agree that the legacy of the basketball glory is much bigger than sports. Basketball introduced the team and the school as a collection of people, with names and faces and talents. Friendships that formed on the court and in the stands helped to mend a racially frayed city. It was a start.

"Should this stuff be brought up again?" Merriweather, now 69, mused. "In my mind, it should. Because it has a history to it. It has a good ending to it."

Attucks, he said, "started out one way, and it ended up another way. I think the team and the accomplishment brought together the city to a large extent. And it's a true story."

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Crispus Attucks High School was first planned in 1922 by city leaders for the purpose of segregating the 800 black students who were, at the time, attending Manual, Shortridge and Tech high schools alongside white students. (The Ku Klux Klan was influential in city politics at the time, but scholars of the period stress that building the school was a city, not a Klan, decision.)

By the time the school opened at West and 12th streets five years later, it already was too small. The black population was growing along with the region's industry, and 1,350 students reported to the school built for 1,000.

From the beginning, the focus inside the brick structure with the stately colon naded entry was on academics, which is where the conversation with Attucks grads starts to this day.

With black educators no more welcome than black students in the white schools, Attucks was able to attract an impressive faculty, possibly the best in the city. Almost every teacher had a master's degree, and many had doctorates.

Matthias Nolcox and Russell Lane, the school's first two principals who served a combined 30 years, had degrees from Ivy League schools Lane received his law degree from Indiana University. They recruited top-flight educators from across the country, black men and women who believed in education and in the students of Crispus Attucks.

Betty Crowe, a 1948 Attucks graduate and the wife of coach Ray Crowe during the basketball glory years, described Attucks using the adage: "They gave us lemons, and we made lemonade."

Gilbert Taylor, a 1955 Attucks graduate who has a doctorate and is curator of the Attucks Museum at the school, added: "I did not realize (when I was a student) that we had two or three attorneys on our faculty. I did not realize that we had Buffalo Soldiers, that we had Tuskegee Airmen, that we had members of the Golden 13 (the first black U.S. naval officers), all here on the faculty at Attucks. They never mentioned that. They were not about ego. Their pride came from you and your accomplishments."

Robertson has called the school "a miraculous place." Hallie Bryant, The Star's Indiana Mr. Basketball in 1953, called it "a blessing in disguise a paradox."

One thing Crispus Attucks wasn't was a sports palace.

On the first day of school in 1927, The Star wrote: "Opening of the Crispus Attucks high school . . . gave the colored high school students of Indianapolis their own building, planned and designed to meet their requirements for education. This is the first time these students have occupied a building devoted exclusively to them.

"The new high school embodies features not found in other school buildings of the city. Since the traditions of the Negro race are deeply founded in music, that art has been especially emphasized in the new building.

"In the central portion of the building is a large auditorium with seating capacity for 800 and a combination stage/gymnasium."

In other words, the school was built without a real gym.

Not that that mattered much in the early years, when Attucks was denied membership in the Indiana High School Athletic Association. The reasoning went that it wasn't a "public" school because white students were not included.

In those days, the basketball team had to travel great distances to play other black schools, which meant Attucks played very few games.

Even after the IHSAA agreed to let its members schedule games with Attucks, local teams weren't interested. The Tigers traveled by bus all across the state, playing games in small towns where they were greeted with curiosity, like the barnstorming Globetrotters.

On the long rides, the players ate sack lunches. Hotels and restaurants were out of the question. Even after Attucks started drawing well enough to have the money in its athletic budget for such luxuries, the Jim Crow practices of the time -- rules, often unwritten, banning blacks from "white" hotels, restaurants and bathrooms, among other places -- didn't allow it.

Lane, the late principal, who had been among the most active in the campaign to have Attucks admitted to the IHSAA, was the guiding force behind those early teams. He would suffer the long, cold bus rides. He would sit in the bleachers, visiting with his white hosts while keeping a sharp eye on his students.

He instructed his coaches to put sportsmanship above all else, certainly above winning. That was the way, he believed, to break down the barriers between races.

He chose players who he thought would best represent the school, and they played in the style of the day, flat-footed, with a required number of passes before shots.

That changed in 1950, when Ray Crowe became coach.

Crowe had grown up on a farm near Franklin and had played basketball against and alongside white players. His coach at Whiteland High School had threatened to bench him if he let himself get pushed around on the court.

