8 belangrikste ontwikkelings onder koningin Victoria

8 belangrikste ontwikkelings onder koningin Victoria



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The Inaugration of the Great Exhibition (1851) deur David Roberts. Beeldkrediet: Royal Collection / CC.

Die Victoriaanse ouderdom word gemeet aan die lewe en bewind van koningin Victoria, gebore op 24 Mei 1819 en sou toesig hou oor 'n tydperk van ongeëwenaarde glans en kleur in die Britse geskiedenis, gelei deur die goeie verstand (meestal) en stabiliteit van haar heers. Haar dood in 1901 het 'n nuwe eeu en 'n donkerder, meer onseker ouderdom ingelui. Wat was die belangrikste ontwikkelings in die buiteland en in die buiteland tydens hierdie bewind?

1. Afskaffing van slawerny

Hoewel slawerny tegnies voor die bewind van Victoria afgeskaf is, het die einde van 'vakleerlinge' en die begin van ware emansipasie eers in 1838 in werking getree. Daaropvolgende handelinge wat in 1843 en 1873 uitgevaardig is, het die praktyke wat met slawerny verband hou, verbied, hoewel die Wet op Slawevergoeding verseker is dat slawe -eienaars voortgegaan het om voordeel te trek uit slawerny. Die skuld is eers in 2015 deur die regering afbetaal.

2. Massaverstedeliking

Die bevolking van die Verenigde Koninkryk het gedurende die regering van Victoria met meer as dubbel toegeneem, en die samelewing is verander deur die Industriële Revolusie. Die ekonomie het oorgegaan van 'n hoofsaaklik landelike, landboukundige na 'n stedelike, geïndustrialiseerde. Die werksomstandighede was swak, die lone laag en die ure lank: armoede in die stad en besoedeling was een van die grootste probleme van die era.

Stedelike sentrums was egter 'n aantreklike vooruitsig vir baie mense: dit het vinnig knelpunte geword vir radikale nuwe politieke denke, die verspreiding van idees en sosiale sentrums.

3. Stygende lewenstandaard

Teen die einde van Victoria se bewind het wetgewing van krag geword om lewensomstandighede vir die armstes in die samelewing te verbeter. Die fabriekswet van 1878 verbied werk voor die ouderdom van 10 jaar en geld vir alle ambagte, terwyl die onderwyswet van 1880 verpligte skoolopleiding tot die ouderdom van 10 jaar instel.

Verslae oor die volle omvang van armoede, sowel as 'n groter begrip van die oorsake daarvan, is ook teen die einde van die 19de eeu gepubliseer, waaronder Seebohm Rowntree se ondersoek na armoede in York en Charles Booth se 'armoedegrens' in Londen.

Die Boereoorlog (1899-1902) beklemtoon verder die kwessies van die swak lewensstandaard, aangesien 'n groot aantal jong mans wat ingeroep het, nie basiese mediese inspeksies geslaag het nie. Die liberale party van David Lloyd George het in 1906 'n groot oorwinning behaal en belowend

4. Die Britse Ryk het sy hoogtepunt bereik

Die son het nooit onder die Britse ryk onder Victoria ondergegaan nie: Brittanje regeer ongeveer 400 miljoen mense, byna 25% van die wêreld se bevolking destyds. Indië het 'n besonder belangrike (en finansieel winsgewende) bate geword, en die Britse monarg is vir die eerste keer as keiserin van Indië gekroon.

Britse uitbreiding in Afrika het ook begin toeneem: die era van verkenning, kolonisasie en verowering was van krag. In die 1880's het die 'Scramble for Africa' plaasgevind: Europese moondhede het die vasteland opgetel met willekeurige en kunsmatige lyne om mededingende belange en koloniale belange moontlik te maak.

Wit kolonies het ook meer selfbeskikking gekry, met Kanada, Australië en Nieu-Seeland wat teen die laat 19de eeu heerskappy gekry het, wat hulle effektief 'n mate van selfbeskikking toegelaat het.

5. Moderne medisyne

Met verstedeliking kom siektes: in die beknopte woonbuurte het siektes soos 'n veldbrand versprei. Aan die begin van Victoria se bewind was die medisyne ietwat rudimentêr: die rykes was dikwels nie beter in die hande van dokters as die armes nie. Die Wet op Openbare Gesondheid (1848) het 'n sentrale gesondheidsraad op die been gebring, en verdere deurbrake in die 1850's het vuil water as 'n oorsaak van cholera, sowel as die gebruik van karbolsuur as 'n antiseptiese middel, tot stand gebring.

Victoria het self chloroform gebruik as 'n middel om pyn te verlig tydens die geboorte van haar sesde kind. Die vooruitgang in medisyne en chirurgie was baie voordelig op alle vlakke van die samelewing, en die lewensverwagting was aan die toeneem teen die einde van haar bewind.

Dr Emma Liggins is 'n kenner van Victoriaanse Gotiese letterkunde. Sy het saam met Dan op die pod gaan kyk hoe groot vroueskrywers uit die 19de eeu - soos Elizabeth Gaskell en die Brontes - reageer op die impak van noodlottige siektes op hul lewens in die huis.

Luister nou

6. Uitbreiding van die franchise

Hoewel stemreg teen die begin van die 20ste eeu verre van universeel was, het meer as 60% van die mans stemreg gehad, in teenstelling met 20%, wat die geval was toe Victoria in 1837 koningin geword het. stemme wat in die geheim gehou moet word, wat eksterne invloede of druk wat stemgedrag beïnvloed, aansienlik verminder het.

Anders as baie ander Europese eweknieë, kon Brittanje die franchise geleidelik en sonder omwenteling verleng: sy het gevolglik polities stabiel gebly gedurende die 20ste eeu.

7. Herdefiniëring van die monarg

Die beeld van die monargie was erg aangetas toe Victoria die troon erf. Die koninklike familie, wat bekend is vir uitspattigheid, losse sedes en binnegevegte, moes sy beeld verander. Die 18 -jarige Victoria was 'n vars asem: 400 000 mense was op haar kroningdag in die strate van Londen in die hoop om 'n blik op die nuwe koningin te kry.

Victoria en haar man Albert het 'n baie meer sigbare monargie geskep; hulle word beskermhere van tientalle liefdadigheidsorganisasies en verenigings, sit vir foto's, besoek stede en stede en oorhandig self pryse. Hulle het die beeld van 'n gelukkige gesin en 'n huislike saligheid gekweek: die egpaar was baie verlief en het nege kinders gebaar. Victoria se lang tydperk van rou na Albert se dood het 'n bron van frustrasie vir geld geword, maar getuig van haar toewyding aan haar man.

8. Ontspanning en populêre kultuur

Vrye tyd bestaan ​​nie voor die oorgrote meerderheid van die bevolking voor verstedeliking nie: landbouwerk was fisiek veeleisend, en ylbevolkte grond het min werk buite die werksure gelaat (natuurlik as daar genoeg lig was om dit te doen). Die opkoms van nuwe tegnologieë soos olie- en gaslampe, gekombineer met hoër lone, beperkinge op werksure en 'n groot aantal mense naby aan mekaar, het 'n toename in ontspanningsaktiwiteite veroorsaak.

Musea, uitstallings, dieretuine, teaters, see -uitstappies en voetbalwedstryde het almal gewild geword om die vrye tyd vir baie te geniet, eerder as net die elite. 'N Meer en meer geletterde bevolking het 'n oplewing in die produksie van koerante en boeke beleef, en heel nuwe ekonomieë, soos dié van afdelingswinkels sowel as goedkoop boeke, teaters en winkels, het begin ontstaan: sommige het bewys, soos die Groot Uitstalling van 1851, 'n uitstekende geleentheid vir politieke en propaganda, museums was 'n kans om die massas in te lig en op te voed, terwyl penny dreads gewild (en winsgewend) onder die massas was.

'N Onlangse studie wat in die wetenskapjoernaal Nature gepubliseer is, het die emosionele toon van boeke en koerante oor die afgelope 200 jaar gevolg en gesuggereer dat die Britte in die 19de eeu gelukkiger was. Ons het Hannah Woods op die pod pronto gekry om ons deur die werklikheid van die lewe in die 19de eeu te vertel.

