Slag van Loos, September 1916

Slag van Loos, September 1916



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Slag van Loos

Lt.kol Harry Walker, bevelvoerder van die 4de Black Watch, dodelik gewond tydens die Slag van Loos

Die Slag van Loos op 25 September 1915 was die grootste landgeveg in die Britse militêre geskiedenis en het tot 'n vreeslike bloedbad gelei. Dit was ook waar die eerste Britse gebruik van gifgas gemaak is.

Die Britse offensief was deel van 'n poging van die Franse om deur die Duitse verdediging in Noord -Frankryk te breek.

Die aanval was gedeeltelik suksesvol, met die dorpie Loos wat vinnig ingeneem is en vyandelike slote wat oor 'n wye front in duie gestort het. Maar die Duitsers was gereed op die tweede dag. Toe die Britse artillerie nie versterkte posisies kon vernietig nie, het vyandige masjiengeweerders die opgevolgde geallieerde infanterie met kwynende vuur gesny.


Nadraai

Die mislukking van die herfsaanvalle in Artois en Champagne het geen fundamentele verandering in die geallieerde strategie of taktiek meegebring nie, hoewel die politieke konsensus in Frankryk onder druk was. 'N Tweede inter -geallieerde konferensie in Chantilly in Desember 1915 het ooreengekom dat gekoördineerde offensiewe in 1916 op die verskillende ronde - Westers, Oosters en Italiaans - gemonteer moes word om die Duitsers te weerhou om troepe van die een front na die ander te verskuif. Die Duitse stafhoof Erich von Falkenhayn het egter sy eie planne gehad. Hy was van plan om 'n groot offensief aan die Wesfront by Verdun te loods wat die Franse uit die oorlog sou verdryf.

Die groot verliese wat Artois en Champagne opgedoen het, het die "vakbond heilig"(heilige unie) van Franse politieke partye ter ondersteuning van die oorlogspoging. Aan die einde van Oktober 1915 bevestig 'n nuwe koalisieregering onder Aristide Briand egter die wankelrige politieke konsensus.


Slag van Loos 1915

In Augustus 1915 is die bataljon egter na Frankryk gestuur - en slegs 6 weke se harding van die loopgraaf. Hulle is in die Slag van Loos gegooi. een van die eerste vrywillige bataljons wat deel was van 'n 'Big Push'.

Die oorlog het nie 'teen Kersfees geëindig' nie en albei kante was desperaat om die dooiepunt van Trench Warfare te beëindig.

Die Fighting 10th het ten minste saamgewerk met die ervare Regular 1ste Gloucesters wat tydens die epiese gevegte van Mons, Marne, Aisne en Ieper I. geveg het.

Die stryd was onvoorbereid - op die verkeerde plek en met 'n tekort aan skulpe. Gas is as 'n eksperiment gebruik. Op 25 September het die 10de 459 man verloor: uit Tewkesbury: T. Hall, J.A. Simms, E. Nunney, C. Wagstaff en die vyf-en-veertigjarige onderwyser, A. Harrison.

Die Duitsers het 'n teenaanval gekry en hierdie keer het gereelde mense hul lewens verloor: E. Rys, T. Nuut en A. Didcote. Teen 13 Oktober het die geveg misluk-die Britse C-in-C is afgedank.


'N Ierse dagboek oor Patrick MacGill en die Slag van Loos

In die treurige oproep van die eerste slagveld van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog laat die naam van die ou Franse mynstad Loos nie die bloed afkoel nie, net soos die name van die Somme, Verdun of Passchendaele.

Tog was dit op sy tyd uniek. Volgens genl Richard Haking sou dit die 'grootste stryd in die geskiedenis van die wêreld' wees. Dit was beslis die grootste enkele geveg tot op daardie datum in die Britse geskiedenis.

Die eerste dag van die Slag van Loos was ook die bloedigste dag van die oorlog vir die Britse leër, afgesien van die eerste dag van die Slag van die Somme.

Op 25 September 1915 het ongeveer 75 000 Britse soldate uit hul loopgrawe opgestaan ​​onder die dekking van 'n gaswolk wat die Britte gesweer het dat hulle nooit sou gebruik nie.

Hulle val die Duitse lyne aan wat in die middel van Loos-en-Gohelle geleë is, 'n onopmerklike plek, omring soos toe nou deur twee groot slaghope wat kilometers ver oor die plat terrein heers.

