Ondergrondse Atlanta

Ondergrondse Atlanta



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Ondergrondse Atlanta, oftewel "die oorspronklike Atlanta", is een van die gewildste besienswaardighede in Georgië. Dit is 'n historiese plek wat Old Atlanta kombineer met kontemporêre wêreldstyl, in die hartjie van die sentrum van Atlanta, dit is die plek waar die Atlanta City rondom die spoorlyn ontstaan ​​het en waar dit die eerste keer uit die as van die burgeroorlog opgestaan ​​het. volledig gestig om aan die behoeftes van die spoorweë te voldoen. Onder die merkers het die punt wat deur 'n werknemer van die Western & Atlantic gemerk is, bekend gestaan ​​as die Zero-mile-merker. Die bruisende stad Atlanta het ontstaan ​​rondom hierdie Zero Milepost, wat nog steeds naby die ondergrondse Atlanta op die keldervlak van die Georgia Railroad Freight Depot (gebou in 1869), die oudste gebou van sentraal Atlanta, ontstaan ​​het. Omdat Atlanta gebou is as 'n spoorweg sentrum, spore deur die stad het probleme vir voertuigverkeer veroorsaak. Die oorspronklike straatvlak, tussen Peachtree Street en Central Avenue, staan ​​nou bekend as die Underground Atlanta. Hierdie vyfblok-gebied van die middestad is in 1968 deur die Atlanta Board of Aldermen tot 'n historiese plek verklaar. 'N Jaar later het die Underground Atlanta die beroemde kleinhandel- en vermaaklikheidshub geword. In 1980 het die bou van die MARTA -snelweglyn gelei tot die sluiting van die oorspronklike Underground Atlanta. Nege jaar later is dit heropen teen 'n koste van $ 142 miljoen deur 'n gesamentlike projek tussen die stad Atlanta en die private industrie. Vandag bied Underground Atlanta winkels, kitskos in die Old Alabama Eatery, unieke funksies en vermaak, spesiale geleenthede , en lekker restaurante. Benewens die kleinhandelwinkels, huisves dit meer as 100 straatverkopers wat gesigverf, towerkuns, speelgoed en voorspelling bied.


Geskiedenis van Atlanta

Die geskiedenis van Atlanta dateer uit 1836, toe Georgië besluit het om 'n spoorlyn na die Amerikaanse Midde -Weste te bou en 'n plek is gekies om die eindpunt van die lyn te wees. Die paal wat die stigting van "Terminus" aandui, is in 1837 in die grond gedryf (die Zero Mile Post genoem). In 1839 is huise en 'n winkel daar gebou en die nedersetting het gegroei. Tussen 1845 en 1854 het spoorlyne uit vier verskillende rigtings aangekom, en die vinnig groeiende stad het vinnig die spoorweghub geword vir die hele Suid -Verenigde State. Tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog het Atlanta, as 'n verspreidingshub, die teiken geword van 'n groot veldtog in die Unie, en in 1864 het die troepe van Union William Sherman aan die brand gesteek en die stad se bates en geboue vernietig, behalwe kerke en hospitale. Na die oorlog het die bevolking vinnig gegroei, net soos die vervaardiging, terwyl die stad sy rol as spoorwegknooppunt behou het. Coca-Cola is in 1886 hier van stapel gestuur en het gegroei tot 'n wêreldryk in Atlanta. Elektriese trams het in 1889 aangekom, [1] en die stad het nuwe "straatwa -voorstede" bygevoeg.

Die elite -swart kolleges van die stad is tussen 1865 en 1885 gestig, en ten spyte van ontheffing en die latere instelling van Jim Crow -wette in die 1910's, het 'n welvarende swart middelklas en hoër klas ontstaan. Teen die vroeë 20ste eeu is 'Sweet' Auburn Avenue 'die "welvarendste negerstraat in die land' genoem. In die vyftigerjare het swart mense begin woon in stadsbuurte wat hulle voorheen uit die weg geruim het, terwyl Atlanta se eerste snelweë 'n groot aantal blankes in staat gestel het om na nuwe voorstede te beweeg en te pendel. Atlanta was die tuiste van Martin Luther King Jr., en 'n belangrike sentrum vir die Burgerregtebeweging. Die gevolglike desegregasie het in die 1960's in fases plaasgevind. Krotbuurte is platgemaak en die nuwe Atlanta Housing Authority het projekte vir openbare behuising gebou.

Van die middel van die 1960's tot die middel van die 70's het nege voorstedelike winkelsentrums geopen, en die winkelsentrum in die middestad het afgeneem, maar net noord daarvan het glinsterende kantoortorings en hotelle gestyg, en in 1976 het die nuwe Georgia World Congress Center die opkoms van Atlanta aangedui as 'n groot byeenkomsstad. In 1973 verkies die stad sy eerste swart burgemeester, Maynard Jackson, en in die daaropvolgende dekades werk swart politieke leiers suksesvol saam met die blanke sakegemeenskap om besigheidsgroei te bevorder, terwyl hulle steeds swart ondernemings bemagtig. Van die middel-70's tot middel-80's is die grootste deel van die MARTA-snelvervoerstelsel gebou. Terwyl die voorstede vinnig gegroei het, het 'n groot deel van die stad self agteruitgegaan en het die stad tussen 1970 en '90 21% van die bevolking verloor.

In 1996 het Atlanta die Somerspele aangebied, waarvoor nuwe fasiliteite en infrastruktuur gebou is. Lugredery Delta het steeds gegroei, en teen 1998–1999 was die lughawe in Atlanta die besigste ter wêreld. Sedert die middel van die 90's het gentrifisering baie van die stad se woonbuurte nuwe lewe gegee. Die sensus van 2010 toon welvarende swart mense wat die stad verlaat vir nuwer voorstedelike eiendomme en groeiende voorstedelike dorpe, jonger blankes wat terugkeer na die stad, en 'n veel meer diverse metropolitaanse gebied met die grootste groei in die voorstede aan die buitekante.


Ondergrondse geskiedenis van Atlanta van onder

In 1839, toe die stad Savannah haar 106 -jarige bestaan ​​vier, was Atlanta weinig meer as die stowwerige kruispad van twee ou Creek- en Cherokee -handelspaaie, waarvan een vandag nog min of meer in sy oorspronklike vorm as Peachtree Street bestaan. Twee Georgia Tech -gegradueerdes Steven H.

Flatiron Building in Peachtree Street Atlanta Ga Atlanta Georgia Downtown Flatiron Building Atlanta Georgia

Geskiedenis van onder Toer Atlantas se geskiedenis uit die oogpunt van die oorspronklike spoorwegaansluiting van die voormalige passasiersstasies en die soms verrassende pogings om die leemte wat hulle agtergelaat het, te vul.

Ondergrondse geskiedenis van Atlanta van onder af. Atlanta het sy bestaan ​​te danke aan die spoorweë. 2020 deur Jeffrey Morrison. Die argitekskrywer en fotograaf Jeffrey Morrison sal die geskiedenis van ondergrondse en die spoorweggul ondersoek.

Atlanta is so herbou en herbou dat dit soveel kere herbou is dat dit 'n kunsmatige oppervlakte van tien meter bo die oorspronklike grondvlak gemaak het om ruimte te laat om die verhale wat daaronder lê, te ondersoek. 1968 Die bou van die metro begin in November. Patterson het 'n privaat ontwikkeling daar begin beplan om die stad onder die stad te herstel en te heropen as 'n kleinhandel- en vermaaklikheidsdistrik.

Alhoewel die geskiedenis deur die lens van sy begrawe en verharde stedelike landskap vertel word, word dit verder vernou deur 'n paar van die blatant rassistiese en klassistiese aspekte van baie van die stedelike groei van die 1950's tot die hede oor te dra. Die seevaart begin in 1970 as die middelpunt van die oorspronklike Dantes Down the Hatch in Underground Atlanta. Volg my op Facebook.

Hoe het Atlanta gekom waar dit is. Sluit 'n datum in waarop u die weergeskiedenis wil sien. Op Vrydag 9 April van 12:00 tot 13:00 is die Georgia Archives Lunch and Learn live-geleentheid beskikbaar vir die publiek deur Microsoft Teams.

