'N Inleiding - Geskiedenis

'N Inleiding - Geskiedenis



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Die woord "Antebellum" beteken die tydperk voor 'n oorlog. Dit is beslis 'n gepaste titel om aan die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State van 1820 tot 1855 te gee. Dit was inderdaad die tydperk wat die burgeroorlog gelei het. Baie van die gebeure wat gedurende daardie tydperk plaasgevind het, het gehelp om die oorlog onvermydelik te maak. Die kwessie van slawerny en die uitbreiding daarvan het veroorsaak 'n diep politieke kloof gedurende hierdie tyd in die land, met voortdurende stryd oor die vraag of 'n staat 'vry' of 'slaaf' moet wees. Die sienings oor slawerny word verhard–– met kragtige anti-slawerny-organisasies wat sterk word in die Noorde ... Terwyl die verdedigers van slawerny in die Suide steeds harder word.

Dit gesê, moet nie na hierdie tydperk kyk nie enigste deur die lens van die gebeure wat tot die oorlog gelei het–– aangesien hierdie gebeure nie in 'n vakuum plaasgevind het nie. Aan die begin van die Antebellum -periode was die Verenigde State 'n groep state (hoofsaaklik in die gebiede wat die Atlantiese kus omhels.) Teen die burgeroorlog was die Verenigde State 'n kontinentale mag met state aan weerskante van die vasteland. Toe die Antebellum -tydperk begin, was die toekomstige grense van die Verenigde State onbekend. Toe die tydperk eindig, is die grense van die kontinentale Verenigde State vasgestel. Die Antebellum -era in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis was 'n tydperk van voortdurende uitbreiding na die weste. In die oostelike helfte van die land was die inheemse Amerikaners nie 'n probleem nie (nadat die Indiese verwyderingswet daartoe gelei het dat die meerderheid van die inheemse Amerikaners na gebiede wes van die Mississippirivier gedwing is om hul lande vir wit setlaars oop te maak. )

Die Antebellum -tydperk was 'n era van vinnige tegnologiese verandering, verandering wat Amerika gedurende hierdie jare getransformeer het. Die eerste groot veranderinge, wat deur die ouer, bestaande tegnologie aangebring is, het die bou van die Erie -kanaal moontlik gemaak. Dit het die Midde-Weste oopgemaak vir vestiging en handel. Kort daarna het meer belangrike vordering plaasgevind deur die bekendstelling van spoorweë. Die spoorweë het vinnig 'n enkele, interafhanklike ekonomie vir die Verenigde State geskep. Die spoorweë het die tyd wat dit geneem het om van die een plek na die ander te reis ingrypend verander. Uiteindelik het die bekendstelling van die telegram in die Antebellum -periode die kommunikasie heeltemal getransformeer. Skielik was die nuus onmiddellik. U sal moontlik nie baie inligting tegelyk kan stuur nie, maar stel u voor dat diegene wat die Slag van New Orleans in 1815 geveg het betyds die boodskap gekry het die oorlog was reeds afgehandel.

Laastens het die gesig van Amerika gedurende die Antebellum -periode radikaal verander. Die bevolking van die Verenigde State het gedurende hierdie tydperk van 9 miljoen tot byna 30 miljoen gestyg. En hoewel die Verenigde State 'n oorwegend plattelandse land gebly het - selfs aan die einde van die tydperk - het die persentasie mense wat in Amerikaanse stede woon, steeds gegroei (van slegs 6% van die bevolking tot byna 19%.) Die negentien persent verteenwoordig 6 miljoen mense.
Die kulturele samestelling van Amerika het ook vinnig verander - met nuwe immigrante uit Duitsland, Skandinawië en Ierland wat by die vroeë Amerikaners aangesluit het wat meestal uit Engeland was.


'N Inleiding tot antieke (klassieke) geskiedenis

Alhoewel die definisie van "oud" onderhewig is aan interpretasie, is daar 'n paar kriteria wat gebruik kan word by die bespreking van antieke geskiedenis, 'n tydperk wat verskil van die prehistorie en die laat oudheid of die middeleeuse geskiedenis.

  1. Voorgeskiedenis: Die tydperk van die menslike lewe wat voorgekom het (dit wil sê, prehistorie ['n term wat in Engels geskep is deur Daniel Wilson (1816-92), volgens Barry Cunliffe
  2. Laat Oudheid/Middeleeue: Die tydperk wat aan die einde van ons tydperk gekom het en tot in die Middeleeue geduur het

Die Holocaust: 'n inleidende geskiedenis

Die Holocaust (ook genoem Ha-Shoah in Hebreeus) verwys na die tydperk van 30 Januarie 1933 - toe Adolf Hitler kanselier van Duitsland geword het - tot 8 Mei 1945, toe die oorlog in Europa amptelik geëindig het. Gedurende hierdie tyd is Jode in Europa geleidelik onderwerp aan erger vervolging wat uiteindelik gelei het tot die moord op 6,000,000 Jode (1,5 miljoen hiervan kinders) en die vernietiging van 5,000 Joodse gemeenskappe. Hierdie sterftes verteenwoordig twee derdes van die Europese Jood en een derde van alle wêreld Jode.

Die Jode wat gesterf het, was nie slagoffers van die gevegte wat Europa tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog geteister het nie. Hulle was eerder die slagoffers van Duitsland en rsquos doelbewuste en stelselmatige poging om die hele Joodse bevolking van Europa te vernietig, 'n plan wat Hitler die & ldquoFinal Solution & rdquo (Endlosung).

Agtergrond

Na sy nederlaag in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog is Duitsland verneder deur die Versailles -verdrag, wat sy vooroorlogse gebied verminder het, sy gewapende magte drasties verminder, die erkenning van sy skuld vir die oorlog eis en bepaal dat dit vergoeding aan die geallieerde magte moet betaal. Met die vernietiging van die Duitse Ryk, is 'n nuwe parlementêre regering genaamd die Weimarrepubliek gestig. Die republiek het gebuk gegaan onder ekonomiese onstabiliteit, wat erger geword het tydens die wêreldwye depressie ná die ineenstorting van die aandelemark in New York in 1929. Massiewe inflasie gevolg deur 'n baie hoë werkloosheid het die bestaande klas- en politieke verskille verhoog en die regering begin ondermyn.

Op 30 Januarie 1933 word Adolf Hitler, leier van die National Socialist German Workers (Nazi) Party, deur president Paul von Hindenburg aangewys as kanselier van Duitsland nadat die Nazi -party 'n aansienlike persentasie van die stemme in die verkiesing van 1932 gewen het. Party het voordeel getrek uit die politieke onrus in Duitsland om 'n verkiesingsvoet te kry. Die Nazi's het botsings met die kommuniste aangewakker en 'n wrede propaganda -veldtog gevoer teen sy politieke teenstanders en die swak Weimar -regering en die Jode wat die Nazi's die skuld vir Duitsland en rsquos gehad het, laat vaar.

Propaganda: & ldquoDie Jode is ons ongeluk & rdquo

Die weeklikse Nazi -koerant was 'n belangrike hulpmiddel vir die Nazi's en propaganda -aanvalle Der St & uumlrmer (Die aanvaller). Onder in die voorblad van elke uitgawe, met vet letters, het die koerant geproklameer, en die Jode is ons ongeluk! & Rdquo Der St & uumlrmer ook gereeld tekenprente van Jode waarin hulle as haakneus en aapagtige karikatuur gekarakteriseer is. Die invloed van die koerant was verreikend: teen 1938 is ongeveer 'n halfmiljoen eksemplare weekliks versprei.

Kort nadat hy kanselier geword het, het Hitler 'n beroep op nuwe verkiesings gedoen in 'n poging om volle beheer oor die Reichstag, die Duitse parlement, vir die Nazi's te kry. Die Nazi's het die regeringsapparaat gebruik om die ander partye te terroriseer. Hulle het hul leiers gearresteer en hul politieke vergaderings verbied. Toe, te midde van die verkiesingsveldtog, op 27 Februarie 1933, brand die Reichstag -gebou. 'N Nederlander met die naam Marinus van der Lubbe is weens die misdaad in hegtenis geneem en hy het gesweer dat hy alleen opgetree het. Alhoewel baie vermoed het dat die Nazi's uiteindelik verantwoordelik was vir die daad, het die Nazi's daarin geslaag om die kommuniste die skuld te gee en sodoende meer stemme na hul kant toe gedraai.