Crowe believed in student-athletes, fair play and gentlemanly behavior. As he wrote in 1952, in a paper outlining his coaching philosophy, the players needed to be aware of "the relationship between their attitudes and the morale of the community." He benched great players for slacking in schoolwork and for, in today's parlance, "talking trash."

In Crowe's seven years as coach, Attucks won 179 games and lost 20.

Bobby Plump, sitting in his Broad Ripple pub, named Plump's Last Shot for his game-winning basket in the 1954 state title game, paused recently to marvel at the glory days of Attucks basketball.

This man who led one of the few tournament victories over Attucks back then spoke in a dramatic hushed tone as he described the Tigers' sustained success. The streaks. The number of victories. Close wins over great teams. More often, huge margins of victory.

"They dominated," Plump said. "I mean, they dominated.

"Now," he added, "when you take that dominance and then add the prejudice of the time, you have a very volatile situation."

Aware of the volatile situation, Crowe insisted that his players not react openly to the many obstacles they faced, including biased officiating.

It was often so bad that the media, black and white, cringed. After the foul call that Crowe later called "the worst he had seen in a lifetime of watching sports," a last-minute call on Hallie Bryant that likely cost Attucks the 1953 semistate title, five Indianapolis News writers signed an editorial column in protest.

The Star's Bob Collins also questioned the call, and Tiny Hunt wrote in the Versailles Republican: "Such deplorable refereeing calls into question the very integrity of the tournament."

Al Spurlock, Crowe's assistant coach during those years, said: "Ray would always say, 'We have to beat seven men.' "

Betty Crowe said: "Ray told the boys, 'The first 10 points you get are for the referees, and then you play the game.' He'd say, 'Don't look at me when they make a bad call. Just raise your hand and then make more baskets.'

"The kids would get mad. I'd get mad, too. But Ray would sit there calmly. (In the stands) we'd all be yelling and screaming and fussing, and he'd just sit there. It kept the boys calm."

There were threats, many stemming from gambling. The big crowds, high interest and emotional allegiances made betting on Attucks games serious business.

Before a game against Tech during the 1953-54 season, threats were made against Dave Huff and Don Sexson of Tech and Robertson, Winfred O'Neal and Bill Mason of Attucks. Huff's family insisted that he sit out the game, which Attucks won.

Before the 1953 Indiana-Kentucky All-Star Game, the headline HALLIE BRYANT THREATENED was printed on Page 1 of The Star, just below ROSENBERG SPIES EXECUTED.

Asked about it this month, Bryant shrugged. "I played well that night. I've been on playgrounds where people threaten you every day."

John Gipson, who played on the '55 title team, framed the Tigers' ability to deal with adversity this way: "They were hanging people in the South."

Plump, who decades later would serve as a pallbearer at the funeral of Oscar Robertson's older brother, Bailey, remembers the prejudice he witnessed when he and his Milan teammates came in from Ripley County.

"We'd be walking around the corner from our hotel to get something to eat at the Apex Diner, and people driving by would see our jackets and yell at us, 'You guys better beat those niggers.' We were shocked," Plump said. "We didn't hear that in our community, of course, because it was a white community.

"The prejudice in the 1950s was just awful. But from a basketball standpoint, I can tell you, as players we sure didn't think that way. We'd played other teams that had black players. It was no big deal. We thought of Attucks as a bunch of guys we intended to beat. That's all we were thinking about -- basketball."

The more Attucks won, the more tournament games the Tigers played in front of large, mixed crowds, the more accepted they became -- at least among the younger generation. Not by everyone, and not all at once. But it was happening.

"We were on the cutting edge then between staunch segregation and the beginning of integration," said Bill Hampton, who played for the '55 team. "Reaction to us was about half and half."

Maxine Stantley Coleman, a cheerleader for Attucks, remembers being quite sure that, beyond the Attucks fans, the big tournament crowds were not rooting for the Tigers. But, she said, with the victories came some progress, "a little bit at a time." She said the players probably were more accepted than the rest of the students.

Said Robertson: "The way we played and won, we did it with a lot of class. We played in the parks with the white kids and black kids. I knew a lot of kids on other teams, white and black."

The first breakthrough on the court came during Crowe's first season, 1950-51, when Attucks defeated Anderson in the regional final on a last-second shot by Bailey "Flap" Robertson. The Tigers made it to the Final Four before losing in the afternoon to Evansville Reitz, 66-59.