Rowman Littlefield 1 Desember 2019 - Geskiedenis - 176 bladsye. Dekades later word hierdie gebied met ses blokke bo en onder die grondvlak die gewilde winkel- en vermaaklikheidsdistrik, bekend as Underground Atlanta. Sluit aan by die argitek en skrywer Jeff Morrison vir 'n praatjie oor sy onlangse boek Atlanta Underground.

Geskiedenis van onder van Jeffrey Morrison is 'n interessante geskiedenis met baie mooi swart en wit foto's. Die verhaal van Atlanta begin in 'n onsigbare betonskerm ver onder 'n. Is Underground Atlanta regtig ondergronds.

Ondergrondse Atlanta maak die stad oop vir 'n naglewe met Dantes Down the Hatch Muhlenbrinks Saloon the Bucket Shop en vele meer. Geskiedenis van onder af. In Laer Alabamastraat kon besoekers blaai deur geboue wat uit die laat 19de en vroeë 20ste eeu dateer.

Nudie -klubs maak oop by sulke drukke. Hierdie unieke staptoer verken die vergete ruimtes onder die viadukte. Is op 2 Mei 1967 ingelyf.

ONSIGTE ONDERSTE STAP TOER. Die restaurant was sedert die 90's nie oop nie, maar die skip is 'n groot deel daarvan. Atlanta Underground bied 'n stadsgeskiedenis aan deur die lens van sy begrawe en geplaveide stedelike landskap.

Die historiese distrik van Atlanta is veral belangrik as 'n tinct historiese stedelike omgewing wat ontstaan ​​het deur 'n opeenvolging van ontwikkelings wat die postbellum geskiedenis van die stad Atlanta beskryf. beplan. U kan 'n reeks datums in die resultate op die. Is daar nog treine onder die strate van Atlanta.

Dantes Down The Hatch restaurant en kroeg was een van die gewildste ondergrondse naglewe -plekke van die 70's en 80's. 'N Kort geskiedenis van die ondergrondse Atlanta. Terwyl die geskiedenis deur die lens van sy begrawe en verharde stedelike landskap vertel word, word dit verder vernou deur 'n paar van die blatant rassistiese en klassistiese aspekte van baie van die stedelike groei van die 1950's tot die hede oor te dra.

'N Plaaslike argitek en geskiedenisliefhebber genaamd Jeff Morrison is in Atlanta bekend vir sy Unseen Underground -staptoere wat gebiede buite die gebied dek. Geskiedenis van onder van Jeffrey Morrison is 'n interessante geskiedenis met baie mooi swart en wit foto's. Atlanta Underground bied 'n stadsgeskiedenis aan deur die lens van sy begrawe en geplaveide stedelike landskap.

Vind historiese weer deur te soek na 'n stadsposkode of lughawekode.

Die 70 -jarige stadskoue uit Atlanta in die 1970's Atlanta Omni Hotel Atlanta Georgia History

Gedraai na Georgian Park S Olds Kelderberging

Ondergrondse Atlanta Atlanta Ondergrondse besienswaardighede in Atlanta

Foto's ondergronds Atlanta deur die jare in 2021 Foto Atlanta ondergronds

Underground Atlanta Ontdek Underground Atlanta Ga Atlanta Underground Atlanta Attraksies Underground

Ondergrondse Atlanta Geskiedenis Van Ondergrondse Atlanta Atlanta Ondergrondse Georgië Vakansie Reise

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Urban Spelunking On The Unseen Underground Atlanta Tour Atlanta Magazine Atlanta Tours Spelunking Underground

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Loew S Grande Theatre Atlanta Ga Premiere Gone With The Wind In 1939 Oorspronklik gebou in 1893 Georgia History Georgia Usa Atlanta Georgia

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Geskiedenis van die ondergrondse Atlanta

Ondergrondse Atlanta, of "die oorspronklike Atlanta", was van die begin af hier.

1836 – 1860: Atlanta begin as 'n spoorwegstad

Die staat Georgia het 'n spoorweg gehuur om boerdery en katoenstate met die oostelike markte en hawens in 1836 te verbind. 'N Spoorlyn is tussen Atlanta en Chattanooga gebou en 138 myl merkers is geplaas. Die Zero Milepost staan ​​vandag nog langs die ondergrondse Atlanta op die keldervlak van die Georgia Railroad Freight Depot. Om die Zero Milepost het 'n bruisende nuwe stad ontstaan. Aan die vooraand van die burgeroorlog het Atlanta 10 000 mense gehad. Dit het reeds die handels- en kultuursentrum vir die Suide geword. Alabama Street, tussen Peachtree Street en Central Avenue, was die middestad van die stad, wat ondergrondse Atlanta sou word.

1861 – 1864: Atlanta dien as die voorraadvoorraad van die konfederasie tydens die burgeroorlog

Georgië het in Januarie 1861 van die Unie afgeskei. Atlanta, die spoorwegsentrum van die Suide, was 'n belangrike doelwit vir die weermag van generaal William T. Sherman. Federale beskieting na die middestad van die stad het die gaslamp beskadig, wat steeds in Peachtree- en Laer Alabamastraat staan. Die spoorwegdepot tussen Pryorstraat en Centrallaan was waar Scarlett O ’Hara en dokters woes gewerk het oor Konfederale soldate, gewond in gevegte rondom die stad, in die fiktiewe film “Gone with the Wind. ” Slegs 'n maand daarna toe die beleg begin, is Atlanta aan federale troepe oorgegee. 'N Unie -kamp is naby die ondergrondse Atlanta gestig.

1866 – 1920: Atlanta staan ​​op uit die as

In 1866 sif Atlantane deur die as van vernietiging in oorlogstyd en bou hulle weer hul stad rondom die Zero Milepost. In die vyf jaar tussen 1866 en 1871 het die stad se bevolking verdubbel tot 22,000. In 1869 is die Georgia Railroad Freight Depot gebou met 'n indrukwekkende drieverdiepinghuis. Die oorblywende enkelverdieping-struktuur, wat steeds langs die ondergrondse Atlanta staan, is die oudste gebou in die sentrale deel van Atlanta. In die 1870's het die distrik die treinstasie, banke, hotelle, salonne, graangroothandelaars, regskantore, 'n whiskydistilleerdery en Packinghouse Row, aan die noordelike kant van Alabamastraat tussen Pryorstraat en Centrallaan, ingesluit.

In 1887 is Coca-Cola die eerste keer bedien by die frisdrankfontein van Jacob's Pharmacy in Peachtree Street, 'n halfblok van Union Station. In 1889 stel Atlanta die elektriese tram in die suide bekend. Teen 1900 het Union Station Depot 100 treine per dag bedien met direkte treindienste vanaf New York, Cincinnati, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Macon, Augusta en Columbus. Teen 1910 is verskeie ysterbrue gebou om die spoorweë in Unionstraat oor te steek. Die plaaslike argitek Haralson Bleckley het voorgestel dat nuwe betonbrue gebou word om die ysterbrue te vervang. 'N Lineêre winkelsentrum op brugvlak verbind die viadukte van beton en skep 'n reeks openbare pleine.

1920 – 1929: Die viadukte skep 'n 'stad onder die strate'

Gedurende die 1920's het die konstruksie van die beton “viaducts ” die straatstelsel een vlak verhoog om 'n beter vloei van verkeer moontlik te maak. Handelaars verhuis hul bedrywighede na die tweede verdieping, en laat die ou fronte vir berging en diens. Dus geboorte gee aan wat nou ondergrondse Atlanta is.

1930 – 1969: Atlanta groei terwyl die ondergrondse Atlanta dormant lê

Atlanta het voortgegaan om vorentoe te beweeg, nuwe nywerhede te lok en sy rol as vervoersentrum vir die Verenigde State te vergroot. In 1943 is 'n nuwe park, met die naam Plaza Park, oor die spoorwegput gebou. Dit was die enigste van Bleckley se voorgestelde pleine wat gebou is. Die park is vervang deur 'n nuwe en groter plein, Peachtree Fountains Plaza, wat 'n belangrike ingang na Underground Atlanta geword het. In die 1960's was Atlanta die bakermat van die Burgerregtebeweging. In die kommersiële distrik naby Atlanta het die burgerregte-leier, dr. Martin Luther King, jr. Talle nie-gewelddadige betogings gelei om rasseskeiding te protesteer. Die tragedie het plaasgevind toe dr King in 1968 vermoor is. Die begrafnisstoet van sy kerk na die begraafplaas het deur die viadukte deur die ondergrondse Atlanta -distrik gegaan.