Die Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) lys ongeveer 10,240 Britse sterftes vanaf 25 September 1915, waaronder 8500 wat op die slagveld van Loos geval het. Die ses Britse afdelings wat die dag in aksie was, het meer slagoffers per eenheid gely as tydens die eerste dag van die Slag van die Somme.

Dodelike fout

Alle momentum was verlore. Die aanval is op die tweede dag hernu, maar teen 'n vyand wat tyd en ruimte gehad het om versterkings te bring. Van die sowat 15 000 soldate wat op die tweede dag van Loos betrokke was, is meer as die helfte dood en beseer. Die derde dag was die afdeling Wagte betrokke. Die 1ste en 2de bataljons van die Ierse wagte het ernstige verliese gely. Die geveg het nog drie weke vrugteloos voortgeduur, maar was ná drie dae eintlik verby.

Van die 20 000 Britse soldate wat tydens die Slag van Loos gesterf het, was ongeveer 7 000 Skotse, maar wat in die volksgeheue van hierdie grootliks vergete katastrofe oorbly, is baie Iers.

Die bekendste slagoffer van die Slag van Loos was luitenant John Kipling, die seun van Rudyard Kipling. John Kipling kon skaars die tweede reël op 'n oogkaart sien en was fisiek ongeskik vir aktiewe diens, maar sy pa ken Lord Roberts, die ou Anglo-Ierse oorlogsheld, wat die opperbevelhebber van die regiment was, en wat in staat was om John Kipling 'n kommissie te kry. Kipling het die gedig geskryf My seuntjie Jack ter nagedagtenis aan sy verlore seun, wat in 1997 'n verhoogstuk geword het en tien jaar later 'n film.

Daar is twee gedenkwaardige verslae in die literatuur van die Slag van Loos. Die eerste is Robert Graves s’n Totsiens aan dit alles en die tweede Patrick MacGill's Die Groot Stoot.

Die Groot Stoot is met ongelooflike haas geskryf nadat MacGill op die eerste dag van die geveg gewond is.

Hy het baie daarvan geskryf terwyl hy gewag het om nog baie meer oor die "snelweg van pyn" tussen Loos en Victoria -stasie te gaan. Dit is gepubliseer in 1916. Hy was net 24, maar was reeds 'n literêre sensasie met die publikasie van sy roman Kinders van die doodloopstraat.

Toe die oorlog in 1914 uitbreek, werk hy in alle plekke in Windsor Castle as bibliotekaris. Alhoewel sy neigings beslis nasionalisties van aard was, het hy nietemin as draagbaar by die London Irish Rifles aangesluit.

Hierdie groot regiment is in 1859 gestig om die groot toestroming van Ierse emigrante na Brittanje te vergemaklik. Alhoewel MacGill sou opmerk dat hy een van slegs twee Iere in sy eenheid was, bestaan ​​die London Irish Rifles uit Ierse gebore Ierse, tweede en derde generasie Ierse en baie Cockneys. Dit was 'n gunsteling van John Redmond wat gereeld in Londen besoek het.

MacGill vertel hulle almal onvergeetlik Die Groot Stoot wat die aanloop tot die Slag van Loos en sy eie gelukkige 'blighty' dek-'n wond wat erg genoeg is om uitgeskakel te word, maar nie erg genoeg om een ​​lewenslank te verlam nie.

Die Groot Stoot begin met 'n onvergeetlike reël. 'Die geregtigheid van die saak wat poog om sy doel te bereik deur die moord op en verminking van die mensdom, kan betwyfel word deur 'n man wat deur 'n bajonet -aanklag gekom het. Dit lyk asof die dooies wat op die veld lê, vra: 'Waarom is dit aan ons gedoen?' Oorlog, sou hy later skryf, was ''n goedgekeurde lisensie vir broederlike verminking'.

Die roman vertel die verhaal van die aanval deur die 1ste bataljon van die London Irish Rifles. Dit bevat sy eie verslag van die onvergeetlike en moontlik apokriewe verhaal van Frank Edwards, die sokkerspeler van Loos, wat vrolik 'n voetbal deur die niemandsland geskop het en die verhaal vertel het.

Ter herdenking van die eeufees van die Londense Ierse betrokkenheid by die Slag van Loos, onthul die regimentvereniging 'n klipplaat op die stadsplein van Loos, herbou na die oorlog op Saterdag 26 September.

