Boulton Paul Defiant I - voorplan

Boulton Paul Defiant I - voorplan



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Boulton Paul Defiant I - voorplan

'N Voorplan van die Boulton Paul Defiant I. Vanuit hierdie hoek is die rewolwer skaars sigbaar.


Boulton Paul Defiant

Die Boulton Paul Defiant was 'n Britse onderskepvliegtuig wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog by die Royal Air Force (RAF) gedien het. Die Defiant is ontwerp en gebou deur Boulton Paul Aircraft as 'n "rewolwer", sonder enige vooruitskietende gewere. Dit was 'n tydgenoot van die Royal Navy se Blackburn Roc. Die konsep van 'n rewolwer het direk verband gehou met die suksesvolle Bristol F.2 Fighter uit die Eerste Wêreldoorlog.

In die praktyk is gevind dat die Defiant redelik effektief is as 'n bomwerper -vernietiger, maar kwesbaar is vir die Luftwaffe's meer rats, enkel sitplek Messerschmitt Bf 109 vegters. Gebrek aan voorwaartse bewapening was 'n groot swakheid in dagligbestryding, en die potensiaal daarvan is eers besef toe dit oorgeskakel het na naggevegte. Ώ ] Dit is vervang in die nagvegterrol deur die Bristol Beaufighter en de Havilland Mosquito. Die Defiant het gebruik gemaak by opleiding in skietery, sleep sleep, elektroniese teenmaatreëls (ECM) en lugredding. Onder RAF -vlieëniers het dit die bynaam 'Daffy' gehad.


Boulton-Paul P.105 & P.107

Verenigde Koninkryk (1944)
Strike Fighter - Geen gebou nie

Statiese model van die standaard P.105. [Britse geheime projekte] Die Boulton-Paul P.105 is 'n min bekende enkelmotorige vliegtuig wat bedoel is om 'n verskeidenheid rolle op karweier te vervul. Om dit te kan doen, sal die P.105 gebruik maak van 'n unieke en innoverende ontwerp wat bestaan ​​uit verwisselbare romp- en kajuitmodules wat op 'n sekere missie betrekking het, en kan vinnig verander word om 'n noodsaaklike rol aan boordvervoerders of ander lugbasisse te vervul. Die ontwerp is om onbekende redes nie opgetel nie, maar die verhaal daarvan eindig nie daar nie. Die ontwerp sou verder ontwikkel in die P.107, 'n landgebaseerde begeleide weergawe van die P.105. Die P.107 het 'n agterwaartse rewolwer en 'n tweelingboomstertontwerp om 'n groter deurkruis van die geweer moontlik te maak. Hierdie ontwerp sou ook nie aanvaar word nie en die program sou afgehandel word voor die einde van die oorlog.

Geskiedenis

Laat in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die Royal Naval Air Arm begin soek na 'n vliegtuigontwerp wat beide die vegter- en bomwerperrolle kan vervul. As een vliegtuig verskeie rolle verrig, sou die spesialisasie van vliegtuie wat deur die lug vervoer word, uitgeskakel word wat nodig is om die vegter-, duikbomwerper- en torpedobomwerperrolle te vervul. Daar is nooit 'n amptelike vereiste gestel om so 'n vliegtuig te bou nie, maar verskeie maatskappye het vliegtuie begin ontwikkel wat pas by hierdie rol, wat bekend gestaan ​​het as die 'Strike Fighter'. Westland, Blackburn, Fairey en Boulton-Paul sou almal ontwerpe ontwikkel wat ooreenstem met die strydvegterrol. Boulton-Paul se vliegtuigontwerp sou bekend staan ​​as die P.105.

Boulton-Paul is 'n minder bekende vliegtuigmaatskappy wat slegs 'n enkele groot tipe vliegtuie tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in massaproduksie gehad het: die Defiant. Die Defiant weerspieël baie van hul vliegtuigontwerpe, wat almal ietwat onortodoks was. . In die geval van Defiant was dit 'n vegter met 'n agtertoring. Boulton-Paul was baie meer suksesvol in die ontwikkeling van torings vir gebruik op ander vliegtuie, soos die Handley-Page Halifax, Blackburn Roc (wat hulle saam met Blackburn ontwikkel het), Lockheed Hudson en die laat oorlog Avro Lincoln. Ondanks die feit dat slegs een gevegsvliegtuig in produksie was, het Boulton-Paul 'n baie aktiewe ontwikkelingsafdeling gehad, hoewel die meeste van hul ontwerpe op die tekenbord sou bly, met 'n paar gelukkiges om prototipes te ontvang. Die ontwerpe kom van 'n ingenieur genaamd J. D. North, wat die belangrikste vliegtuigontwerper vir Boulton-Paul was. Voordat werk aan hul Strike Fighter -ontwerp begin is, het North gewerk aan hul P.103- en P.104 -ontwerpe vir die Naval Air Arm. Die P.103 was 'n ultra-vinnige vegterontwerp wat gebruik gemaak het van 'n kontra-roterende skroef en 'n Griffon 61 of Centaurus-enjin. Die P.103 is nie opgeneem vir produksie nie, maar North sou baie aspekte van die P.103 in die P.105 gebruik. Die kontra-roterende skroef sou weer gebruik word, terwyl die enjin as 'n Griffon 61 sou begin, maar later na 'n Centaurus-enjin oorgaan.

3 -rigting tekening van die P.105. Let op die onderste venster van die spotter. [Britse geheime projekte] Die P.105 was bedoel om 'n klein, hoëpresterende vliegtuig te wees wat maklik omgeskakel kon word om ander rolle te vervul, selfs dienspligte. Om dit te doen, sou dit 'n unieke idee gebruik. Om die verskeidenheid rolle wat deur die draer gedra word, te vervul, het die P.105 modulêre kajuit- en bombaai-gedeeltes. Die uitruilbare modules het 'n torpedobomwerper (P.105A), verkenningsvliegtuig (P.105B), vegvliegtuig (P.105C) en duikbomwerper ingesluit (geen benaming gegee nie). Elke afdeling het klein verskille tussen hulle wat by hul onderskeie rolle pas. Met hierdie stelsel kan meer P.105 vliegtuie in hangars en draers gestoor word, terwyl die bykomende modules minder ruimte in beslag sal neem as ander vliegtuie wat vir spesifieke rolle gespesifiseer is, en sodoende die gevegskapasiteit van die draer waarop die P.105 gestasioneer sou word, verhoog . Boulton Paul het verwag dat die vliegtuig baie hoë werkverrigting sou hê en die P.105C -weergawe sou 'n uitstekende penetrasievegter wees. Voordat enige spesifikasies geraam is, is besluit om van 'n Griffon 61 -enjin na die Centaurus -inline -enjin oor te skakel. Die brosjure oor die besonderhede van die vliegtuig is by die RNAA ingedien, maar geen produksiebevel het gekom nie. Die presiese rede waarom dit nie aangeneem is nie, is onbekend. Die redenasie kan afkomstig wees van die modulesisteem, aangesien dit 'n nuwe konsep kon gewees het, maar kompleks in werklikheid. 'N Ander rede kan wees dat huidige vliegtuie destyds as voldoende gepresteer is en nie so 'n vervanging nodig gehad het nie.