1968 – Aanwesig: Ondergrondse Atlanta word herstel

In 1968 het die Atlanta Board of Aldermen die gebied met vyf blokke van die oorspronklike middestad tot 'n historiese plek verklaar. Baie belangrike argitektoniese kenmerke het oorleef uit die oorspronklike winkelpunte, waaronder versierde marmer, boë van graniet, gietyster-pilasters, dekoratiewe bakstene en handgemaakte houtpale en -panele. 'N Jaar later word Underground Atlanta geopen as 'n kleinhandel- en vermaaklikheidsentrum. In 1980 het die bou van die MARTA -snelweglyn en ander faktore gelei tot die sluiting van die oorspronklike Underground Atlanta.

Tog het die burgerlike en sakeleiers daarin geslaag om die ondergrondse Atlanta op die National Register of Historic Places te plaas en leiers het belowe om die gebied weer oop te maak. Ondergrondse Atlanta is in 1989 heropen, teen 'n koste van $ 142 miljoen, deur 'n gesamentlike onderneming tussen die stad Atlanta en die private bedryf. Dit is herontwerp as een van die belangrikste projekte wat daarop gemik is om die sentrum van Atlanta as die fokuspunt van die gemeenskapslewe te behou en te laat herleef. Underground bied vandag 'n volledige gesinservaring met winkels, spesialiteits- en geskenkwinkels, kitskos in die Old Alabama Eatery, unieke kenmerke en vermaak, spesiale geleenthede en uitstekende restaurante.


Tydlyn: die lang, opwindende geskiedenis van die naglewe van Atlanta

1933
Die verbod word herroep - maar nie in Georgië, wat drank sedert 1908 verbied het nie. Dit sou nog twee jaar duur voordat die staat sy eie verbod opgehef het, maar DeKalb en baie ander graafskappe sou nog dekades lank droog bly, wat van Atlanta 'n brandpunt in die naglewe maak.

1938
Die Top Hat Club open in Auburn Avenue, met groot optredes soos Cab Calloway en Louis Armstrong. 'N Dekade later sou dit die koninklike pou hernoem word.

1939
Ray Lee's Blue Lantern begin 'n vyf-dekade lange loopbaan op Ponce de Leon as 'n berugte taverne in die werkersklas waar Blind Willie McTell speel vir verandering op die parkeerterrein. Hotelle in die middestad, soos die Piemonte, Biltmore, Ansley, Georgian Terrace, Kimball House en die Henry Grady, bring steeds die ballroom toe.

1950's
Eksotiese dansers en meer bruisende vermaak kom in die stad: The Imperial Hotel maak die gewilde Domino Lounge oop en die Clermont stel die Gypsy Room bekend.

1960's
Hippies neem "the Strip" oor in Peachtree Street tussen 10th en 14th at Bottom of the Barrel, Golden Horn en Catacombs. Die Zebra Lounge in die middestad en die Cheshire Cat op Cheshire Bridge Road vertoon toplose to-go-go.

1960
Die gevierde La Carousel -jazzklub open in Paschal's Hotel, met hoofopskrifte soos Aretha Franklin en Dizzy Gillespie.

1965
Die naglewe in Atlanta word meer gewaagd met die opening van die Playboy Club in die Dinkler Hotel.

1968
Na dekades van naam- en konsepveranderinge, begin die Clermont Lounge onheilspellend wat 'n heerskappy sal word as die oudste ontkleeklub van Atlanta.

1969
Ondergrondse Atlanta maak oop, wat die stad 'n naglewe bied met Dante's Down the Hatch, Muhlenbrink's Saloon, die Bucket Shop en nog vele meer.

1970's
Nudieklubs maak oop langs sulke besige gange soos Piedmont Road, Cheshire Bridge en Stewart (nou Metropolitan) Avenue. Gay nagklubs ontstaan, soos die Cove in Morningside en die Armory in Midtown, asook sleepbars soos Hollywood Hots op Cheshire Bridge en mevrou P's op Ponce.

1972
Die wetgewer in Georgië help om die partytjie aan te wakker deur die wettige drinkouderdom tot 18 te laat daal.

1974
Die musiekpromotor Alex Cooley bedryf die grootste deel van die dekade sy Electric Ballroom, die toonaangewende musieklokaal van die era, op die Georgian Terrace.

1975
Die heerskappy van Underground is van korte duur, die nuwe MARTA-lyn van oos-wes sny die ruimte in twee en haal rye tralies uit. Tannie Charley's, 'n toevallige buurtkroeg, begin 'n loopbaan van 20 jaar in Buckhead aan die toppunt van die Peachtree-Roswell-skeuring.

1977
Ontwikkelaar Don Bender maak die Little Five Points Community Pub oop en help om 'n vervalle kommersiële strook te begin as 'n nuwerwetse jeugdbestemming vol musiekklubs.

1979
Johnny's Hideaway debuteer in Buckhead, sy kliënte bly lojaal vir die volgende 40 jaar - en tel.

Foto deur Steve Eichner/Getty Images

1980's
Sandy Springs tree op as 'n partytjiesone met luidrugtige kroeë soos American Pie, Charley Magruder's en Copperfield's. RuPaul en Lady Bunny help om Atlanta se sleeptoneel by klubs soos Colorbox in VaHi en die Celebrity Club op Ponce te laat herleef. Buckhead Village word lewendig.

1980
Die nagklub-impresario Peter Gatien arriveer in Atlanta om die Limelight oop te maak, 'n neon-versteekte disko met 'n reuse glybaan en haaie wat onder die glasdansvloer swem, wat besoekers soos Eartha Kitt, Andy Warhol en Rod Stewart vinnig lok .

1986
Na 10 jaar in die sakewêreld, word Midtown's Backstreet 'n private, 24-uur-klub en het dit binnekort die warmste dansvloer in die stad.

1987
Rupert's maak oop in die voormalige Limelight-ruimte, met 'n huisorkes wat Top-40-treffers dek.

1988
Die uiters gewilde Club Rio in die stad kry nasionale bekendheid nadat 'n videoband uitgelek is waarin 'n onwettige hotelkassie verskyn tussen 'n 24-jarige Rob Lowe en die minderjarige meisie wat hy by die nagklub opgetel het. Gatien keer terug om Midtown te vestig as die plek om saam met Petrus in die voormalige Peachtree Playhouse -ouditorium te kuier. Hy kry hulp wanneer Blake's, die gay Cheers, oopmaak.

1989
'N Voormalige houtskaafmeule in Ou Vierde Wyk is binne en buite swart geverf en verander in die Maskerade. Ondergrondse Atlanta heropen weer met 'n reeks kroeë in Kenny's Alley, maar slaag nie daarin om die magie van sy bloeitydperk vas te vang nie.

1990's
Waarskynlik die gekste dekade vir die naglewe in Atlanta, sien die 90's die voortgesette ontploffing van die partytoneel op Mardi Gras -vlak van Buckhead Village. Op 'n stadium is daar meer as 50 dranklisensies in 'n gebied met ses blokke. Midtown's Crescent Avenue en Oos -Atlanta tree op as naglewe -bestemmings.

1990
Die opening van Velvet laat die sakegebied in die middestad tydelik weer koel lyk.

1992
In 'n uiterste geval van stedelike baanbreker, bring Homage Coffee House lewendige musiek en 'n boho -atmosfeer na Trinity Avenue in die verlate South Downtown.

1994
'N Groot jaar vir groot klubopeninge gee Atlanta die jazz-funk-bohemie van Yin Yang Cafe die ondergrondse hipheid van die oorspronklike MJQ die S & ampM-tema industriële dansklub die kamer en die toevlugsoord in Buckhead, Tongue & Groove. Steve Kaplan koop die Gold Club in Buckhead, en bring glans in Vegas-styl-sowel as VIP-kamers en duur botteldiens-na Atlanta se strookklubtoneel. Die pret eindig 'n paar jaar later in 'n federale verhoor met verleentheid met verleë NBA -sterre en stilswyende mafiosi. Na die heropening as kerk word die gebou in 2009 die tuiste van die Goudkamer.

1996
Die Eeufees-Olimpiese Spele spoor nog 'n ronde klubopeninge aan: House of Blues in 'n voormalige kerk met 'n hoë energie-danseresie in die middestad, Club Esso en 'n belangrike hip-hop-lokaal Club Kaya op Peachtree.