MacGill het ook gedigte oor die geveg en sy gedig geskryf In die oggend 100 jaar nadat hy die verskriklike geveg oorleef het, vertel word.


Wil u meer weet oor Battle of Loos 1915?

tydens die Groot Oorlog 1914-1918.

  • Abernethy William. (d.25 September 1915)
  • Adams Frederick Guildford. Pte. (d. 13 Oktober 1915)
  • Ainsworth Albert. Kpl. (oorlede op 7 Oktober 1916)
  • Aitken William Robertson. Privaat (d. 27 September 1915)
  • Allan Gordon Stephenson. L/Cpl. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Anderson John. L/Sers.
  • Anderson Thomas. Pte. (oorlede op 27 September 1915)
  • Aplin Noag. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Arculus Alfred. L/Sers. (d. 26 September 1915.)
  • Armfield Samuel Percival. Pte. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Ashby George William. Kapt. (D. 25 September 1915)
  • Aspley Henry. L/Cpl. (d. 8 Januarie 1916)
  • Bagguley William. Sers. (d. 13 Oktober 1915)
  • Bakker William Henry. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Bamber John Walton. Lt. (d. 1 Julie 1916)
  • Kapper Victor Albert. L/Cpl (d. 20 November 1917)
  • Barlow George Edward. Pte. (d. 4 November 1915)
  • Barlow George. Pte. (d. 4 November 1915)
  • Barnett William James. Pte.
  • Barrett William. Pte. (d. 23 April 1916)
  • Barron Louis. Lt. (d. 19 Julie 1916)
  • Bathard Samuel. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Sê Harry Percy. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Beaumont Arthur George. Pte. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Beechey Albert. Rflmn. (d. 15 September 1916)
  • Beglan Michael. Pte. (d. 14 Oktober 1915)
  • Berry Dennis Henry. Pte.
  • Berk William. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Voël Frederick Charles. Rfmn. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Voël James McArther. Kpl. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Bisset Thomas. Pte. (1 Oktober 1915)
  • Bowes Norman. Pte.
  • Brabazon Francis Joseph. Pte. (d. 12 Junie 1916)
  • Helder Frank. Sers.
  • Breed Walter James. Pte. (d. 10 Oktober 1917)
  • Bullock Eli. Pte.
  • Bullus Ralph Henry Samuel. Pte.
  • Campbell Hugh. Kpl. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Kan David nie. Pte.
  • Carr Albert. Gnr. (d. 14 Julie 1916)
  • Carr Robert. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Draer Samuel. Pte. (d.30 Junie 1916)
  • Christelow John Thomas. Pte. (d. 3 Oktober 1915)
  • Christie James Fairley. Kpl. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Christie John. L/Cpl. (d. 28 September 1915)
  • Clark William. L/Cpl. (oorlede op 27 September 1915)
  • Clarke John Henry. Pte. (d. 22 April 1917)
  • Cleary Peter Flemming. Pte.
  • Cliffe Frank. Rfm. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Coar Edward Roland. 2de Lt. (d. 8 Januarie 1918)
  • Coc Claude Cyril. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Cole Cecil. Pte. (d. 8 Oktober 1915)
  • Cole Leslie Stewart. 2de Lt. (d. 3 Oktober 1915)
  • Colgrave Joseph. L/Sgt.
  • Connelly Patrick. Pte. (d. 30 September 1915)
  • Kook Herbert. Pte. (d. 9 April 1917)
  • Cory Ernest Albert. Pte. (d. 11 Augustus 1916)
  • Cumpstey Fred. Pte.
  • Cunliffe Thomas. Pte. (d. 23 Oktober 1915)
  • Dale Thomas James. Pte. (d. 20 April 1919)
  • Davidson-Houston Charles Elrington Duncan. Lt.-kol. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Davidson-Houston Charles Elrington Duncan. Lt.kol. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Davies Charles Albert. 2de Lt. (d. 22 September 1918)
  • Davion Henry. WO1 (RSM)
  • Beste Robert R. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Devitt Robert. Pte. (d. 28 September 1915)
  • Dick Richard. Pte (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Disley William James. Pte.
  • Dodds John George. Pte. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Doherty John. Pte. (d. 21 Januarie 1916)
  • Douglas-Hamilton Angus Falcolner. Lt.-kol. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Douglas-Hamilton Lesley Reginald Coventry. Mjr. (d. 24 Julie 1916)