Kyk nou

Victoria

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Victoria, tenvolle Alexandrina Victoria, (gebore 24 Mei 1819, Kensington Palace, Londen, Engeland - oorlede 22 Januarie 1901, Osborne, naby Cowes, Isle of Wight), koningin van die Verenigde Koninkryk van Groot -Brittanje en Ierland (1837–1901) en keiserin van Indië (1876–1901). Sy was die laaste van die huis van Hanover en het haar naam gegee aan 'n era, die Victoriaanse tydperk. Tydens haar bewind het die Britse monargie sy moderne seremoniële karakter aangeneem. Sy en haar man, prinsgemal Albert van Sakse-Coburg-Gotha, het nege kinders gehad, deur wie se huwelike baie van die koninklike gesinne van Europa afstam.

Waarom is Victoria bekend?

Victoria was koningin van die Verenigde Koninkryk van Groot -Brittanje en Ierland (1837–1901) en keiserin van Indië (1876–1901). Haar bewind was een van die langste in die Britse geskiedenis, en die Victoriaanse era is na haar vernoem.

Hoe was Victoria se kinderjare?

Victoria se pa is dood toe sy 'n baba was. Sy is grootgemaak deur haar ma in die Kensington -paleis en het 'n eensame kinderjare gehad totdat sy op 18 -jarige ouderdom koningin geword het.

Wanneer het Victoria getrou?

Victoria trou op 10 Februarie 1840 met haar eerste neef Albert, prins van Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

Wat was Victoria se kinders se name?

Victoria het nege kinders gehad: Victoria (1840–1901), die prinses koninklike Albert Edward (1841–1910), wat koning Edward VII geword het Alice (1843–78) Alfred (1844–1900) Helena (1846–1923) Louise (1848– 1939) Arthur (1850–1942) Leopold (1853–84) en Beatrice (1857–1944). Deur hul huwelike is baie van die koninklike families van Europa afkomstig van Victoria.

Victoria het die eerste keer van haar toekomstige rol as 'n jong prinses verneem tydens 'n geskiedenisles toe sy 10 was. Byna vier dekades later onthou die goewerneur van Victoria dat die toekomstige koningin op die ontdekking gereageer het deur te verklaar: "Ek sal goed wees." Hierdie kombinasie van erns en egoïsme het Victoria gekenmerk as 'n kind van die ouderdom wat haar naam dra. Die koningin verwerp egter belangrike Victoriaanse waardes en verwikkelinge. Alhoewel sy swangerskap en geboorte gehaat het, babas verafsku en ongemaklik was in die teenwoordigheid van kinders, regeer Victoria in 'n samelewing wat moederskap sowel as die gesin geïdealiseer het. Sy het geen belangstelling in sosiale kwessies gehad nie, maar die 19de eeu in Brittanje was 'n tyd van hervorming. Sy weerstaan ​​tegnologiese verandering, selfs terwyl meganiese en tegnologiese innovasies die gesig van die Europese beskawing verander het.

Die belangrikste was dat Victoria 'n koningin was wat vasbeslote was om die politieke mag te behou, maar sy was onwillig en onbewustelik die voorsitter van die transformasie van die politieke rol van die soewerein in 'n seremoniële en het sodoende die Britse monargie behou. Toe Victoria koningin word, was die politieke rol van die kroon geensins duidelik nie, en ook nie die permanensie van die troon self nie. Toe sy sterf en haar seun Edward VII van die Marlborough -huis na die Buckingham -paleis verhuis, was die verandering eerder van sosiale as van politieke fokus, en daar was geen twyfel oor die voortbestaan ​​van die monargie nie. Dit was die maatstaf van haar regering.


Groot pioniers

Isambard Kingdom Brunel © Die ontwerper van die Great Western was die briljante jong ingenieur van die Great Western Railway, Isambard Kingdom Brunel, wat sy direkteure oortuig het dat 'n transatlantiese redery die natuurlike manier is om die dienste wat hul spoor bied, uit te brei. Brunel se reaksie op die uitdaging van sy mededingers was om 'n groter en beter skip te ontwerp. In Julie 1839 is die kiel in Bristol gelê vir 'n nuwe yster superskip van 3270 ton. Dit was ontwerp vir spoed en gemak en sou die mees revolusionêre stoomskip van die vroeë Victoriaanse tydperk wees. Uitgerus met kajuite en staatskamers vir 360 passasiers en die grootste en weelderigste eetkamer op die been, en die eerste groot skip wat met skroef aangedryf is, stel Groot-Brittanje nog dekades lank die standaard vir groot vaartuie. Teen 1853 het die Groot -Brittanje, wat tot 630 passasiers huisves, 'n doeltreffende diens van Londen na Australië bedryf en dit vir byna twintig jaar lank aangehou.

Die sukses van Groot -Brittanje het Brunel en sy ondersteuners aangemoedig om nog een skip te skep. In 1854 word begin met die bou van die Great Eastern in Millwallon the Thames in die ooste van Londen. Die skip was ontwerp om 4000 passasiers en genoeg steenkool te vervoer om na Australië te vaar sonder om te vul, en was 693 voet lank, 120 voet breed en weeg meer as 18 900 ton. Niks op hierdie skaal is ooit oorweeg nie, en toe sy uiteindelik in 1888 verbreek is, was die Groot Oosterse nog steeds die grootste skip ter wêreld. Die skaalrekords wat deur die Groot Oosterse opgestel is, is eers uiteindelik deur die superliners van die Edwardiaanse era, die Lusitania van 1907, die Titanic van 1912 en die Imperator van 1913 gebreek. 38 betalende passasiers.

Skaal en tegniese virtuositeit was nie genoeg nie en die kleiner, eenvoudiger en vinniger skepe van Samuel Cunard het die verkeer gevang.

Dit het 'n patroon geword en die skip het nooit gevul met alle slaapplaatsen nie. Skaal en tegniese virtuositeit was nie genoeg nie en die kleiner, eenvoudiger en vinniger skepe van Samuel Cunard het die verkeer gevang. Die Groot -Ooste het in 1863 toenemend 'n wit olifant uit passasiersdiens gekom en is deur die Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company geoktrooieer om telegraafkabels oor die Atlantiese Oseaan en van Indië na Aden te lê, 'n taak waarvoor haar groot omvang en kragtige enjins haar gemaak het uiters geskik.

Die Britse regering het van vroeg af besef dat die suksesvolle werking en instandhouding van 'n uitbreidende handelsryk afhang van vinnige, gereelde en betroubare stoomskipdienste, ondersteun deur kool- en toevoerstasies wat oor die hele wêreld versprei is. Die primêre funksie van die Royal Navy in Victoriaanse Brittanje was die beskerming van hierdie handelsroetes en hul toevoerbase. As gevolg hiervan het die regering die ontwikkeling en instandhouding van die roetes geborg en toenemend die koste van die bou van die skepe. In 1840 word die Peninsular Company die Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, met regeringskontrakte om dienste na Egipte, Suid -Afrika, Indië, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapoer, Australië en Nieu -Seeland te bedryf. Terwyl die Cunard -naam sinoniem geword het met die Atlantiese Oseaan, ontwikkel P & ampO sy langtermyn -assosiasie met roetes oos van Suez.


4. Koningin Victoria was die eerste bekende draer van hemofilie, 'n siekte wat bekend sou staan ​​as die “Royal disease. ”

Hemofilie, 'n bloedstollingsversteuring wat veroorsaak word deur 'n mutasie op die X -chromosoom, kan langs die moederlyn oorgedra word binne gesinne, mans is meer geneig om dit te ontwikkel, terwyl vroue gewoonlik draers is. Lyers kan oormatig bloei, aangesien hul bloed nie behoorlik stol nie, wat kan lei tot uiterste pyn en selfs die dood. Victoria se seun Leopold, hertog van Albany, is dood aan bloedverlies nadat hy gegly het en haar kleinseun Friedrich op 2 -jarige ouderdom doodgeblaas het, terwyl twee ander kleinseuns, Leopold en Maurice, in die vroeë 30's aan die ellende gesterf het. Terwyl Victoria se afstammelinge in koninklike gesinne in Europa getrou het, het die siekte van Brittanje na die adel van Duitsland, Rusland en Spanje versprei. Onlangse navorsing oor DNA -ontleding oor die bene van die laaste Russiese koninklike familie, die Romanovs (wat in 1918 tereggestel is na die Bolsjewistiese rewolusie) het aan die lig gebring dat die afstammelinge van Victoria aan 'n subtipe van die siekte, hemofilie B, ly, wat baie minder gereeld voorkom as hemofilie A en blyk nou uit te wees in die Europese koninklike lyne.


Koningin Victoria se tydlyn

1819 -Victoria, dogter van Edward, hertog van Kent en Victoria van Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield, word op 24 Mei in die Kensington-paleis gebore.