1997
Centennial Park-bomwerper Eric Rudolph slaan weer toe met 'n spykerbomaanval by die Otheride Lounge op Piedmontweg. Niemand word ernstig beseer nie, maar die lesbiese kroeg herstel nooit sy kliënte nie. Twee gretige ondergrondse klubs, die Nomenclature -museum in Midtown en die Karma van die middestad, bring 'n nuwe vlak van angs in die naglewe van Atlanta.

1998
Sean Combs - dan "Puff Daddy" - maak die restaurant van Justin in die suide van Buckhead oop, en kom eet en dans en partytjie die res van die aand.

2000's
Die strenger standpunt van die stadsaal oor nagklubs en kroeë, gekombineer met 'n toename in ontwikkeling (en gevolg deur die Groot Resessie), koel Atlanta se oorverhitte naglewe.

2000
Die stad se onderdrukking van die naglewe begin nie -amptelik nadat 'n onderonsie met vriende van die Baltimore Ravens -lynstaander Ray Lewis twee mans doodgelaat het buite Buckhead's Cobalt Lounge.

2001
Atlanta verbied jonger as 21-klubs, wat die doodsklok laat klink vir '18 om te partytjie hou, 21 om te drink', soos die Somber Reptile naby Georgia Tech.

2002
'N Paar blokke van Buckhead Village af probeer die East Andrews Entertainment District die partytjie skare lok met 'n uitgestrekte kompleks met kroeë, klubs en 'n komedieklub.

2003
Na 'n reeks skieterye in die nag in Buckhead Village en naweke op Peachtree Road, stem die stadsraad van Atlanta om die laaste oproep om 02:30 te maak. Backstreet verloor sy status as 'n 24-uur-klub.

2005
Rapper T.I.'s Club Crucial blyk 'n onmiddellike treffer te wees in die Bankhead -woonbuurt in Atlanta.

2006
Vision, die megaklub wat Kaya in 2003 in Midtown vervang het, word gedwing om te sluit wanneer die gebou aan 'n woonstelontwikkelaar verkoop word. 'N Oorvloed nuwe kroeë, sitkamers en klubs help Castleberry Hill se nuutste naglewe -bestemming.

2007
Na die vertrek van Tongue & Groove en 'n paar ander uitstappies, word die nagklubbuurt Buckhead Village gestamp om plek te maak vir uitstekende winkels.

2009
The Fred in Sandy Springs en Buckhead's Prohibition begin Atlanta se toevoegings tot die moderne speakeasy -neiging.

2010
Noni's, die Sound Table, Cafe Circa en ander kroeë lok die naglewe na die ondergewaardeerde Edgewoodlaan.

2011
Na twee jaar van regsgevegte bestee die Gidewon -broers van Vision en Compound -roem miljoene om twee nuwe, luukse Midtown -nagklubs, Vanquish en Reign, oop te maak, en die klubs sluit vier jaar later.

2014
'N Voormalige Sears Roebuck-verspreidingsentrum wat omgedraai is, begin weer as Ponce City Market, en begin 'n stadige transformasie van Ponce van gruis na bougie (sien: opgeknap Clermont Hotel).

2017
Oasis Goodtime Emporium voeg by in die jongste rugbuig deur 'n strookklub om te voldoen aan die voorskrifte van stede om vermaak vir volwassenes te beperk.


Waar alles verkeerd gegaan het

Soos spoke wat opstaan Uit 'n Konfederale begraafplaas verval Atlanta se verlede in oordeel vandag in die streek en laat 'n rokerige spoor van voorstedelike verval, dalende huiswaardes, verstopte snelweë en 'n aansienlik verminderde reputasie agter.

In die hart van die vrot wat by metro Atlanta eet, is die moeder van alle foute: die versuim om MARTA in die voorstede uit te brei. Dit was nie net 'n eenmalige fout nie-dit was die enigste ergste fout in 'n hele groep bom van misstappe, foute, kragmetings en eenvoudige gemeenheid wat die vervoerinfrastruktuur in die streek geskep het.

As ons na die toekoms van Atlanta kyk, is daar geen twyfel dat die stryd teen ons berugte verkeer en verspreiding die sleutel is tot die potensiële lewenskrag van die metro. Wat as daar 'n Terug na die toekoms- tipe opsie, waar ons 'n mistieke DeLorean kan neem (ons sou tevrede wees met 'n Buick), terug in die tyd ry en iets regmaak? Watter gebeurtenis sou die meeste baat by die gebruik van 'n hipotetiese 'ontdoen' -sleutel?

Die transito -kompromie van 1971.

Voordat ons ingaan die verhaal van wat in 1971 gebeur het, moet ons 'n paar jaar lank rugsteun. In 1965 het die Algemene Vergadering van Georgië gestem om MARTA, die massavervoerstelsel vir die stad Atlanta en die vyf kernmetrogemeentes, te stig: Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton en Gwinnett. Kiesers van Cobb het MARTA verwerp, terwyl dit goedkeuring van die stad en die vier ander provinsies gekry het. Alhoewel dit blyk dat die staat nooit spesiale fondse vir MARTA se bedrywighede bygedra het nie, het die kiesers in Georgia in 1966 'n grondwetlike wysiging goedgekeur om die staat in staat te stel om 10 persent van die totale koste van 'n vinnige spoorwegstelsel in Atlanta te finansier. Twee jaar later, in 1968, het kiesers in Atlanta en MARTA se kernlande 'n plan om MARTA te finansier deur eiendomsbelasting verwerp. In 1971 - toe die kwessie weer aan kiesers voorgelê is - het die kiesers van Clayton en Gwinnett hul steun laat vaar, en uiteindelik word MARTA gesteun deur slegs DeKalb, Fulton en die stad Atlanta.

In 1971, het die burgemeester, Sam Massell, met die gebrek aan ondersteuning vir MARTA deur die vyf kernlande, 'n nuwe plan teruggekeer: om 'n deurlopende subsidie ​​vir MARTA te verleen deur middel van 'n verkoopsbelasting wat in Fulton, DeKalb en die stad Atlanta gehef word. Geen ander jurisdiksie in Georgië het 'n plaaslike opsiebelasting gehad nie, dus moes die Algemene Vergadering die idee goedkeur. Toe die berugte anti-Atlanta wetgewers die trekpas gee, bel Massell 'n perskonferensie met 'n bakwa wat voor die stadsaal voor die hoofstad uitstap, met 'n groot advertensiebord wat sê: 'Dankie, Georgia Lawmakers!' Massell het toe 'n gat in die grasperk van die stadsaal gegrawe en 'n byl begrawe om sy waardering vir die staat se skaars ondersteuning van die stad te simboliseer.

In 'n promosiestunt waardig Mal mans, Het Massell 'n menigte jong vroue in 'n pienk broek met klein sleutels na die stad na die Capitol gestuur, 'n afkondiging waarin die stad dankbaar was en uitnodigings na die stadsaal vir 'n middagete met gebakte hoender (vir luitenant -goewerneur Lester Maddox), grondboontjies ( vir goewerneur Jimmy Carter), en natuurlik Coca-Cola. 'Ons het 'n vier-kolom prentjie-die grootste blootstelling wat ons ooit van die Atlanta-koerante gekry het', onthou Massell, nou president van die Buckhead Coalition.

Nadat hy die wetgewende goedkeuring vir die verkoopbelastingopsie gekry het, moes Massell die kiesers oorreed om die verkoopbelasting te slaag. 'Ons sou die bestaande busonderneming koop, wat toe sestig sent en 'n nikkeloorbetaling elke maand - $ 1,30 per dag - vra, en hulle sou ophou om sake te doen. Ek het die gemeenskap belowe dat ons die prys onmiddellik na vyftien sent na elke kant toe sal verlaag, ”sê Massell. Die daaglikse tarief val van $ 1,30 tot dertig sent. Nie almal het hom geglo nie. Stadsraadslid Henry Dodson het in 'n Volkswagen deur die stad gery met 'n PA -stelsel wat lui: 'Dit is 'n truuk! As hulle dit nie vir sestig sent kan doen nie, hoe gaan hulle dit dan vir vyftien doen? ”

Massell het die VW met groter sigbaarheid teëgestaan ​​en 'n helikopter gehuur om oor die Downtown Connector te beweeg, selfs toe, terwyl hy deur 'n bullhorn roep: 'As u uit hierdie gemors wil gaan, stem ja!'

