Hierdie dag in die geskiedenis: 26/10/1881 - Skietgeveg by die OK Corral

Hierdie dag in die geskiedenis: 26/10/1881 - Skietgeveg by die OK Corral



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In hierdie videogreep "This Day in History" leer u oor verskillende gebeure wat op 26 Oktober plaasgevind het. Sommige van die gebeure sluit in die laaste geval van klein pokkies en die eerste bobbejaan by 'n menslike hartoorplanting. Die Patriot Act is ook aangeneem en die Earps het hul kragmeting by die OK Corral gehad.


Die deurmekaar waarheid van die geweergeveg by die O.K. Corral

Dit is 'n shoot-out wat die glans en gore verteenwoordig wat die Wilde Weste gedefinieer het, of, ten minste, ons moderne begrip daarvan. 'N Bonkige bemanning van onkonvensionele regsgeleerdes-die Earp-broers en Doc Holliday-verset teen die sogenaamde Cochise County Cowboys, die skietgeveg by die O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Arizona, was in minder as 30 sekondes verby. Toe die stof op die middag van 26 Oktober 1881 opruim, lê drie mans dood. Die oorledenes was almal Cowboys: Billy Clanton en broers Tom en Frank McLaury. Twee van hul landgenote het van die toneel gevlug. Die Earps en Holliday het oorleef, hoewel Morgan en Virgil Earp en Holliday gewond is.

Die geveg was die gevolg van 'n jarelange vete tussen die Cowboys en die Earps met 'n slegte gevoel en wedywering aan alle kante. Omdat dit die ou weste was, was drank betrokke. So was kaarte en vroue en groot ego's, om nog maar te praat van intense meningsverskil oor wie gesag uitoefen in 'n grootliks wettelose gebied.

Tallose films en TV -reekse en boeke - beide fiksie en nie -fiksie - het ingegaan op die drama rondom die geveg by die O.K. Corral, wat verseker dat dit, net soos die Alamo, nooit vergeet sal word nie. U sal egter verbaas wees oor wat u nie weet van hierdie beroemde vuurgeveg nie. Lees verder oor wat werklik gebeur het op daardie noodlottige dag in die middaguurgeskiedenis.


The Gunfight At The O.K. Corral

Wikimedia Commons Stadsmaarskalk Virgil Earp, omstreeks 1880.

Omstreeks 15:00 sien die Earp Brothers saam met Doc Holliday vyf Cowboys wat gewere oplaai: Ike Clanton en Frank McLaury was deel van die groep, saam met Billy Claiborne, Tom McLaury en Clanton se 19-jarige broer, Billy.

Die Cowboys het toe wraak geneem agter die O.K. Corral. Daarna, in 'n smal, leë perseel langs die Fotogalery van Fly ’s bo die Corral, kom die Earps met Holliday op die Cowboys.

Virgil Earp skree na die Cowboys, “ Strek jou hande op, ek het jou kom ontwapen! ”

Wat daarna gebeur het, bly 'n raaisel.

Beide kante beweer dat die opponerende groep eerste afgedank is. Maak nie saak nie, die maag van Frank McLaury is geskiet en die man het ineengestort. Virgil skiet toe die jong Billy, wat, terwyl hy op die grond bloei, doodskiet, aanhou skiet. Doc Holliday se haelgeweer het Tom McLaury kort gewerk en deur sy bors geslaan.

Ike Clanton, Billy Claiborne en Wes Fuller was die enigste Cowboys wat lewendig uit die geveg gekom het - en dit was omdat hulle vir hul lewens gehardloop het. 30 rondes is binne 30 sekondes agter die O.K. Corral. Die oorbelle het 'n paar skrape gekry, maar drie Cowboys was dood.


Klerke vind vraestelle uit 1881 Gunfight by OK Corral

Die staatsbibliotekaris in Arizona, GladysAnn Wells, onthul 'n oorspronklike ooggetuieverslag van die skietgeveg by OK Corral. Die dokumente uit 1881 is onlangs in 'n opbergkas in die hof van Cochise County ontdek. Peter O'Dowd steek onderskrif weg

Die staatsbibliotekaris in Arizona, GladysAnn Wells, onthul 'n oorspronklike ooggetuieverslag van die skietgeveg by OK Corral. Die dokumente uit 1881 is onlangs in 'n opbergkas in die hof van Cochise County ontdek.

U het moontlik die Hollywood -weergawe van die skietery by die OK Corral gekyk, maar u het waarskynlik nie die oorspronklike getuienis gesien van ooggetuies wat op die berugte dag in 1881 in Tombstone, Ariz.

Geskiedkundiges sê dat dokumente uit die lykskouingsondersoek na die skietgeveg tot dusver verlore gegaan het.

Die dokumente is met die hand geskryf. Tyd het die koerante liggeel gemaak, en dekades lank het hulle stof bymekaargemaak in die hof van Cochise County. Op 31 Maart vind die klerke Bonnie Cook en Michelle Garcia 'n koevert in 'n opbergkas.

'Dit is in 'n hoek begrawe,' het Cook gesê. "Ons het dit uitgegrawe. Dit was vuil."

Binne was 36 bladsye: eerstehandsverslae van die legendariese skietery op 26 Oktober 1881 tussen die Earp -broers en 'n groep beesroers. Op film-manier herinner een getuie die oomblikke net voor die skietery ontstaan ​​het.

Rekeninge van 'n beroemde geweervuur

'Mnr. Holliday het langs die geboue gestaan,' word volgens die getuie gesê. "Aan die binnekant het hy 'n geweer onder sy jas gehad. Hy het 'n lang jas gehad. Die manier waarop ek die geweer opgemerk het, is dat sy jas oopblaas en hy probeer dit bedek hou."

Staatsbibliotekaris GladysAnn Wells sê dit is 'n groot ontdekking.

'Ek wed jou volgende middagete, as jy dit sou hanteer en met jou wit handskoene aanraak, dat jy die magie van die geskiedenis sou voel,' het sy gesê.

Die hooggeregshof van Cochise County, Denise Lundin, sê dat sy wel 'n ou fotostaat van hierdie dokumente uit die 1960's gehad het, maar dit was moeilik om dit te lees. Sy sê hulle kon nie die intimiteit van die hofverslaggewer se hand vasvang nie. 'N Ou weergawe van Scotch tape-dik, bierkleurige repies-word op die regte manier bymekaar gehou.

'Hulle is beslis nie op so 'n manier saamgestel dat iemand dit behoorlik wil bewaar nie,' het Lundin gesê.

Wells het gesê dat die brose papier gestabiliseer en geskandeer sal word. Binne 'n week behoort die eerste bladsye op die internet gepubliseer te word, sodat geskiedenisliefhebbers oor die hele wêreld dit kan sien.


The Gunfight by die OK Corral

The Gunfight at the OK Corral is moontlik die bekendste skietgeveg in die geskiedenis. Dit is verewig in talle films, TV -reekse en boeke. Maar die werklikheid is dat ons nog nie seker is presies wat gebeur het nie.

In 1881 was die klein dorpie Tombstone AZ een van die rykste plekke ter wêreld. Uitgestrekte silwer are is in 1877 in die nabygeleë berge ontdek. Die myne was skynbaar in 'n paar jaar eindeloos tydens die silwer oplewing, 'n totaal van $ 37 miljoen (meer as $ 8 miljard in vandag se dollars) het uit die grond gekom. Die ekonomiese bonanza lok 'n vloed van setlaars, avonturiers en fortuinsoekers uit die Ooste, wat die bevolking van die klein dorpie laat swel het.