3 -rigtingtekening van die P.107. Let op die skuins agterdek en die kleiner profiel van die tweelingstertroere. [Britse geheime projekte] Hoewel die produksie van P.105 nie toegestaan ​​is nie, gaan die verhaal voort in die Boulton-Paul P.107. Die P.107 is 'n interessante ontwerp, aangesien baie min inligting oor die ontwikkelingsgeskiedenis daarvan beskikbaar is, maar die ontwerp en spesifikasies daarvan is gevind. Daar kan aanvaar word dat die P.107 begin ontwikkel het tydens of kort nadat die P.105 geskep is. Die P.107 sou nie deur die RNAA bedryf word nie, maar in plaas daarvan deur die Royal Air Force as 'n langafstandbegeleier. Groot verskille tussen die P.107 en P.105 sluit in die gebrek aan vouvlerke, die verwydering van die torpedo -blister, die toevoeging van 'n rewolwer en die oorskakeling van 'n enkele roer na 'n tweelingstert -ontwerp om die afvuurhoek van die rewolwer te verbeter . Die P.107 kan ook vir verskillende rolle gekonfigureer word, maar dit is onbekend of dit dieselfde modulesisteem gebruik het as die P.105. Die P.107 is ook nie vir produksie gekies nie.

Ontwerp

Die Boulton-Paul P.105 het 'n konvensionele veguitleg gehad. Aan die voorkant gebruik dit 'n kontra-roterende skroef met 'n omkeerbare spoed. Oorspronklik sou die ontwerp 'n Griffon 61 -enjin gemonteer het, maar dit is ten gunste van die Centaurus -enjin verander. Die vlerke op die P.105 was omgekeerde meeuvlerke, baie soos dié op die Vought F4U Corsair of Junkers Ju 87 Stuka. Om ruimte in draers te bespaar, kan die vlerke vou. Die romp het die interessantste aspek van die algehele P.105 gehad, en dit was die verwisselbare kajuit en die onderste rompmodules. Elke variant van die P.105 gebruik verskillende modules wat verband hou met die beoogde rol wat dit vervul het. Die P.105A was 'n torpedobomwerper en sou die torpedoblister onder die stert gebruik. Die P.105B was 'n verkenningsvliegtuig, en sy stuurkajuit sou 'n vlieënier en waarnemer sit. Dit sou 'n glasromp onder die waarnemer gebruik om te help opspoor. Die P.105C was 'n begeleier en sou 'n eenmanvliegtuig wees. Die laaste was 'n duik-bomwerper weergawe, wat slegs baie skaars besonderhede beskikbaar het. Die duikbommenwerper sou twee 450 kg bomme dra, waarskynlik in 'n interne bomhokmodule. Die stert van die vliegtuig sou 'n konvensionele roer- en stertvliegtuigreëling wees. Die bewapening van die P.105 was 'n standaard twee tot vier 12,7 mm-masjiengewere in die vlerke van die vliegtuig, met die enigste afwyking die P.105C, wat in plaas daarvan vier 20 mm kanonne sou gebruik.

Papercraft -model van die P.107 [Kartonbau.de] Die P.107 het baie aspekte van die P.105 -ontwerp geleen, maar het 'n paar besonderhede verander om beter by sy rol te pas. Die enjin en die voorste gedeelte bly dieselfde, terwyl die kontra-roterende propellers en die Centaurus-enjin behoue ​​bly. Verwysingsmateriaal verwys na die vliegtuig as 'n omskakeling van 'n begeleier in 'n vegvliegtuig of 'n foto-verkenningsvliegtuig. Of dit nou konvensionele omskakeling was of via die modulesisteem wat die P.105 gebruik, is egter onbekend, waarvan laasgenoemde waarskynlik is. Die vleuelontwerp sou dieselfde bly, met die omgekeerde meeuwvlerkstyl. Gegewe die landgebaseerde aard, het die vlerke nie meer gevou om ruimte te bespaar nie en is die torpedoblister onder die stert verwyder. Agter die vlieënier sou 'n skutter sit en twee masjiengewere van 12,7 mm op afstand beheer. Die masjiengewere sou in die vliegtuig gehuisves word, met slegs die punte van die loop wat uitsteek. Om die skutter 'n beter vuurboog te gee, is die enkele stertvin na 'n dubbele stertvin oorgeskakel. Die ontwerp van die rewolwer en die tweestert is die duidelikste verskille tussen die P.107 en P.105. Die brandstof van die vliegtuig sou in 'n hooftenk en twee kleiner valtenks gestoor word. Die brandstofbedrag sal na verwagting die vliegtuig 'n afstand van 4,827 km bied, met tot 30 minute se geveg. Die valtenks kan omgeskakel word vir 2 000 Ib (900 kg) bomme. Vir aanvallende bewapening gebruik die P.107 vier kanonne van 20 m wat in die vlerke gemonteer is.

Papercraft -model van die P.107 [Kartonbau.de]


Ontwerp [wysig | wysig bron]

Die Defiant was 'n enkelmotorige onderskepvliegtuig. Dit het 'n monoplan -struktuur gebruik wat gekoppel was aan die hooflandingsgestel wat in 'n breë hoofvliegtuiggedeelte ingetrek is. Die vlieënier se kajuit en agterste rewolwer is in 'n vaartbelynde boonste rompgedeelte ingelê. Tanks vir tot 104 liter brandstof is binne die vleuel se middelste gedeelte gehuisves, tesame met 'n groot ventrale verkoeler wat die ooreenkoms met die Hawker -vegter voltooi het. [4] Die middelste gedeelte het 'n tweesparing, en die vleuel self het verwyderbare vlerke. Die agterste romp bestaan ​​uit twee metaalkegels wat verbind is deur 'n oorgangsdeel van twee voet en 'n plat boonste dek. [4] Die Defiant het 'n all-metal beklemtoonde vel monokoque struktuur gebruik, wat gebou is in gedeeltes wat daarna vasgebout is, 'n vervaardigingsmetode wat voorheen op ander Bolton Paul-ontwerpte vliegtuie gebruik is. Dit was 'n relatief skoon ontwerp en het gebruik gemaak van 'n eenvoudige, gewigbesparende struktuur. [4]

Die primêre missie van die Defiant was die vernietiging van inkomende vyandelike bomwerpers. Die belangrikste bewapening van die vliegtuig is sy aangedrewe dorsale rewolwer, toegerus met vier Browning -masjiengewere van 0,303 duim (7,30 mm). Die romp was toegerus met aërodinamiese kuipe wat gehelp het om die weerstand van die rewolwer wat hulle pneumaties aangedryf het, te verminder en in die romp te laat sak sodat die rewolwer vrylik kon draai. Die Brownings is elektries afgevuur en geïsoleerde afsnypunte in die ring van die rewolwer het verhoed dat die gewere skiet wanneer hulle na die skroefskyf of stertvliegtuig wys. [4] Die kanonnier kon die rewolwer direk vorentoe draai en die vuurbeheer van die gewere aan die vlieënier oordra; met die gewere wat langs elke kant van die kajuitkappie skiet, is dit selde gedoen, aangesien die minimum hoogte van die rewolwer 19 ° was en die vlieënier nie 'n gunsight, moontlik omdat die Defiant toegerus was om skote sonder afwyking te doen, net soos verskeie moderne ontwerpe wat voortspruit uit spesifikasies van die ministerie van lugdienste


Boulton Paul Defiant I - voorplan - Geskiedenis



























Boulton Paul Defiant Mk.I
UK & mdash RAF tweesitplek vegvliegtuigvechter

Argieffoto's

[Boulton Paul "Defiant" Mk.I (N1671) by die Royal Air Force Museum London, Hendon Aerodrome, Londen, Engeland (Foto's deur John Shupek)

Oorsig 2

  • Boulton Paul "Defiant"
  • Rol: Twee-sitplek vegter Nagvegter afrigter Doel sleepboot
  • Vervaardiger: Boulton Paul Aircraft
  • Ontwerp deur: John Dudley North
  • Eerste vlug: 11 Augustus 1937
  • Bekendgestel: Desember 1939
  • Status: Afgetree
  • Primêre gebruikers: Royal Air Force Australian Air Force Royal Canadian Air Force Polish Air Force
  • Aantal gebou: 1 064

Die Boulton Paul "Defiant" was 'n Britse vegvliegtuig en bomwerpers wat vroeg in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gebruik is. Die "Defiant" is ontwerp en gebou deur Boulton Paul Aircraft as 'n "rewolwer" en het saam met die Royal Air Force (RAF) gedien. Die konsep van 'n rewolwer van die Royal Navy se Blackburn Roc, was ietwat soortgelyk aan die Bristol Fighter uit die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. In die praktyk is bevind dat die "Defiant" kwesbaar is vir die meer behendige, enkele sitplek Messerschmitt Bf.109-vegters van die Luftwaffe, maar die "Defiant" het geen vooruitskietende gewere nie. Dit is later suksesvol in die nagvegterrol gebruik, voordat dit uit gevegsdiens gefaseer is ten gunste van die Bristol Beaufighter en de Havilland Mosquito. Die "Defiant" het uiteindelik gebruik gemaak by opleiding in kanonne, sleep sleep, ECM en lugredding. Onder RAF -vlieëniers het dit die oneerbiedige bynaam "Daffy" gehad.