"Omdat dit die Bybelgordel was, het hulle gedink dat God hulle vertel wat hulle moet doen," skerts Massell vandag. Tog, om seker te maak dat Atlantans sy stem stem, het hy met busse deur die stad gery, brosjures aan ruiters uitgedeel, en hy het gemeenskapsgroepe besoek met 'n bord en kryt om die berekening van die verkoopsbelasting te doen. Kiesers het die plan met slegs 'n paar honderd stemme goedgekeur.

Another of the blunders that crippled MARTA at the outset—and haunts it to this day—was engineered behind closed doors by the segregationist Lester Maddox, according to Massell, who believes Maddox’s intervention was even more devastating than the vote not to extend MARTA into the suburbs.

After the Georgia House of Representatives approved funding MARTA through the sales tax, Massell had to approach the Georgia State Senate, where Maddox held sway. Maddox told the mayor he would block the vote in the senate unless MARTA agreed that no more than 50 percent of the sales tax revenue would go to operating costs, Massell recalls. “He called me into his office and told me that was it. Either I swallowed that or he was going to kill it and it would not pass.”

That has meant that whenever MARTA needed more money for operating expenses, it had to cut elsewhere or raise fares. As a result, MARTA has raised the fare over the years to today’s $2.50, making it one of the priciest transit systems in the country.

Although the 50 percent limit has resulted in higher fares, few people realized the ramifications of the so-called “Maddox amendment” at the time, Massell says. In fact, it actually was viewed favorably by DeKalb legislators because they were afraid MARTA would spend all its money in Atlanta before extending rail service to DeKalb, according to a thirty-six-page history of MARTA written by former State Treasurer Thomas D. Hills.

Hills’s MARTA history also illuminates why the state never contributed funds for MARTA, despite that 1966 vote that would have allowed it to. One early plan was for the MARTA sales tax to be three-quarters of a penny, with the state chipping in up to 10 percent of the cost of the system as approved by Georgia voters. But early in his administration, according to Hills’s history, then Governor Carter called MARTA attorney Stell Huie—who was on a quail-hunting trip—and said the state couldn’t afford its $25 million share for MARTA. Carter offered to raise the sales tax to a full penny if the state didn’t have to pay, and Huie agreed. The lawyer said the 1 percent sales tax plan came out of the House Committee on Ways and Means and “there was a tag end, not even part of the act, that just said the state won’t put any money in.”

Hills wrote that the events help to “explain why some representatives of state government and others in the community understand that the state’s support in allowing the local option sales tax for MARTA was a bargain in exchange for a reprieve for the state from future funding for MARTA.”

Die 1965 and 1971 votes against MARTA by residents of Cobb, Clayton, and Gwinnett weren’t votes about transportation. They were referendums on race. Specifically, they were believed to be about keeping the races apart. Consider the suburbanites voting back then. The formerly rural, outlying counties had exploded with an astonishing exodus of white people fleeing the city as the black population swelled during the civil rights era. This mass migration came at a time when Atlanta was known through its public relations bluster as “The City Too Busy to Hate.”

The 1960 census counted approximately 300,000 white residents in Atlanta. From 1960 to 1980, around 160,000 whites left the city—Atlanta’s white population was cut in half over two decades, says Kevin M. Kruse, the Princeton professor who wrote White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism. Kruse notes that skeptics suggested Atlanta’s slogan should have been “The City Too Busy Beweeg to Hate.” “Racial concerns trumped everything else,” Kruse says. “The more you think about it, Atlanta’s transportation infrastructure was designed as much to keep people apart as to bring people together.”

In the early 1970s, Morehouse College professor Abraham Davis observed, “The real problem is that whites have created a transportation problem for themselves by moving farther away from the central city rather than living in an integrated neighborhood.”

The votes against MARTA were not the only evidence of the role of race in Atlanta’s transportation plans. The interstate highways were designed to gouge their way through black neighborhoods. Georgia Tech history professor Ronald H. Bayor, author of Race and the Shaping of Twentieth-Century Atlanta, says the failure of the 1971 MARTA referendum in Gwinnett and Clayton was the beginning of the region’s transportation problems because of the lack of mass transit in the suburbs. Yet his research goes back to the racial reckoning behind the route of the interstate highway system that began construction in the 1950s.

The highway now called the Downtown Connector, the stretch where I-75 and I-85 run conjoined through the city, gutted black neighborhoods by forcing the removal of many working-class blacks from the central business district. It could have been worse. The highway was first designed to run smack through the headquarters of the Atlanta Life Insurance Company, the city’s major black-owned business. “The original intention was to destroy that black business,” Bayor says. A protest by the black community saved the structure and moved the highway route a few blocks east, where it still managed to cut through the black community’s main street, Auburn Avenue.

Interstate 20 on the west side of town is a particularly egregious example of race-based road-building. Bayor wrote: “In a 1960 report on the transitional westside neighborhood of Adamsville . . . the Atlanta Bureau of Planning noted that ‘approximately two to three years ago, there was an “understanding” that the proposed route of the West Expressway [I-20 West] would be the boundary between the white and Negro communities.’”

The strategy didn’t work, of course, as whites fled by the tens of thousands. One of the unintended consequences of the race-based road-building is today’s traffic jams. “What happened didn’t change the racial makeup of the metro area but led to congestion within the metro area,” Bayor says.

Aside from political vengeance and racial politics, another enormous factor was at play in transportation policies of the 1960s and 1970s: Atlanta’s love affair with the automobile. The great migration out of the city started in the late 1950s—just as workers at General Motors’ vast Lakewood assembly plant in southeast Atlanta put the finishing touches on one of the most iconic cars in history: the 1957 Chevy.

The allure of roaring around Atlanta in cool cars took over and never let go. Once MARTA started running, who would ride a bus or subway when they could drive a sleek, powerful car and fill it with cheap gas? Only the people who couldn’t afford the car. MARTA became an isolated castaway, used primarily by poor and working-class blacks. Racist suburbanites brayed that the system’s acronym stood for “Moving Africans Rapidly Through Atlanta.”

While MARTA was struggling to crank up the bus and rail system, the State of Georgia and its powerful highway department had other, bigger ideas.

David Goldberg, a former transportation reporter for the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, says the road-building binge that led to the gigantic highways that course through metro Atlanta—some of the widest in the world—diminished MARTA’s potential. “It’s not a single mistake but a bunch of decisions that add up to one big mistake—the failure to capitalize on the incredible success we had in winning funding for MARTA by undermining it with the incredible success we had in getting funding for the interstate highways,” says Goldberg, now communications director for Washington-based Transportation for America. “We were too damn successful—it was an embarrassment of success. Like a lot of nouveau riche, we blew it before we knew what to do with it.”

As metro Atlanta’s geographic expansion grew white-hot, developers had to move homebuyers—those fleeing the city and others moving South from the Rust Belt—in and out of the new subdivisions they were carving from the pine forests and red clay. Georgia started “building highways expressly to enrich developers,” Goldberg says. “A whole lot of land owners and developers who knew how to do suburban development had the ear of state government and the money to buy influence. They took all that money we had and put it into developing interchanges way out from town. A lot of what was new suburban development back then is now underused, decaying, and part of an eroding tax base in the older suburban areas.”

The vast highway system sucked up billions of federal dollars while the state refused to put a penny into MARTA—until the past fifteen years, during which it helped buy some buses. “The sick joke of it all is that we built the place to be auto-oriented and designed it about as bad as we could to function for auto use,” Goldberg says. “The highway network we did build was designed in a way almost guaranteed to produce congestion—the land use around all that development put the nail in the coffin.” He refers to the neighborhoods full of cul-de-sacs that force cars onto crowded arterial roads lined with commercial activity, then force them to merge onto the freeways, which eventually funnel down to one highway through the heart of Atlanta.

Photograph courtesy of Sam Massell

Meer as veertig jaar later, what does the failure to create MARTA as a regional system mean for Atlanta? Christopher B. Leinberger, a senior fellow of the Brookings Institution and professor at George Washington University, has been watching Atlanta’s growth—and decline—for decades. In January he declared, “Atlanta is no longer Hotlanta.” He cited the free fall from the number eighty-ninespot on the list of the world’s 200 fastest-growing metro areas to ranking at 189 in just five years. Not to mention the plunge of 29 percent in average housing price per square foot between 2000 and 2010. Not to mention that Atlanta has the eleventh-most-congested traffic of 101 metro areas in the country.