Die brand dui op die ondergang van die Duitse demokrasie. Die volgende dag het die regering, onder die skyn van beheer van die kommuniste, individuele regte en beskerming afgeskaf: persvryheid, vergadering en uitdrukking is vernietig, sowel as die reg op privaatheid. Toe die verkiesings op 5 Maart gehou is, het die Nazi's byna 44 persent van die stemme gekry, en met 8 persent wat die konserwatiewes aangebied het, het hulle 'n meerderheid in die regering gekry.

Die Nazi's het vinnig beweeg om hul mag in 'n diktatuur te konsolideer. Op 23 Maart is die Magtigingswet aanvaar. Dit het Hitler & rsquos se diktatoriale pogings goedgekeur en hom wetlik in staat gestel om dit verder te volg. Die Nazi's het hul formidabele propagandamasjien ingeryg om hul kritici stil te maak. Hulle het ook 'n gesofistikeerde polisie- en militêre mag ontwikkel.

Die Sturmabteilung (S.A., Storm Troopers), 'n voetsoolvlakorganisasie, het Hitler gehelp om die Duitse demokrasie te ondermyn. Die Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei, Geheime staatspolisie), 'n mag wat deur professionele polisiebeamptes gewerf is, het na 28 Februarie volkome vryheid gekry om enigiemand in hegtenis te neem Schutzstaffel (SS, Protection Squad) gedien as Hitler & rsquos persoonlike lyfwag en het uiteindelik die konsentrasiekampe en die Gestapo beheer. Die Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsf & uumlhrers-SS (S.D., Veiligheidsdiens van die SS) het as die Nazi's se intelligensiediens gefunksioneer en vyande ontbloot en onder toesig gehou.

Met hierdie polisie -infrastruktuur in plek, is teenstanders van die Nazi's geterroriseer, geslaan of gestuur na een van die konsentrasiekampe wat die Duitsers gebou het om hulle in die gevangenis te hou. Dachau, net buite München, was die eerste kamp wat vir politieke gevangenes gebou is. Die doel van Dachau en rsquos het mettertyd verander en uiteindelik 'n ander wrede konsentrasiekamp vir Jode geword.

Teen die einde van 1934 was Hitler in absolute beheer oor Duitsland en sy veldtog teen die Jode in volle gang. Die Nazi's beweer dat die Jode die suiwer Duitse kultuur bederf het met hul & ldquoforeign & rdquo en & ldquomongrel & rdquo invloed. Hulle het die Jode as boos en lafhartig uitgebeeld, en Duitsers as hardwerkend, moedig en eerlik. Die Jode, het die Nazi's beweer, wat sterk verteenwoordig was in finansies, handel, die pers, letterkunde, teater en die kunste, het die ekonomie en kultuur van Duitsland en verswak. Die massiewe propaganda-masjien wat deur die regering gesteun word, het 'n rasse-antisemitisme geskep, wat anders was as die antisemitiese tradisie van die Christelike kerke.

Die superieure ras was die & ldquo -Ariërs, en die Duitsers. Die woord Arieër word ontleed uit die studie van taalkunde, wat in die agtiende eeu begin het en op 'n stadium bepaal het dat die Indo-Germaanse (ook bekend as Ariese) tale beter was in hul strukture, verskeidenheid en woordeskat as die Semitiese tale ontwikkel in die Nabye Ooste. Hierdie uitspraak het gelei tot 'n sekere vermoede oor die karakter van die mense wat hierdie tale gepraat het, die gevolgtrekking was dat die & lsquoAryan & rsquo mense ook beter was as die & lsquoSemitiese & rsquo ones & rdquo

Die Jode is geïsoleerd van die samelewing

Die Nazi's kombineer hul rasseteorieë met die evolusionêre teorieë van Charles Darwin om hul behandeling van die Jode te regverdig. Die Duitsers, as die sterkste en sterkste, was bestem om te regeer, terwyl die swak en rasvervalste Jode tot uitsterwing gedoem was. Hitler het die Jode begin beperk met wetgewing en terreur, wat die verbranding van boeke wat deur Jode geskryf is, beperk het, Jode uit hul beroepe en openbare skole verwyder het, hul besighede en eiendom konfiskeer en uitgesluit het van openbare geleenthede. Die berugste van die anti-Joodse wetgewing was die Neurenbergwette wat op 15 September 1935 uitgevaardig is. Dit vorm die regsgrondslag vir die uitsluiting van die Jode en die Duitse samelewing en die geleidelik beperkende Joodse beleid van die Duitsers.

Baie Jode het probeer om uit Duitsland te vlug, en duisende het daarin geslaag om na lande soos België, Tsjeggo -Slowakye, Engeland, Frankryk en Holland te immigreer. Dit was baie moeiliker om uit Europa te kom. Jode het in die grootste deel van die wêreld en rsquos -lande sterk immigrasie -kwotas teëgekom. Selfs as hulle die nodige dokumente verkry het, moes hulle dikwels maande of jare wag voordat hulle vertrek. Baie gesinne het uit desperaatheid hul kinders eerste gestuur.

In Julie 1938 vergader verteenwoordigers van 32 lande in die Franse stad Evian om die vlugteling- en immigrasieprobleme wat die Nazi's in Duitsland veroorsaak het, te bespreek. Op die Evian -konferensie is niks wesenliks gedoen of besluit nie, en dit het vir Hitler duidelik geword dat niemand die Jode wil hê nie en dat hy nie weerstand sal bied om sy Joodse beleid in te stel nie. Teen die herfs van 1941 was Europa in werklikheid verseël vir die meeste wettige emigrasie. Die Jode was vasgekeer.

Op 9-10 November 1938 het die aanvalle op die Jode gewelddadig geword. Hershel Grynszpan, 'n 17-jarige Joodse seuntjie wat ontsteld was oor die deportasie van sy gesin, het Ernst vom Rath, die derde sekretaris in die Duitse ambassade in Parys, doodgeskiet wat op 9 November gesterf het. 'n nag van vernietiging wat nou bekend staan ​​as Kristallnacht (die nag van gebreekte glas). Hulle het Joodse huise en besighede geplunder en vernietig en sinagoges verbrand. Baie Jode is geslaan en vermoor. 30 000 Jode is gearresteer en na konsentrasiekampe gestuur.

Die Jode is beperk tot getto's

Duitsland val Pole in September 1939 binne die Tweede Wêreldoorlog aan. Kort daarna, in 1940, het die Nazi's ghetto's begin vestig vir die Jode van Pole. Meer as 10 persent van die Poolse bevolking was Joods, met ongeveer drie miljoen. Jode is met geweld uit hul huise gedeporteer om in oorvol ghetto's te woon, geïsoleerd van die res van die samelewing.

Hierdie konsentrasie van die Joodse bevolking het die Nazi's later gehelp met die deportasie van die Jode na die doodskampe. Die ghetto's het nie die nodige voedsel, water, ruimte en sanitêre geriewe gehad nie, wat nodig is vir soveel mense wat binne hul beperkte grense woon. Baie sterf aan ontbering en hongersnood.

Die & ldquoFinal Solution & rdquo

In Junie 1941 val Duitsland die Sowjetunie aan en begin met die finale oplossing. Vier mobiele moordgroepe is gestig genaamd Einsatzgruppen A, B, C en D. Elke groep het verskeie kommando -eenhede bevat. Die Einsatzgruppen het Jode stad vir stad bymekaargemaak, hulle na groot kuipe geloop, wat hulle vroeër gegrawe het, hulle gestroop het, in 'n ry gesit het en met outomatiese wapens geskiet het. Die dooies en sterwendes sou in die kuipe val om in massagrafte begrawe te word. In die berugte Babi Yar-slagting, naby Kiev, is 30 000-35 000 Jode binne twee dae dood. Benewens hul bedrywighede in die Sowjetunie, het die Einsatzgruppen massamoord in die ooste van Pole, Estland, Litaue en Letland uitgevoer. Daar word beraam dat teen die einde van 1942 die Einsatzgruppen het meer as 1,3 miljoen Jode vermoor.