Ontwerp en ontwikkeling 2

Die "Defiant" het ontstaan ​​in 'n tyd toe die RAF verwag het om Groot -Brittanje teen ongesorteerde vyandelike bomwerpers te verdedig. Die vooruitgang in die ontwerp van vliegtuie gedurende die twintiger- en dertigerjare het gelei tot 'n generasie bomotorige bomwerpers wat vinniger was as die tweemotorige vegvliegtuie wat toe in diens was. Die RAF het geglo dat sy eie toring-gewapende bomwerpers, soos die Vickers "Wellington", in staat sou wees om die vyandelike lugruim binne te dring en homself te verdedig sonder vegvliegtuie en dat die Duitse Luftwaffe dieselfde sou doen. 'N Toring-gewapende vegter sou vyand se bomwerpers uit 'n hoek kon inskakel wat die bomwerpers sou verslaan. Die "Defiant" was dus gewapen met 'n aangedrewe dorsale rewolwer, toegerus met vier Browning -masjiengewere van 0,303 duim. In teorie sou die "uitdagende" 'n vyandige bomwerper van onder of langs nader en dit vernietig met 'n gekonsentreerde uitbarsting van vuur.

Ontwerp om te voldoen aan die spesifikasies van die lugministerie F.9/35, wat 'n 'rewolwer' met 'n aangedrewe rewolwer as enigste bewapening gespesifiseer het. Boulton Paul, wat aansienlike ervaring gehad het met torings van hul vroeëre "Overstrand" bomwerper, het hul P.82 -projek ingedien. Hierdie ontwerp is gekies as die mees belowende van sewe aanvanklike voorstelle en een van slegs twee prototipes wat gemaak is. Die ander mededingende ontwerp was die Hotspur van Hawker Aircraft.

Die sentrale kenmerk van die P.82 was die rewolwer met vier kante, gebaseer op 'n ontwerp van die Franse lugvaartmaatskappy SAMM wat deur Boulton Paul gelisensieer was vir gebruik in die vroeëre Boulton Paul "Sidestrand" bomwerper, maar uiteindelik geïnstalleer in die "opvolg" "ontwerp, die Boulton Paul" Overstrand "en Blackburn" Roc "vlootvegter. Die rewolwer, die tipe A, was 'n elektro-hidroulies aangedrewe "drop-in" -eenheid met 'n kruk-aangedrewe meganiese rugsteun. Die romp was toegerus met aërodinamiese kuipe wat gehelp het om die weerstand van die rewolwer te verlig; hulle was pneumaties aangedryf en kon in die romp laat sak word sodat die rewolwer vrylik kon draai. Die Browning-gewere is elektries afgevuur, en geïsoleerde afsnypunte in die rewolwering het verhoed dat die gewere geaktiveer kon word wanneer hulle na die skroefskyf of stertvlak wys.

Die kanonnier het via 'n luik aan die agterkant van die rewolwer ingegaan en uitgegaan, alhoewel daar 'n kleiner uitgang in die onderste romp was wat meer gereeld gebruik is om ammunisie te laai. As gevolg van hierdie reëling kon die skutter nie vinnig die "Defiant" verlaat as die rewolwer gedraai is om na agter te wys nie. Daar was nie genoeg ruimte in die rewolwer vir die kanonnier om 'n valskerm te dra nie, wat eerder in die romp van die Defiant gestoor is. In 'n noodgeval kan die skutter die beheer oor die gewere aan die vlieënier oordra. In die praktyk is dit selde gedoen omdat die rewolwer se minimum hoogte vorentoe 19 ° was en die vlieënier nie 'n vuurvliegtuig gehad het nie.

Die eerste P.82 -prototipe (K8310) is in 1937 uitgerol sonder sy rewolwer, en lyk oppervlakkig soos die Hawker "Hurricane", hoewel dit minstens 680 kg swaarder was. 'N Skoon, eenvoudige en kompakte eenvliegtuigstruktuur is verkry met die hooflandingsstel wat in 'n breë hoofvliegtuiggedeelte terugtrek. Die vlieënier se kajuit en agterste rewolwer is in 'n vaartbelynde boonste rompgedeelte ingelê. Brandstof is in die middel van die vleuel gedra saam met 'n groot ventrale verkoeler wat die ooreenkoms met die Hawker -vegter voltooi het. Met 'n 1,030 pk (768 kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin wat ek geïnstalleer het, vlieg die nuutgenoemde 'Defiant' prototipe eers op 11 Augustus 1937, byna 'n jaar voor die 'Hotspur'. 'N Tweede prototipe, K8620, toegerus met 'n rewolwer, is aangepas met teleskopiese radiomaste, hersiening van die kap en veranderings aan die onderstel -kuipplate.

Na voltooiing van die aanvaardingstoetse met die toring geïnstalleer, bereik die "Defiant" 'n topsnelheid van 306 mph (486 km/h) en word daarna die oorwinnaar van die rewolwerkompetisie verklaar. Afgesien van detailveranderinge, lyk die produksie "Defiant" Mk I soortgelyk aan die twee "Defiant" prototipes. Die toegang tot die diens is egter in so 'n mate vertraag dat slegs drie vliegtuie die POF teen die begin van die oorlog bereik het. Die Mk I is aangedryf deur die Rolls Royce Merlin III (1.030 pk/768 kW of 1.160 pk/865 kW) met 'n totaal van 713 vliegtuie.

Die P.85 was 'n weergawe van die "Defiant" vir Fleet Air Arm (FAA) gebruik, maar die Blackburn "Roc" is gekies en die enigste FAA gebruik sou die doel sleepboot weergawe van die "Defiant" wees.

Die eerste "Defiant" prototipe was aanvanklik nie toegerus met 'n rewolwer nie en het dus 'n indrukwekkende topsnelheid gehad. Gevolglik het Boulton Paul in 1940 'n konvensionele, enkele sitplek, rewolwerlose weergawe van die "Defiant" genaamd P.94 ontwikkel, gewapen met 12 .303 in (7,7 mm) Browning-masjiengewere (ses per vleuel). Teen daardie tyd het die RAF voldoende hoeveelhede Hawker "Hurricanes" en Supermarine "Spitfires" gehad en was daar nie 'n nuwe vegter met een sitplek nodig nie. Met 'n topsnelheid van ongeveer 360 mph (579 km/h) was die P.94 byna net so vinnig soos 'n eietydse "Spitfire", hoewel dit minder manoeuvreerbaar was.