1837 - Op 20 Junie word Victoria op 18 -jarige ouderdom koningin van Engeland en volg sy oom William IV op.


1837 - Prins Albert skryf 'n brief aan sy neef, die koningin van Engeland.


1838 - Victoria word op 28 Junie in die Westminster Abbey gekroon.


1840 - Huwelik van koningin Victoria en prins Albert op 10 Februarie.


1840 - Prinses Victoria word gebore - eerste kind.


1841 - Prins Albert Edward Wettin word gebore - tweede kind en toekomstige koning van Engeland.


1842 - Poging tot moord op koningin Victoria.


1843 - Prinses Alice Maude Mary word gebore - derde kind.


1844 - Prins Alfred Ernest Albert word gebore - vierde kind.


1846 - Prinses Helena Augusta Victoria word gebore - vyfde kind.


1848 - Prinses Louise Caroline Alberta word gebore - sesde kind.


1850 - Prins Arthur William Patrick word gebore - sewende kind.


1851 - Groot uitstalling word geopen in die Crystal Palace in Hyde Park.


1853 - Prins Leopold George Duncan word gebore - agtste kind.

1857 - Prinses Beatrice Mary Victoria word gebore - negende kind.


1857 - Die parlement gee Albert die titel van prinsgemaal.


1861 - Prins Albert sterf aan tyfus op 42 -jarige ouderdom.


1863 - Edward, prins van Wallis, trou met Alexandra van Denemarke.


1877 - Victoria word keiserin van Indië.


1887 - Koningin Victoria vier haar Golden Jubilee, 40ste herdenking van haar troonbestyging.


1897 - Koningin Victoria vier haar Diamond Jubilee, 50ste herdenking van haar troonbestyging.

1901 - Die dood van koningin Victoria by Osborne House, Isle of Wight op 22 Januarie. Sy was 81.


Wat was belangrik vir koningin Victoria?

Koningin Victoria het die moderne rol van 'n monarg in 'n konstitusionele monargie gevestig en haar invloed uitgeoefen om die uitbreiding van die Britse Ryk en hervormings tot voordeel van die armes te bevorder, volgens die webwerf van The British Monarchy. Tydens haar 67-jarige regering van Brittanje beleef die Ryk enorme sosiale, politieke en industriële verandering. Haar lang lewe, gekombineer met haar genade en teruggetrokke aard, het daartoe gelei dat sy 'n nasionale ikoon van morele strengheid geword het.

Koningin Victoria regeer in 'n tyd toe die Britse monarg min politieke mag gehad het. Tog gebruik sy haar titel en persoonlikheid om openbare aangeleenthede te beïnvloed soos sy goeddink. Die gevolge van haar politiek agter die skerms was waarneembaar in die buitelandse beleid. Victoria het haar ministers suksesvol gedruk om nie die nasie in die Pruise-Oostenryk-Denemarke-betrokkenheid te betrek nie, en sodoende Brittanje te red van die koste van massiewe militêre betrokkenheid. Volgens die amptelike webwerf van The British Monarchy het Victoria 'n Frans-Duitse oorlog in 1875 verhoed deur 'n oortuigende brief aan die keiser van Duitsland te skryf, wie se seun met haar dogter getroud was.

Deur 'n persoonlike verhouding met premier Benjamin Disraeli het koningin Victoria indirek die buitelandse beleid gevorm wat van Brittanje 'n wêreldryk gemaak het. Tydens haar bewind het die Kroon die heerskappy van Indië oorgeneem van die Oos -Indiese Kompanjie, die Royal Titles Act het Victoria keiserin van Indië gemaak.

Victoria ondersteun ook 'n aantal dade wat die land demokratiseer het, waaronder die instelling van die geheime stemming, die versoepeling van die stemvereistes en die instelling van loonverhogings vir die werkersklas.


Jou gids vir koningin Victoria en 'n tydlyn van haar lewe - plus 16 fassinerende feite

Koningin Victoria (1819-1901), een van die mees ikoniese monarge in die geskiedenis, het meer as 60 jaar lank regeer. Sy was die keiserin van die wêreld se grootste ryk ooit, en haar naam dui op 'n hele era van die Britse geskiedenis. Hier bied ons u 'n gids tot haar lewe, plus 16 feite ...

Hierdie kompetisie is nou gesluit

Gepubliseer: 6 Januarie 2021 om 15:20

Ten tyde van haar geboorte was daar nooit van Victoria verwag om koningin te wees nie. Maar ná die dood van haar oom, koning William IV, volg sy hom op 18 -jarige ouderdom op. Hier is feite wat u moet weet oor die verkleinwoordelike monarg-van haar beroemde liefde en rou oor haar man, prins Albert van Sakse-Coburg, tot die vele pogings in haar lewe ...

Koningin Victoria: 'n biografie

Gebore: 24 Mei 1819 in Kensington Palace, Londen (gebore Alexandrina Victoria) | Lees meer oor haar kinderjare

Oorlede: 22 Januarie 1901, 81 jaar oud Lees meer oor haar laaste dae en dood

Voorafgegaan deur: Koning Willem IV, haar oom | Lees meer oor haar ongewone opvolging

Regeer: 1837–1901

Ouers: Edward (vierde seun van koning George III) en Victoria, die hertog en hertogin van Kent

Eggenoot: Prins Albert van Sakse-Coburg-Gotha | Lees meer oor hul verhouding

Kinders: Koningin Victoria en prins Albert het nege kinders, vyf dogters en vier seuns gehad. Die oudste was prinses Victoria (b1840) en die jongste was prinses Beatrice (b1857) | Lees meer oor Victoria se kinders

Oorsaak van dood: Victoria sterf in die Osborne -huis op die Isle of Wight, 81 jaar oud, nadat sy 'n reeks beroertes opgedoen het

Opgevolg deur: Haar oudste seun, Edward VII (gebore Albert Edward) (1841–1910)

Victoria is vyfde gebore op die troon

"Plump as a patridge ... more of a pocket Hercules than a pocket Venus", is hoe die hertog van Kent sy lewendige pasgebore dogter prinses Victoria beskryf het toe sy op 24 Mei 1819 in die Kensington -paleis gebore is.

Alhoewel sy een van Brittanje se mees ikoniese vorste geword het, het Victoria se geboorte nie 'n nasionale viering ingelui nie. As dogter van koning George III se vierde seun, was Victoria ten tyde van haar geboorte slegs vyfde op die troon. Na verwagting net nog 'n minderjarige koninklike familielid wat in 'n Europese koninklike familie sou trou, het Victoria se aankoms effens onder die radar gegly. Min kon voorspel het dat sy meer as 60 jaar op die troon sou sit. Teen die tyd dat Victoria haar tienerjare bereik het, het die dood van haar pa, sy broers en enige ander wettige erfgename die jong prinses as die naaste erfgenaam van koning William IV agtergelaat.

Op 24 Junie 1819 is die prinses tydens 'n rustige seremonie gedoop. Gefrustreerd oor sy eie onvermoë om 'n oorlewende erfgenaam te produseer, het die oom van Victoria, die Prins Regent, net 'n handjievol mense toegelaat. Onder die leiding van haar oom het sy die naam 'Alexandrina Victoria' gekry. Destyds was Victoria ver van 'n koninklike naam - dit was hoogs ongewoon en van Franse oorsprong. Toe dit duidelik word dat Victoria inderdaad tot die troon sou toetree, was haar naam heeltemal onvanpas vir 'n koningin van Engeland. Sy is aangeraai om dit na iets meer tradisioneel te verander, maar het geweier.

Koningin Victoria het 'n ongelukkige kinderjare gehad

Victoria het haar vormingsjare in die Kensington -paleis deurgebring. Die paleis was egter op baie maniere 'n gevangenis vir die prinses, en haar kinderjare was ver van rooskleurig.

Na haar pa se dood aan longontsteking toe sy net agt maande oud was, word Victoria se vroeë lewe oorheers deur haar ma, die hertogin van Kent, en haar ambisieuse adviseur sir John Conroy. Conroy wou homself as die mag agter die troon vestig in die geval van 'n regentskap (waarin Victoria se ma saam met haar sou regeer as sy nog steeds jonger was), en probeer om die prinses onder beheer te hou. Beide hy en die hertogin het 'n vyandige verhouding met Victoria se oom, koning William, gehad en het Victoria gevolglik van die koninklike hof afgesonder gehou, selfs verhinder dat sy haar oom se kroning kon bywoon.