Op 20 Januarie 1942 het verskeie topamptenare van die Duitse regering vergader om die militêre en burgerlike administratiewe takke van die Nazi -stelsel amptelik te koördineer om 'n stelsel van massamoord op die Jode te organiseer. Hierdie vergadering, genaamd die Wannsee-konferensie, het die begin van die grootskaalse, omvattende uitroeiingsoperasie [van die Jode] gemaak en die grondslag gelê vir sy organisasie, wat onmiddellik begin het nadat die konferensie geëindig het. & Rdquo

Terwyl die Nazi's ander nasionale en etniese groepe vermoor het, soos 'n aantal Sowjet -krygsgevangenes, Poolse intellektuele en sigeuners, was slegs die Jode gemerk vir sistematiese en totale uitwissing. Jode is uitgesonder vir & ldquo Spesiale behandeling & rdquo (Sonderbehandlung), wat beteken het dat Joodse mans, vroue en kinders metodies met giftige gas doodgemaak moes word. In die veeleisende rekords wat in die Auschwitz -doodskamp gehou is, is die oorsaak van dood van Jode wat vergas is, aangedui deur & ldquoSB, en rdquo die eerste letters van die twee woorde wat die Duitse term vir & ldquoSpecial Treatment vorm. & Rdquo

Teen die lente van 1942 het die Nazi's ses moordsentrums (doodskampe) in Pole opgerig: Chelmno (Kulmhof), Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Maidanek en Auschwitz. Almal was naby spoorlyne geleë sodat Jode daagliks maklik vervoer kon word. 'N Groot stelsel kampe (genoem Lagersisteem) die doodskampe ondersteun. Die doel van hierdie kampe was uiteenlopend: sommige was slawe -arbeidskampe, sommige transito -kampe, ander konsentrasiekampe en hul subkampe, en nog ander die berugte doodskampe. Sommige kampe kombineer al hierdie funksies of 'n paar daarvan. Al die kampe was ondraaglik wreed.

In byna elke land wat deur die Nazi's oorval is, is die Jode gedwing om kentekens te dra wat hulle as Jode aandui, hulle is in ghetto's of konsentrasiekampe afgerond en daarna geleidelik na die moordsentrums vervoer. Die doodskampe was in wese fabrieke vir die moord op Jode. Die Duitsers het elke dag duisende Jode na hulle gestuur. Binne 'n paar uur na hul aankoms is die Jode van hul besittings en waardevolle besittings ontneem, met gas vergas en hul liggame verbrand in spesiaal ontwerpte krematoria. Ongeveer 3,5 miljoen Jode is in hierdie doodskampe vermoor.

Baie gesonde, jong sterk Jode is nie onmiddellik doodgemaak nie. Die Duitsers se oorlogspoging en die & ldquoFinal Solution & rdquo het baie mannekrag vereis, sodat die Duitsers groot poele Jode vir slawe -arbeid gereserveer het. Hierdie mense, opgesluit in konsentrasie- en arbeidskampe, is gedwing om in Duitse ammunisie en ander fabrieke, soos I.G. Farben en Krupps, en oral waar die Nazi's arbeiders nodig gehad het. Hulle is van dagbreek tot donker gewerk sonder voldoende kos en skuiling. Duisende het omgekom, letterlik doodgemaak deur die Duitsers en hul medewerkers.

In die laaste maande van Hitler en rsquos Reich, toe die Duitse leërs terugtrek, het die Nazi's die gevangenes wat nog in die konsentrasiekampe geleef het, begin marsjeer na die gebied wat hulle nog beheer het. Die Duitsers het die honger en siek Jode gedwing om honderde kilometers te loop. Die meeste is dood of is langs die pad geskiet. Ongeveer 'n kwartmiljoen Jode sterf tydens die optogte.

Joodse verset

Die Duitsers se oorweldigende onderdrukking en die teenwoordigheid van baie medewerkers in die verskillende plaaslike bevolkings het die vermoë van die Jode ernstig beperk. Joodse verset het egter in verskillende vorme voorgekom. Om lewendig, skoon te bly en Joodse godsdienstige tradisies in ag te neem, was weerstand onder die ontmenslikende omstandighede wat die Nazi's opgelê het. Ander vorme van verset behels ontsnappingspogings uit die ghetto's en kampe. Baie wat daarin geslaag het om uit die ghetto's te ontsnap, het in die woude en berge in gesins kampe en in die stryd teen partydige eenhede gewoon. Maar toe die Jode vry was, moes die Jode te kampe hê met plaaslike inwoners en partydige groepe wat dikwels openlik vyandig was. Jode het ook gewapende opstande in die ghetto's van Vilna, Bialystok, Bedzin-Sosnowiec, Krakow en Warskou.

Die Warskou Ghetto -opstand was die grootste ghetto -opstand. Groot deportasies (of Aksies) was van Julie tot September 1942 in die getto gehou, wat die ghetto leeggemaak het van die meerderheid Jode wat daar gevange was. Toe die Duitsers in Januarie 1943 weer die ghetto binnegaan om nog duisende te verwyder, val klein ongeorganiseerde groepe Jode hulle aan. Na vier dae onttrek die Duitsers hulle uit die getto, nadat hulle baie minder mense gedeporteer het as wat hulle bedoel het. Die Nazi's het op 19 April 1943, voor die pasga, weer die ghetto binnegegaan om die oorblywende Jode te ontruim en die getto te sluit. Die Jode het tuisgemaakte bomme en gesteelde of ruilwapens gebruik en die Duitsers 27 dae lank weerstaan ​​en weerstaan. Hulle veg teen bunkers en riole en vermy gevangenskap totdat die Duitsers die ghetto -gebou verbrand het. Teen 16 Mei was die ghetto in puin en die opstand verpletter.

Jode het ook in opstand gekom in die doodskampe van Sobibor, Treblinka en Auschwitz. Al hierdie weerstandshandelinge was grootliks onsuksesvol in die lig van die Duitse superieure magte, maar dit was geestelik baie belangrik en het die Jode hoop gegee dat die Nazi's eendag verslaan sou word.

Bevryding

Die kampe is geleidelik bevry, terwyl die Geallieerdes gevorder het met die Duitse leër. Maidanek (naby Lublin, Pole) is byvoorbeeld bevry deur Sowjet-magte in Julie 1944, Auschwitz in Januarie 1945 deur die Sowjets, Bergen-Belsen (naby Hannover, Duitsland) deur die Britte in April 1945 en Dachau deur die Amerikaners in April 1945.

Aan die einde van die oorlog het tussen 50 000 en 100 000 Joodse oorlewendes in drie besettingsgebiede gewoon: Amerikaans, Brits en Sowjet. Binne 'n jaar het die syfer tot ongeveer 200 000 gegroei. Die Amerikaanse besettingsgebied het meer as 90 persent van die Joodse ontheemdes (DP's) bevat. Die Joodse DP's wou en kon nie na hul huise terugkeer nie, wat sulke aaklige herinneringe teruggebring het en steeds die bedreiging van gevaar van antisemitiese bure inhou. So het hulle in DP -kampe verdwyn totdat emigrasie na Palestina en later Israel, die Verenigde State, Suid -Amerika en ander lande gereël kon word. Die laaste DP -kamp het in 1957 gesluit

Hieronder is syfers vir die aantal Jode wat in elke land onder Duitse oorheersing vermoor is. Dit is ramings, net soos alle syfers met betrekking tot die slagoffers van die slagting. Die getalle wat hier gegee word vir Tsjeggo -Slowakye, Hongarye en Roemenië is gebaseer op hul territoriale grense voor die München -ooreenkoms van 1938. Die totale getal van ses miljoen Jode wat tydens die Holocaust vermoor is, wat uit die Neurenberg -verhore ontstaan ​​het, is ook 'n skatting. Getalle het gewissel tussen vyf en sewe miljoen dood. Die presiese getal sal nooit bekend wees nie vanweë die baie mense wie se moorde nie opgeteken is nie en wie se lyke nog nie gevind is nie.


'N Inleiding - Geskiedenis

"Die Khazar -mense was 'n ongewone verskynsel in die Middeleeue. Omring deur woeste en nomadiese stamme, het hulle al die voordele van die ontwikkelde lande gehad: 'n gestruktureerde regering, groot en welvarende handel en 'n permanente leër. Destyds, toe groot fanatisme en diepe onkunde betwis hul heerskappy oor Wes -Europa, die Khazar -staat was beroemd om sy geregtigheid en verdraagsaamheid. Mense wat vervolg is vir hul gelowe, stroom van oral na Khazaria. enige spore van bestaan. ”
- Vasilii V. Grigoriev, in sy opstel "O dvoystvennosti verkhovnoy vlasti u khazarov" (1835), herdruk in sy samestellingsboek uit 1876 Rossiya en Aziya op bladsy 66

"Alhoewel die Jode oral 'n onderdaan was, en in 'n groot deel van die wêreld ook vervolg is, was Khazaria die enigste plek in die Middeleeuse wêreld waar die Jode eintlik hul eie meesters was. Vir die verdrukte Jode van die wêreld was die Khazars 'n bron van trots en hoop, want hulle bestaan ​​het bewys dat God Sy volk nie heeltemal verlaat het nie. ”
- Raymond Scheindlin, in Die kronieke van die Joodse volk (1996)

Die geskiedenis van Khazaria bied ons 'n fassinerende voorbeeld van hoe die Joodse lewe in die Middeleeue floreer het. In 'n tyd toe Jode deur Christelike Europa vervolg is, was die koninkryk Khazaria 'n baken van hoop. Jode kon in Khazaria floreer vanweë die verdraagsaamheid van die Khazar -heersers, wat Bisantynse en Persiese Joodse vlugtelinge genooi het om hulle in hul land te vestig. As gevolg van die invloed van hierdie vlugtelinge, het die Khazars gevind dat die Joodse godsdiens aantreklik was en het Judaïsme in groot getalle aangeneem.