Die toestroming het ook vinnig tot sosiale en politieke spanning gelei. Die burgeroorlog het skaars 20 jaar gelede geëindig, en dit het steeds hartstogte en wrokke aangewakker. Die meeste van Tombstone se besighede was in besit van getroue Unie -ondersteuners uit stede in die noordooste, sommige van hulle veterane van die Federale Weermag. 'N Ryk sakeman in New York, Philadelphia of Chicago het groot mynmaatskappye gestig wat al die individuele silwer prospekteerders vinnig verdryf het, arm desperate mense as loonarbeiders aangestel het en daarna al die winste na die ooste gestuur het.

Die plaaslike inwoners, daarenteen, was geneig om landelik te wees, werk by boerdery en veeteelt (dikwels aangevul deur ritsel uit die nabygeleë Mexiko), en was meestal oud-Konfederale simpatiseerders. Hierdie faksie, wat bekend staan ​​as 'Cowboys', beskou die Yankees met wantroue en was jammer vir die oosterse oorheersing van die stad se ekonomiese lewe sowel as hul virtuele monopolie op politieke ampte.

In 1879 word Virgil Earp, 'n voormalige federale marskalk in Dodge City KS, aangestel as die nuwe marskalk vir die suidelike gebied van Arizona, en bring sy broers Wyatt en Morgan saam met hom as adjunkmarshalle. Die Earp-broers self het 'n taamlik skaduryke verlede gehad, maar as vredesbeamptes het hulle (meestal) aan die eerlike kant van die wet gebly en onmiddellik stappe gedoen om onwettige aktiwiteite soos vee te raas, wat weer spanning met die platteland veroorsaak het boere sowel as met balju John Behan, wat simpatiek was vir die plaaslike Cowboys.

Die spanning het in 1881 toegeneem, toe Wyatt Earp besluit het om teen Behan vir die kantoor van die balju te hardloop. Toe een van die Wells Fargo-stagecoaches deur die plaaslike outlaws beroof is, het Earp 'n ooreenkoms gesluit met Ike Clanton, wat saam met sy broer Billy en die twee plaaslike broers Frank en Tom McLaury 'n beesroesoperasie met die Cowboys bedryf het as Ike sou vang die rokers vir Earp, Clanton sou die Wells Fargo -beloningsgeld behou en Earp sou 'n arrestasie kon doen wat sou help met sy veldtog vir die balju. Ongelukkig vir albei is die rowers elk in onverwante gevegte doodgemaak voordat hulle gearresteer kon word.

In Oktober kom 'n dobbelaar en soms 'n skelm met die naam John Henry "Doc" Holliday, 'n vriend van die Earps, in die stad aan. Ike het oortuig geraak dat Wyatt Earp vir Holliday van hul geheime ooreenkoms vertel het. Dit was 'n dodelike gevaar vir Clanton, hy het geweet dat as die Cowboys uitvind dat hy bereid was om hulle te verraai, hy binne 'n baie kort tyd die teiken sou wees van 'n plaaslike gewapende man.

Die gebeure wat tot die skietgeveg gelei het, het die oggend van 25 Oktober begin toe Ike Clanton en Tom McLaury in die stad aangekom het om voorrade te koop. Die middag het Clanton Doc Holliday in 'n sitkamer raakgeloop en hom gekonfronteer dat daar 'n geveg ontstaan ​​het, en al drie die Earp -broers het ingegryp om hulle uitmekaar te trek. Later die aand gaan sit 'n nou dronk Clanton saam met McLaury, sheriff Behan en maarskalk Virgil Earp vir 'n potjie poker, waartydens Clanton Earp sê om 'n waarskuwing aan Holliday te gee dat as hulle mekaar weer ontmoet, 'n pistool en veg. Earp het geantwoord dat hy 'n amptenaar van die wet was en nie so 'n praatjie wou hoor nie, waarna Clanton, oortuig dat Virgil Earp ook weet van sy geheime ooreenkoms met Wyatt, hom ook gedreig het en gesê het: 'Miskien moet u eers baklei jy weet dit."

Die volgende dag, 26 Oktober, het Virgil en Morgan Earp Clanton op straat gevind met 'n rewolwer op sy heup en 'n geweer in sy saalholster. Alhoewel dit gereeld vir almal was om wapens in te pak terwyl hulle op reis was (die inboorlinge van Apache het gereeld 'n hinderlaag gelê vir wat hulle as indringers in hul land beskou het), was dit teen die stadsbevel van Tombstone om wapens in die stad te dra. Die regsgeleerdes het Clanton gekonfronteer, en 'n geveg het uitgebreek wat geëindig het toe die Marshal die Cowboy met die lang loop van sy pistool op die kop gekraak en hom gearresteer het. Clanton is na die County Court gehaas, waar hy sy boete van $ 25 betaal het en vrygelaat is. In die tussentyd, toe Earp die hof verlaat, het hy Tom McLaury teëgekom dat 'n ander geveg ontstaan ​​het, en Earp het hom met 'n pistool geslaan.

Teen hierdie tyd het nog drie lede van die Clanton -bende - Billy Clanton, Frank McLaury en Billy Claiborne - in die stad aangekom. Omstreeks 15:00 het hulle almal bymekaargekom in 'n leë perseel agter die OK Corral, langs die Fly's Boarding House waar Doc Holliday 'n kamer gehuur het, terwyl hy openlik wapens gedra het. Volgens sommige berigte het hulle die hele middag gedrink. Bure het hulle woedend hoor praat van die moord op Holliday en wraak neem op Virgil Earp vir die vuurwapens.

Toe die woord vir Virgil Earp terugkom, het hy balju Behan gevra om saam te kom en hom te help om hul gewere in beslag te neem. In plaas daarvan het Behan aangebied om self met hulle te gaan praat. Twintig minute later is aan Earp meegedeel dat die Clantons nog steeds daar was en steeds gewapen was. Earp het sy broers Wyatt en Morgan bymekaargemaak, sy vriend Doc Holliday afgesit (en hom 'n haelgeweer gegee) en vertrek na die OK Corral. (In een van die ironieë van die geskiedenis het die 'Gunfight at the OK Corral' nie eintlik in die OK Corral plaasgevind nie: die skietery het plaasgevind in die steeg agter dit, wat vandag, in 'n ander ironie, 'n kantoor vir die Amerikaanse Marshal Service is. )

Toe die groep in die straat afstap, hardloop balju Behan na hulle toe. Volgens Behan se latere verslag het hy aan Virgil gesê dat hy probeer het om die Cowboys uit te skakel volgens die weergawe van Earp, en die balju het aan hom gesê dat hy gehad het ontwapen hulle. Gedink dat die situasie ontlont is, steek Virgil sy pistool in sy middelriem en Wyatt steek sy geweer in die sak van sy jas. Hulle het net verwag dat hulle die Clantons en McLaurys uit die stad sou sien ry. Toe hulle in Fremontstraat aankom, sien hulle dat ten minste twee van die bendes nog pistole op hul heupe en gewere in hul saal het.

Wat daarna gebeur het, sal vir altyd onduidelik wees. Baie van die getuieverslae word deur partydige simpatie van beide kante besmet, en baie besonderhede is teenstrydig. Al die getuies stem egter saam dat Vergilius vir die Clantons gesê het: 'Steek julle hande op, seuns: ek is van plan om julle te ontwapen.' Volgens sommige getuies het Morgan Earp toe geskreeu: 'Julle seuns het 'n geveg gesoek - nou kan julle een kry.' Toe hoor die getuies twee "klikke" van vuurwapens: dit was moontlik een van die Clantons, of dit was dalk die dok van Doc Holliday met 'n dubbele loopgeweer. Virgil Earp het dit blykbaar ook gehoor: hy lig sy kierie en sê: "Wag, ons wil dit nie hê nie."