Die paar het 'n verstikkende dissiplinêre kode opgelê aan die jong Victoria, wat bekend staan ​​as die 'Kensington System'. Saam met 'n streng lesrooster om haar morele en intellektuele strengheid te verbeter, het hierdie versmorende regime bepaal dat die prinses skaars tyd saam met ander kinders deurgebring het en onder konstante toesig van volwassenes was. Tot die tyd dat sy koningin geword het, moes Victoria met haar ma 'n slaapkamer deel. Dit is haar verbied om ooit alleen te wees, of selfs trappe af te loop sonder dat iemand haar hand vashou.

Later in die lewe het Victoria weerspieël dat sy ''n baie ongelukkige lewe as kind gelei het ... en nie geweet het wat 'n gelukkige huislike lewe is nie'. Sy het 'n diepgewortelde haat teenoor John Conroy behou omdat sy haar ma gemanipuleer het en sulke streng reëls op haar afgedwing het, en beskryf hom later as '' vleeslike demoon ''.

Victoria was slegs 18 toe sy koningin geword het

'Ek het alleen in my sitkamer ingegaan (net in my kamerjas) en hulle gesien. Lord Conyngham het my toe bekend gemaak dat my arme oom, die koning, nie meer was nie en dat hy vanoggend om twaalf minute oor twee uur verstryk het en gevolglik dat ek die koningin was. ”

Dit is hoe Victoria die oomblik onthou wat haar lewe vir ewig sou verander. Op 20 Junie 1837 om 06:00 is die jong prinses uit haar bed wakker gemaak om in kennis te stel dat haar oom, koning William IV, gedurende die nag gesterf het. Dit het beteken dat Victoria, wat toe slegs 18 was, nou koningin van Engeland was.

Alhoewel dit 'n skok was, het Victoria die nuus uiters stoïsties aangeneem. Ten spyte van haar jong ouderdom het sy kalm gebly en het sy nie die reuk soute nodig gehad wat haar goewerneur vir haar voorberei het nie. In haar eerste ontmoeting met haar privaatraad, net 'n paar uur later, het Victoria se nuwe predikante oor haar getorring - op slegs 4ft 11, moes sy op 'n verhoogde platform sit om gesien te word. Wat Victoria egter in lengte ontbreek, het sy vasberade gemaak, en sy het vinnig 'n gunstige indruk gemaak.

Victoria het minder as 'n maand 18 geword voordat sy op die troon gekom het. Dit was 'n deurslaggewende mylpaal, aangesien dit beteken het dat sy onder haar eie stoom kon regeer, eerder as saam met haar ma in 'n regentskap. Sy het haar nuwe lewe begin deur weg te trek van haar kinderhuis in Kensington na Buckingham -paleis, deels om te ontsnap aan die beheersende invloed van Conroy en haar ma. Haar verhouding met haar ma bly jare lank gespanne en ver en sy beperk Conroy se invloed by die hof. Net twee jaar nadat Victoria die troon beklee, bedank hy sy pos en vertrek te midde van skaamte en skandaal na Italië.

In Junie die volgende jaar is Victoria gekroon tydens 'n seremonie van vyf uur in die Westminster Abbey, gevolg deur 'n koninklike banket en vuurwerke. 'Ek sal hierdie dag ooit onthou as die trotsste in my lewe', het sy in haar dagboek opgeteken.

Tydlyn van koningin Victoria: 9 mylpale in die lewe van die monarg

24 Mei 1819 - Prinses Victoria word gebore

20 Junie 1837 - Die jong prinses word 'n koningin

1839 - Die bedkamerkrisis

10 Februarie 1840-Koningin Victoria trou met prins Albert van Saxe-Coburg en Gotha

21 November 1840 - Victoria en Albert begin 'n koninklike familie

14 Desember 1861 - Prins Albert sterf

20 Junie 1887 en 22 Junie 1897 - Die land vier Victoria se goue en diamantjubileums

22 Januarie 1901 - Koningin Victoria sterf

Koningin Victoria stel prins Albert voor

Alhoewel sy as jong vrou baie vryers gehad het, was haar man, prins Albert van Saxe-Coburg en Gotha, 'n sleutelfiguur in Victoria se lewe en regering. Victoria het die Duitse prins in die Kensington -paleis ontmoet toe die twee net 17 was. Die ontmoeting van Victoria en Albert, wat ook eerste neefs was, is deur die oom van Victoria, Leopold I van België, aangevoer wat geglo het dat hy polities baat by die wedstryd .

Ondanks die huweliksmakelaar wat die egpaar laat ontmoet het, was dit beslis 'n liefdeswedstryd. Victoria se dagboek onthul dat sy die jong prins 'uiters aantreklik' gevind het. Sy het geskryf, "sy oë is groot en blou, en hy het 'n pragtige neus en 'n baie soet mond met fyn tande, maar die sjarme van sy aangesig is sy uitdrukking, wat die heerlikste is". Soos die koninklike tradisie bepaal het dat niemand aan 'n heersende monarg kon voorstel nie, was dit in Oktober 1839 Victoria wat Albert voorgestel het.

Victoria se huwelik was die eerste van 'n regerende koningin van Engeland in 286 jaar

Koningin Victoria en prins Albert se troue, wat op 10 Februarie 1840 in die kapel van St James's Palace plaasgevind het, was die eerste huwelik van 'n regerende koningin van Engeland sedert Mary I in 1554. Victoria het 'n trein van 12 voet lank gedra deur 12 bruidsmeisies en het 'n moderne tradisie afgeskop deur wit te dra. Buite het die nasie uitgebreek tot 'n groot openbare viering. Victoria het opgeteken hoe sy 'nooit sulke skares mense gesien het nie ... hulle het die geesdriftigste gejubel'. Sy beskou die gebeurtenis as "die gelukkigste dag van my lewe".

In die loop van hul 21-jarige huwelik het Victoria en Albert 'n passievolle, soms soms onstuimige, verhouding gehad. Alhoewel die egpaar brandende argumente gehad het, het Victoria haar man duidelik aanbid en hom in haar dagboek beskryf as "perfeksie in elke opsig ... hoe lief ek hom het en liefhet".

Koningin Victoria het nege kinders ... maar sy haat dit om swanger te wees

Net meer as nege maande na hul troue is Victoria en Albert se eerste kind, prinses Victoria, in die Buckingham -paleis gebore. Die koningin het kort daarna opgeteken hoe 'na 'n baie ure se lyding 'n volmaakte kindjie gebore is ... maar helaas! 'N Meisie en nie 'n seun nie, soos ons albei so gehoop en gewens het ". Die wense van die koninklike egpaar is egter minder as 'n jaar later vervul toe Victoria geboorte gee aan 'n manlike erfgenaam: Edward, by die familie bekend as Bertie. Victoria en Albert het altesaam nege kinders gehad - vier seuns en vyf meisies.

Dit was verbasend dat Victoria gehaat het om swanger te wees, en historici het voorgestel dat sy moontlik aan postnatale depressie gely het. Sy vergelyk swangerskap met die gevoel van 'n koei en skryf dat ''n lelike baba 'n baie nare voorwerp is - en die mooiste is skrikwekkend as dit uitgetrek word'.

Baie van Victoria se kinders is in die koninklike gesinne van Europa getroud, maar sy het haar hele lewe lank 'n noue, miskien selfs verstikkende verhouding met hulle onderhou. Sy het 'n berugte, onheilspellende verhouding gehad met haar oudste seun, die charismatiese, maar vinnig gemoedelike Bertie.

Die 'Bedchamber Crisis' van 1839 het koningin Victoria in die moeilikheid laat beland

Victoria het die troon ingeneem in 'n tyd toe die rol van die monarg grotendeels apolities was. Maar vroeg in haar bewind het die onervare koningin in warm water beland om in politieke aangeleenthede in te meng, in 'n gebeurtenis genaamd 'The Bedchamber Crisis'.

Die eerste premier van Victoria se bewind was die Whig -politikus Lord Melbourne, met wie sy 'n buitengewone hegte verhouding gehad het. Melbourne het aansienlike heerskappy oor die jong koningin, wat volgens sy advies die meerderheid van haar inwagters aangestel het.

In 1839 bedank Melbourne na verskeie parlementêre nederlae. Tory Robert Peel tree op om voor premier te word, op een voorwaarde: hy versoek dat Victoria 'n paar van haar bestaande huishoudings - wat grootliks Whig -simpatie gehad het en lojaal aan Melbourne was - ontslaan en vervang word deur Tory -dames. Aangesien baie van Victoria se inwagende dames ook haar naaste vriende was, het sy op Peel se versoek aanstoot geneem en geweier.