Die meeste beskikbare inligting oor die Khazars kom uit Arabiese, Hebreeuse, Armeense, Bisantynse en Slawiese bronne, waarvan die meeste betroubaar is. Daar is ook 'n groot hoeveelheid argeologiese bewyse oor die Khazars wat verskeie aspekte van die Khazariese ekonomie (kuns en kunsvlyt, handel, landbou, vissery, ens.) Sowel as begrafnispraktyke belig.

Oorsprong. Die Khazars was 'n Turkse 1 -bevolking wat in Sentraal -Asië afkomstig was. Die vroeë Turkse stamme was redelik uiteenlopend, alhoewel daar vermoed word dat rooierige hare voor die Mongoolse verowerings oorheers het. Aan die begin het die Khazars geglo in Tengri sjamanisme, 'n Turkse taal gepraat en nomadies. Later het die Khazars Judaïsme, Islam en Christendom aangeneem, Hebreeus en Slawies geleer en hulle gevestig in stede en dorpe in die noordelike Kaukasus en Oekraïne. Die Khazars het 'n groot geskiedenis van etniese onafhanklikheid gehad, wat ongeveer 800 jaar strek vanaf die 5de tot die 13de eeu.

Die vroegste geskiedenis van die Khazars in die suide van Rusland, voor die middel van die 6de eeu, is in die duister versteek. Van ongeveer 550 tot 630 was die Khazars deel van die Wes -Turkse Ryk, regeer deur die Hemelblou Turke (K & oumlk Turke). Toe die Wes -Turkse Ryk in die middel van die 7de eeu as gevolg van burgeroorloë verbrokkel het, het die Khazars hul onafhanklikheid suksesvol bevestig. Tog het die K & oumlk -kaganaat waaronder hulle geleef het, die Khazars van hul regeringstelsel voorsien. Die Khazars het byvoorbeeld dieselfde riglyne as die K & oumlk Turke gevolg met betrekking tot die opvolging van konings.

Politieke mag. In sy maksimum omvang het die onafhanklike land Khazaria die geografiese streke van Suid -Rusland, Noord -Kaukasus, Oos -Oekraïne, Krim, Wes -Kazakstan en Noordwes -Oesbekistan ingesluit. Ander Turkse groepe soos die Sabirs en Bulgars het gedurende die 7de eeu onder Khazar jurisdiksie geval. Die Khazars het sommige van die Bulgars (onder leiding van Asparukh) gedwing om na die hedendaagse Bulgarye te verhuis, terwyl ander Bulgars na die boonste Wolga-gebied gevlug het waar die onafhanklike staat Volga Bulgharia gestig is. Die Khazars het in die 9de eeu hul grootste mag oor ander stamme gehad, terwyl hulle oostelike Slawiërs, Magjars, Pechenegs, Burtas, Noord -Kaukasiese Hunnen en ander stamme beheer het en hulde geëis het. Vanweë hul jurisdiksie oor die gebied, is die Kaspiese See die 'Khazarsee' genoem, en selfs vandag noem die Azeri, Turks, Persies en Arabies die Kaspiese by hierdie term (in Turks, 'Hazar Denizi' in Arabies, ' Bahr-ul-Khazar "in Persies," Daryaye Khazar ").

Benewens hul rol in die indirekte skepping van die moderne Balkan -nasie Bulgarye, het die Khazars 'n nog belangriker rol gespeel in Europese aangeleenthede. Deur as 'n bufferstaat tussen die Islamitiese wêreld en die Christelike wêreld op te tree, het Khazaria gekeer dat Islam aansienlik noord van die Kaukasusgebergte kon versprei. Dit is bewerkstellig deur 'n reeks oorloë, bekend as die Arabiese-Khazar-oorloë, wat aan die einde van die 7de en vroeë 8ste eeu plaasgevind het. Die oorloë het die Kaukasus en die stad Derbent gevestig as die grens tussen die Khazars en die Arabiere.

Stede. Die eerste Khazar-hoofstad was Balanjar, wat geïdentifiseer is met die argeologiese terrein Verkhneye Chir-Yurt. Gedurende die 720's het die Khazars hul hoofstad oorgeplaas na Samandar, 'n kusdorp in die noordelike Kaukasus, bekend vir sy pragtige tuine en wingerde. In 750 is die hoofstad verplaas na die stad Itil (Atil) aan die rand van die Volga -rivier. In werklikheid het die naam "Itil" ook in die Middeleeue die Wolga aangedui. Itil sou nog minstens 200 jaar die hoofstad van die Khazar bly. Itil, die administratiewe sentrum van die Khazar -koninkryk, was langs Khazaran, 'n belangrike handelsentrum, geleë. In die vroeë 10de eeu bestaan ​​die bevolking van Khazaran-Itil meestal uit Moslems en Jode, maar 'n paar Christene het ook daar gewoon. Die hoofstad het baie moskees gehad. Die koning se paleis was geleë op 'n nabygeleë eiland, omring deur 'n baksteenmuur. Die Khazars het gedurende die winter in hul hoofstad gebly, maar hulle het in die lente en somer in die omliggende steppe gewoon om hul gewasse te verbou.

Die groot hoofstad van die moderne Oekraïne, Kiev, is gestig deur Khazars of Hongare. Kiev is 'n Turkse pleknaam (K & uumli = rivieroewer + ev = nedersetting). 'N Gemeenskap van Joodse Khazars het in Kiev gewoon. Ander dorpe van die Khazars, waarvan baie ook belangrike Joodse gemeenskappe gehad het, sluit Kerch (Bospor), Feodosia, Tamatarkha (Tmutorokan), Chufut-Kale, Sudak en Sarkel in. Die plaaslike goewerneur van Samandar was Joods, en daar kan aanvaar word dat baie van die goewerneurs van hierdie ander plekke ook Joods was. 'N Groot baksteenvesting is in 834 in Sarkel, langs die Donrivier, gebou. Dit was 'n koöperatiewe Bisantynse-Khazar-onderneming, en Petronas Kamateros, 'n Griek, het tydens die konstruksie as hoofingenieur gedien.

Beskawing en handel. Die hoofvoedsel vir die Khazars was rys en vis. Gars, koring, spanspekke, hennep en komkommers is ook in Khazaria geoes. Daar was baie boorde en vrugbare streke rondom die Volga -rivier, waarop die Khazars staatgemaak het weens die gereelde reënval. Die Khazars het op jakkalse, hase en bevers gejag om in die groot vraag na pelse te voorsien.

Khazaria was 'n belangrike handelsroete wat Asië en Europa verbind. Die "sypad" was byvoorbeeld 'n belangrike skakel tussen China, Sentraal -Asië en Europa. Onder die dinge wat langs die Khazar -handelsroetes verhandel is, was sy, pelse, kerswas, heuning, juweliersware, silwerware, muntstukke en speserye. Joodse Radhaniet -handelaars van Persië het deur Itil gegaan op pad na Wes -Europa, China en ander plekke. Die Iraanse Sogdians het ook gebruik gemaak van die Silk Road -handel, en hul taal en rune letters het gewild geword onder die Turke. Khazars het handel gedryf met die mense van Khwarizm (noordwes van Oesbekistan) en Volga Bulgharia en ook met hawestede in Azerbeidjan en Persië.