Operasionele geskiedenis 2

Boulton Paul "Defiant" Mk.I

In Desember 1939 was die 264 -eskader by RAF Manston die eerste wat toegerus was met die "Defiant" Mk I. Die eerste operasionele sorteer kom op 12 Mei 1940 tydens die ontruiming van die Britse ekspedisiemag uit Duinkerken. Die "Defiant" was aanvanklik suksesvol teen vyandelike vliegtuie. Sy hoogwatermerk was op 29 Mei 1940, toe nr. 264-eskader 65 doodgemaak het, meestal Junkers Ju.87 "Stukas" en Messerschmitt Bf.110 tweemotorige swaarvegters. Aanvanklik het Luftwaffe -vegters verliese gely toe hulle vlugte van "Defiants" van agter af weerkaats, wat hulle blykbaar as "orkaan" -vegters beskou het. Die Duitse vlieëniers was onbewus van die "Defiant" se agtervuurwapen en het gekonsentreerde verdedigingsvuur teëgekom. Met 'n verandering in die taktiek van Luftwaffe, kon opponerende vegters egter die "uitdagende" manoeuvreer en dit van onder of van voor af aanval, waar die rewolwer geen verdediging bied nie. 'Uitdagende' verliese het vinnig toegeneem, veral onder die kanonniers, wat dikwels nie in staat was om geteisterde vliegtuie te verlaat nie. Die ekstra gewig van die rewolwer en die tweede bemanningslid plus die aërodinamiese drag, het die "Defiant" laer prestasie gelewer as konvensionele vegvliegtuie. Op 13 Mei is 'n vlug van ses "Defiants" aangeval deur Bf.109Es vyf van die "Defiants" is neergeskiet van 'n frontale aanval.

Volgens die boek The Turret Fighters van die lugvaarthistorikus Alec Brew het 264 Squadron effektiewe teenmaatreëls teen vliegtuie met een sitplek, soos die Bf.109, ontwikkel. Deur in 'n steeds dalende Lufberry-sirkel te vlieg, het "Defiant" -spanne die voordeel van hoogte opgeoffer, maar die moontlikheid van aanval van onder uitgeskakel, terwyl hulle 360 ​​& deg defensief vuur gegee het. Hierdie taktiek is suksesvol deur 264 eskader gebruik, maar toe die "Defiants" van 141 eskader 'n paar maande later tydens die Slag van Brittanje probeer bestry het, kies 141 eskader om hul advies te ignoreer, met verwoestende gevolge. Op 19 Julie 1940 is ses uit nege "Defiants" van 141 eskader neergeskiet en die oorblywende drie het slegs oorleef weens die ingryping van "Hurricanes" van 111 Eskader. Alhoewel 264 eskader in agt dae 'n verstommende 48 moord op Dunkirk geëis het (onlangse navorsing dui daarop dat nie meer as 12 tot 15 vyandelike vliegtuie eintlik vernietig is nie, het die rewolwer se groot vuurhoek beteken dat verskeie "Defiants" op dieselfde tyd dieselfde teiken kon bereik), die koste was hoog en 14 "Defiants" verloor.

264 Eskader het op 26 Augustus twee vliegtuie verloor, daarna nog vyf op 28 Augustus met die dood van nege bemanningslede. Met hierdie heersende verliese, is die "uitdagende" vinnig oorgedra van dagligbedrywighede na naggevegte, en as 'n nagvegter het die 'uitdagende' sukses behaal. 'Uittartende' nagvegters val tipies vyandelike bomwerpers van onder af aan, in 'n soortgelyke maneuver as die later suksesvolle Duitse Schr & aumlge Musik -metodes. Verweerders val meer gereeld van effens voor of na een kant toe, eerder as direk onder die stert. Gedurende die winter Blitz op Londen van 1940-41 het die "Defiant" vier eskaders toegerus en meer vyandelike vliegtuie neergeskiet as enige ander tipe. Die konsep van die rewolwer is nie onmiddellik weggegooi nie en die aanpassing van torings in Defiant-styl by die "Beaufighter" en "Mosquito" nagvegters is beproef om hierdie vliegtuie in staat te stel om hierdie metodes te dupliseer, maar die effek op prestasie was drasties, en die idee was verlate. Die "Defiant" Mk.II -model was toegerus met die AI Mk IV -lugradar en 'n Merlin XX -enjin. 'N Totaal van 207 Mk II Defiants is gebou.

Na proewe in 1940 met die School of Army Co-operation om die vermoëns in die rol te beoordeel, is die "Defiant" herwaardeer as 'n hoëspoed-afrigter, met die Ministerie van Lug wat ingestem het om die produksielyne oop te hou. Die "Defiant" is in 1942 uit gevegspligte verwyder en daarna gebruik vir opleiding, sleep sleep, ECM en lugredding. Die "Defiant" is gebruik om die Mandrel -geraasstoor te dra om die Duitse "Freya" vroeë waarskuwingsradar te bestry. In die lug-seereddingsrol was die "Defiant" toegerus met 'n paar peule onder die vleuel wat rubberbote bevat. 'N Verdere 140 "Defiant" Mk III -vliegtuie is gebou. Hierdie model het nie die rugtoring nie en is gebruik as 'n teiken sleepboot. Baie van die oorlewende Mk I en Mk II Defiants het ook hul torings laat verwyder.

In hierdie finale sleep -variant, het die 'Defiant' 'n aantal oorsese opdragte by die RAF en Fleet Air Arm in die Midde -Ooste, Afrika en Indië beland. Verdere ontplooiings het na Kanada plaasgevind, waar die "Defiant" 'n rol vervul het as 'n teikensleepboot en as afrigter van die British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.

Verweerders is ook gebruik vir 'spesiale' werk, insluitend taktiese evaluerings met die RAF Gunnery Research Unit en Air Fighter Development Unit (AFDU) in Farnborough. Op 11 Mei 1945 gebruik Martin-Baker 'n "Defiant" (DR944) om hul eerste uitwerpstoel te toets met dummy-lanserings.

Die laaste operasionele gebruik van "Defiants" was in Indië, waar dit as skutbote gebruik is.

Variante 2

  • "Defiant" Mk I: Twee-sitplek rewolwer vegter vir die RAF, aangedryf deur 'n 1.030 pk (768 kW) [2] Rolls-Royce Merlin III suier enjin 723 gebou.
  • "Defiant" NF Mk I: "Defiant" Mk I het in nagvegters verander
  • "Defiant" NF Mk IA: NF Mk I met Airborne Interception radar.
  • "Uitdagende" ASR Mk I: Mk I wat lugbesendings dra vir lugredding.
  • "Defiant" TT Mk I: "Defiant" Mk II's omgeskakel na teiken sleepbote 150 omskakelings.
  • "Defiant" Mk II: Twee-sitplek nagvegter vir die RAF, aangedryf deur 'n 1.280 pk (954 kW) Roll-Royce Merlin XX-suiermotor, en toegerus met die AI Mk IV-lugradar 210 wat gebou is.
  • "Defiant" TT Mk III: Toegewyde toringlose sleepboot 140 wat nie 'n rewolwer is nie, gebou van nuut.

Operateurs 2

Lys van Boulton Paul "Defiant" operateurs:

  • Australië
  • Brits -Indië:
  • Kanada
  • Pole
  • Verenigde Koninkryk
  • VSA

Oorlewendes 2

Die volledige voorbeeld van hierdie tipe is 'n "Defiant" I (N1671), wat as nagvegter in die Royal Air Force Museum in Hendon, Londen, vertoon word (sien foto hierbo). Dit is op 17 September 1940 saam met drie ander Defiants by die Poolse Night Fighter Squadron by RAF Kirton in Lindsey, Lincolnshire, Engeland, afgelewer. Groot dele van ten minste twee ander Defiants oorleef N1766 en N3378, albei is Mk.I "Defiants."