The next season the Tigers lost in the sectional to Tech. After the controversial call in the semistate round cost them a chance at the '53 title, they came back in '54 to make it to the semistate championship game, where, missing Merriweather and O'Neal because of injuries, they lost to Milan by 13.

In 1955, it all came together.

Attucks rolled through the regular season with an average winning margin of 22 points. The only game the Tigers lost was a strange one.

Playing on a snowy night in Connersville's small, packed gym, Attucks' game of running and pressing was neutralized after someone opened a door to give the sweltering crowd some air. In no time, there was condensation on the floor -- which sat atop an old swimming pool -- and both teams spent the second half slipping and sliding. Attucks lost, 58-57.

The Tigers entered the tournament with a record of 20-1 and breezed through the sectional and regional rounds. For the semistate title, Attucks stared down top-ranked Muncie Central, 71-70.

At the Final Four the next Saturday, after Attucks' easy afternoon victory over New Albany, that school's cheerleaders followed tradition and joined the cheerleaders of the finalists.

White cheerleaders, alongside black.

"Even now," Robertson wrote nearly 50 years later in his autobiography, "it's one of the little details in my life that helps me, when I look back."

Nearly 15,000 fans packed Butler Fieldhouse on the night of March 19, 1955. It was standing room only.

No need to worry about racism from officials: The opponent was another segregated school. Gary Roosevelt, built shortly after Attucks and for the same reason, also had made a quick rise once it was allowed to play in the tournament. The finalists represented two of the three all-black high schools in the state the third was Evansville Lincoln.

True to form, Attucks jumped to a big lead and won going away, 97-74.

In the final minute, the crowd was cheering for an unheard-of 100 points, and for Robertson, who had 30, to go after the four-game scoring title (for the semistate and Final Four). He got the ball and could have tied the mark, but he passed to a player who hadn't yet scored. In the end, eight Attucks players scored that night.

Attucks fans started their famous "Crazy Song" early, which always drove their opponents crazy.

It includes a refrain familiar to Cab Calloway fans: "Hi-de, hi-de, hi-de, Hi . . . Hi-de, hi-de, hi-de, Ho." The Attucks version follows with, "They could beat everybody But they can't beat us!"

As the horn sounded, fans rushed onto the floor.

The champions dominated the front pages of the Indianapolis newspapers and were splashed on sports pages throughout the state. The Chicago Tribune headline read: "Indianapolis routs Gary."

Scores of black papers nationwide, including the Chicago Defender and Pittsburgh Courier, picked up the story on the wire of the Associated Negro Press. The Courier's headline read: "Attucks Captures Indiana Cage Crown."

The night of the victory, as the firetruck left the fieldhouse, white kids joined black kids in cheering the champions. Along the route, white fans turned out to wave and cheer. But, as planned, the parade was quickly diverted to the black part of town.

Change would not be immediate.

The state's desegregation law of 1949 had made it possible, but not mandatory, for black students to attend the high school in their own part of town.

Given the choice, many black students followed tradition and attended Attucks. But others decided to go elsewhere, and once Attucks started winning -- the Tigers went undefeated in winning the state title in 1956 and won it again in '59 -- many schools began to recruit black players.

Bob Collins, after he retired as a columnist for The Star, credited Attucks basketball for giving the very slow process of school integration in Indianapolis a shove.

In the book "Hoosiers," the late sportswriter is quoted: "The success of Attucks basketball integrated the high schools of Indianapolis. They became so dominant that the other schools had to get black basketball players or forget about it.

"(The other schools) went from not caring to crying 'unfair.' They were even saying, this is illegal. They were saying, 'Oscar lives in the Shortridge district and Hallie Bryant should be goin' to Tech.' In 1951, I don't think any other team in Marion County had a black player. By 1955, Shortridge had four black starters."

By 1956, there were 769 black students at Tech and 657 black students at Shortridge. There were very few black students at Howe and Broad Ripple. There would be no white students at Attucks until 1971. But integration was, at last, back on the track it had been on before Attucks was built.

In the late 1960s, just as competitive forces had broken up Attucks' basketball monopoly, the School Board set about breaking up the faculty. To encourage integration, black teachers were transferred to white schools and white teachers to Attucks.