Daar is nog steeds debat oor wie eerste geskiet het, met elke kant wat die ander beskuldig. Maar die amptelike ondersoeke het destyds tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat Billy Clanton en Frank McLaury hul pistole getrek het, en Tom McLaury het na die geweer in die saal van sy perd gestrek. Clanton het sy pistool op Wyatt Earp gerig, maar Earp het later getuig dat hy eerder op Frank McLaury gemik het omdat hy geweet het McLaury was 'n goeie skoot. Die eerste twee skote was dus byna op dieselfde oomblik: Clanton skiet op Earp en mis, en Earp skiet op McLaury en slaan hom in die maag. Billy Claiborne het in die straat weggehardloop sonder om 'n skoot te skiet. Ike Clanton het na Wyatt Earp gehardloop en geskreeu dat hy nie 'n geweer het nie. Earp het hom gesê om 'te veg of weg te kom'. Ike het ook in Fremontstraat weggehardloop. In die koeëlfusillade wat gevolg het, is Billy Clanton in die hand geskiet, sy geweer na sy linkerhand oorgeskakel en verskeie skote afgevuur voordat hy weer in die bors getref word. Tom McLaury is met 'n haelgeweer in die bors getref McLaury, gewond deur Wyatt Earp, steier terug in die stegie en skiet 'n paar skote voordat hy noodlottig in die kop geslaan word. Virgil Earp is deur die kuit geskiet, Morgan Earp het 'n koeël geneem wat oor sy rug gegaan het en albei skouerblaaie getref het, en Doc Holliday was op die heup gewei. Frank McLaury lê dood in die stegie. Tom McLaury en Billy Clanton is na nabygeleë huise geneem waar hulle albei gesterf het. Die hele geveg het ongeveer 30 sekondes geduur.

Binne enkele minute het balju Behan aan die Earps gesê dat hy hulle vir die skietery moet arresteer. Virgil het geantwoord dat "ons nie in hegtenis geneem word nie", maar dat hulle almal gewillig sou verhoor. Die verhore het net vier dae later begin, en op 7 November het die regter beslis dat die Earps wettig opgetree het binne hul hoedanigheid as wetstoepassers.

Een van die plaaslike koerante, die Grafsteen grafskrif, was lid van die nuwe "Associated Press" -diens, en die beriggewing oor die skietgeveg is deur ander koerante aan albei kuste gedra. Maar die voorval was meestal vergete. Die laaste deelnemer, Wyatt Earp, is in 1929 oorlede. In die laaste jaar van sy lewe het Earp egter saamgewerk met 'n skrywer met die naam Stuart Lake, wat 'n vertelling van die Wilde Weste en die Tombstone -fraksiegeveg aangebied het waarin, nie verrassend nie, Earp was die heldhaftige eerlike regsman wat die magte van korrupsie en wetteloosheid beveg het. Lake se boek, getiteld Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal, het baie gewild geword en in 1939 'n film gemaak. Maar dit was die vrystelling van "Gunfight at the OK Corral" in 1957, met Burt Lancaster en Kirk Douglas, wat Wyatt Earp 'n legende gemaak het en die shootout die bekendste gebeurtenis was in die geskiedenis van die Amerikaanse Weste.

Vandag is die OK Corral genoteer in die National Register of Historic Places.


26 Oktober 1881 - Skietgeveg by die OK Corral

Op hierdie dag in 1881 kom die Earp-broers die stryd aan met die Clanton-McLaury-bende in 'n legendariese skietgeveg by die OK Corral in Tombstone, Arizona.

Nadat silwer in 1877 daar naby ontdek is, het Tombstone vinnig uitgegroei tot een van die rykste myndorpe in die suidweste. Wyatt Earp, 'n voormalige polisiebeampte in Kansas wat as bankveiligheidswag werk, en sy broers, Morgan en Virgil, die stadsmarshal, verteenwoordig "wet en orde" in Tombstone, hoewel hulle ook 'n reputasie gehad het dat hulle magshonger en genadeloos was. Die Clantons en McLaurys was cowboys wat op 'n plaas buite die stad gewoon het en as veeboerers, diewe en moordenaars langs die kantlyn gestaan ​​het. In Oktober 1881 het die stryd tussen hierdie twee groepe om beheer oor Tombstone en Cochise County geëindig in 'n vuurwapen by die OK Corral.

Die oggend van 25 Oktober het Ike Clanton en Tom McLaury in Tombstone gekom vir voorraad. In die volgende 24 uur het die twee mans met die Earps en hul vriend, Doc Holliday, verskeie gewelddadige inbrake gehad. Omstreeks 13:30. op 26 Oktober het Ike se broer Billy saam met Frank McLaury en Billy Claiborne die stad ingevaar om by hulle aan te sluit. Die eerste persoon wat hulle in die plaaslike salon ontmoet het, was Holliday, wat hulle met graagte meedeel dat hul broers albei deur die Earps met 'n pistool geslaan is. Frank en Billy het dadelik die salon verlaat en wraak geneem.

Omstreeks 15:00 het die Earps en Holliday die vyf lede van die Clanton-McLaury-bende op 'n leë perseel agter die OK Corral, aan die einde van Fremontstraat, gewaar. Die beroemde skietgeveg wat gevolg het, duur 30 sekondes, en ongeveer 30 skote is afgevuur. Alhoewel daar nog gedebatteer word wie die eerste skoot afgevuur het, sê die meeste berigte dat die skietgeveg begin het toe Virgil Earp sy rewolwer uitgetrek het en Billy Clanton doodstil in die bors geskiet het, terwyl Doc Holliday 'n haelgeweer op Tom McLaury se bors geskiet het. Hoewel Wyatt Earp Frank McLaury gewond het met 'n skoot in die maag, het Frank daarin geslaag om 'n paar skote af te klim voordat hy in duie gestort het, net soos Billy Clanton. Toe die stof opraak, was Billy Clanton en die McLaury -broers dood, en Virgil en Morgan Earp en Doc Holliday is gewond. Ike Clanton en Claiborne het na die heuwels gehardloop.

Balju John Behan van Cochise County, wat die skietgeveg gesien het, het die Earps en Holliday van moord aangekla. 'N Maand later het 'n Tombstone -regter die mans egter onskuldig bevind en beslis dat hulle "ten volle geregverdig was om hierdie moorde te pleeg". Die beroemde shootout is verewig in baie films, insluitend Frontier Marshal (1939), Geveggeveg by die OK Corral (1957), Grafsteen(1993) en Wyatt Earp (1994).


'N Kort geskiedenis van die beroemde geweervuur ​​by die O.K. Corral

Op die koue middag van 26 Oktober 1881 stap vier mans in lang swart jasse doelgerig in die stowwerige Fremontstraat af. Om die draai, in 'n nou leë perseel agter die O.K. Corral, het ses cowboys gewag. In 'n noodlottige dertig sekondes is byna dertig skote van naby afgevuur. Die skietgeveg tussen die Earps-onder leiding van maarskalk Virgil Earp, sy broers Wyatt en Morgan en hul vriend, Doc Holliday-en die Clanton-McLaury-bende het Billy Clanton en die McLaury-broers dood gelaat en Virgil, Morgan en Doc gewond.

Vandag omskryf ons hierdie gebeurtenis as 'n legendariese voorbeeld van Westerse waaksaamheid, waar regsmanne wat die vrede bewaar, te kampe het met veeboer wat vermoedelik beroof het van 'n Wells Fargo -koets. Maar die historiese agtergrond vir hierdie dodelike spanning is veel meer kompleks. Na die Burgeroorlog het die vinnige groei in die Amerikaanse industriële ekonomie 'n belangstelling in Westward -uitbreiding aangewakker. Boomtowns soos Tombstone het vrugbare grond gelewer vir die voortsetting van die oorlog se gedeeltelike twis in die Westerse gebiede. Ryk eienaars en sakemanne uit die noordelike myne het saam met Southern cowboys uit Texas gekuier vir beheer en krag. Elke faksie het sy ekonomiese, politieke en sosiale konflikte na die Arizona -gebied gebring - en na die geweergeveg by die O.K. Corral.