Spesifikasies en mdash "Defiant" Mk.I 2

Algemene kenmerke

  • Bemanning: 2: vlieënier, skutter
  • Lengte: 10,77 m
  • Spanwydte: 2 (23 m 2)
  • Leeg gewig: 6758 lb (2,755 kg)
  • Laai gewig: 3.773 kg
  • Kragkrag: 1 x Rolls-Royce Merlin III vloeistofgekoelde V-12-enjin van 1 keer, 1.030 pk (768 kW)

Optrede

  • Maksimum spoed: 304 mph (264 kn, 489 km/h)
  • Bereik: 404 nm, 748 km
  • Diensplafon: 30 350 voet (9 250 m)
  • Stygtempo: 1,900 voet/min (9,65 m/s)
  • Krag/massa: 0.124 pk/lb (204 W/kg)
  1. Foto's, John Shupek, Kopiereg en kopieer 2009 Skytamer Images. Alle regte voorbehou
  2. Wikipedia (Geskiedenis, spesifikasies en tekening met drie aansigte :). Boulton Paul Defiant, 10 Desember 2009

Kopiereg en kopie 1998-2020 (ons 22ste jaar) Skytamer Images, Whittier, Kalifornië
ALLE REGTE VOORBEHOU


The Deadly Defiant, 'n spelveranderende Britse oorlogsvliegtuig in WW2

Die dertigerjare was 'n era van lugvaartkundige eksperimentering. Regoor die wêreld probeer lugmag nuwe en fassinerende ontwerpe, op soek na die perfekte kombinasie van dodelike krag, gemak van gebruik en bekostigbaarheid. Gedurende hierdie tydperk is die Supermarine Spitfire, Messerschmitt BF-109 en Mitsubishi A6M- Zero almal ontwikkel. Maar by Boulton Paul Aircraft is 'n effens ander vegstyl getoets.

Die Boulton Paul Defiant is die eerste keer in 1937 gevlieg en verteenwoordig 'n interessante blik op die enkelmotorvegter. Die Defiant het twee sitplekke, 'n vlieënier en 'n agterskut. Daar word geglo dat bomwerperformasies Engeland sonder begeleiding sou kon aanval, dus sou 'n normale voorwaartse vuurvliegtuig nie nodig wees nie. Botsende spanne sou die bomwerpers vanuit hoeke buite die bereik van hul verdedigingsgewere kon aanval en hul onbeskermde bodem of sye raak.

Agterna lyk hierdie benadering duidelik gebrekkig, maar dit was destyds nog nie so vergesog nie. Die Britte het geweet dat daar weer 'n groot oorlog kan kom, en dat grootskaalse bombardemente waarskynlik is. Die RAF het uitgebreide toetse met hul bomwerpers gedoen, en dit was duidelik dat 'n goed georganiseerde en stywe bomwerperformasie homself kon verdedig teen 'n konvensionele vegaanval. Die Defiant is ontwerp om hierdie voordeel te verwyder.

Die meeste bomwerpers van die tydperk het nie afwaartse torings gehad nie, en daar is gedink dat 'n vegter met 'n aangedrewe rewolwer onder die vyand se formasie kan kom en kan brand. Die Defiant was ook nie die enigste vliegtuig wat hierdie benadering gevolg het nie; tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het die Bristol F.2 'n mate van sukses behaal, en in die 1930's het die Hawker Demon -tweedekker getoon dat die konsep werk, ten minste in toetse.

A6M Zeros, een van die tydgenote van Defiant ’'s wat gedurende die 1930's ontwikkel is.

Op 1 September 1939 val Duitsland Pole binne en begin die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Europa. Die Britse ekspedisiemag het oor die kanaal gejaag om Frankryk te verdedig teen die verwagte Duitse inval. Die eerste operasionele Defiants, van die 264 -eskader, RAF, het hulle ondersteun.

Nr. 264 is in Oktober 1939 gestig, en hulle het onmiddellik die Defiant gekry. Die eskader, wat bestaan ​​uit vegvlieëniers, moes nuwe taktieke ontwikkel vir die gebruik van hierdie redelik unieke vliegtuigraamwerk. Hulle het die volgende paar maande die riglyne getoets, hertoets en afgehandel oor hoe om die vliegtuig in gevegte te gebruik. Hulle het twee hoofstrategieë ontwikkel.

Die aangedrewe bultoring van die Defiant. Dit bevat vier 303 Caliber Browning -masjiengewere. Dit het die vliegtuie toegelaat om in byna elke rigting te skiet, behalwe vorentoe en af. Toringoperateurs sou hul vuur met die Pilot koördineer, wat die vliegtuig in die optimale vuurposisie sou plaas.

Vir aanvallende bomwerpers, slaan hulle as hulle die kwesbaarste is en trek uit 'n bomaanval. Hulle sal minder georganiseerd wees, hetsy in 'n draai of 'n klim, en fokus daarop om lewendig uit die gebied te kom eerder as om 'n stywe verdedigingsformasie te behou.

Vir vegters het die eskader die sogenaamde Lufberry Circle gebruik. In wese sou die vlug van Defiants almal die een na die ander bank en draai, wat 'n massiewe sirkel vliegtuie sou veroorsaak. Dit het hulle in staat gestel om hul torings te gebruik om mekaar te verdedig, met 'n vuurboog van 360 grade teen alles wat kan nader. Hulle sou ook stadig in hierdie formasie daal, wat die Duitsers verhinder het om van onder na hulle te kom.

'N Vlug van Defiants van die eskader nr. 264. Hierdie eskader was die suksesvolste in die gebruik van die vliegtuig, nadat hy maande lank taktieke ontwikkel het wat spesifiek aangepas was vir sy unieke vermoëns. Ongelukkig is hierdie ontwikkelings deur die RAF in die geheel geïgnoreer, en ander eskaders het ernstige ongevalle gely.

No 264 het aanvanklike sukses behaal, hul eerste geveg het op 12 Mei 1940 plaasgevind toe hulle 'n Ju-88 oor Holland neergeskiet het. Die volgende 17 dae het die eskader offensief opgetree en met die stryd teen die opkomende Duitse bomwerper- en vegterformasies opgetree. Die eskader het toe die suksesvolste dag van die oorlog beleef.

Op 29 Mei 1940 ondersteun Defiants van No 264 Squadron die Britse terugtog uit Duinkerken. Met die taktiek wat hulle die afgelope paar maande ontwikkel het, kon hulle 37 oorwinnings behaal, met die verlies van slegs 'n enkele rewolwer. Hulle het 19 Ju-87-duikbomwerpers neergeskiet, 9 tweemotorjagters van Bf-110's, 8 Bf-109-vegters en 1 Ju-88 medium-bomwerper. Hierdie aanspraak op hoë oorwinning is egter bevraagteken, aangesien daar dikwels verskeie eise op dieselfde vliegtuig was.

Grondpersoneel van nr. 264 ondersoek die skade aan 'n hysbak van Defiant. Hierdie vliegtuig het pas teruggekeer van die ongelooflik suksesvolle uitstappies van 29 Mei 1940. Toe 264 eskader 37 Duitse vliegtuie neerval, sonder 'n enkele verlies.

Die uitdagende vlieëniers het ook ontdek hoe nuttig hul vliegtuig as aas vir Duitse vegters kan wees. Van bo lyk die Defiant -romp soos dié van die Hawker Hurricane, 'n Britse vegter. Duitse formasies sou die Britse vegters 'weerkaats' en van agter af neerswaai om die onverdedigde orkane te tref. Maar dit was dodelik toe hulle Defiants as hul neefs met neerbuigings verwar het. Duitse vegters sou duik, net om 'n gekoördineerde en verwoestende vuurwapen uit verskeie rigtings te sien. Duitse vlieëniers het vinnig die verskille tussen Defiants en Hurricanes geleer en hul taktiek verander en Defiants van voor af aangeval.