Die dubbel-monargie van die Khazars was 'n Turkse stelsel waaronder die kagan die opperste koning was en die bek die leier van die burgerlike weermag was. Die kagane was deel van die Turkse Asena -heersende familie wat in die vroeë Middeleeuse tydperk kagane vir ander Sentraal -Asiatiese lande voorsien het. Die Khazar kagans het verhoudings gehad met die heersers van die Bisantyne, Abchaziërs, Hongare en Armeniërs. Die Khazariese konings het tot 'n mate die godsdiens van die Khazar -mense beïnvloed, maar hulle het diegene wat verskillende godsdienste as hul eie gehad het, geduld, sodat selfs toe hierdie konings Judaïsme aangeneem het, hulle steeds Griekse Christene, heidense Slawiërs en Moslem -Iraniërs in hul domeine. In die hoofstad het die Khazars 'n hooggeregshof ingestel wat uit 7 lede bestaan ​​het, en elke godsdiens was verteenwoordig in hierdie regterlike paneel (volgens een hedendaagse Arabiese kroniek is die Khazars volgens die Torah beoordeel, terwyl die ander stamme geoordeel is volgens ander wette).

Antieke Jode -gemeenskappe het op die Krim -skiereiland bestaan, 'n feit wat deur baie argeologiese bewyse bewys is. Dit is opmerklik dat die Krim onder die beheer van die Khazars gekom het. Die Krim -Joodse gemeenskappe is later aangevul deur vlugteling -Jode wat uit die Mazdaq -opstand in Persië gevlug het, die vervolging van die Bisantynse keisers Leo III en Romanus I Lecapenus, en om verskeie ander redes. Jode het na Khazaria gekom uit die huidige Oesbekistan, Armenië, Hongarye, Sirië, Turkye, Irak en vele ander plekke, soos gedokumenteer deur al-Masudi, die Schechter-brief, Saadiah Gaon en ander verslae. Die Arabiese skrywer Dimashqi het geskryf dat hierdie vlugteling Jode hul godsdiens aan die Khazar Turke aangebied het en dat die Khazars "dit beter as hul eie gevind het en dit aanvaar het". Die Joodse Radhanite -handelaars het moontlik ook die bekering beïnvloed. Die aanneming van Judaïsme was miskien ook 'n simbool van politieke onafhanklikheid vir Khazaria, wat die magsbalans tussen die Moslemkalifaat en die Christelike Bisantynse Ryk behou het.

Onder leiding van konings Bulan en Obadja het die standaard rabbynse vorm van die Joodse godsdiens onder die Khazars versprei. Koning Bulan het Judaïsme ongeveer 838 aangeneem nadat hy na bewering 'n debat gevoer het tussen verteenwoordigers van die Joodse, Christelike en Moslemgeloof. Die Khazar -adel en baie van die gewone mense het ook Jode geword. Koning Obadja stig later sinagoges en Joodse skole in Khazaria. Die boeke van die Mishnah, Talmud en Torah het dus vir baie Khazars belangrik geword. Saint Cyril het in 860 na Khazaria gekom in 'n Bisantynse poging om die Khazars tot die Christendom te bekeer, maar hy kon hulle nie van Judaïsme afkeer nie. Hy het egter baie van die Slawiërs oortuig om die Christendom aan te neem. Teen die 10de eeu het die Khazars met Hebreeuse letters geskryf. Die belangrikste Joodse dokumente uit die Khazar uit daardie tydperk is in die Hebreeuse taal geskryf. The Ukrainian professor Omeljan Pritsak estimated that there were as many as 30,000 Jews in Khazaria by the 10th century. In 2002, the Swedish numismatist Gert Rispling discovered a Khazar Jewish coin.

In general, the Khazars may be described as a productive and tolerant people, in contact with much of the rest of the world and providing goods and services at home and abroad. Many artifacts from the Khazars, exhibiting their artistic and industrial talents, have survived to the present day.

Decline and fall. During the 10th century, the East Slavs were united under Scandinavian overlordship. A new nation, Kievan Rus, was formed by Prince Oleg. Just as the Khazars had left their mark on other peoples, so too did they influence the Rus. The Rus and the Hungarians both adopted the dual-kingship system of the Khazars. The Rus princes even borrowed the title kagan. Archaeologists recovered a variety of Khazar or Khazar-style objects (including clothing and pottery) from Viking gravesites in Chernigov, Gnezdovo, Kiev, and even Birka (Sweden). The residents of Kievan Rus patterned their legal procedures after the Khazars. In addition, some Khazar words became part of the old East Slavic language: for example, bogatyr ("brave knight") apparently derives from the Khazar word baghatur.

The Rus inherited most of the former Khazar lands in the late 10th century and early 11th century. One of the most devastating defeats came in 965, when Rus Prince Svyatoslav conquered the Khazar fortress of Sarkel. It is believed that he conquered Itil two years later, after which he campaigned in the Balkans. Despite the loss of their nation, the Khazar people did not disappear. Many of them converted to Islam and survived in the North Caucasus and Central Asian regions under new identities. Others lived and studied in other Jewish communities from Spain to the Byzantine Empire 2 but in the end had no impact on the ancestral composition of any modern Jewish population.

Notas.
1. Many medieval writers attested to the Khazars' Turkic origins including Theophanes, al-Masudi, Rabbi Yehudah ben Barzillai, Martinus Oppaviensis, and the anonymous authors of the Georgian Chronicle and Chinese chronicle T'ang-shu. The Arabic writer al-Masudi in Kitab at-Tanbih wrote: ". the Khazars. are a tribe of the Turks." (cited in Peter Golden, Khazar Studies, pp. 57-58). T'ang-shu reads: "K'o-sa [Khazars]. belong to the stock of the Turks." (cited in Peter Golden, Khazar Studies, bl. 58). In sy Chronografie, Theophanes wrote: "During his [Byzantine emperor Heraclius] stay there [in Lazica], he invited the eastern Turks, who are called Chazars, to become his allies." (cited in Theophanes, Analecta Bollandiana vol. 112, 1994, pp. 339-376).

Suggestions for further research. Here are some useful published introductory materials on the Khazars. Some are available from retail bookstores, while others are only available through libraries.

"The World of the Khazars" edited by Peter B. Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, and András Róna-Tas (2007)

"Khazar Studies: An Historico-Philological Inquiry into the Origins of the Khazars" by Peter B. Golden (1980)

Journal article "Khazaria and Judaism" by Peter B. Golden, in Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi, volume 3, 1983, pages 128 to 156.

"The Kuzari: In Defense of the Despised Faith" by Yehudah HaLevi, translated by N. Daniel Korobkin (1998, 2009)

"The Emergence of Rus 750-1200" by Jonathan Shepard and Simon Franklin (1996)


“Get Big Fast”

In 1994 Jeff Bezos, a former Wall Street hedge fund executive, incorporated Amazon.com, choosing the name primarily because it began with the first letter of the alphabet and because of its association with the vast South American river. On the basis of research he had conducted, Bezos concluded that books would be the most logical product initially to sell online. Amazon.com was not the first company to do so Computer Literacy, a Silicon Valley bookstore, began selling books from its inventory to its technically astute customers in 1991. However, the promise of Amazon.com was to deliver any book to any reader anywhere.

While Amazon.com famously started as a bookseller, Bezos contended from its start that the site was not merely a retailer of consumer products. He argued that Amazon.com was a technology company whose business was simplifying online transactions for consumers.

The Amazon.com business strategy was often met with skepticism. Financial journalists and analysts disparaged the company by referring to it as Amazon.bomb. Doubters claimed Amazon.com ultimately would lose in the marketplace to established bookselling chains, such as Borders and Barnes & Noble, once they had launched competing e-commerce sites. The lack of company profits until the final quarter of 2001 seemed to justify its critics.

However, Bezos dismissed naysayers as not understanding the massive growth potential of the Internet. He argued that to succeed as an online retailer, a company needed to “Get Big Fast,” a slogan he had printed on employee T-shirts. In fact, Amazon.com did grow fast, reaching 180,000 customer accounts by December 1996, after its first full year in operation, and less than a year later, in October 1997, it had 1,000,000 customer accounts. Its revenues jumped from $15.7 million in 1996 to $148 million in 1997, followed by $610 million in 1998. Amazon.com’s success propelled its founder to become Tyd magazine’s 1999 Person of the Year.

The company expanded rapidly in other areas. Its Associates program, where other Web sites could offer merchandise for sale and Amazon.com would fill the order and pay a commission, grew from one such site in 1996 to more than 350,000 by 1999. Following Bezos’s initial strategy, the company quickly began selling more than books. Music and video sales started in 1998. That same year it began international operations with the acquisition of online booksellers in the United Kingdom and Germany. By 1999 the company was also selling consumer electronics, video games, software, home-improvement items, toys and games, and much more.

To sustain that growth, Amazon.com needed more than private investors to underwrite the expansion. As a result, in May 1997, less than two years after opening its virtual doors to consumers and without ever having made a profit, Amazon.com became a public company, raising $54 million on the NASDAQ market. In addition to the cash, the company was able to use its high-flying stock to fund its aggressive growth and acquisition strategy.