Die verhaal begin in 1877, toe Ed Schieffelin se ontdekking van beduidende are van silwererts in die Cochise County in die suidooste van Arizona die belofte van rykdom en geleentheid vir ondernemings uit alle lewensterreine nakom. Tussen 1879 en 1880 het Tombstone se bevolking ontplof van 'n handjievol prospekteerders na byna 6 000 inwoners. Met hierdie vinnige toevloei van nuwelinge het Tombstone se jong sosiale en politieke infrastruktuur gestalte gekry. Die winste uit die myne het 'n sakevriendelike middestad tot stand gebring, met 'n groot behoefte aan wetstoepassers om geregtigheid en orde te handhaaf. Om die beskerming te bied en misdaad en geweld te verminder, het die stadsleiers van Tombstone mans, soos Wyatt Earp, opgesoek wat sy reputasie as 'n geweerskieter en wetgewer in Dodge City opgebou het.

Tombstone het gou die middelpunt geword van 'n vete wat 'n groep prominente boere onder leiding van die Clanton- en McLaury -gesinne teen 'n koalisie van Tombstone -sakemanne wat deur die Earps verteenwoordig is, gekantel het. Die boere, wat vleis verkoop het aan die stad en naby Fort Huachuca, het hul inkomste dikwels deur ritselende beeste 'aangevul'. Hierdie "Cowboys" was Demokrate met 'n sterk band met Texas en word ondersteun deur die balju van Cochise County, Johnny Behan. Die Earp -faksie - Wyatt, sy broers Virgil, Morgan en Warren, en hul vriend Doc Holliday - het die steun van Tombstone se Republikeinse sake -elite, waaronder burgemeester John Clum (redakteur van Die grafsteen -grafskrif koerant), mynmagnaat E.B. Gage, en die biskoplike predikant eerwaarde Endicott Peabody.

Die spanning tussen die twee kampe het op 26 Oktober 1881 in geweld uitgebreek in 'n nou leë perseel agter die O.K. Corral. Na 'n lang nag van poker wat geëindig het in 'n woordewisseling en 'n reeks klein stryery, was 'n konfrontasie onvermydelik. Volgens die historikus Paula Marks, het die balju van die provinsie, Behan, aangedring: 'Daar sal vandag probleme wees tussen die Clanton en die Earp -seuns.'

Gedurende die oggend het verskeie lede van die waaksaamste sakemanne se burgerveiligheidskomitee vrywillig ingegryp in die konflik, maar marskalk Virgil Earp, wat probeer om die betrokkenheid van gewapende burgers te vermy, het hul aanbiedings met respek van die hand gewys. In plaas daarvan soek hy hulp van balju Behan om die Cowboys te ontwapen, wat nou verhuis het na die leë perseel agter die O.K. Corral langs fotograaf C.S. Fly's Boarding House (waar Doc Holliday gewoon het). Behan kon die Cowboys egter nie oortuig om hul wapens op te gee nie - en kon nie verhoed dat die Earps en Doc Holliday na die O.K. Corral om die Cowboys te ontwapen.

'N Kort oorsig van die shootout

Die verhoog was opgestel. Toe die Earps die hoek draai en die smal gang tussen die Harwood House en Fly's Boarding House binnekom, ontmoet hulle hul mededingers van aangesig tot aangesig. Elke regsman het 'n ses-skieter gedra. Boonop het 'Doc' Holliday 'n haelgeweer onder sy lang jas gedra. Minder as ses meter van die Cowboys af het Virgil uitgeroep: "Seuns, gooi julle hande op, ek het julle kom ontwapen." Billy Clanton het geantwoord: "Moenie skiet nie! Ek wil nie baklei nie!" Waarop Wyatt Earp na bewering gesê het: "Julle tewe het 'n geveg gesoek en nou het julle dit." En koeëls het gevlieg. Binne dertig sekondes is byna dertig skote afgevuur.

Tydens die geveg het Billy Clanton Morgan Earp deur die been en Virgil Earp deur die skouers geskiet. 'N Koeël het pas by Doc Holliday se heup wei. Cowboys Ike Clanton en Billy Claibourne was ongewapen, en albei het weggehardloop toe die geveg begin het. Die oorblywende drie cowboys (Frank en Tom McLaury en Billy Clanton) is almal doodgemaak. Tom McClaury, wat moontlik ook ongewapen was, is doodgeskiet deur 'n ontploffing van Doc se haelgeweer. Sy broer, Frank McLaury, is deur Doc in die maag geskiet, daarna doodgemaak deur 'n skoot in die kop deur Doc of Morgan Earp. Die negentienjarige Billy Clanton is in die bors en die regterarm geskiet, wat hom gedwing het om linkshandig te skiet. Hy is 30 minute na die geveg aan sy wonde dood. Virgil Earp, Morgan Earp en Doc Holliday is huis toe geneem, behandel deur Dr. Goodfellow. Net Wyatt het ongedeerd gebly. Soos berig in die Grafsteen Nugget koerant op 27 Oktober 1881 weerspieël die skietgeveg "een van die bloedrooi dae in die annale van Tombstone, 'n dag toe bloed soos water vloei. 'n dag wat altyd onthou moet word as getuie van die bloedigste en dodelikste straatgeveg wat ooit op hierdie plek plaasgevind het , of waarskynlik in die gebied. "

Vir 'n gedetailleerde uiteensetting van die skietgeveg en die daaropvolgende doodsondersoek by Earp-Holliday, kyk na ons herontmoeting met vuurwapens, of koop 'n herdruk van die grafsteen-grafskrif van 1881 by die O.K. Corral- of Tombstone Epitaph -koerantkantore.

Die nadraai

Die lykskouer het op 27 Oktober 'n formele geregtelike doodsondersoek geopen, wat gelei het tot 'n voorlopige verhoor van 'n maand voor Justice of the Peace Wells Spicer. Die getuienis van Ike Clanton het duidelik op belangrike punte verskil van die herinneringe aan die Earps en Doc Holliday. Die inwoners was verdeeld in hul getrouheid, sommige was van mening dat die Earps die nodige geweld gebruik om 'n bedreiging vir die burgerlike orde van Tombstone uit die weg te ruim, terwyl ander meen dat die regsmanne die individuele regte onderdruk. Aan die einde van die verhoor het Justice Spicer Virgil Earp gesens, maar het onvoldoende rede gevind dat die beskuldigdes vir moord verhoor kan word: "Ek kan nie die gevolgtrekking weerstaan ​​dat die beskuldigdes ten volle geregverdig was om hierdie moorde te pleeg nie." Die golf van vergelding het Morgan Earp doodgemaak, Virgil Earp permanent gestrem en die Cowboys het aansienlik verswak. Onder beskuldiging van moord tydens die wraakskietery op sy broers se moordenaars, het Wyatt Earp in April 1882 saam met Doc Holliday uit Tombstone vertrek.

Daar is diegene wat sê Wyatt Earp was die Leeu van Grafsteen, die man wat sy onaangename plig raakgesien het en vrede gebring het in 'n stad met baie probleme. Daar is ander wat net so sterk verklaar dat die Earps nie beter was as die mans met wie hulle geveg het nie, en die moorde was die uitvloeisel van outlaw -aktiwiteite waarby almal betrokke was. Nog ander sê dat Wyatt Earp eintlik net 'n huurwapen was, wat gedoen het wat hy aangesê het om te doen, 'n man wat nie beter en nie slegter was as 'n horde van dieselfde tydgenote in die onstabiele Weste nie. Vandag is evaluering moeilik, want ons oordeel volgens die huidige standaarde die mans wat in 'n ander wêreld geleef het, op 'n moeilik voorstelbare tyd en onder 'n buigsame stel reëls.