Hawker Sea Hurricanes van die Fleet Air Arm, gebaseer op RNAS Yeovilton, vlieg in formasie, 9 Desember 1941

Danksy die sukses van nr. 264 eskaders, is nog 'n uitdagende eskader gelanseer, nr. 141. Maar die beamptes van nr. 141 het geweier om te luister na diegene van nommer 264 wat probeer het om hulle die nuwe en onkonvensionele gevegstaktieke te leer wat hulle vir hul getroostes ontwikkel het. . In plaas daarvan vlieg die vlieëniers van nommer 141 in 'n bestendige, stywe formasie en vertrou slegs op die torings vir verdediging, eerder as om te maneuver. This proved disastrous, and casualties were very high.

A Bf-109 E in 1940. These were developed before the Defiant, and were their main foes. As the range of German fighters increased, Defiants became increasingly vulnerable while attacking German bombers.

By the end of Summer, 1940, it had become clear that the Defiant wasn’t truly meant to be a daytime frontline fighter. While it was effective against enemy bombers, the Germans were increasingly using fighter escorts, which negated the Defiant’s advantages. The RAF decided that the Defiant would be better used as a night fighter. It was in this role that these planes truly came into their own.

Painted pitch black, and fitted with coverings for their exhaust, these night fighters proved deadly against the German bomber raids during the London blitz of 1940-1941. Initially, the fighters weren’t equipped with radar, relying on ground based stations, and expert navigation to find their targets. But with the addition of plane mounted radar, the Defiant became a deadly foe. They followed the initial theory behind the craft: fly below an enemy formation, and fire upwards, aiming at the undefended belly of a German bomber. Using these tactics, Defiants proved the most successful night fighter of the Blitz, with more victories than any other type.

A night fighting Defiant, painted in all black. In this role the Defiant truly proved its worth, claiming more German kills than any other British night fighter during the London Blitz.

But by 1942 the German bombers had gotten too fast for the often cumbersome and slow Defiants. Their night fighting role was replaced with larger two engined fighters, but the tactics No. 264 had developed remained in use, and their turrets were often fitted onto other craft. The Defiant then found its new role: an auxiliary craft.

They were used for radar jamming for much of the war, carrying the British “Mandrel” system. This allowed a flight of eight Defiants to appear to be around 100 strong on the German radar, which would attract enemy fighters. These would then be pounced on by British fighters from up above. This tactic proved effective, and helped to achieve the air superiority which was necessary for the eventual invasion at Normandy. Defiants were also used as target tugs, search and rescue planes, and one was even used as the testbed for a revolutionary new idea: an ejection seat. These planes continued service throughout the war, not being retired from the RAF until the end of 1945.

A Defiant being used as a target tug. That extra propeller was a wind powered generator for an electric winch, pulling in the glider target behind it.

The Boulton Paul Defiant is an excellent example of the experimental aircraft developments in the 1930s. No one knew what the next war would look like, and nearly everything was tested. While their operational success was limited, that was due in large part to the RAF not using the Defiants properly. They’ve gone down in history as a very niche design, but a concept which was proven to be effective, if used correctly.


Boulton Paul Defiant I - front plan - History

Boulton Paul P.82 Defiant

Often maligned as a failure, the Boulton Paul Defiant found a successful niche as a night-fighter during the German 'Blitz' on London, scoring a significant number of combat kills before being relegated to training and support roles.

The Boulton Paul company first became interested in powered gun turrets when it pioneered the use of a pneumatic-powered enclosed nose turret in the Boulton Paul Overstand biplane bomber. The company subsequently brought the rights to a French-designed electro-hydraulic powered turret and soon became the UK leaders in turret design.

On 26 June 1935, the Air Ministry issued Specification F.9/35 calling for a two-seat fighter with all its armament concentrated in a turret. Performance was to be similar to that of the single-seat monoplane fighters then being developed. It was envisioned that the new fighter would be employed as destroyer of unescorted enemy bomber formations. Protected from the slipstream, the turret gunner would be able to bring much greater firepower to bear on rapidly moving targets than was previously possible.

Boulton Paul tendered the P.82 design, featuring an 4-gun turret developed from the French design, and was rewarded with an order for two prototypes. On 28 April 1937, the name Defiant was allocated to the project and an initial production order for 87 aircraft was placed before the prototype had even flown.

The first prototype (K8310) made its maiden flight on 11 August 1937, with the turret position faired over as the first turret wasn't ready for installation. Without the drag of the turret, the aircraft was found to handle extremely well in the air. With these promising results, a further production contract was awarded in February 1938. Performance with the turret fitted was somewhat disappointing, but still considered worthwhile. In May 1938, the second prototype (K8620)was ready for testing. This aircraft was much closer to the final production standard. Development and testing of the aircraft and turret combination proved somewhat protracted, and delivery to the Royal Air Force was delayed until December 1939, when No.264 Squadron received its first aircraft. Numerous engine and hydraulic problems were not finally resolved until early in 1940.

The A. Mk IID turret used on the Defiant was a self-contained 'drop-in' unit with its own hydraulic pump. To reduce drag two aerodynamic fairings, one fore and one aft of the turret, were included in the design. Rectraction of these fairings by means of pneumatic jacks allowed the turret to traverse. Too allow the turret a clear field of fire, two rather large radio masts were located on the underside of the fuselage. These masts retracted when the undercarriage was extended. The overall aircraft was of modern stressed skin construction, designed in easy-to-build sub-assemblies which greatly facilitated the rapid build-up in production rates.

Previously, a single-seat fighter unit, 264 Sqn spent some time working out the new tactics required by the type. Good co-ordination was required between the pilot and gunner in order to get into the best position to open fire on a target. A second day fighter unit, 141 Sqn, began converting to the Defiant in April 1940. The Defiant undertook it first operational sortie on 12 May 1940, when 264 Sqn flew a patrol over the beaches of Dunkirk. A Junkers Ju 88 was claimed by the squadron. However, the unit suffered its first losses the following day, when five out of six aircraft were shot down by Bf 109s in large dogfight. The Defiant was never designed to dogfight with single-seat fighters and losses soon mounted. By the end of May 1940, it had become very clear that the Defiant was no match for the Bf 109 and the two squadrons were moved to airfields away from the south coast of England. At the same time, interception of unescorted German bombers often proved successful, with several kills being made.

In the summer of 1940, flight testing commenced of an improved version of the Defiant fitted with a Merlin XX engine featuring a two-speed supercharger (prototype N1550). The resultant changes included a longer engine cowling, deeper radiator and increased fuel capacity. Performance increases were small. Nevertheless, the new version was ordered into production as the Defiant Mk II.

The limitations on the Defiant's manoeuvrability forced its eventual withdrawal from daylight operations in late August 1940. 264 and 141 squadrons became dedicated night-fighter units. The Defiant night fighters were painted all-black and fitted with flame damper exhausts. Success came quickly, with the first night kill being claimed on 15 September 1940. From November 1940, an increasing number of new night fighter squadrons were formed on the Defiant. Units operating the Defiant shot down more enemy aircraft than any other night-fighter during the German 'Blitz' on London in the winter of 1940-41. Initial operations were conducted without the benefit of radar. From the Autumn of 1941, AI Mk 4 radar units began to be fitted to the Defiant. An arrow type aerial was fitted on each wing, and a small H-shaped aerial added on the starboard fuselage side, just in front of the cockpit. The transmitter unit was located behind the turret, with the receiver and display screen in the pilot's cockpit. The addition of radar brought a change in designation for the Mk I to N.F. Mk IA, but the designation of the Mk II version did not change. By February 1942, the Defiant was obviously too slow to catch the latest German night intruders and the night fighter units completely re-equipped in the period April-September 1942.

From March 1942 many of the remaining aircraft were transferred to Air-Sea Rescue (ASR) units. The aircraft was modified to carry a M-type dinghy in a cylindrical container under each wing. Both Mk I and Mk II versions were used for this task, but the Defiant proved less useful than originally anticipated, and all examples were replaced in this role during the first half of 1943.