Die koningin is reeds gekritiseer vir haar te veel afhanklikheid van Lord Melbourne, en nou word sy wyd veroordeel omdat sy nie net polities partydig was nie, maar ongrondwetlik was. Die gespanne situasie is uiteindelik ontlont deur die immer redelike prins Albert, wat gereël het dat sommige van die Victoria-dames vrywillig hul pos bedank.

Koningin Victoria het verskeie tale gepraat

Miskien, deels as gevolg van haar streng skoolopleiding onder die 'Kensington -stelsel', was Victoria 'n merkwaardige vaardige taalkundige. Behalwe dat sy beide Engels en Duits magtig was, het sy ook Frans, Italiaans en Latyn gepraat.

Terwyl haar ma en goewerneur beide uit Duitsland afkomstig was, het Victoria grootgeword om die taal te spreek en het sy in 'n stadium selfs 'n Duitse aksent gehad, wat deur onderwysers uitgewis moes word. Toe sy later met haar Duitse neef, prins Albert van Saxe-Coburg en Gotha, trou, het die egpaar gereeld Duits saam gepraat. Alhoewel Albert magtig Engels was, kon hy en Victoria gereeld in Duits in 'n privaat gesprek hoor - en inderdaad stry -.

Later in die lewe het Victoria ook geëksperimenteer met 'n paar tale van regoor haar uitgestrekte ryk. Na die aankoms van Indiese bediendes by die Windsor -kasteel in Augustus 1887, is haar Hindustani en Oerdoe frases geleer deur haar gunsteling Indiese bediende, Abdul Karim. Die koningin het in haar dagboek opgeteken: 'Ek leer 'n paar woorde van Hindustani om met my dienaars te praat. It is a great interest to me for both the language and the people, I have naturally never come into real contact with before”.

The queen’s relationship with her prime ministers wasn’t always easy

Over the course of the six decades she sat on the throne, Victoria saw many prime ministers come and go. Yet while she established a remarkably close bond with some, others failed spectacularly to win her favour.

Victoria’s first prime minister, Lord Melbourne, was keen to flatter, instruct and influence the young queen from the very beginning. The pair were so close that Victoria claimed to love him “like a father”. However, this intense friendship with ‘Lord M’ made the queen unpopular with many – she was criticised for being politically partisan and was even mockingly called her “Mrs Melbourne”. Later in her reign, Benjamin Disraeli similarly pulled out all the stops to win Victoria’s favour with charm and flattery. His tactics clearly worked, as the queen told her eldest daughter [also named Victoria] that he would “do very well” and was “full of poetry, romance and chivalry”.

Other ministers, however, received a much less enthusiastic response from her majesty: she found Lord John Russell stubborn and rude and referred to Lord Palmerston as a “dreadful old man”. As foreign secretary, Palmerston had invoked Victoria’s wrath by ignoring Albert’s suggested amendments to dispatches and apparently attempting to seduce one of her ladies-in-waiting. Victoria found Gladstone similarly infuriating, and with her characteristically sharp tongue dismissed him as a “half-crazy and in many ways ridiculous, wild and incomprehensible old fanatic”.

Britain’s imperial conquests increased nearly fivefold during Victoria’s reign

Over the course of her reign, Victoria witnessed a mammoth expansion of the British empire. During her first 20 years on the throne, Britain’s imperial conquests had increased almost fivefold. By the time she died, it was the largest empire the world had ever known and included a quarter of the world’s population. As the monarchy was seen as a focal point for imperial pride, and a means of uniting the empire’s disparate peoples, Victoria’s image was spread across the empire.

The queen herself took a great interest in imperial affairs. In 1877, prime minister Benjamin Disraeli pronounced her empress of India in a move to cement Britain’s link to the “jewel in the empire’s crown”. The queen had pushed for the title for several years, but, concerned about its absolutist connotations, Disraeli had been hesitant to agree. By 1877, however, Victoria had become so insistent he felt he could not resist any longer, for fear of offending her.

Queen Victoria was known as the “grandmother of Europe”

Over the course of their 21-year marriage, Victoria and Albert raised nine children together. As a means of extending Britain’s influence and building international allegiances, several of their sons and daughters were married into various European monarchies, and within just a couple of generations Victoria’s descendants were spread across the continent. Her 42 grandchildren could be found in the royal families of Germany, Russia, Greece, Romania, Sweden, Norway and Spain.

Warring First World War royals Kaiser Wilhelm (of Germany), Tsarina Alexandra (of Russia) and George V (of Britain) were all grandchildren of Victoria. Kaiser Wilhelm reportedly remarked that had his grandmother still been alive, the First World War may never have happened, as she simply would not have allowed her relatives to go to war with one another.

Victoria’s widespread influence had unexpected genetic, as well as political, implications for Europe’s monarchies. It is believed that the queen was a carrier of haemophilia and had unwittingly introduced the rare inherited disease into her bloodline. Over subsequent generations the condition resurfaced in royal families across the continent. In an age of limited medical facilities, haemophilia – which affects the blood’s ability to clot – could have disastrous consequences. Victoria’s own son Leopold suffered from the disease and died aged 30 after he slipped and fell, triggering a cerebral haemorrhage. Three of the queen’s grandchildren also suffered from the disease, as did her great-grandson, the murdered heir to the Russian throne, Tsarevich Alexei.

Listen: Deborah Cadbury shows how Queen Victoria sought to influence the future of Europe through the marriages of her descendants, on this episode of the Geskiedenis Ekstra podcast:

Queen Victoria survived at least six assassination attempts

During the course of her 63-year-long reign, Victoria came out unscathed from at least six serious attempts on her life, some of which were terrifyingly close calls.

In June 1840, while four months pregnant with her first child, Victoria was shot at while on an evening carriage ride with Prince Albert. For a moment it seemed as though the queen had been hit, but Albert spurred the driver to speed away to safety and the would-be assassin, Edward Oxford, was apprehended.

Oxford – who was later acquitted on grounds of insanity – proved to be the first of many to target the queen while she was driving in her open-top carriage. In 1850, as the carriage slowed down to pass through the gates of Buckingham Palace, retired soldier Robert Pate ran forward and managed to strike the queen sharply on the head with a small cane. Although it transpired that the cane weighed less than three ounces, so could not have done much damage, the incident nonetheless unnerved Victoria. She escaped several more assassination attempts while riding in her carriage in 1842, 1849 and 1872.

Victoria was also infamously targeted by a stalker – a notorious teenager known in the newspapers as ‘The Boy Jones’. Between 1838 and 1841, Edward Jones managed to break into Buckingham Palace several times, hiding under the queen’s sofa, sitting on her throne and reportedly even stealing her underwear, before being caught.

Victoria mourned Prince Albert for 40 years

On 14 December 1861, Victoria’s life was rocked by the death of her beloved husband, Albert. As the prince was aged just 42 and generally enjoyed good health, his death from typhoid was highly unexpected. It came as a huge blow to the queen, who had been intensely reliant on his support, practically and politically as well as emotionally.

Following Albert’s death, Victoria retreated from public life, adopting elaborate mourning rituals that rapidly became obsessive. As time went on, the situation began to spiral out of control as it became clear the queen’s period of mourning would last much longer than the two years that convention dictated. Consumed by grief, Victoria fell into a state of depression and began neglecting her royal duties. As she repeatedly refused to take part in public events, her popularity began to deteriorate. The British people began to lose patience with their queen, questioning what the ‘Widow of Windsor’ did to earn her royal income. It was not until the 1870s that Victoria was coaxed back into gradually engaging in public life once more.

Despite the decades that passed, Victoria never fully recovered from the loss of Albert. Although she had other intimate relationships – most notably a close friendship with her Scottish servant John Brown – she never remarried. She continued to wear black and sleep beside an image of Albert, and she even had a set of clothes laid out for him each morning, right up until her own death 40 years later in 1901.

Both Queen Victoria’s golden and diamond jubilees were celebrated

Years after her damaging retreat from public life following Albert’s death, Victoria was eventually coaxed back into the limelight. Her golden and diamond jubilees of 1887 and 1897 were crucial to restoring her reputation. Designed to be show-stopping crowd-pleasers, these national festivities reinvented the ‘widow of Windsor’ as a source of national (and imperial) pride and celebration. Grand processions and military displays were jam-packed with patriotic pomp, while Victoria’s face was plastered on all manner of commemorative products.