Vir meer as 125 jaar het die dramatiese gebeure van 26 Oktober 1881 die verbeelding aangegryp van historici en storievertellers. Die Earps en die Cowboys het ikoniese simbole geword van die ongetemde Westerse grens. Maar van al die Ou West -geweergevegte, waarom leef hierdie dertig sekondes voort in die geskiedenis? In oplewingstede soos Tombstone het ekonomiese en politieke kommer die gemeenskap se kultuur oorheers, versterk deur sosiale trou. Onstuimige gebeure soos die Gunfight bly vandag belangrik, nie vanweë die 'goeie' wat die 'slegte' verslaan het nie, maar eerder omdat dit die komplekse werklikhede van die Westerse grens weerspieël.

Die Lawmen

James, Virgil en Wyatt Earp, wat in 1879 na die grafsteen getrek is deur die aanloklike vooruitsig om dit ryk te kry in die stad se silwer boom, het in 1879 saam met hul eggenote aangekom, en hulle is gou saam met hul goeie vriend Doc Holliday, gevolg in 1880 deur Morgan en Warren. Hulle het dobbelkonsessies bedryf, salonne bedryf en belê in vaste eiendom en mynweseise. Dit was egter die Earps se harde, onwankelbare vaardigheid, aangesien wetstoepassers in staat was om orde te bring in onstuimige grensgemeenskappe wat hulle onder die aandag van Tombstone se Republikeinse sakelui gebring het. en die broers as sentrale figure in die Weste se politieke en ekonomiese stryd om beheer en mag beskou.

Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp

Gebore: 19 Maart 1848 (Monmouth, Illinois) Oorlede: 13 Januarie 1929 (Los Angeles, Kalifornië)

Wyatt Earp word deur baie mense gevier as 'n man wat wet en orde in die groot stede van Amerika gebring het-terwyl ander deur 'n wraakzoeker en moordenaar wat die reg in eie hande geneem het-as een van die mees raaiselagtige figure in die Ou Weste beskou het. Earp staan ​​voor as 'n ikoniese legende, met die rolprente, televisiedramas en romans. Tog weerspieël sy werklike lewensverhaal die dun lyn tussen eerbaarheid en bekendheid wat in die Amerikaanse grensgemeenskappe deurdring het.

Die middelste broer van vyf, Wyatt, is in 1848 gebore aan Nicholas en Virginia Earp. Hy was 'n lang, rustige alleenloper en verhuis gereeld met sy gesin en vestig hom in Illinois, Iowa en Kalifornië voordat hy in 1869 ooswaarts terugkeer om konstabel te word in Lamar, Missouri. In 1870 getroud, sterf sy jong swanger bruid skielik aan tifus. Verwoes dryf Wyatt en dryf sy twintigs 'n stap voor die wet. Alhoewel hy sy fortuin in die volgende boomtown gesoek het, verhuis hy na Kansas om in sy broer James se bordeel te werk. Toe die somerbeesritte eindig, wend hy hom tot die polisiewerk in Wichita en Dodge City en sorg dat hy die cowboys uit Texas uit die moeilikheid hou. Op 31 -jarige ouderdom het Wyatt sy visier na Tombstone gerig. Hy was 'n dobbelaar, faro -handelaar en 'n haelgeweerboodskapper van Wells Fargo, deur sy broer, die polisiehoof, Virgil Earp, om die vrede in die Oosterse salon te behou. Die Earp -broers, as verteenwoordigers van die sakelui van Tombstone, het gou met die Clantons en McLaurys, boere wat buite die stad gewoon het, baklei.

In April 1881, met die verloop van die verordening van Tombstone wat burgers verhinder het om gewere in die stad te dra, het die spanning tussen die Earps en die Cowboys toegeneem. Stagecoach -rooftogte, vee wat ritsel en Wyatt se verlies aan die winsgewende balju -pos aan Johnny Behan, 'n vriend van die Clantons en McLaurys, het die konflik vererger. Politieke en persoonlike geskille het op 21 Oktober 1881 uitgebreek.

Bewapening: Wyatt het waarskynlik die Colt .45 single-action Peacemaker gedra, met 'n 7½ "blou staalvat en houthandvatsel, wat hom aangebied is deur Grafskrif redakteur John Clum. Die geweer is in Wyatt se middellyf vasgesteek en bereik deur 'n sakopening in Earp se lang jas.

Tydens die Gunfight: Na berig word, het Wyatt geskree: 'Julle tewe het 'n geveg gesoek, en nou kan julle dit kry.' In die eerste chaotiese oomblikke sukkel Wyatt kort met Ike Clanton toe die ongewapende cowboy van die toneel vlug. Wyatt was een van die eerstes wat geskiet het, en hy het Frank McLaury in die maag geskiet. Toe die rook verdwyn, het net Wyatt ongedeerd weggestap.

Na die Gunfight: Die Earps en Doc Holliday, wat gearresteer en verhoor is vir die moord op die Cowboys, is in November 1881 deur regter Spicer vrygespreek. Met spanning wat hoog is, is Virgil in Desember geskiet en kreupel en vyf maande later, in Mei 1882, is Morgan vermoor. Wyatt, nou 'n adjunk -Amerikaanse marskalk, het wraak gesoek. Sy vendetta-rit (20 Maart-15 April 1882) het gelei tot die dood van Cowboys Frank Stillwill en Curly Bill Brocious. Beskuldig vir moord, het Wyatt en Doc Holliday Tombstone na Colorado verlaat en wraak geneem op Ike Clanton en ander Cowboys wat gerig was op die Earp -gesin. Hy het weer kontak gemaak met sy Tombstone -minnaar, Josephine Marcus, en die egpaar verhuis na San Francisco, waar Wyatt op perde dobbel, in vaste eiendom belê en bokswedstryde beoordeel het. In 1897 volg hulle die volgende oplewing na Alaska, en open 'n salon in Nome op die hoogtepunt van die Gold Rush. By die terugkeer na Los Angeles in 1901, byna $ 80,000 ryker, het hulle aanspraak gemaak op goud in die Mohave -woestyn, en Wyatt was adviseur vir Hollywood se nuwe stille Westerse films. Maar Tombstone het voortgegaan met hul lewens. Bygestaan ​​deur John Flood, het Wyatt en Josie sy memoires begin maak. He died of cancer on January 13, 1929, and was buried in Josie's family plot in Colma, California. Five years later, Stuart Lake's film biography, Frontier Marshal, was released – and the legend of Wyatt Earp and the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral took hold as a symbolic icon of the untamed frontier.

Virgil Walter Earp

Gebore: July 18, 1843 (Hartford, Kentucky) Oorlede: October 19, 1905 (Goldfield, Nevada)

Born in 1843 to Nicholas and Virginia Earp, Virgil Earp was the true lawman of the Earp family. The second of five Earp sons, he joined the Union Army in 1862, mustering out in 1865. Working primarily as a lawman and a gambler, he traveled with his parents to California then back east to Missouri and Iowa before joining his brother Wyatt on the Wichita police force in the mid-1870s. Moving to Prescott, AZ, he was appointed US Deputy Marshal in 1879 - and one month later moved with his family to Tombsone. In October 1880, following the shooting death of Tombstone's Marshal Fred White, Virgil was appointed as White's successor. He served for a month before losing the 1880 election for US Marshal. Months later, he was again appointed Tombstone Chief of Police on June 28, 1881. 38-year-old Virgil represented the law in Tombstone. In fact, much of what Wyatt has been credited with was actually Virgil's doing. Numerous accounts show that Virgil tried to diffuse the gunflight participants on that fateful October 26th - all the way up to the streetfight.

Bewapening: Virgil held Doc Holliday's cane in his right hand. A .45 Colt Peacemaker with a 4¾" barrel and wood handle was hidden in his belt.

During the Gunfight: As Chief of Police enforcing Tombstone's gun ordinance, Virgil shouted for the Cowboys to "Throw up your hands. I want your guns!" He was shot by Billy Clanton or Frank McLaury through the calf of his right leg. Raising Doc's cane, Virgil fired back at Billy Clanton.