A specialised Target-tug version of the Defiant was first ordered in July 1941, designated the T.T. Mk I. The new version was based on the Mk II airframe, with the Merlin XX engine, but with space formerly occupied by the turret now taken up with an observers station with a small canopy. A fairing under the rear fuselage housed the target banner, and a large windmill was fitted on the starboard fuselage side to power the winch. The first prototype Target-tug aircraft (DR863) was delivered on 31 January 1942. 150 Mk II aircraft were also converted to Target-tugs, under the designation T.T. Mk I. A similar conversion of the Mk I was carried out by Reid & Sigrist from early 1942 under the designated T.T. Mk III. Nearly all the Target-tugs were withdrawn from service during 1945, although one example lasted until 27 February 1947.


Boulton Paul Defiant TT.Mk I of an RAF fighter Operational Training Unit based in the Middle East 1945. The Black and Yellow
scheme was adopted for high conspicuity as a Target Tug

Another, less publicised, task of the Defiant was in the radar jamming role. 515 Squadron operated at least nine Defiants fitted with 'Moonshine' or 'Mandrel' radar jamming equipment in support of USAAF 8th Air Force daylight bombing raids on Germany between May 1942 and July 1943, before replacing them with larger aircraft types.
One Defiant T.T. Mk I (DR944) was seconded to Martin Baker on 11 December 1944. It was fitted with the first ever Martin Baker ejection seat in the observers station, and commenced dummy ejection trials on 11 May 1945. Another Defiant (AA292) was later used for similar trials by the Air Ministry until March 1947. Martin Baker retained their Defiant until 31 May 1948.

The lack of forward firing armament presented a great handicap to a fighter which lacked the manoeuvrability to match single-seat fighters in combat, but as an interim night-fighter the Defiant met with a great deal of success.

Specifications (Boulton Paul Defiant Mk II)

Tipe: Two Seat Night Fighter

Ontwerp: Boulton Paul Design Team

Vervaardiger: Bolton Paul Aircraft, Wolverhampton.

Kragsentrale: (Mk II) One 1,280 hp (954 kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin XX inline piston engine. (Mk I) One 1,030 hp (768 kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin III Vee 12-cylinder piston engine.

Optrede: Maximum speed 313 mph (504 km/h) at 19,000 ft (5790 m) cruising speed 260 mph (418 km/h) service ceiling 30,350 ft (9250 m) initial climb rate 1,900 ft (579 m) per minute.

Reeks: 465 miles (748 km) on internal fuel.

Gewig: (Mk II) Empty 6,282 lbs (2849 kg) with a maximum take-off weight of 8,424 lbs (3821 kg). (Mk I) Empty 6,078 lbs (2757 kg) with a maximum take-off weight of 8,350 lbs (3787 kg).

Afmetings: Span 39 ft 4 in (11.99 m) length 35 ft 4 in (10.77 m) height 11 ft 4 in (3.45 m) wing area 250.0 sq ft (23.23 sq m).
Armament: Four 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Browning machine-guns in a hydraulically operated dorsal turret with 600 rounds per gun.

Variante: Boulton Paul P.82 Defiant (prototype), Defiant F.Mk I, Defiant NF.Mk IA, Defiant Mk II, Defiant TT.MK I, Defiant TT.MK III.

Avionics: AI Mk IV or Mk VI radar, Mandrel jamming system.

Geskiedenis: First flight (prototype) 11 August 1937 (production Mk 1) 30 July 1939 first delivery December 1939.


Back to the Drawing Board: The Defiant

Ask most people to name an RAF fighter from the Battle of Britain and they will answer ‘Spitfire’ or ‘Hurricane’. However, during the summer of 1940, two squadrons of Boulton Paul Defiants operated alongside them, achieving considerable success against German bombers. So why has the ‘Daffy’ – as it was known by many airmen – been forgotten?

Although 1,000 Defiants were built, they were outnumbered by the 14,000 Hurricanes and 20,000 Spitfires, and from autumn 1940 they switched to night-fighting, effectively ‘disappearing’ from public view. Strictly speaking, the Defiant was not a fighter but an interceptor for destroying bombers. Designed by John Dudley North in 1937, it looked rather like the Hurricane, and used the same Rolls-Royce Merlin engine. Unlike the Hurricane, which had four 20mm cannon fixed in the wings, the Defiant had a turret behind the cockpit from which a gunner fired four .303 Browning machine-guns.

So while the pilot concentrated on flying the aeroplane beneath the undefended ‘belly’ of a bomber, the gunner could focus his attention on using his wide arc of fire to destroy it. This was a theory that proved very effective. On 29 May 1940, 264 Squadron claimed 37 kills in two sorties – 19 Stuka dive-bombers, nine Me 110 heavy fighters, eight Me 109 fighter, and a Ju 88 bomber.

Unfortunately, this success was short-lived, due to an Achilles heel Luftwaffe pilots were quick to exploit. Although the Daffy’s gunner could fire at targets above and behind, the aircraft was completely defenceless against frontal attack. Furthermore, the addition of a turret and extra crewman made the Defiant 25% heavier than the single-seater Hurricane, and nearly 100mph slower than the German Me 109 fighter.

In July 1940, nine Defiants from 141 Squadron were intercepted by Me 109s, and six were shot down before Hurricanes intervened to rescue the survivors. The more-experienced crews of 264 Squadron used the Luftbery technique to repel German fighters, forming a circle and descending, so that the enemy pilots could not fly in front or underneath them.

However, this was a complex manoeuvre that required coordination and communication, made tricky by the obsolete and unreliable HF radio transmitters fitted to the Defiant, which could not communicate with VHF-equipped Hurricane and Spitfire units. During 26-28 August, 264 Squadron lost eight aircraft and, although they inflicted similar casualties on the Luftwaffe, such losses were unsustainable. Daytime operations were cancelled.

As a night-fighter fitted with AI MkIV Airborne Interception radar, the Defiant could attack unescorted German bombers unmolested. However, its flying time was limited – less than two hours – and by 1942 the Defiant was replaced by the Bristol Beaufighter and de Haviland Mosquito, both of which were faster and had a much longer range.

From then on, the Defiant was used for gunnery training and special operations, such as jamming German advanced warning systems and air-sea rescue, further receding from the public eye. A fighter that struggled to defend itself, the Defiant ‘proved to be too expensive in use against fighters’ according to Air Chief Marshal Hugh Dowding, head of Fighter Command. You can see the only complete survivor on public display at the RAF Museum Hendon.

This article originally appeared in issue 44 of Militêre Geskiedenis Maandeliks.

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Boulton Paul Defiant

Twelve 141Sqn Defiants were moved from West Malling, still under construction, to Hawkinge. They were unused to flying in larger numbers than Section or Flight formations. At 12.23 they were ordered to launch as a Squadron (12 aircraft) but three had engine problems so only nine got off to patrol a line 20nm S of Folkestone.

With no warning from GCI they were bounced from below and behind by ten Bf-109s from II/JG. Richthofen Geschwader . A few seconds later another set of 109s hit the breaking formation from 12 high. Four Defiants went down in this pair of attacks, one pilot survived, wounded. Another Defiant was hit and crashed in Dover. Of the four left one crashed in Hawkinge village and of the three that landed, one was struck off charge immediately, being so shot up, this aircraft s gunner had baled out at some point but was never seen again.


Above notes culled from Francis Mason s Battle Over Britain

That speed is the same as that quoted for the Hurricane Mk 1 equipped with armour plating and carrying full fuel and weapon load.

One must also remember that Gloster was committed in respect of Gauntlets and Gladiators in the UK and Middle East and for Sea Gladiators for the FAA. It was, in fact, a Gauntlet of No 32 Sqn which carried out the first ever intercept controlled by ground radar in November 1937.