During 1897’s diamond jubilee (marking Victoria’s 60th year on the throne), street parties, parades, fireworks and cricket games took place across the country. Some 300,000 of Britain’s poor were treated to a special jubilee dinner, while in India 19,000 prisoners were pardoned. During a royal procession to St Paul’s Cathedral, Victoria was reportedly so overwhelmed by the cheering crowds that she burst into tears.

Queen Victoria was buried with a lock of John Brown’s hair

As she entered her eighties, Victoria was still actively taking on her royal duties. Yet, after six decades on the throne, her health finally began to decline. After being diagnosed with ‘cerebral exhaustion’, Queen Victoria died at the age of 81 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, on 22 January 1901. The queen had refused to be embalmed, so part of the preparations that followed her death included preparing the coffin to combat the smell and absorb moisture, by scattering coal across its floor. The queen’s staff also cut off her hair, dressed her in a white silk dressing gown with garter ribbon and star and placed her wedding veil over her face, before summoning members of the queen’s family – the royal dukes, the kaiser and the new king, Edward VII – to lift her body into the coffin.

The family then retired, leaving staff to carry out the queen’s secret instructions that were never to be revealed to her children. The wedding ring of the mother of her personal servant, John Brown, was placed on her finger a photograph of Brown and a lock of his hair were laid beside her, along with Brown’s pocket handkerchief, all carefully hidden from view.

The queen was buried beside her beloved Prince Albert on 4 February 1901, in the mausoleum the queen had built for her husband at Frogmore, adjoining Windsor Castle.

Queen Victoria was succeeded by Edward VII, her eldest son

Victoria and Albert’s first son and second child was named Albert Edward, although he was known as ‘Bertie’. As Prince of Wales, he had a love of society and ‘good living’ and was known for his hearty appetites, Bertie – who was crowned King Edward VII on 9 August 1902 – defied expectations by proving himself to be a very successful and well-loved monarch.

Think you know everything about Queen Victoria? Put your knowledge to the test in our Queen Victoria quiz!

Ellie Cawthorne is staff writer at BBC History Magazine.

This article was first published by HistoryExtra in 2016


8 Key Developments Under Queen Victoria - History

This Chronology presents important dates in the history of social change and social reform in Britain in the 19th and early 20th centuries including parliamentary reform, industrialisation, urbanisation, industrial disputes, advances in technology, labour rights, sanitary conditions and health protection, education, social welfare, female emancipation, women's suffrage, and children’s rights.

1799 The Combination Act , getiteld An Act to prevent Unlawful Combinations of Workmen , prohibits trade unions and collective bargaining by workers.

1801 The official Census reports that Britain has a population of a little of 10.5 million.

1802 The Health and Morals of Apprentices Act (ook bekend as die Factory Act) limits hours of work for apprentices to 12 per day. No night work is allowed. Young employees are to provide education, decent clothing and accommodation to apprentices.

1807 Gas lights introduced in London. The Society for the Suppression of Vice is established. The Slave Act abolishes slave trade in the British Empire, but not slavery itself. Parochial Schools Bill makes provision for the education of the labouring classes.

1811 The National Society for the Education of the Poor founded.

1811-17 Luddites (mostly textile artisans in Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire) riot and destroy labour-saving textile machinery in the belief that such machinery would diminish employment.

1814 The British and Foreign School Society is founded by liberal Anglicans, Roman Catholics and Jews as an alternative to the National Society.

1815 Corn Laws cut off less expensive foreign wheat. Apothecaries Act sets national (England and Wales) standards for licensing of apothecaries.

1816 Safety lamps are introduced in mines. Robert Owen opens first infant school in New Lanark, Scotland.

1819 The First Factory Act stops children under nine from working in factories and limits those aged nine to sixteen to 72 hours. Peterloo massacre. An estimated 11 people, including a woman and a child, die from saber cuts and trampling by a cavalry charge, and over 400 men, women and children receive serious injuries at a mass reform meeting of 60,000 people on the 16th of August around what's now St Peters Square, Manchester. The term 'Peterloo' was intended to mock the soldiers who attacked unarmed civilians by echoing the term 'Waterloo'.

1820-1825 Legal Acts reform criminal codes. London's Regent Street built for expensive shopping.

1820-1850 A rapid growth of the British economy. Britain as a country gets richer, but the standard of living of the urban lower classes decreases. A respectable paid occupation for a middle-class woman is governess or dressmaker.

1821 The population of England and Wales is 11.5 million, Scotland 2 million, Ireland almost 7 million. The population of London is almost 1.5 million. Beginning of a spread of factory system and growth of industrial towns. The Bank of England (image) begins to function as a central bank.

1824 Combinations Acts of 1799 and 1800 repealed. Trade Unions legalised.

1825 Combinations of Workmen Act prohibits trade unions to collectively bargain for better terms and conditions at work, and suppresses the right to strike. Stockton and Darlington railway opens with a thirteen tonne train, 'Rocket', which achieves a speed of 44 miles per hour.

1826 Journeymen Steam Engine, Machine Makers and Millwrights Friendly Society formed.

1828 Repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts. Non-Anglican Protestants such as Unitarians, Wesleyan Methodists, Primitive Methodists and the Society of Friends, could sit in Parliament and participate in local government.

1829 The Catholic Emancipation Act ends most of denials or restrictions of Catholic civil rights, ownership of property, and holding of public office. This legislation allowed Catholics to sit as MPs for the first time since the Elizabethan Act of Settlement in 1558/9. Liverpool and Manchester railway opens. Sir Robert Peel’s police make their appearance in London. Before this time public order was maintained by the military forces.

1830 The Manchester-Liverpool Railway is opened. The Swing Riots, a widespread uprising by agricultural workers, begins with the destruction of threshing machines in the Elham Valley area of East Kent in the summer of 1830. It spreads throughout the whole of southern England and East Anglia.

1830s Demolition of houses arising from street clearances, warehouse construction and railway building in London.

1831 Factory Act prohibits night work of person under the age of 21. The Truck Act prohibits in certain trades the payment of wages in goods, tokens, or otherwise than in the current coin of the realm. The cholera epidemic draws attention to the deplorable lack of sanitation in the industrial cities.

1832 1832 The Reform Act enfranchises middle-class males and restructures representation in Parliament. Report of the Select Committee on the Bill for the Regulation of Factories describes appalling conditions, excessive hours of work and cruelty to children in factories.

1834 Poor Law Amendment Act. Parish workhouses are instituted. Robert Owen founds the Grand National Consolidated Trade Union. Chimney Sweeps Act forbids the apprenticing of any boy under the age of 10 years, and the employment of children under 14 in chimney sweeping unless they are apprenticed or on trial. The apprentices are not to be 'evil treated' by their employers, and any complaints of the children are to be heard by justices of the peace.

1835 Municipal Corporations Act replaces the unpaid administration of squires and magistrates with professional bureaucrats serving elected councils. Working Men’s Association is founded. The legislation follows the Reform Act of 1832, which abolishes most of the rotten boroughs for parliamentary purposes.

1836 The Civil Marriage Act broadens the range of legitimate marriage partners, regardless of religion and ceremony. The Church of England loses its monopoly over marriage services, and non-Anglicans are allowed to marry either in their own Church or in Registry Offices.

1836-1848 Chartist agitation for electoral reform and universal male suffrage. The University of London offers medical degree that combine academic instruction with clinical practice in medicine

1837 Queen Victoria succeeds to the throne. The middle class makes up about 15 percent of the population of England. The mandatory civil registration of births, marriages, and deaths is introduced in England and Wales.

1838 People's Charter published. Anti-Corn Law League founded. London-Birmingham line opens, and the railway boom starts (17 September).

1839 Child Custody Act gives mother limited rights in her children and right to petition for co-guardianship.Rural Police Act empowers Justices of the Peace to establish county police forces.

1840 The population of England and Wales is almost 16 million. Vaccination Act makes free vaccination available. Report of the Select Committee on the Health of the Towns exposes squalid living conditions in many industrial areas and recommends to create district boards of health which turn the public attention to the causes of illness and suggest means by which the sources of contagion might be removed. Penny Post: an inexpensive and fast mail service is established. Vaccination for the poor introduced. Chimney Sweeps Act prohibits any child under the age of 16 years being apprenticed, and any person under 21 being compelled or knowingly allowed to ascend or descend a chimney or flue for sweeping, cleaning or coring. Grammar Schools Act allows endowment funds to be spent on modern and commercial subjects.