“The big mistake was not taking advantage of MARTA,” Leinberger says. “Atlanta was given by the federal taxpayers a tremendous gift that they squandered as far as MARTA. It’s not just that Atlanta did not take advantage of it. They didn’t expand it and they didn’t recognize that it could allow them to build a balanced way of developing.”

Leinberger agrees that part of the region’s blindness toward MARTA’s potential was the belief “that the car was the be-all and end-all forever. The other part was the basic racism that still molds how Atlanta is built.”

The most maddening realization is that the once virtually all-white suburbs that voted against MARTA years ago are today quite diverse and reflect Atlanta’s evolution from a biracial city to a multiracial, multiethnic one. Today’s suburbs are not only home to African Americans, but also Latino, Asian, and Eastern European immigrants. The city’s diversity is projected to increase over the coming decades (see page 68). Many of the people who voted against MARTA decades ago are dead or retired. The suburban lifestyle they were so eager to defend has lost much of its cachet as gas prices soar and houses don’t sell. Smart young people up to their necks in college debt don’t want to spend their money and time driving cars back and forth they want to live in town. Atlanta’s only neighborhoods to gain inflation-adjusted housing value in the past decade, Leinberger notes, were Virginia-Highland, Grant Park, and East Lake.

The Georgia Sierra Club’s opposition to the July 31 referendum on a regional transportation sales tax—on the grounds that the plan, despite including a majority for transit, was a sprawl-inducing road expansion—troubled Leinberger. “That’s a dangerous strategy. From what everybody tells me, this is a one-off.” He says the state legislature has traditionally treated Atlanta like a child, and is saying, “Finally, one time only, children, are we going to let you decide for yourself. This is it.”

The July 31 vote is “an Olympic moment,” he says. “If the vote fails, you have to accept the fact that Atlanta will continue to decline as a metro area.” Forty years from now, will we look back at failure to pass the referendum as a mistake as devastating as the 1971 MARTA compromise?

Atlanta faces a classic problem. It boomed in the go-go decades at the end of the twentieth century when everyone zoomed alone in their cars from home to office to store. Now it must move beyond what worked in the past to a new era that demands a new way of building, with up to 70 percent of new development oriented around transit, Leinberger says. “Atlanta has a lot of catching up to do, but it’s hard for old dogs to learn new tricks.”

The never-ending ramifications of a race-based transportation infrastructure, built to accommodate a suburban driving lifestyle that has started to die off in a state that has traditionally refused to embrace mass transit, could doom Atlanta to a future as a newer, sunnier Detroit.

“It only takes a generation-plus of yinning when you should have yanged to wake up and say, ‘Oh my God! How did it happen?’” says outgoing MARTA General Manager Beverly A. Scott, who watched from afar the decline of her hometown, Cleveland.

Atlanta’s failure to build out MARTA looks even more shameful when compared with what happened with similar transit systems in San Francisco and Washington, D.C., which started at the same time as MARTA, she says. “The reality is, this region got stuck. We have about half the build-out of what it was planned to be.” But San Francisco and Washington “kept building and moving . . . they had plans regardless of whether folks were red or blue. They had a vision and the fortitude to make purple and keep moving. We just got stuck.”

MARTA was born out of Atlanta’s giant ego in the days when the city was entering the major leagues across the board—baseball, football, international airport—bolstered by a racially harmonious reputation unmatched in the South, deserved or not. “You said to yourself, ‘We’re top-notch. Everybody’s got to have a rail system,’” Scott says. “But it was built as a manifestation of ‘we have arrived’ without a bigger vision of ‘what do we want to do for our region?’ You built it like a trophy.” Indeed, some of the Downtown MARTA stations were built on a scale that would please a pharaoh.

Yet Scott says she is no doomsayer. During her tenure at MARTA, she has seen marked progress in forging the civic-political infrastructure necessary to build an integrated transportation network. Her concern is that the region is at a critically urgent juncture in the process and can’t afford to lose focus or momentum.“There’s still much work to be done,” she says.

Word about Atlanta’s transportation muddle has gotten around. Scott says she’s been privy to meetings during which corporate relocation experts tell Chamber of Commerce members: “Hey, Atlanta is not only not at the top tier anymore, we’ve got companies saying, ‘Don’t put the Atlanta region on the list.’” It’s not just the congestion and pollution—“they’re not seeing leadership or plans to get yourself out of the fix.”

Atlanta’s leaderless transportation fix is the ultimate example of the admonition, “Be careful what you pray for.”

“This is the irony: The majority of whites in Atlanta wanted to be isolated when they thought about public transportation,” says historian Kevin Kruse. “As a result, they have been in their cars on 75 and 85. They got what they wanted. They are safe in their own space. They’re just not moving anywhere.”

Hindsight: Other lapses in civic judgment
The 1818 Survey Snafu That Keeps Atlanta Thirsty

Surveyors in 1818 goofed when marking the border between Georgia and Tennessee. At least that’s Georgia’s story, and we’re sticking with it. Legislators still quarrel over the alleged historical cartography blooper that left all of the Tennessee River within Tennessee. Georgia claims surveyors set the boundary line too far south by more than a mile and should have included a sliver of the mighty river within our borders. During recent severe droughts, Georgia thirsted to stick a pipe into the Tennessee and route water to Atlanta, which now draws all its H2O from Lake Lanier and the Chattahoochee River, whose water is also lusted after by Alabama and Florida. Another mistake is our failure to build additional reservoirs —just being addressed now.

The “Grow No More” Edict of 1953
The city of Atlanta hasn’t extended its boundaries in the last sixty years, while the population and landmass of the surrounding counties has exploded. The last time Atlanta expanded its limits was 1952, when it took in Buckhead and went north—almost to Sandy Springs. Timothy Crimmins, who directs the Center for Neighborhood and Metropolitan Studies at Georgia State University, thinks Atlanta’s biggest mistake—bigger than the MARTA compromises—was a 1953 decision by the state supreme court that declared unconstitutional an effort by the local legislative delegation to annex additional parts of Fulton County. The court said only the General Assembly could expand city limits—and the referendum sought to preempt that power. It was a critical opportunity that would have set up a central government that could grow with our expanding population instead of the proliferation of regional governments.

The last major effort at annexation was Sam Massell’s “Two Cities” plan of the early 1970s, which called for Atlanta to annex unincorporated Fulton County north of the city, and College Park to annex unincorporated Fulton to the south. The plan passed in the House of Representatives and was set to pass in the Senate, but it was killed by Lester Maddox. Ironically, segregationist Maddox stopped annexation that would have returned Atlanta to a majority-white city. Adjusting racial allotments “was not the motivation” for the plan, Massell says. What he was after was a city with a greater population, and thus greater power. Crimmins says Maddox killed the bill at the request of black leaders and the City of East Point.

Our Sewer Woes—Dating Back to Reconstruction
In the years after the Civil War, Atlanta built a two-pipe sewer system: a separate but integrated network of pipes that collects sewage and storm water. During downpours, rainwater forced raw sewage into the Chattahoochee. As the population grew, the pollution became grotesque. In 2001 the city agreed to federal and state demands to fix the problem with giant underground tunnels to store the overflow and then send it for treatment. The Clean Water Atlanta program has cost $1.6 billion so far and will cost another $450 million over the next thirteen years. This is why Atlantans have among the nation’s highest water-sewer bills. The situation in the suburbs may be worse because so much wastewater treatment is the responsibility of private homeowners with septic tanks. “The pollution potential for that is gargantuan,” Crimmins says.


‘Underground’: OWN Acquires WGN America’s Historical Drama Series

EXCLUSIVE: The critically acclaimed historical drama series Underground, which aired for two seasons on WGN America, is heading to OWN: Oprah Winfrey Network. OWN said today it has acquired the series to air beginning Tuesday, January 5 at 9 p.m. ET/PT. The series, from Sony Pictures Television, will have a revitalized presentation on OWN, with newly filmed episodic introductions by cast members, never-before-seen behind the scenes footage and more, according to the network.

Co-created by Misha Green (Lovecraft Country) and Joe Pokaski (Cloak & Dagger) and starring Aldis Hodge, Jurnee Smollett and Christopher Meloni, Underground follows a courageous group of American heroes who attempt a daring flight to freedom in the greatest escape in history.