After the Gunfight: Exactly eight weeks after the gunfight, on December 28, 1881, Virgil was ambushed as he walked across Fifth Street near Allen Street. Shot in the back by three rounds, his left arm was shattered. The doctor removed 4" of arm bone, leaving Virgil permanently disabled. Speculation has it that Frank and Tom McLaury's older brother Will was involved in the assassination attempt, either directly or monetarily. However, there were no convictions due to insufficient evidence. On March 20, 1882, following his brother Morgan's assassination, Virgil and his wife left Tombstone under heavy guard, accompanying Morgan's body to the Earp family home in California for burial. After two years of rehabilitation, Virgil joined Southern Pacific Railroad as a special agent. For the next two decades, he wandered around mining camps in Nevada and California, prospecting and serving as a frontier lawman. At age 62, Virgil died of pneumonia on October 19, 1905, in Goldfield, Nevada. He was buried in Portland, Oregon, at the request of his daughter Nellie Jane Bohn.

Morgan Seth Earp

Gebore: April 24, 1851 (Pella, Iowa) Oorlede: March 18, 1882 (Tombstone, Arizona)

Morgan Earp worked primarily as a stagecoach guard. The younger brother of the "Fighting Earps". Morgan has been characterized as quick to laugh and quick to anger. One account (Mrs. M.J. King) during the trial revealed Morgan, saying "Let them have it" to which Doc Holliday replied, "All right." Thirty year old Morgan Earp, had been deputized by Virgil as a special policeman about a month before the gunfight.

Bewapening: He heald a one handed Peacemaker, 4 3/4" barrel, wood handle, metal sixshooter and kept it in his belt so he could crossdraw.

During the Gunfight: One of the first to fire, he shot Billy Clanton in the chest, and was himself shot in the right shoulder probably by the wounded Billy Clanton. The bullet went sideways though his body just missing the backbone, and exited out the left shoulder.

After the Gunfight: On March 18, 1882, five months after the gunfight, Morgan Earp was shot in the back by assassins while playing billiards at Campbell and Hatch's Saloon. Another bullet barely missed Wyatt. Although Will McLaury had long since left Tombstone for his home in Fort Worth, he was still suspected of being involved. Morgan died at the age of 30 within the hour.

John Henry "Doc" Holliday

Gebore: August 14, 1851 (Griffin, Georgia) Oorlede: November 8, 1887 (Glenwood Springs, Colorado)

Dr. John "Doc" Holliday was a private citizen -- dentist, gambler, drunkard, and gunfighter. With tuberculosis and a deathwish, Holliday came to Tombstone with a trunk full of reputations. He had made dozens of enemies by the time he got there and one friend Wyatt Earp, whose life he had once saved. He was asked by Virgil to help disarm the Clantons. But as the Cowboy side of the streetfight story has it that Holliday and Morgan were first to draw. If Tom really had been unarmed at the fight, it can be said that Doc Holliday was the only murderer of the day.

Bewapening: He was hiding a shotgun under his coat and carried a Colt .45 nickel-plated pistol in his hand.

During the Gunfight: Probably the first to fire, Doc shot Frank McLaury in stomach with his pistol, then he hit Tom McClaury with a load of buckshot from his shotgun. A bullet grazed his hip.

After the Gunfight: At age 36, Doc Holliday died bedridden and delirous of miliary tuberculosis on November 8, 1887 in Glenwood Springs, Colorado.

Die Cowboys

Through the early months of 1881, the Clantons continued to rustle cattle from Mexico, a crime that the Earp lawmen could do nothing about. Their hands were tied since cattle rustling was officially a county matter and John Behan was the county. The gap between the law and the outlaw faction grew wider and the town divided into two camps. While most of Tombstone's citizens supported the Earps, the politically strong outlaw element, with Behan in control, supported the Clantons.

Joseph Isaac "Ike" Clanton

Gebore: Ca. 1847 (Callaway County, Missouri) Oorlede: June 1, 1887 (Springerville, Arizona)

Craven coward or rough-and-tumble roustabout? 34 year old rancher Ike Clanton has been portrayed as both over the decades. Certainly, he was the final catalyst in the events that led to the shootout. The Clanton family moved to the Tombstone area in 1868. Ike's ranch was on the San Pedro River about 14 miles SW from Tombstone.

Bewapening: Unarmed. His Winchester carbine and Colt. 45 had been taken away earlier that day by Virgil.

During the Gunfight: The unarmed Ike Clanton briefly grappled with Wyatt as he ran away from the fight into the front door of Fly's Boardinghouse, he continued running through Fly's back door all the way to a dance hall on Allen Street. He lived on a ranch built by his father "Old Man" Clanton who had arrived in the area in 1868 or 69 on the San Pedro River about 5 miles shouth of Charleston, and about 14 miles SW from Tombstone.

After the Gunfight: Ike managed to dodge Earp bullets during the gunfight and Wyatt's ride of revenge afterwards. But he wasn't able to dodge a bullet given to him by deputy marshall Jonas V. Brighton on June 1, 1887, six years later. Ike Clanton died at the age of 39.

Terry "Ike" Clanton, a Clanton descendent and leader of the Clanton Gang website, believes he has found the grave of Ike Clanton. He is currently on a drive to have the body exhumed and placed next to his father and brother in Tombstone's Boothill Cemetery.

William Harrison "Billy" Clanton

Gebore: Ca. 1862 (Hamilton County, Texas) Oorlede: October 26, 1881 (Tombstone, Arizona)

The youngest of the Clanton boys. It's noted that, as a rancher, Billy first met and befriended Frank and Tom at the Jones ranch - formerly owned by Old Man Clanton - along the Gila River near Camp Thomas. Billy has been known as a hard worker and a big, loutish figure . He wasn't innocent young man by any stretch of the word he was caught by Wyatt Earp in posession of of Wyatt's stolen horse. By most accounts, Billy was trying to get his brother out of Tombstone the day of the shootout.

Bewapening: Colt 1873 44-40 single-action army revolver with 7½” blue barrel, Winchester rifle on scabbard on his horse.

During the Gunfight: When the shooting started, Billy did not back down from the renoun gunfighters and lawmen. Billy shouted, "Don't shoot me. I don't want to fight!". But after being shot in the chest by Morgan Earp, Billy was the only cowboy to inflict any real damage on the Earps. He shot Virgil in the leg and Morgan in the shoulder, despite being badly wounded in the chest and having his right arm broken with by a shot to his wrist forcing him to continue shooting left handed. Even after the fight had ended, he continued to plead for more bullets from C.S. Fly for more bullets even after the fight finished. In great pain, he was carried, as was Tom McLaury, to a building on the corner of Fremont and Third streets. Despite receiving two full syringes of Morphine, he continued to writhe in pain, and died in agony about 1/2 hour after the gunbattle. Billy lies in Boothill with Frank and Tom one side and his father on the other.

After the Gunfight: Billy Clanton died at age 19 in the gunfight and was buried in Tombstone's Boothill Cemetery.

Robert Findley "Frank" McLaury

Gebore: March 3, 1849 (Kortright / Merideth, New York) Oorlede: October 26, 1881 (Tombstone, Arizona)

Frank McLaury (or "Rob", as the family called him) was the number eight child and number five son. Robert was only 11 days older than Wyatt Earp. Like Wyatt, he was of the generation of boys that just missed the "glory" of the Civil War. Unlike Wyatt, Rob remained at his father's home well into his twenties. In the mid 1870's, sixty-something Robert Houston took a second wife who was two years younger than Rob. With Robert Houston's new family on the farm, Robert Findley and Tom decdided it was time to leave and head west for Fort Worth, TX, where their brother, Will was moving to. Apparently, about this time and for possibly said reasons, Robert stopped using his given name and began using a more modern variation of his middle name, "Frank".