Although offering more types of goods broadened its appeal, it was Amazon.com’s service that gained it customer loyalty and ultimate profitability. Its personalization tools recommended other products to buy on the basis of both a customer’s purchasing history and data from buyers of the same items. Its publishing of customer reviews of products fostered a “community of consumers” who helped each other find everything from the right book to the best blender.


An Introduction to Oral History

When we transitioned to working remotely in March, units across the Smithsonian were encouraged to think about how we can continue to ensure our mission to increase and diffuse knowledge with the doors to our museums and research centers closed. At the Archives, we turned to our work with our oral history collection. Since 1973, the Archives has worked to record a wide, diverse range of viewpoints about the events that have shaped the Smithsonian. So what exactly is oral history?

Oral history is a technique for generating and preserving original, historically interesting information— primary source material—from personal recollections through planned recorded interviews. This method of interviewing is used to preserve the voices, memories and perspectives of people in history. It’s a tool we can all use to engage with and learn from family members, friends, and the people we share space with in an interview that captures their unique history and perspective in their own words. Oral history stems from the tradition of passing information of importance to the family or tribe from one generation to the next. In the United States, the Oral History Association connects oral historians and provides a broad range of information on oral history. Some basic tenets include:

Tegniek: The methodology of oral history can be adapted to many different types of projects from family history to academic research projects in many different disciplines. The interviews should usually be conducted in a one-on-one situation, although group interviews can also be effective.

Sharing: In collaboration with a well-prepared and empathetic interviewer, the narrator may be able to share information that they do not realize they recall and to make associations and draw conclusions about their experience that they would not be able to produce without the interviewer.

Preserving: Recording preserves the interview, in sound or video and later in transcript for use by others removed in time and/or distance from the interviewee. Oral history also preserves the ENTIRE interview, in its original form, rather than the interviewer’s interpretation of what was said.

Original historically important information: The well-prepared interviewer will know what information is already in documents and will use the oral history interview to seek new information, clarification, or new interpretation of a historical event.

Personal recollections: The interviewer should ask the narrator for first-person information. These are memories that the narrator can provide on a reliable basis, e.g., events in which they participated or witnessed or decisions in which they took part. Oral history interviews can convey personality, explain motivation, and reveal inner thoughts and perceptions.

Oral history is an essential tool for us as we aim to record the history of the Smithsonian and the folks that contribute to it, but it is also an inherently democratic practice. Anyone anywhere can conduct an oral history to learn more about their friends, family, and the people they share space with. For more tools and information on conducting oral histories, check out our How To Do Oral History site. And check out what other units from across the Smithsonian are sharing over at Smithsonian Cares!


History of Greece: Introduction

The ancient Classical and Hellenistic eras of Greece are undoubtedly the most splendid, having left behind a host of ideas, concepts, and art to provide the foundation of what we call &ldquowestern civilization&rdquo. However, the two previous millennia that lead to these ancient eras, as well as the other two millennia that succeeded them are all part of the history of Greece and have left just as rich a cultural footprint on the land.

Much of the ancient Greek civilization has survived either directly or through permutations to our day. The ancient Greek dialects are influential even to this day with much Greek vocabulary embedded in the Modern Greek and English languages. Likewise, the art and architecture of ancient Greece has remained relevant and influential up to our time in the breadth of western society. The much-celebrated Renaissance was guided in large part by the re-discovery of the ancient Greek ideas through text and art, which were hitherto suppressed by the belief in the absolute authority of the supernatural power and the church.

It should be noted that History is a discipline that was conceived first in Ancient Greece. Herodotus (484 &ndash 425 BCE) is considered the Father of History, as he was the first who attempted to record events and human actions for the sole purpose of preserving them for future generations. The very first lines of his Histories read: &ldquoHerodotus of Halicarnassus here displays his inquiry, so that human achievements may not become forgotten in time, and great and marvelous deeds &ndash some displayed by Greeks, some by barbarians &ndash may not be without their glory&rdquo (Herodotus, 3). Being the first to attempt such a feat, Herodotus was not spared from harsh criticism for including in his Histories (written between 431 and 435 BCE), myths, legends, and outrageous tales.

&ldquoI have written my work, not as an essay which is to win the applause of the moment, but as a possession for all time.&rdquo (Thucydides, 16)

Not much later than Herodotus, Thucydides (460 &ndash 395 BCE) with his History of the Peloponnesian War, put his own stamp on the discipline of History by attempting to present history in an &ldquoobjective&rdquo way, and to make correlations between human actions and events. Their approach and methods of recording historical events became the guiding light for historians of the next two thousand years.

This brief history of Greece is compiled here as an introduction to web readers and to provide the historical background that&rsquos needed to appreciate all the subjects of Ancient Greek culture. It was no easy task to compress the history of Ancient Greece into a concise format that would be appropriate both for online reading and as a precise overview of the subject. Suffice to say that each sentence of this essay has been the subject of countless volumes of discourse throughout history. Further reading can be found in the bibliography. -- 6/2007


The Aim of a Strong Introduction

Along with excellent organization, your introduction lets the visitor know that what you’ve written is of interest. For what reasons would someone come to read your post? Craft an intro that shows them they’ve come to the right place. Here are a few tactics and introduction examples to help you accomplish that.

1 Answer the question “Why should I read this?”

In the intro to this article, I smacked you in the face with a statistic: If you don’t capture a reader’s attention within fifteen seconds, 55 percent will surf on to something else. Right from the first sentence, I’ve told you why this article matters, which is a powerful way to compel someone to read on.

2 Engage the visitor with an anecdote.

Hook the visitor in with an intriguing narrative that gives a hint as to what the article is about and she’s more likely to continue reading.

In the summer of 2015, Stan Transkiy was 16 years into a life sentence, and he had finally found a way to occupy his time.

3 Tell the reader “This is not for you. (But not really. It totally is.)”

When you tell someone “Whatever you do, don’t think of a purple gorilla!” the first thing they do is think of a purple gorilla. (You’re welcome! Don’t worry he’s friendly.) The same psychological tactic can work in writing an introduction.

Why do you look so angry? This article hasn’t even begun and already you disapprove. Why can’t I ever win with you? I see it in your face.

If this sounds unfamiliar, good for you. You don’t need this.

4 Share something personal.

Much like storytelling, sharing something personal in an introduction can pique a visitor’s curiosity. Either he’ll feel he can relate, or the story will be so unique that he’ll be driven to read on to discover more.

I write to fill the page, preferably with nothing.

This ambition was in me before I could write. I grew up in a family of refugees speaking Russian, a language that, as my teachers and classmates took pains to remind me, did not belong to me.

5 Ask a question.

Some may argue that this introduction-writing technique is overused, but now and then a compelling question is the hook your piece needs. It’s especially effective if the visitor has to read on to uncover the answer.

What do you get when you combine a classic psychology experiment with the search for extraterrestrial intelligence?


Introduction and Conclusion

INTRODUCTIONS
The introduction of a paper must introduce its thesis and not just its topic. Readers will lose some—if not much—of what the paper says if the introduction does not prepare them for what is coming (and tell them what to look for and how to evaluate it).

For example, an introduction that says, “The British army fought in the battle of Saratoga” gives the reader virtually no guidance about the paper’s thesis (i.e., what the paper concludes/argues about the British army at Saratoga).

History papers are not mystery novels. Historians WANT and NEED to give away the ending immediately. Their conclusions—presented in the introduction—help the reader better follow/understand their ideas and interpretations.

In other words, an introduction is a MAP that lays out “the trip the author is going to take [readers] on” and thus “lets readers connect any part of the argument with the overall structure. Readers with such a map seldom get confused or lost.”1

Introductions do four things:

attract the ATTENTION of the reader
convince the reader that he/she NEEDS TO READ what the author has to say
define the paper’s SPECIFIC TOPIC
state and explain the paper’s THESIS
Writing the introduction:
Consider writing the introduction AFTER finishing your paper. By then, you will know what your paper says. You will have thought it through and provided arguments and supporting evidence therefore, you will know what the reader needs to know—in brief form—in the introduction. (Always think of your initial introduction as “getting started” and as something that “won’t count.” It is for your eyes only discard it when you know exactly what your paper says.) A common technique is to turn your conclusion into an introduction. It usually reflects what is in the paper—topic, thesis, arguments, evidence—and can be easily adjusted to be a clear and useful introduction.