1842 Report on Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain , compiled by Edwin Chadwick, Secretary to the Poor Law Commission, reveals that working-class streets and homes are appallingly and dangerously unsanitary. Mines and Collieries Act makes it illegal for women and children under ten to work below ground. Prime Minister Robert Peel reintroduces income tax (which had last been collected in 1816). The tax becomes the government's principal source of revenue for public spending. Railway from Manchester to London opens.

1843 The Royal Commission for Inquiry into the State of Large Towns and Populous Districts established.

1844 The Royal Commission of Health in Towns established. Beginning of the cooperative movement at Rochdale. Labour in Factories Act amends the regulations concerning factory inspectors and certifying surgeons. For the first time machinery is required to be guarded.The Railway Regulation Act provides for a minimum standard for rail passenger travel. It also makes provision of certain compulsory services at a price affordable to poorer people to enable them to travel to find work.

1845 Engels laments in his Condition of the Working Class in England : &ldquoThe worker is forced to live in such dilapidated dwellings because he cannot afford to rent better accommodation, or because no better cottages are available close to the factory where he is working.&rdquo The Final Report of the Health of the Towns Commission recommends that local authorities should be responsible for drainage, paving, cleansing and water supply as well as they should have the authority to require that landlords clean and repair properties dangerous to public health. The Bastardy Clause of the 1834 Poor Law repealed.

1845-48 The potato blight destroys Ireland's population growth up to a million people die of malnutrition two million emigrate. The new technology of steam printing makes books cheaper.

1846 Parliament begins defining what constitutes unfit conditions for living accommodation in the first of several Nuisances Removal Acts. Repeal of the Corn Laws.

1847 Cholera epidemics in London and other industrial cities in England. The Ten Hour Act further limits the workday for both women and adolescent males to ten hours daily and 58 hours in a week. Asylum for Idiots established at Highgate. James Simpson Young first uses chloroform for women in labour. William Dixon and W. P. Roberts, two of the leaders of the Miners' Association of Great Britain and Ireland, become the first union officials to stand for election to parliament.

1848 Major cholera epidemic sweeping westwards in Europe in England about 60,000 deaths, about 14,000 in London alone. Influenza pandemic, 50,000 deaths in London. Public Health Act establishes a General Board of Health empowered to create local boards of health which have authority to deal with water supplies, sewerage, control of offensive trades, quality of foods, paving of streets, removal of garbage, and other sanitary measures. The Queen’s College for Women is founded in London. An Act of Parliament established 'ragged schools' for the children of the poor. Publication of John Stuart Mill's Principles of Political Economy , the book which presented a more optimistic view of the possibility for improving the conditions of living of the working class.

1849 Another cholera epidemic 3,183 deaths reported in London. There are over 3,000 textile factories in Britain.

1850 Factories Act amends the act of 1847 by stating the times between which young people and women could be employed in factories and increases the total hours which could be worked by them to 60 per week. Public Libraries Act enacted.

1851 The population of England is almost 18 million. 54 percent live in urban areas. Saltaire, a model housing development is built by Sir Titus Salt, a leading industrialist in the Yorkshire woollen industry. The Great Exhibition, a celebration of technological achievement and British imperial power, opens at the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London (1 May). It attracts more than six million visitors to Britain, the richest nation in the world. There are 161,000 commercial horse-drawn vehicles on British roads, most of them are linked to railway travel. Cripples Home and Industrial School for Girls founded at Marylebone.

1852 The first public library opens in Manchester.

1853 Compulsory Vaccination Act introduces vaccination for all infants within four months of birth, but contains no powers of enforcement. Queen Victoria uses chloroform at the birth of her eighth child, and thereby ensures its use as an anaesthetic.

1854 London Working Men's College is founded.

1854-56 Crimean War: Florence Nightingale organises hospitals and nursing services.

1855 Metropolis Management Act creates the Metropolitan Board of Works, body to co-ordinate the construction of the London's infrastructure. Abolition of stamp duties on newspapers enables the British workers to read newspapers at an affordable price.

1857 Matrimonial Causes Act establishes divorce courts (The Court for Divorce and Matrimonial Causes). It entitles couples to divorce without the need to obtain permission via a private Act of Parliament. The grounds, however, are different for men and women: a husband can divorce his wife on the grounds of adultery the woman, on the other hand, must prove adultery and cruelty or desertion. The famous report on prostitution by William Acton presents a conservative view of female sexuality.

1858 Workhouse Visiting Society is formed. The first swimming bath for ladies is opened at Marylebone, London. Lionel de Rothschild is the first Jew seated in Parliament. The property qualification of MPs abolished.

1859 Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species .

1860 Food and Drugs Act prevents the adulteration of food.The Nightingale School of Nursing is founded.

1860s Philanthropic societies build model housing: blocks of tenements (mainly in London) where working people can rent flats, e.g. Beaconsfield buildings, Improved Industrial Dwellings Company and Peabody Trust. Some large factory owners also build model housing estates for employees, e.g. the manufacturer and philanthropist Titus Salt at Saltaire.

1861 Local Government Act amends the 1858 act by requiring local authorities to purify sewerage before discharging it into rivers and canals. Post Office savings scheme for ordinary people is launched. The abolition of the 'Taxes on Knowledge' (the stamp duties on newspapers and the customs and excise duties on paper) results in spectacular development of daily and Sunday newspapers. Lectures in physiology opened to ladies at University College, London.

1862 Companies Act provides stimulus to accumulation of capital in shares. Florence Nightingale establishes Nightingale School for Nurses at St. Thomas' Hospital (image).

1863 The world's first underground railway opens in London in January between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. There are over 1,000 newspapers in Britain. Queen's Institute founded in London for the industrial training of women.

1864 The first Contagious Diseases Act is passed, permitting forcible registration and regular internal examination of women suspected to be prostitute, within a radius of 11 army camps and naval ports in England and Ireland.

1865 Girls are admitted to Cambridge Local Examinations. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson passes the Society of Apothecaries examination and becomes the first British woman licensed as a doctor. Barbara Bodichon forms Women's Suffrage Committee.

1866 A second new Contagious Diseases Act adds Chatham and Windsor to the list of towns and introduces the enforcement of fortnightly medical examinations of women for venereal disease. Women's suffrage societies founded in London, Edinburgh, and Manchester.

1867 Second Reform Act doubles the electorate (15 August). Metropolitan Poor Act provides for the establishment of hospitals for the sick and insane. John Stuart Mill introduces the first women’s suffrage bill into parliament. Josephine Butler establishes the first Industrial Home which provides former prostitutes with work, such as making clothes and envelopes. Factory Extension Act brings all factories employing more than 50 people under the terms of all existing factory acts, forbids the employment of children, young people and women on Sundays and amends some regulations of previous acts.

1868 Founding of the Trades Union Congress. Torren's Act imposes punishment for landlords who fail to improve their property. Last public execution in England.

1869 The Ladies National Association for the Repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts founded. The first municipal housing estate in Europe, St Martin’s Cottages are built in Liverpool. The Charity Organisation Society is founded in response to growing pauperism in London and other large cities during the 1860s. First women's college at Cambridge (Girton — image). Women ratepayers receive municipal franchise. Imprisonment for debt is abolished. Anglican Church disestablished in Ireland.

1870 W. E. Forster's Education Act makes elementary education available to all children in England and Wales. William Fowler MP introduces a private member's bills to repeal the Contagious Diseases Acts. A Royal Commission is set up to consider the matter. The First Married Women’s Property Act allows wives to retain earned income and property acquired after her marriage.Over 30 large music halls in London and almost 400 large music halls in Britain.

1871 The population of England and Wales is 27,7 million, Scotland 3.5 million, Ireland 5.4. Religious tests for university teachers and officials abolished. Trade unions legalised and workers are granted the right to strike. Bank Holidays Act lays down that Easter Monday, Whit Monday, the first Monday in August and 26th of December (if a weekday) should be official holidays.

1872 Voting by secret ballot is introduced in national elections. National Agricultural Labourers Union founded. Metalliferous Mines Regulation Act prohibits the employment in the mines of all girls, women and boys under the age of 12 years introduces powers to appoint inspectors of mines and sets out rules regarding ventilation, blasting and machinery.

1872 Infant Custody Act provides a possibility that a mother can obtain child custody even if she committed adultery.

1874 Women’s Trade Union League formed. London Medical College for Women opened. Factory Act raises the minimum working age to nine limits the working day for women and young people to 10 hours in the textile industry, to be between 6 am and 6 pm and reduces the working week to 561 hours. London School of Medicine for Women founded.