When the McLaurys arrived in the Tombstone in 1878 they lived on a ranch near Soldier's Hole in the Sulphur Springs Valley near the Mexican border along what was called "rustler's trail". This trail started near the Clanton Ranch, and was used to move stolen cattle to and from Mexico. In a short time, Frank got a reputation for being fast with a gun in the Arizona Territory (AT). Wyatt mentioned this in testimony as the reason for shooting at Frank first. Another account speaks of piles of cartridges used in target practice found on the McLaury ranch. Although gutshot, Frank was able to regroup enough to hit Morgan and clip Holliday. Some attribute him to hitting Virgil as well. Frank was killed almost instantly from the head-shot by Morgan Earp or Doc Holliday.

Bewapening: Frontier Colt 1873 44-40 single-action army revolver with 7½” blue barrel, Winchester rifle on scabbard on his horse. Frank was reputed to be the best gunman of the cowboy group. His Winchester rifle was in a scabbard on his horse. From H.M. Matthews testimony, it was recorded that Frank's sixshooter had two loads remaining. If Frank's pistol hammer was lying on an empty chamber, as most people carried their sidearms back then, then he only fired three shots.

During the Gunfight: Frank was shot in the stomach by Doc Hollidy early in the fight, he staggered wounded onto Freemont street leading his horse by the reins. He then managed to superficially wound Doc in the hip, but was shot in the head by Morgan or Doc. He died on the sidewalk across Freemont Street.

After the Gunfight: Frank McLaury died at age 33 in the gunfight and was buried in Tombstone's Boothill Cemetery.

Thomas "Tom" McLaury

Gebore: June 30, 1853 (Kortright / Merideth, New York) Oorlede: October 26, 1881 (Tombstone, Arizona)

Thomas Clark McLaury has been more elusive to profile by historians than Frank. He has been portayed as mild mannered, a hard worker, trying to diffuse high tensions on many occasions. He's also been cast as a "cowboy banker", a quick draw and the brains behind the McLaury Ranch enterprises. Tom was noted for being well-liked in Town. It seemed it was his death, above all, that generated the growing animosity towards the Earps during the inquest.

Bewapening: Although a skilled gunfighter, one of the big debates still on-going is whether Tom was armed during the shootout. He appeared likely to be unarmed having left his Winchester carbine at the West End Corral, and his six-shooter at a saloon as it was against the law to carry guns in Tombstone. He did try to grab the Winchester from Billy Clantons' startled horse.

During the Gunfight: When the fighting commenced, Tom ducked behind Billy Clanton's horse. Tom may have shouted "I'm not armed" but nonetheless when the horse bolted Tom was shot at point-blank range with a load of buckshot from Doc Holiday early int he fight. The fatal shotgun blast left 12 buckshot wounds in a 4" circle in his right side. At the inquest, the defense claimed Tom was going for the rifle in the saddle scabbard. nevertheless Tom staggered out onto Fremont Street stumbling down toward Third, then collapsed. A few minutes after the fight he and Billy Clanton were moved to a building on the corner of Fremont and Third.

After the Gunfight: It was said Tom lived just long enough to be carried indoors, but never said a word. He died without speaking minutes after the gunfight at age 28 and was buried in Tombstone's Boothill Cemetery.

William Floyd "Billy" Claiborne

Gebore: October 21, 1860 (Yazoo County, Mississippi) Oorlede: November 14, 1882 (Tombstone, Arizona)

Billy Claiborne was an American outlaw cowboy, drover, miner, and gunfighter in the American Old West.

Bewapening: Billy Claibourne was unarmed, having left his guns at Kellogg's Saloon the day before. Remember, it was against the law to carry guns in Tombstone.

During the Gunfight: Fled into C.S. Fly's boarding house.

After the Gunfight: Billy Claibourne died on November 14, 1882 at the age of 22. Claiborne insulted "Buckskin" Frank Leslie (who was tending bar at the Oriental Saloon) and refused to leave. After two men told Leslie that Claiborne was waiting for him outside, Leslie stepped out and saw "a foot of rifle barrel protruding from the end of the fruit stand." He told Claiborne "Don't shoot, I don't want you to kill me, nor do I want to have to shoot you." Claiborne, still drunk, raised his rifle and fired the weapon, missing Leslie. Leslie returned fire and hit Claiborne in the chest. Claiborne was buried in Tombstone's Boothill Cemetery.


Shootout at the OK Corral

On October 26, 1881, the Earp brothers took on the Clanton-McLaury Gang at the OK Corral in Tombstone, Arizona.

Tombstone had become one of the richest mining towns in the Southwest after silver was discovered nearby in 1877. Two years later, Wyatt Earp, a former Kansas police officer, and his brothers Morgan and Virgil moved to Tombstone to join in the silver boom and work as lawmen. Wyatt found a job as a bank security guard while Virgil became the town marshal.

Item #M10245 – Mint sheet pictures Earp and other figures from the Old West.

In July 1880, Virgil, a U.S. Marshal, was tasked with tracking a group of cowboys that had stolen six U.S. Army mules. (At that time, in the Tombstone area, the word cowboy referred to outlaws.) Virgil requested to bring his brothers along on the hunt, and they found the stolen mules on the McLaury ranch, home to known cowboys. The McLaurys said they’d give the mules back but never did, and threatened the Earps that if they ever followed them again, they’d kill them.

Item #4902025 – Earp First Day Proof Card.

Over the following year, the Earps had frequent run-ins with the McLaurys and the Clantons, who Earp believed stole his horse. Each time, the cowboys threatened to kill the Earps. Adding fuel to the fire, the cowboys were cohorts of the Cochise County Sheriff, Johnny Behan, who was a rival of Wyatt Earp’s – politically and in an affair of the heart.

U.S. #2869 – The controversial Legends of the West stamp sheet. (Click the image to read the full story.)

Then, on October 25, 1881, Ike Clanton and Tom McLaury went to Tombstone for supplies. Over the course of 24 hours, they clashed with the Earps and their friend Doc Holliday. About 1:30 p.m. the next day, Billy Clanton, Frank McLaury, and Billy Claiborne rode into town. They found Holliday at the saloon, who was happy to tell them that their brothers had been pistol-whipped by the Earps.

U.S. #2870 –The reissued Legends of the sheet.

The brothers left in rage and claimed they’d get their vengeance. They found their brothers and gathered in an empty lot behind the OK Corral. The Earps and Holliday soon found them there and prepared to face off. The Earps and Holliday slowly advanced to stand within six feet of the cowboys. Moments later the deafening roar of gunfire filled the air. The gunfight lasted just 30 seconds, and only about 30 shots were fired. Many debate exactly how the shootout progressed, but generally believe it began with Virgil Earp shooting Billy Clanton in the chest. Next Doc Holliday shot Tom McLaury and Wyatt shot Frank McLaury in the stomach. Two of the cowboys managed to fire on the lawmen before falling to the ground.

When the smoke cleared, three of the cowboys lay dead or dying, and the fourth was seriously wounded. Of the lawmen only Wyatt Earp emerged unscathed. Ike Clanton and Claiborne ran away. A local cowboy newspaper proclaimed, “The 26th of October, 1881, will always be marked as one of the crimson days in the annals of Tombstone, a day when blood flowed as water, and human life was held as a shuttle cock, a day to be remembered as witnessing the bloodiest and deadliest street fight that has ever occurred in this place, or probably in the Territory.”

U.S. #UX187 – Earp First Day Postal Card.

Meanwhile, Sheriff Behan had witnessed the shootout and charged the Earps and Holliday with murder. The case went to trial, but a month later, the judge ruled that the men were not guilty and that they were “fully justified in committing these homicides.”

The shootout became part of legend of the American West and had been recreated in a number of films.

Click here to see a film adaptation of the gunfight from Wyatt Earp.


This Day in History: 10/26/1881 - Shootout at the OK Corral - HISTORY

The most famous gunfight in the history of the “Old West” is best known as the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral. It took place on Wednesday, October 26, 1881, at 3:00 in the afternoon, and lasted only 30 seconds.