Verwante verhaal

Reality TV Producer Carlos King Inks First-Look Deal With OWN

The logline: In 1857, a restless slave named Noah (Hodge) organizes a small team of fellow slaves on the Macon plantation outside Atlanta, and puts together a plan to run for their lives — 600 dangerous miles North — to freedom. The odds of success are slim the path to freedom&rsquos terrain is unforgiving, and Tom, their politically ambitious owner will surely kill anyone attempting to run. For those who make it off the plantation, the risks and uncertainties multiply. They leave family behind to pay for their sins, as they face danger and death at every turn. They’re aided along the way by an abolitionist couple in Ohio, new to running a station on the Underground, unprepared for the havoc it will wreak with their personal lives, while they evade a ruthless slave catcher hell-bent on bringing them back, dead or alive.

Alano Miller, Jessica de Gouw, Marc Blucas, Adina Porter, Mykelti Williamson, Amirah Vann, Johnny Ray Gill, Chris Chalk, Reed Diamond, Theodus Crane, James Lafferty, Renwick Scott and Jussie Smollett also star.

Green and Pokaski executive produced the series alongside Emmy-nominated director Anthony Hemingway (Power, Red Tails) Academy Award-winning writer Akiva Goldsman (A Beautiful Mind, I Am Legend) of Weed Road Pictures Tory Tunnell (Spinning Out, King Arthur) and Joby Harold (King Arthur, Edge of Tomorrow) of Safehouse Pictures and EGOT winner John Legend, Emmy and Tony Award winner Mike Jackson and Emmy winner Ty Stiklorius of Get Lifted Film Co and Mark Taylor (MadTV). Additionally, Legend and Get Lifted oversaw the score, soundtrack and all music aspects of the series.

In Season 2, Legend guest stars as iconic abolitionist, orator and author Frederick Douglass, Aisha Hinds recurs as Harriet Tubman and Sadie Stratton portrays notorious slave trader Patty Cannon.

The series was named Best TV Show by the African American Film Critics Association, received four NAACP Image Award nominations and was nominated as Outstanding New Program by the Television Critics Association. It won three Cynopsis TV Awards and was honored by Broadcasting & Cable and Multichannel News for Diversity Discussion in Television and Video and was nominated for an ASC Award for its cinematography.


Ghosts of hotspots past

It makes sense that in our city "too busy to hate," filled with transients and few who stay put, we've largely forgotten our history.

Take our nightlife. These days you'd better not blink or you'll miss the current It Bar, that one watering hole that'll flourish for a few months then suddenly dry up. Sure, there are exceptions to this rule, but Atlanta's club crowd isn't known for nesting.

It wasn't always this way. Stories of the city's bygone venues still get passed down, tales of clock-stopping musical performances and ultra-hip cultural scenes. Unfortunately, most of these clubs have fallen by the wayside.

The big question is this: As Atlantans, what did we actually miss? A great deal, it turns out. And for the remaining few who were able to experience these establishments, the memories provide a colorful illustration of the variety of nightlife our city hosted through the years. CL could devote a whole issue to now-defunct nightspots, but here are a few too consequential to be forgotten.

THE ROYAL PEACOCK

In its heyday, The Royal Peacock on Auburn Avenue stood firm as the crown jewel of Atlanta's rhythm and blues scene. The club originally opened in 1937 as The Top Hat, which hosted the major black acts of the day, including Cab Calloway and Louis Armstrong.

The club was purchased in 1949 by former circus performer Carrie Cunningham, a local hotel and restaurant operator whose love for peacocks inspired her to rename the venue.

It's difficult to find a legendary blues or soul artist who didn't grace the Peacock's stage at one time or another: Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Sonny Boy Williamson, Elmore James, Ray Charles, Sam Cooke, Etta James.

"It had so much prestige," says Atlanta blues great Louis "Lotsa Poppa" High, who played there regularly in the '50s. "It was the place where every entertainer wanted to be."

In late 1960, promoter Henry Wynne, owner of the Supersonic Attractions booking agency, bought the club and brought in headliners such as Otis Redding, Wilson Pickett, The Supremes and Ike and Tina Turner, among others.

"If you were an R&B performer and you hadn't played The Apollo or The Peacock, then you hadn't made it yet," says High.

The audience was primarily African-Americans in their mid-30s. In the '60s, a younger white audience rediscovered the blues and was eventually drawn to the club. Before making his own mark on the Atlanta music scene with The Hampton Grease Band, an underage Col. Bruce Hampton recalls sneaking into The Peacock after sound check and hiding under the stage where the sounds of B.B. King, Bobby Blue Bland and others would seep down through the floorboards.

"The quality and tonality of the music was unbelievable," Hampton says. "It was an amazing time."

Celebrity Sightings

Although the stars on stage often outshone those in the audience, The Peacock attracted many African-American celebrities visiting Atlanta. Joe Louis, Jackie Robinson and Muhammad Ali were known to stop by.Memorable Night

On Feb. 24, 1964, the night before he defeated Sonny Liston in Miami for the World Heavyweight Title, Muhammad Ali celebrated a day early at The Peacock during a Lotsa Poppa performance.

In the '70s, the Sweet Auburn district went into economic decline, which put a damper on business at The Peacock. It closed for a while, then passed through the hands of several different operators, including a social club of local cab drivers known as The Men of Style in the late '70s and Willie Virden in the early '80s. Local musician/restaurant owner Clay Harper attempted a short-lived, mid-'80s revival and brought in old-school Peacock acts including Hank Ballard & The Midnighters and Bo Diddley backed by The Georgia Satellites. Although it had a promising start, it failed to catch on, closing in 1987 after it was damaged by fire. The Peacock is now managed by Moongate Inc. and features reggae and hip-hop performers.

THE PLAYBOY CLUB

Atlanta's Playboy Club opened in March 1965, becoming the 15th location of the international chain. It was located in the Dinkler Hotel on Luckie Street, now the site of a Quality Inn. The club was drenched in suave '60s chic and served as a living, breathing version of all things hailed by the notorious men's magazine.

Membership was required for entry, and each member had his own key, which was shown to gain entrance. A winding staircase led from the lobby of the hotel up to the club's main floor. At the top of the stairs, keyholders were greeted by a woman dressed in the trademark Bunny suit &mdash bunny ears, stockings, four-inch heels, white cuff links and a form-fitting corset uniform.

In the Playmate Bar, framed centerfolds of Playmates adorned the walls, which was the only hint of nudity in the club. Next to the bar was a bumper pool table where guests lined up for the opportunity to chalk up a cue with a Bunny for $1 a game.

"We became so good at it, we could just run the table, and nobody had a chance to beat us," says Sunny Green, a former Bunny who now works as a crime scene investigator for Rockdale County. "You could finish a game in two minutes and just say 'next.'"

Another flight of stairs ascended to the Penthouse showroom where live performances were featured. On any iven night, the crooning of Tony Bennett or Mel Torme might be heard wafting down from the Penthouse. Classic comedians such as Milton Berle, Sid Caesar and Steve Allen appeared often, as well as edgier up-and-comers like George Carlin and Steve Martin.

Life as a Bunny wasn't necessarily a hop in the park. Strict guidelines including weekly weigh-ins, fingernail inspections, grooming requirements and behavior etiquette were strongly enforced. Failure to comply could lead to suspension. Bunnies were also forbidden to date customers.

Weeknight crowds consisted primarily of conventioneers and businessmen. A dress code was also enforced: suit and tie required. Acts in the showroom helped draw in more women on weekends.

Celebrity Sightings

Local celebrities often frequented the club, especially athletes. Former Braves player and TV yuckster Bob Uecker was a fixture, and Rankin Smith and Pete Rozell shared a toast at the club the day Smith purchased the Falcons. Others guest performers included Dean Martin, Frankie Avalon and Roy Orbison.

Memorable Night

With stogie in hand, the incomparable George Burns once performed in the club's intimate Penthouse setting. "He couldn't see very well, and he had to have a Bunny lead him to the stage," says Green.

The Atlanta Playboy Club, along with the rest of the chain, swung hard in the '60s. But by the end of the decade, the era of upscale lounge nightclubs featuring vocalists and comedians was being ushered out the door. In the '70s, discos, rock clubs and singles bars took their place, and strip clubs began revealing more than Bunnies ever would. The Atlanta club closed after it was damaged by fire in 1975.