Some types of introductions:

Quotation
Historical overview (provides introduction to topic AND background so that fewer explanations are needed later in paper)
Review of literature or a controversy
Statistics or startling evidence
Anecdote or illustration
Question
From general to specific OR specific to general
Avoid:

“The purpose of this paper is . . . ” OR “This paper is about . . . . ”
First person (e.g., “I will argue that”)
Too many questions
Dictionary definitions
Lengte:
There is no rule other than to be logical. Short papers require short introductions (e.g., a short paragraph) longer ones may require a page or more to provide all that a reader needs. Longer papers require ELABORATION of the thesis a sentence is not sufficient to prepare the reader for the many pages of arguments and evidence that follow.

GEVOLGTREKKINGS
Conclusions are the last thing that readers read they define readers’ final impression of a paper. A flat, boring conclusion means a flat, boring (or, at least, disappointing) paper.

Conclusions should be a climax, not an anti-climax. They do not just restate what has already been said they interpret, speculate, and provoke thinking.

Some types of conclusions:

Statement of subject’s significance
Call for further research
Recommendation or speculation
Comparison of part to present
Anecdote
Quotation
Questions (with or without answers)
Avoid:

“In conclusion” “finally” “thus”
Additional or new ideas that introduce a new paper
First person
Lengte:
Again, there is no rule, although too short conclusions should definitely be avoided. Short conclusions leave the reader on the edge of a cliff with no directions on how to get down.

You are the expert – help your reader pull together and appreciate what he/she has read.

____________________________
1Howard Becker, Writing for Social Scientists (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986).

Alumni Intros

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Dinosourusse

The prehistoric reptiles known as dinosaurs arose during the Middle to Late Triassic Period of the Mesozoic Era, some 230 million years ago. They were members of a subclass of reptiles called the archosaurs (“ruling reptiles”), a group that also includes birds and crocodiles.

Scientists first began studying dinosaurs during the 1820s, when they discovered the bones of a large land reptile they dubbed a Megalosaurus (𠇋ig lizard”) buried in the English countryside. In 1842, Sir Richard Owen, Britain’s leading paleontologist, first coined the term 𠇍inosaur.” Owen had examined bones from three different creatures–Megalosaurus, Iguanadon (“iguana tooth”) and Hylaeosaurus (“woodland lizard”). Each of them lived on land, was larger than any living reptile, walked with their legs directly beneath their bodies instead of out to the sides and had three more vertebrae in their hips than other known reptiles. Using this information, Owen determined that the three formed a special group of reptiles, which he named Dinosauria. The word comes from the ancient Greek word deinos (“terrible”) and sauros (“lizard” or “reptile”).

Het jy geweet? Despite the fact that dinosaurs no longer walk the Earth as they did during the Mesozoic Era, unmistakable traces of these enormous reptiles can be identified in their modern-day descendants: birds.

Since then, dinosaur fossils have been found all over the world and studied by paleontologists to find out more about the many different types of these creatures that existed. Scientists have traditionally divided the dinosaur group into two orders: the 𠇋ird-hipped” Ornithischia and the “lizard-hipped” Saurischia. From there, dinosaurs have been broken down into numerous genera (e.g. Tyrannosaurus or Triceratops) and each genus into one or more species. Some dinosaurs were bipedal, which means they walked on two legs. Some walked on four legs (quadrupedal), and some were able to switch between these two walking styles. Some dinosaurs were covered with a type of body armor, and some probably had feathers, like their modern bird relatives. Some moved quickly, while others were lumbering and slow. Most dinosaurs were herbivores, or plant-eaters, but some were carnivorous and hunted or scavenged other dinosaurs in order to survive.

At the time the dinosaurs arose, all of the Earth’s continents were connected together in one land mass, now known as Pangaea, and surrounded by one enormous ocean. Pangaea began to break apart into separate continents during the Early Jurassic Period (around 200 million years ago), and dinosaurs would have seen great changes in the world in which they lived over the course of their existence. Dinosaurs mysteriously disappeared at the end of the Cretaceous Period, around 65 million years ago. Many other types of animals, as well as many species of plants, died out around the same time, and numerous competing theories exist as to what caused this mass extinction. In addition to the great volcanic or tectonic activity that was occurring around that time, scientists have also discovered that a giant asteroid hit Earth about 65.5 million years ago, landing with the force of 180 trillion tons of TNT and spreading an enormous amount of ash all over the Earth’s surface. Deprived of water and sunlight, plants and algae would have died, killing off the planet’s herbivores after a period of surviving on the carcasses of these herbivores, carnivores would have died out as well.

Despite the fact that dinosaurs no longer walk the Earth as they did during the Mesozoic Era, unmistakable traces of these enormous reptiles can be identified in their modern-day descendants: birds. Dinosaurs also live on in the study of paleontology, and new information about them is constantly being uncovered. Finally, judging from their frequent appearances in the movies and on television, dinosaurs have a firm hold in the popular imagination, one realm in which they show no danger of becoming extinct.


Settlement Houses: An Introduction

One of the most influential organizations in the history of American social welfare was the “settlement house.” The establishment and expansion of social settlements and neighborhood houses in the United States corresponded closely with the Progressive Era, the struggle for woman suffrage, the absorption of millions of new immigrants into American society and the development of professional social work.

Settlements were organized initially to be “friendly and open households,” a place where members of the privileged class could live and work as pioneers or “settlers” in poor areas of a city where social and environmental problems were great. Settlements had no set program or method of work. The idea was that university students and others would make a commitment to “reside” in the settlement house in order to “know intimately” their neighbors. The primary goal for many of the early settlement residents was to conduct sociological observation and research. For others it was the opportunity to share their education and/or Christian values as a means of helping the poor and disinherited to overcome their personal handicaps.

What actually happened was that residents of settlements learned as much or more from their neighbors than they taught them. The “settlers” found themselves designing and organizing activities to meet the needs of the residents of the neighborhoods in which they were living. While trying to help and uplift their neighbors — organizing classes, clubs, games and other educational and social activities — settlement house residents and volunteers experienced first hand the powerlessness of the poor, the pervasive abuse of immigrants, the terrible conditions in which men, women and children were required to work in factories and sweatshops, the failure of public officials to enforce laws, the dangers of unsanitary conditions and the debilitating effects of tuberculosis and other diseases. Settlement house residents soon learned that the low standards of living and unsafe working conditions that were the usual lot of poor people in the neighborhoods were most often not the result of choice but of necessity.

When neighborhood conditions and individual or social problems seemed too pressing to be ignored, settlement workers tried to meet them. Their efforts often led to confrontations with local and state officials. At other times, bringing about a change required becoming advocates for a specific cause or acting as spokespersons appealing to a wider public for understanding or support for a proposed civic matter or political measure. From their advocacy, research and sometimes eloquent descriptions of social needs afflicting their neighbors, lasting contributions were made by residents of settlement houses in the areas of education, public health, recreation, labor organizing, housing, local and state politics, woman’s rights, crime and delinquency, music and the arts. Settlements soon became renown as the fountainhead for producing highly motivated social reformers, social scientists and public administrators, including such early notables as

Background: The Early Years

The settlement house movement started in England in 1884 when Cannon Samuel A Barnett, Vicar of St. Jude’s Parrish, founded Toynbee Hall in East London. The settlement idea, as formulated by Cannon Barnett, was to have university men “settle” into a working-class neighborhood where they would not only help relieve poverty and despair through their good works but also learn something about the real world from living day-to-day with the residents of the slums. According to an early Toynbee Hall report, it was “…an association of persons, with different opinions and different tastes its unity is that of variety its methods are spiritual rather than material it aims at permeation rather than conversion and its trust is in friends rather than in organization.”

Several Americans visited Toynbee Hall and were so influenced by the English experiment they decided to organize similar “settlements” in the United States. Tussen hulle:

Stanton A. Coit who founded the first American settlement in 1886 — Neighborhood Guild — on the Lower East Side of New York City (Note: the name was later changed to University Settlement)

Christina Isobel MacColl and her friend Sarah Carson founded Christodora Settlement House in the slums of New York City’s Lower East Side

Jane Addams and her college classmate, Ellen Gates Starr, founded Hull House on the West Side of Chicago in 1889

Vida D. Scudder and Jean Fine organized College Settlement in New York City

Robert A. Woods established Andover House in Boston (the name was later changed to South End House.

The settlement idea spread rapidly in the United States. By 1897 there were seventy-four settlements, over a hundred in 1900, and by 1910 there were more than four hundred in operation. Most settlements were located in large cities (40 percent in Boston, Chicago, and New York), but many small cities and rural communities boasted at least one settlement house. In the early years settlements and neighborhood houses were financed entirely by donations and the residents usually paid for their own room and board.