1875 The Artizans Dwellings Act allows councils to clear and redevelop slum areas and re-house inhabitants.

1875 Women physicians can be licensed to practise.

1877  Royal Free Hospital admits women as medical students.

1878 Women are admitted to degree courses at the University of London. Maria Grey Training College for women teachers founded. Legal separation permitted if wife is repeatedly assaulted. Electric lights are installed in some London streets. Phillipa Flowerday appointed as nurse to the J & J Colman (Norwich) to work among the factory people, and to visit them at home when they are ill. She is believed to be the first trained nurse to be appointed to work as a nurse within an industrial organisation.

1877 Social campaigners, Annie Besant and Charles Bradlaugh, are tried for republishing Charles Knowlton's The Fruits of Philosophy , a book advocating contraception. Their action is considered 'likely to deprave or corrupt those whose minds are open to immoral influences', and they are sentenced to six months imprisonment.

1877 Electric lights are installed on some London streets.

1879  First women's colleges at Oxford — Somerville (image) and Lady Margaret Hall). Pharmaceutical Society admits women as members. London's first telephone exchange opens.

1880s Some 120,000 Jews flee from Eastern Europe to England to avoid religious and economic persecution. The middle classes begin to move to the suburbs from city centres. Stores begin to sell canned meat and fruits.

1880 Elementary education becomes compulsory for children aged 7 to 10. Women admitted to degrees at the University of London. Josephine Butler begins her campaign against the 'white slave trade' and names officials in the trafficking of girls from London to Belgium.

1880-96  Real wages go up by almost 45 per cent.

1882 A second Married Women's Property Act entitles married women to retain separate ownership of any property they own before their marriage. (Previously, a wife's existing property legally passed into the ownership of her husband when they married.)

1883 Married women obtain the right to acquire their own property. The first electric tram is in operation.

1884 The third Reform Act creates a uniform franchise qualification based on the Reform Acts of 1867 and 1868. As a consequence almost two-thirds of adult males in England and Wales, three-fifths in Scotland and half in Ireland are entitled to vote in parliamentary elections. The Royal Commission on the Housing of the Working Classes is appointed. Marks & Spencer opens as a stall at Kirkgate, Leeds.

1885 Criminal Law Amendment Act raises age of consent to 16. Criminal Law Amendment Act permits wives to testify against husbands in court. The Royal Commission on the Housing of the Working Classes reveals extent of overcrowding in inner city areas. John Kemp Starley invents the modern safety bicycle. Domestic service still remains the largest area of employment for women and girls, but clerical work and shop work moves to the second place.The railway network covers 27,000 kilometres (17,000 miles)

1886 The Contagious Diseases Acts are repealed.

Die Maintenance in Case of Desertion Act enables magistrates to award the wife maintenance up to a maximum limit of 2 pounds a week if she can show the Bench that her husband was able to support her and their children but refused or neglected to do so and deserted her. The Guardianship of Infants Act mandates that when father dies, guardianship passes to mother.

1886 Shop Hours Regulation Act regulates the hours of work of children and young persons in shops. The hours of work are not to exceed 74 per week, including meal times.The Salvation Army has 1,749 congregations and over 4,000 officers in Britain.

1887 Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee turns into a celebration of fifty years of domestic progress.

1888 Local Government Act establishes county councils and county borough councils in England and Wales. 1,400 women go on strike in protest of the poor wages and dangerous conditions in the at Bryant & May matchstick factory. Trade Union membership stands at 750,000. Jack the Ripper murders 5 women in London slums.

1889 Employment of children under age 10 prohibited. Elementary school compulsory for children up to age 12. London County Council (LCC) formed. Women's Franchise League established.

1890 Housing of the Working Classes Act allows London’s local councils to build houses as well as clearing away slums. Councils have to re-house at least half the people displaced by slum clearance. First moving-picture shows appear. The first electric underground train line in London begins to operate.

1892 London County Council (LCC) begins building tenement blocks.

1893 The Independent Labour Party formed. Elementary Education Act (Blind and Deaf Children) requires provision of free schools for blind and deaf children.

1894 Parish councils created. Trade union membership reaches 1.5 million.

1897 Queen Victoria's Dimanond Jubilee marks the high tide of the British Empire. Workmen’s Compensation Act establishes the principle that persons injured at work should be compensated. National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) founded. Actress Minni Palmer becomes the first woman car driver and car owner.

1898 Thomas M. Legge (later Sir, 1863-1932) appointed as the first medical inspector of factories.

1901 Queen Victoria dies at the age of 80. Her reign lasted 63 years – the longest of any British monarch. The middle class makes up about 25 percent of the population of England. Census reveals that there are 212 female doctors in the UK.

1902 Balfour's Education Act provides for secondary education.

1903 LCC, influenced by the Garden City and Arts & Crafts movements, begins to build 'garden village' estates in the suburbs. The first was Totterdown Fields estate in Tooting. The Women's Social and Political Union is founded by Emmeline Pankhurst with the aim of gaining the vote for women. In response to a government unsympathetic to their arguments, the group turns to acts of civil disobedience. The London County Council Tramways first electric line opens in May between Westminster Bridge and Tooting.

1905 London-based churches, missions, and charities support some 7,500 volunteers and almost 1,000 paid visitors, the vast majority of them being middle or upper class women.

1906  The Liberal Party wins the general election and embarks on a significant series of reforms. In extending the principle of governmental responsibility for the nation's citizens, these lay the foundations of the modern welfare state. Workers are compensated for injuries at work. The National Federation of Women Workers is set up by Mary MacArthur.

1907 Under the Qualification of Women Act , women can be elected onto borough and county councils and can also be elected mayor. Act allowing marriage with deceased wife’s sister. Free medical treatment for children at schools.

1908 Old age pension introduced. Five shillings a week to be given to every poor man and woman over 70 years old.

1909 Campaign for female suffrage intensifies.

1911 National Insurance Act: insurance provided for sick workers. Every worker with less than 100 pounds a year is to pay fourpence a week to the State. The employer adds fivepence and the Government threepence, making it all a shilling a week, which is paid to a doctor (known as the panel doctor), who then gives the worker free treatment when he or she is sick.

1913 Maternity, sickness, and unemployment benefits are introduced in Britain. Cat and Mouse Act passed, allowing hunger-striking women suffragists in prisons to be released when their health is threatened and then re-arrested when they had recovered.

1914 The First World War begins. The wartime effort sees a large influx of women into the workforce, to fill jobs vacated by men conscripted to serve in the war against Germany.

1918 The First World War ends. Women of thirty (wives of electors and female householders) are allowed to vote.

1919 Lady Nancy Astor becomes the first female Member of Parliament.

1920 Sex Discrimination Removal Act allows women access to the legal profession and accountancy.

1923 Matrimonial Causes Act grants divorce on same ground to both sexes.

1925 Widows’ Pension Act passed.

1929  Suffrage for all over 21.

Kies Bibliografie

Davies, Gill. The Illustrated Timeline of Medicine . New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2011.

Morgan, Kenneth O., ed. The Oxford Popular History of Britain . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Mathias, Peter. The First Industrial Nation: The Economic History of Britain 1700–1914 . New York: Routledge, 2001.

Thackeray, Frank W., John E. Findling, eds. Events that Changed Great Britain Since 1689 . Westport: Greenwood, 2002.


10. And a popular Christmas one as well.

You can thank Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert for your Christmas tree. They popularized the custom in 1848 when Albert sent decorated trees to schools and army barracks around Windsor. An image of the royal family decorating a tree was also published that year, inspiring other British families to do the same.

Victoria and Albert were very hands-on in the process. "Queen Victoria and Prince Albert brought the tree into Windsor Castle on Christmas Eve and they would decorate it themselves," Royal Collection curator Kathryn Jones explained to the BBC. "They would light the candles and put gingerbread on the tree and the children would be brought in."


World History Final

Let us go, children of the fatherland
Our day of Glory has arrived.
Against us stands tyranny,
The bloody flag is raised,
The bloody flag is raised.

Do you hear in the countryside
The roar of these savage soldiers
They come right into our arms
To cut the throats of your sons,
your country.

Which line illustrates how the French people feel about their relationship to their country and national identity? (1 point)

"That the pretended power of suspending the laws or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal

That the pretended power of dispensing with laws or the execution of laws by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal

That levying money for or to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative, without grant of Parliament, for longer time, or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal

That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal

That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law. & quot
Publieke domein

How did the English Bill of Rights represent a change from the existing political trends in 17thÚSdm4á| century Europe? (5 points)


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