This design has been traduced because of misuse of the word "fighter". RAF/1930s bought no "fighter" because UK was to rely on the Maginot Line: Luftwaffe Army-support types - He.111/Do.17, transport-derived -would trundle beyond escort range towards Expeditionary RAF bases, to be taken out from below/astern after visual intercept. No GCI, no nightwork, on either side. Payload/endurance was sought: no single-engined type burdened by turret+its gunner could take on a nimble dasher: but Defiant would not meet one, short-range, immured beyond the Rhine.

Hurricane, Spitfire, Whirlwind, Bf.109, Bf.110 (Zerstorer) were similarly intended to be bomber-destroyers. Defence Policy has failed if our lot are within range of no-endurance, point-defence sprinters. RAF's 1936 name-change, Air Defence of G.B aan Fighter Command was a budget-jerking wheeze: politicos wanted to concentrate spend on bombers.

cazatou's points re Gloster/Hawker: Air Ministry "owned" Design Rights in everything we paid for design parents had no right to production. A.M left Defiant in BPA (and put Blackburn Roc there too, as BPA supplied the French-origin turret). BPA also built Hawker Demon and Fairey Barracuda Gloster built 2,750 Hurricanes.

A book I have gives some detail on 96 Squadron formed in early 1941 and based in Cheshire defending Liverpool & the Northwest. At its peak they had 21 Defiants on charge.

During their tour there they had five confirmed Defiant kills (3 x He111 and 2 x Ju88) before the transfer of the Luftwaffe eastwards reduced their opportunities of combat.

As counter-balance about the same number of Defiants were lost in accidents.

In defence of the ‘feeble’ Defiant

It was described as a “peculiar” aircraft by its own crews and derided by German aces as a feeble kill compared with a Hurricane, let alone a Spitfire. Now an author has claimed that the Boulton Paul Defiant was more deadly than its reputation suggests, and that the Battle of Britaincould have been an even greater victory if the aircraft had been given a fair chance.

The Defiant is remembered, if at all, as a design failure. Resembling the Hawker Hurricane with the addition of a gun turret behind the cockpit, it was intended to approach underneath or alongside bombers, where the gunner could devote his full attention to raking them with rounds from four .303in Browning machineguns. The design was conceived in the mid-1930s when Air Ministry officials anticipated having to defend Britain against large unescorted formations of enemy bombers. To ensure that pilots focused on getting their gunner into the best position, and for reasons of weight, it had no fixed forward-facing guns.

Its early champions included Winston Churchill, who predicted in 1938 that the turret fighter design would be “paramount” in any conflict. However, after heavy losses in the Battle of Britain, it has often been viewed as an unmitigated death trap.

In Defiant: The Untold Story of the Battle of Britain, Robert Verkaik argues that standard accounts have underplayed the heroism and successes of the aircraft’s two-man crews and disregarded leadership decisions influencing its later underperformance. He said perhaps the greatest omission was the “awkward” fact that a Defiant squadron still holds the record for shooting down the most enemy aircraft in one day.

This was on May 29, 1940, when the Luftwaffe mounted five large attacks on ships evacuating soldiers from the beaches of Dunkirk. The German planes were met by two successive RAF patrols of four fighter squadrons, including 264 Squadron, a Defiant squadron commanded by Philip Hunter. On each patrol the Defiants and one squadron of Hurricanes or Spitfires, were tasked with downing the enemy bombers while other Hurricanes flew above to take on fighters.

Nevertheless, during the first sortie six Messerschmitt Me 109 fighters broke away from the Hurricanes that had engaged them and swept on to the Defiants’ tails from out of the sun. Rather than picking off the slower aircraft, the Germans found themselves hurtling into a hail of lead and tracer. The Defiants’ gunners continued to hammer away as the Me 109s were followed by 22 Messerschmitt Me 110 heavy fighters. By the end of the sortie, 264 Squadron had claimed two Me 109s, 15 Me 110s and a Junkers Ju 87 “Stuka” dive bomber, without losing a single aircraft.

And they weren’t done. In the second patrol that afternoon they caught a force of Stukas and Junkers Ju 88s bombing ships. While Hurricanes tackled German fighters above, the Defiants found that the Stukas were “easy meat”, Eric Barwell, a pilot, recalled.

In total that day the squadron claimed 38 enemy aircraft were destroyed. This remains a record, and, although it was likely to be an overestimate, Verkaik said it gave Britons a sorely needed morale boost. Flight Lieutenant Nicholas Cooke and his gunner Acting Corporal Albert Lippett had five kills, making them the first RAF “aces in one day” of the Second World War.

Two days later, the Defiants were involved in the RAF’s heaviest fighting of the Dunkirk campaign, claiming four Me 109s and five Heinkel He 111s. It came at a heavy price of five Defiants lost and five airmen dead, including Cooke and Lippett.

Verkaik writes: “There is little doubt that the two patrols involving the Defiants, which met the full force of the Luftwaffe attacks, blunted the enemy’s strikes against the Royal Navy ships which had been targeted by more than 300 enemy aircraft. That day the navy lost just two ships [minesweepers] while evacuating nearly 68,000 men from the Dunkirk beaches — the greatest number in a single day during Operation Dynamo.”

From May 12 to 31, when 264 Squadron served on the front line in the lead up to and during the Dunkirk evacuation, its Defiants shot down 65 enemy aircraft, more than any other RAF squadron.

This pre-eminence was not to last, however. On July 19, early in the Battle of Britain, Defiants of 141 Squadron at Hawkinge in Kent were scrambled to intercept German raiders. The aircraft, none of whose pilots had combat experience, were sent without fighter cover. As Verkaik recounts, they were “caught napping” by two Staffels of Me 109s, which swooped from above and behind to pick off six out of nine aircraft as airmen watched horrified from the ground.

Philip Hunter, whose 264 Squadron had performed so well at Dunkirk, was killed the next month when his squadron was sent to Manston airfield in Kent as part of the first line of defence.

Some people have argued that if the commanders Hugh Dowding and Keith Park had not resisted the Air Ministry’s ambition of equipping one third of Fighter Command with Defiant squadrons the RAF would have lost the Battle of Britain.

On the contrary, Verkaik believes that with proper fighter protection, the Defiant would have acquitted itself well and the Luftwaffe might have lost more bombers more quickly than it did. Instead he said it was “miscast” as an independent fighter, rather than a bomber destroyer operating in tandem with Hurricanes and Spitfires. He disagrees with claims that its early successes were only down to hapless German pilots mistaking it for the Hurricane and running into its guns.

Even during the Battle of Britain, the performance of the relatively small number of Defiants took a toll on the Luftwaffe. In the ten days to August 28, 264 Squadron claimed 19 kills, albeit with a loss of 11 aircraft and 13 air crew.

After the battle, the Defiant served as the most successful RAF night fighter during the Blitz before it was retired from frontline combat service after 1942.


Flight Sergeant Pelletier and Sergeant Frank Haines – Unsung heroes

Unsung heroes

You won’t find their names in history books.

On some Websites maybe…

How all this research started is something to be told. Negatives that we never printed sitting in a box for 75 years. I don’t have all the details for now, but I believe this story has to be shared on My Forgotten Hobby.

I never thought I would buy another model kit. The temptation was too great when Flight Gerard Pelletier’s niece shared more than 200 images from negatives she scanned last year.

I just could not resist trying to find who were on these pictures and where they were taken.

I believe I have a good idea starting by who was this pilot seen so many times in the collection of Flight Sergeant Gerard Pelletier.

Flight Sergeant Gerard Pelletier

Flight Sergeant Gerard Pelletier is missing since September 3, 1942. He survived on March 26, 1942 when Sergeant Frank Haines told him to bail out of the plane.


Kyk die video: The RAF At War The Unseen Films 1940 5of5 The Boulton Paul Turret