The American settlement movement diverged from the English model in several ways. More women became leaders in the American movement and there was a greater interest in social research and reform. But probably the biggest difference was that American settlements were located in overcrowded slum neighborhoods filled with recent immigrants. Working with the inhabitants of these neighborhoods, settlement workers became caught up in searching for ways to ease their neighbor’s adjustment and integration into a new society. Settlement house residents often acted as advocates on behalf of immigrants and their neighborhoods and, in various areas, they organized English classes and immigrant protective associations, established “penny banks” and sponsored festivals and pageants designed to value and preserve the heritage of immigrants.

It is important to note that settlements helped create and foster many new organizations and social welfare programs, some of which continue to the present time. Settlements were action oriented and new programs and services were added as needs were discovered settlement workers tried to find, not be, the solution for social and environmental deficits affecting their neighbors. In the process, some settlements became engaged in issues such as housing reform, factory safety, labor organizing, protecting children, opening health clinics, legal aid programs, consumer protection, milk pasteurization initiatives and well-baby clinics. Others created parks and playgrounds or emphasized the arts by establishing theaters and classes for the fine arts and music education. A number of settlement leaders and residents conducted research, prepared statistical studies, wrote reports or described their personal experiences in memoirs (e.g., Hull-House Maps and Papers, Robert Woods’s City Wilderness, Jane Addams’s Twenty Years at Hull-House, and Lillian Wald’s House on Henry Street).

Early settlement house residents did not escape the prejudice nor completely overcome the ethnic stereotypes common to their generation and social class they tried consciously to teach middle-class values, often betraying a paternalistic attitude toward the poor. On the other hand, and this was typical of progressives, most settlements were segregated. Although Hull-House and other settlements helped establish separate institutions for Black neighborhoods, pioneered in studying Black urban communities, and helped organize the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Blacks were not welcome at the major settlements.

The Contributions of “Living” in a Settlement House

A distinctive feature of the early years of the settlement movement was “residency.” By design, staff and volunteers lived communally in the same house or building, sharing meals and facilities, working together and spending some or all of their leisure time together. This arrangement fostered an exciting environment in which university-educated and socially motivated men and women enjoyed the opportunity to share their knowledge, life experiences, ideas and plans for the future. Working and living together, even for short periods, the residents of a settlement house bonded around specific projects, collaborated on social issues, formed close friendships and experienced lasting impressions they carried with them for a lifetime.

How to Cite this Article (APA Format): Hansan, J.E. (2011). Settlement houses: An introduction. Social Welfare History Project. Retrieved [date accessed] from http://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/settlement-houses/settlement-houses/

21 Replies to &ldquoSettlement Houses: An Introduction&rdquo

Hello, You offer a great framework to understand the origins of the settlement home movement. Given that many settlement homes in the United States “originated” just prior to the Emancipation Proclamation and that “Blacks were not welcome at the major settlements“, can you direct me to research about settlement homes started by and for Black people in the late 1800s? Dankie!

You might start by looking at the Seventeenth Street Mission in Richmond, Va. More pictures here: https://cdm17236.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p17236coll1 You might also look at the work of Rev. John Little who directed especially successful settlement houses serving African Americans in Louisville, Ky.

Dankie! I teach graduate level social work classes and want to continue to disrupt the Jane Addams (the story told is that she started “the first” settlement home in 1870). Her story is frequently the only settlement home story told. It’s one the excludes the narratives of people of color who helped people of color.

One further thought, while this is not exactly a settlement house, you might want to look into Ora Brown Stokes. Here’s one of her projects https://images.socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/items/show/503 and a bit of biography https://www.lva.virginia.gov/public/dvb/bio.asp?b=Stokes_Ora_Brown

Settlement Houses are needed now more than ever!!
It is so sad to see them closing their doors. Power to the people!

how did the social settlement movement help progressive reforms?

The best response to your comment is to suggest you read about specific settlement houses, e.g., Hull House, Chicago Commons, Baden St. Settlement and Baltimore Settlements. Also, read about some of the residents who lived in a settlement house and launched their careers. Sterkte. Jack Hansan

[…] Hansan, J.E. (2011). Settlement houses: An introduction. Retrieved October 1, 2015 from http://www.socialwelfarehistory.com/programs/settlement-houses/. […]

Hi,can anyone answer these, I have two questions related with this article:
1. Identify a group of people who lived in the settlement houses.
2. Name two groups serviced by the settlement houses.

Dankie! greatly appreciated.

Dear Aggiebaby: It is easy to answer your question: First, before we were married, my wife and I lived as residents on the third floor University Settlement in Philadelphia. Also living in the “Unie House” at the same time were two dental externs, a heart surgeon from Bari, Italy, two other social work students and a psychology major plus two other administrative staff and the the Executive Director, his family and one daughter. Second, there are countless groups serviced by settlement house since their founding. All you need to do is read the histories of most any settlement house on the SWH web site. Good luck, Jack Hansan

Hi Mr. Hansan,
thank you for this contribution as your article carries a spirit of this movement which is sometimes hard to place in words and often gets lost in translation when transferred into historical scholarship.

I am teaching a social work practice with groups class and was wondering if you can direct me to resource with specific examples of group activities (i.e. social/fun/recreational) that I could use to, in addition to providing theory and historical overview, demonstrate and engage my class into a type of activity such as the ones you describe in your article….?

Thank you for your time, Dunja

Dear Dunja: Sorry for the delay in responding to your request. It would take more time than I have to give to fully answer your question however, I have several resources for you to consider. 1) Read the entry under SOCIAL WORK titled: “More Than Sixty Years with Social Group Work” by Katy Papell who died just recently. 2)Another entry to read is listed with the tab for Settlements. It is “The Position of United Neighborhood Houses on Issues.” 3) Google “National Association of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers.” 4) Read the entry titled “Phillip Schiff Presentation” under the tab for Settlements. 5) Google: “United Neighborhood Centers of America.” 6) If your students are required to do field work direct them to engage in organizations dealing with current social problems, e.g., homelessness, food banks, teen pregnancy, poverty, immigrants, etc.

Good luck with your practice. Jack Hansan

Thanks for a great article. I have been involved in settlement house programs for a number of years beginning in the 1960 while in undergraduate school and then later during and after my MSW at Washington Univ. in St Louis Mo. Now late in life I find my self on a settlement house board of directors who is trying to re program an organization that lost its way. Do any of you have suggestions to update my knowledge of what kind of programs are operating in contemporary settlement houses. We are in Brownsville Texas at the Texas Mexico boarder.

Any suggestions will be most appreciated.

Dear Jack White: I am pleased to reply to your comment. I started to work in a Kansas City, Mo. neighborhood center in 1950 and received my MSW in Social Group Work from the Univ. of PA in 1956. While I have been retired for many years, I have created the SWH Project and it has helped me keep up to date on the history of settlement houses. In response to your question I have several suggestions: 1) the successor of the National Federation of Settlements & Neighborhood Centers is the “United Neighborhood Centers of America.” It recently merged with the Alliance however, it would be a good place to start your search for help or resources. Another suggestion is to contact the United Neighborhood House of New York, or Northeaster PA. If you search for United Neighborhood Houses you will learn several areas of the US have such organizations.

Good luck in locating some help. Regards, Jack Hansan

Dear Mr. Hansan,
In my field of clinical social work we are so entrenched in the notion of individual pathology that it is next to impossible to find support for the idea that doing what we can to focus on the health of families and neighborhoods and the social and economic policies that effect them, is always a part of our work. And listening to the people we serve to better understand what they need! Thank you for reminding me of why I got into social work in the first place.

Thank you for the nice comment. Jack Hansan

Mr. Hansan,
I am attending school at the older than average student age of 46 for social work. I have read and enjoyed your writing on Settlement Houses. I think my plans for social work may have hung a sharp left. Baie dankie.

Thanks for the nice comment. If you follow through, contact the director of United Neighborhood Centers of America. He would be interested in communicating with you. Regards, Jack Hansan

John.. what year did you write the article ” The settlement House Movement”? Dankie. Raymond Sims.

Dear Raymond Sims: It is difficult to put a time frame on that article. I started working in a neighborhood house in K.C. Mo in 1950 and with the exception of two years active duty during the Korean War I continued to work in settlements until 1965. During that time I acquired a great deal of knowledge about settlements and their contribution to American social welfare. If it is important, I can tell you when the article was posted on the SWH web site. Warm regards, Jack Hansan

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