THE LIMELIGHT

After his Miami Limelight disco burned to the ground in the late '70s, enigmatic club king Peter Gatien set his sights on Atlanta. Located in the "disco Kroger" complex on Piedmont Road in Buckhead, the Atlanta Limelight opened its doors in February 1980 in the former home of the Harlequin Dinner Theatre.

The Limelight lived up to its billing as the Studio 54 of the South. A large staircase in the lobby led downstairs to the infamous glass dance floor. Beneath the dance floor was a massive fish tank, which was home to two sand sharks. The club featured a 100,000-watt sound system blasting Euro disco, and thousands of mobile lights on the ceiling flipped and turned throughout the night. Confetti and snow would periodically fall from the ceiling. If this wasn't enough to get the crowd going, Gatien hired "exciters," scantily clad beauties who'd shake their groove things, urging patrons to do the same. A caged dancer would be lowered from the ceiling and land at the foot of the stage. This is how diva Pia Zadora made her entrance for a live appearance.

The V.I.P. room on the back wall provided privacy for visiting celebrities, and the curtained booths were notorious spots for cocaine use and sex. There was also a restaurant, a jumbo Jacuzzi with changing rooms and a small movie theater filled with pillows in place of seats.

On weekends, lines sometimes stretched down Piedmont Road. The wait could be as long as four hours. Dress and attitude codes were enforced, and some wannabe guests were denied entry to the club altogether, sometimes just for the sake of sensationalism. The crowd was a mixed bag of straights and gays decked out in the tight, shiny disco style of the era.

Celebrity Sightings

The club's wild reputation lured in visiting celebrities. Rod Stewart, Andy Warhol, Farrah Fawcett, Burt Reynolds, Tina Turner, Isaac Hayes, Neil Simon and Grace Jones were among the familiar faces spotted. According to house photographer and publicist Guy D'Alema, it was a chore to get the elusive Gatien to pose with celebrity guests for photo ops. Gatien usually sequestered himself in the executive offices with a novel and a glass of wine. "He was very conservative," D'Alema recalls. "Sometimes he'd bring some of the bigger celebrities back to his house to party, but he'd end up excusing himself and going to bed while the party kept going."

Memorable Night

In June of 1981, orange juice pitchman and former beauty queen Anita Bryant, known for her vocal anti-gay stance, stopped in. She spent the evening dancing with the unlikeliest partner, gay evangelist Russ McGraw, and D'Alema photographed them on the dance floor. The notorious photo made it on the cover of the Atlanta Journal, in the pages of Time, Newsweek, Playboy and more than 200 American newspapers. Bryant was furious, but Gatien relished the publicity.

In '83, Gatien moved to New York to open a Limelight club there and his brother Maurice was given the reins of the Atlanta club. This marked the beginning of the end. "Peter was the brains behind the operation," says D'Alema. "Maurice . didn't want to spend a dime and didn't have a creative bone in his body."

Soon Women's Auxiliary groups were renting the club for afternoon teas, and the gay community turned its back on the club. The club closed in 1985. Gatien went on to open Limelight clubs in London and Chicago, then returned to Atlanta to open Petrus in Midtown in 1989, which closed a few years later and now is the site of eleven50. Gatien later received notoriety for his 1996 arrest and acquittal on racketeering and drug charges involving his NYC club, the Tunnel, and his conviction for tax evasion, which got him a stint at Riker's Island in 1999.

THE METROPLEX

In the early '80s, former Athens music promoter Paul Cornwell envisioned a sanctuary for the spike-haired punk rockers and hardcore enthusiasts who scoured Atlanta's indie record bins. In 1983, without a license, he opened The Metroplex in the old blood bank at 300 Luckie St. After pressure from the city to comply with fire and club codes, Cornwell moved shop a year-and-a-half later to 388 Marietta St., now the site of a parking lot. He and cohort Jim Fleter did some remodeling and created a club that became synonymous with punk rock in Atlanta.

Cornwell went for an indestructible look, anticipating the venue would see its share of bumps and bruises as the crowd slamdanced the night away. The front doors opened up to a brick-walled room with hardwood floors and several booths. A collection of 45 records hung from the ceiling.

The all-ages venue was able to find a way to work alcohol into the picture in '86. While one side of the club offered up soda and standard ballpark fare to teenagers, the other half, appropriately named The Other Side, featured a bar separated from the rest of the club by chicken wire. Facing both rooms was the stage and an open floor. A corner staircase led up to a balcony area where overexcited patrons would often dive off and onto the crowd below.

Suburban punks, skinheads and alternative music lovers found a haven at The Metroplex. Local and regional punk, OI and hardcore bands, including Moon Stomp, Anti-Heros, Rotten Gimmick and The Tombstones, regularly performed. National acts such as GBH, Suicidal Tendencies and Bad Brains played there too, as did aging rock acts like Iron Butterfly and Nazareth.

Crowds would line up in front of the club, in all their studded, spiked, leathered and dyed glory. Many club regulars lived directly across the street in a warehouse that resembled something out of the cult film Suburbia.

"During the summer, it was the same routine every day," recalls photographer Russell King, a Metroplex regular. "If you were too drunk to drive home, you'd just stumble across the street and crash on the warehouse floor. You'd wake up in the afternoon the next day and that night's band would be arriving. You'd go over and meet them, and it would start all over again."

In the days when punk rock was still dangerous and accessories weren't readily available at the local mall, violence regularly reared its head. Whether instigated by unruly skinheads, drive-by rednecks, frat boy hecklers or drunken patrons, fights at or around The Metroplex were common. "You could probably count on a fight at least every other night," says Eric Snoddy, a former Metroplex security guard and doorman.

Celebrity Sightings

Most celebrities spotted at The Metroplex were on stage, and they ran the gamut of counterculture notoriety. Motorhead, Timothy Leary, Johnny Thunders and former Rolling Stone Mick Taylor all appeared. Before they hit the pop charts, the Red Hot Chili Peppers played with opening acts Fishbone and Thelonious Monster. The Butthole Surfers actually lived at the club for a week in 1988 before migrating to Athens.

Memorable Night

In November 1987, legendary Plasmatic Wendy O Williams performed with opening act Scream, which included drummer Dave Grohl, later of Nirvana/Foo Fighters fame. The crowd included the overly drunk Izzy Stradlin and Slash of Guns & Roses, who stopped by after opening up for Motley Crüe at the Omni.

A seemingly endless battle over the club ensued between Cornwell and city officials. Squabbles over a liquor license and an ordinance requiring performers and employees to be fingerprinted caused an uproar. When Cornwell held his Alternative '88 festival at the club, the city had the surrounding streets closed for blocks to avoid interference with the Democratic National Convention. The event was a financial bust, and the club was hit hard. A few shows later, it was closed for good. Cornwell fought hard to reopen, but a 1990 fire gutted the structure, killing four homeless inhabitants, marking the end of The Metroplex.


For Underground Atlanta the beginning was almost the end

Looking at photographs of downtown Atlanta in the late 1800’s one cannot help but be impressed with the number of railroad tracks that populated the area we now call The Gulch. By some accounts, at the height of Atlanta’s railroad history there were over 350 trains a day that traveled through the city

Atlanta was indeed a “railroad town.” But for pedestrians and horse drawn carts, all those railroad tracks that meant so much to the economy and the growth of Atlanta presented major challenges for transportation around the city.

The cross-town transportation headaches got even worse in the 1920’s when the automobile became a more common feature on Atlanta streets and that is what escalated construction of the system of bridges or viaducts that currently cross over the land that used to hold all of those railroad tracks.

Connecting the various bridges in the 1920’s made it possible for Atlantans to get from one side of town to the other but the viaducts also covered over the lower portion of many of the buildings that were adjacent to the railroad tracks cutting them off from the pedestrian and automobile traffic that was now essentially above ground.

The portion of those buildings that were below the concrete viaducts pretty much languished unused for almost 40 years until someone got the idea to turn the area into an entertainment district and call it Underground Atlanta. Modeled after New Orleans’ French Quarter, the area under the viaducts instantly became a very popular venue for Atlantans to unwind after work and on the weekends. That is, until someone discovered a very interesting law about serving liquor in Atlanta. That law and how state officials interpreted it is the subject of this week’s Stories of Atlanta.