The gunfight was located in Tombstone, Arizona. Tombstone is near the Mexican border. The area was experiencing a mining boom, and the great frontier was known to be teeming with outlaws who didn’t have any regard for the law.

Opposing parties at the famous gunfight were only about six feet apart when the shooting began, and more than thirty shots were fired. Most of the shots appeared to be from Doc Holliday’s gun. Three people were killed, and three survived with injuries (Morgan Earp, Virgil Earp, and Doc Holliday). Wyatt Earp was unhurt.

The feud was basically between the law (the Earps) and the outlaws (a gang called the Cowboys). Cowboys were considered the cattle rustlers and outlaws, not to be confused with legitimate cowmans who were called ranchers or herders.

So how does a 30-second brawl become such a famous historical event?

Actually, the fight was relatively unknown until 1931, when a biography of Wyatt Earp was published. The Earps were very tough characters, and even though they were supposedly upholding the law, they did not have complete support from other frontiers.

It is suggested that this biography contains a great deal of fiction. In 1957, the movie Gunfight at the O.K. Corral was released, and the shootout became glorified history. The accuracy of the gunfight seems to vary in many of the accounts.

The gunfight did not end on that day. On December 28, 1881, Virgil Earp was maimed in an assassination attempt by outlaw Cowboys and on March 19, 1882, they assassinated Morgan Earp. Doc Holliday died from tuberculosis at the age of 35.

Today, Tombstone, Arizona, is considered one of the most historic towns in the Old West. Much of the town fell into disrepair but was restored and rebuilt as Tombstone became a popular tourist attraction.

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Plan Your Visit to the O.K. Corral ®

Thank you for considering the O.K. Corral as your destination. We know you will enjoy experiencing life in the Old West as it was in the 1880s.

The O.K. Corral Historic Complex includes the actual site where the famous Gunfight at the O.K. Corral took place involving Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday began. The Corral is open every day from 10 am to 5 pm., and we are closed Thanksgiving and Christmas Day.

Free parking is available for O.K. Corral visitors in the nearby O.K. Corral Parking Lot behind the Corral on Fremont Street (Highway 80), between 3rd and 4th Streets.

The O.K. Corral is handicap accessible. No weapons or pets are allowed in the O.K. Corral due to insurance requirements. If you have any questions about the O.K. Corral attraction, please give us a call at (520) 457-3456.

Gunfight at the O.K. Corral ® Reenactment

The O.K. Corral reenactment is reenacted daily inside the O.K. Corral Historic Complex at 11 am, 1 pm, and 3 pm. The show lasts about 30 minutes. Tickets can only be purchased at the O.K. Corral in person on the day of the performance. Buy your tickets at least 2-3 hours before the show since we often sell out.

We recommend you tour the O.K. Corral's historic exhibits before the gunfight since displays become crowded after the show.

After the gunfight, take your picture standing next to the gunfighters. You can photograph the gunfight and the O.K. Corral grounds as long as the photos are for your personal use only.

O.K. Corral ® Historic Complex Exhibits

The O.K. Corral Historic Complex consists of eleven displays:

  1. The actual Site of the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral where eight life-sized figures of the gunfighters are located based on a map drawn by Wyatt Earp himself. Listen to a recorded narration of the 30-second showdown that left three cowboys dead and Virgil and Morgan Earp wounded.
  2. Die Streets of Tombstone Theater where the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral is reenacted every day at 11 am, 1 pm, and 3 pm.
  3. Die O.K. Corral 1880s Stables with a display of buggies, saddles, and fire equipment used in the 1880s. Sit in several of our buggies to see what it was like.
  4. Visit our 1880s blacksmith shop, which houses tools used in the 1880s.
  5. Die O.K. Corral Office Museum which traces the history of the O.K. Corral and its operation. Learn about daily life in the Corral and the two murders that took place here. See how local medicine was practiced by Dr. Goodfellow, Tombstone's famous gunshot wound surgeon.
  6. C.S. Fly's Photographic Gallery and Boarding House where you can visit Doc Holliday's room. On display are Fly’s photographs of 1880s Tombstone, the 1886 surrender of the Apache warrior Geronimo and his camp in Mexico, and the devastating 1887 Bavispe earthquake in Sonora, Mexico.
  7. C.S. Fly's Photographic Studio where you can see Fly's original photographic equipment. Discover how the Earps and the Clantons were photographed in the 1880s.
  8. Die Cowboy Bunkhouse with an exhibit of cowboy paraphernalia and a fancy 1880s Phaeton buggy.
  9. A hearse just like the one kept on the O.K. Corral premises in the 1880s, which carried patrons on their final trip to Boothill Cemetery.
  10. A running water mining sluice where you can try your hand at gemstone mining just like prospectors did in the 1880s.
  11. Die Prostitute's Crib with the story of Tombstone's "soiled doves" – including the wives and girlfriends of the Earps and Doc Holliday.

Tombstone's Historama

When you arrive, make sure your first stop is Tombstone's Historama to learn about the history of Tombstone in a 26-minute multimedia presentation narrated by the famous actor Vincent Price. The Historama show runs every hour on the hour from 10 am until 4 pm. The Historama is located next door to the O.K. Corral.

The Tombstone Epitaph ® Newspaper Museum

The Tombstone Epitaph is Arizona's oldest newspaper and is still published today. Click here to subscribe!

Visit The Tombstone Epitaph newspaper museum to read the paper's original reports of the Gunfight. Learn how newspapers were printed in the 1880s. The museum is free and is open from 12 pm to 5 pm. Your O.K. Corral ticket includes the 1881 reprint of The Tombstone Epitaph newspaper with original reports of the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral.

The Epitaph Museum is 1½ blocks from the O.K. Corral, behind the Crystal Palace Saloon at 11 South Fifth Street. For more information about this famous Old West newspaper go to www.tombstoneepitaph.com.

Ticket Information

With a $10 ticket, you can see the Gunfight reenactment in the Streets of Tombstone Theater, tour the O.K. Corral Historic Complex, watch the Tombstone's Historama show, and receive a free copy of the 1881 reprint of The Tombstone Epitaph newspaper containing original reports of the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral. Without the reenactment, admission costs $6. Kids 5 years old and younger are free. Your ticket gives you all-day access to the O.K. Corral grounds. There are no discounts. You can pay with cash, Visa, MasterCard, or Discover. An ATM is available onsite for a fee of $2.50.

Additional Information

Tombstone is an exciting Old West small town with no stop lights. All the historic sites except Boothill Cemetery are located within five minutes walking distance of each other in the three-block historic area and are handicap accessible. A wheelchair is available at the O.K. Corral if needed.

If you want to read a little more about Tombstone before you visit, check out our history page – one of the best books about Tombstone, Wyatt Earp, Doc Holliday, and the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral is And Die in the West: The Story of the O.K. Corral Gunfight by Paula Mitchell Marks. Unbiased in its approach, it describes the years from Tombstone's discovery in 1877 until Wyatt Earp's death in 1929.

Inligting

O.K. Corral ® Historic Complex Hours:

10 am to 5 pm - Open every day except Thanksgiving and Christmas Day.

Gunfight Reenactment Schedule:

11 am, 1 pm, 3 pm (Subject to change.) - Additional shows are added when tickets sell out.

Tombstone's Historama Schedule:

10 am to 4 pm - Open every day except Thanksgiving and Christmas Day. - Show runs every hour on the hour. - Additional shows are added when tickets sell out.

The Tombstone Epitaph Museum Hours:

12 pm to 5 pm - Open every day except Thanksgiving and Christmas Day.

Ticket Prices: (Ticket good for re-entry all day.)

Admission with live Gunfight reenactment: $10 Admission without live Gunfight reenactment: $6 5 years old and younger: Free


Kyk die video: 26th October 1881: The gunfight at the. Corral involving Wyatt Earp