Other doors opened for blacks, and particularly for Attucks students.

Bob Jewell, a basketball star at Attucks in 1951, received his degree at Indiana Central, and in 1957 became the first black to be hired by Eli Lilly and Co. as a scientist. Ander het spoedig gevolg.

Allen Bridgeforth (Attucks '63) attended the University of Louisville until it was necessary for him to return to Indianapolis to get a job.

"I was the second black deliveryman United Parcel had ever hired," he said. "There is no doubt in my mind that the success of our sports teams made a difference in attitude in the city. I think other people started to understand the pride we had in being a graduate of Crispus Attucks."

Andrew W. Ramsey, a prominent columnist at the Indianapolis Recorder, the city's black newspaper, wrote that the importance placed on such basketball games merely highlighted the divide. But in a follow-up column he acknowledged: "It is in sports that democracy has made its longest strides, and democracy appears in athletic contests long before it makes its appearance in other areas of American life."

Said Robertson: "By us winning, it sped up the integration. I truly believe that us winning the state championship brought Indianapolis together."

In 1986, Attucks, the smallest public high school in Indianapolis, with little more than 900 students, was converted to a junior high in IPS' effort to make the best use of its buildings.

The black community, which had opposed creation of the high school in the 1920s, opposed its demise 60 years later. The school had become historic, they argued. It was their history and their school.

Attucks had long since relinquished its basketball dominance. After the incredible run in the 1950s that brought three state championships, the Tigers never returned to the state finals.

Today, Crispus Attucks is a school for grades 6-12, and its history is told by the museum in the old building and the historical marker on the lawn outside. It is told even more plainly by the proud smiles of generations of graduates.


Attucks, Crispus

ATTUCKS, CRISPUS. (1723?–1770). Rebel leader. Massachusetts. Of mixed ancestry, Attucks may have been raised in the Natick Indian town of Mashpee. It is possible that he may have been a slave prior to 1770, by which time he was a free man and a sailor. A leader of the crowd that precipitated the so-called Boston Massacre, 5 March 1770, and the first killed, Attucks became a martyr to freedom in the eyes of most Bostonians and would become a symbol of African American heroism and participation in the Revolutionary struggle.

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Crispus Attucks

In his seminal book, Why We Can’t Wait, the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote about the inspired life of Crispus Attucks, saying, “He is one of the most important figures in African-American history, not for what he did for his own race but for what he did for all oppressed people everywhere. He is a reminder that the African-American heritage is not only African but American and it is a heritage that begins with the beginning of America.”

Attucks was one of the Boston Patriots to die during the Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770. Not much is known about Attucks, but most historians agree that he was of mixed blood of African and Native American descent. It appears that Attucks was engaged in the maritime industries of New England and had some experience as a sailor. As tension between Great Britain and her American colonies erupted in 1765 with Parliament’s passing of the Stamp Act, Great Britain felt compelled to send British troops to occupy Boston, the hotbed of colonial resistance. The lone sentry of the Custom House, was attacked by a vociferous mob who threw stones, snowballs, chunks of ice and wood at the sentinel. Fearing for his life, he called for reinforcements from the nearby garrison for assistance. Captain Thomas Preston and seven soldiers joined the sentry at the Custom House. The crowd only grew larger. As the crowd threw chunks of ice and clubs at the soldiers, one found its mark and knocked a British soldier to the ground. He stood back up, yelled and fired his musket into the crowd. Immediately all the other British soldiers opened fire in a ragged volley. Five men immediately fell dead, the first among them was Attucks with two musket balls in his chest. A large funeral was held in Boston and the five victims of the “Boston Massacre” were buried together in a common grave in Boston’s Old Granary Burying Ground.

In the 19th century, Attucks became a symbol of the abolitionist movement and his image and story were seen and told to demonstrate his patriotic virtues. Abolitionists like William C. Nell and Frederick Douglass extolled Crispus Attucks as the first martyr in the cause of American liberty and used his memory to garner support to end slavery in America and attain equal rights for African Americans. In the 20th century Attucks’ continued to be celebrated as a major African American historical figure. Musician Stevie Wonder wrote a song during the American Revolution Bicentennial that mentioned Crispus Attucks and a commemorative postage stamp was also issued in his honor. Though little is known of Crispus Attucks’ life, his death continues to serve as a reminder that African Americans took an active role in the path to American independence.


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