  • Dundas Richard Charles. Lt.kol. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Dundas Richard Charles. Lt.kol. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Edwards Albert John. Sers. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Ellams Herbert John. Pte. (d. 30 September 1915)
  • Eustace James Henry. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Evans Daniel. Pte. (d. 17 Junie 1916)
  • Evans Thomas. L/Cpl. (d. 9 Julie 1916)
  • Everitt Percy Reginald. Pte. (d. 12 Oktober 1915)
  • Fenton John. Pte. (d. 24 Mei 1915)
  • Findley John Hutchinson. Pte. (d. 18 Oktober 1915)
  • Fitts Sydney Albert. Pte. (d. 8 Augustus 1916)
  • Fitzhugh Alfred Hugh. Pte. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Vlamende George. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Vlamende Harry. Pte.
  • Foster G. Wilfred.
  • Pleegman John. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Fowler George Glyn. 2de Lt. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Fowler George Glyn. Lt. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Gammidge Leonard Norton. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Geerts Walter Philibert. CSM.
  • Geraghty John. Pte.
  • Gogarty Christopher. Pte. (d.30 Maart 1918)
  • Gore Francis. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Grant John. Pte. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Greaves Norman. Bmbdr.
  • Groen Charles Frederick William. Pte.
  • Greenslade Ernest. Sers.
  • Gregory Henry. L/Cpl (d. 1 November 1916)
  • Gaste Joseph. L/Cpl. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Gunter Frederick Somerton. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Hall Alfred. Pte. (d. 13 Oktober 1915)
  • Hamilton Herbert Otho. Lt. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Hanna Samuel. Pte. (d. 4 Mei 1916)
  • Harper Carl Horace. Pte.
  • Harris W. H. J .. Lt.
  • Hart Sidney George. Kpl.
  • Reier Robert Oates. Pte. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Heywood John Charles. Pte. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Hibbert Francis Benjamin. Pte.
  • Hillier William Watson. Pte.
  • Hines John Cecil Newhall. CSM.
  • Hodge Edward Lanyon. Pte. (d. 10 Augustus 1916)
  • Hodge John. Fus. (1 Oktober 1915)
  • Holden Thomas. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Hollands Charles Stephen. Sers. (d. 28 September 1915)
  • Tuis William. Kpl. (d. 14 September 1914)
  • Hopkins William. Pte. (d. 27 Mei 1916)
  • Hornsby John Arthur. L/Cpl.
  • Hoult Frank Ernest. Pte.
  • Huggett Jasper.
  • Hughes John Hughes. L/Cpl.
  • Jag Walter. Pte (d. 16 Oktober 1915)
  • Impson William. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Imrie Robert. Pte. (d. 3 Oktober 1915)
  • Jacob Donald McClean. (d. 21 Augustus 1917)
  • James Frank. Pte.
  • Jenkins Frank Mason. L/Sjt. (d. 8 Mei 1918)
  • Johnson Joseph William. Pte.
  • Jordan Percy Seymour Dobbs. L/Cpl. (d. 16 Junie 1916)
  • Judson John Reginald. Sjt. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Kay Elias James. Pte.
  • Kellett John. Kpl.
  • Kendall John. Pte.
  • Kiddie Thomas. Pte.
  • Koning George. Pte.
  • Koning Thomas William. Pte.
  • Ridder Charles William. Pte.
  • Lambie John Major. Pte.
  • Lascelles Joseph. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Lax Lorraine.
  • Lewis Arthur Edward. Pte. (oorlede op 27 September 1915)
  • Lewis Arthur Leslie Vernon. Pte.
  • Lewis David. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Lewis David. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Lewis David. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Lewis Joseph. Pte. (d. 29 Junie 1916)
  • Lewthwaite William. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Littlehales Charles. Pte.
  • Lowrey John. L/Cpl. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Mabbott William. Sers.
  • MacDonald William. L/Cpl. (d. 16 April 1918)
  • Marriott Harry. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Marshall Harry. Pte. (d.25 September 2015)
  • Mason Henry. Pte. (d. 17 Januarie 1918)
  • Matley Albert. Pte. (d. 3 Oktober 1915)
  • Matthews Alfred Rowland. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Maxwell Robert. Pte. (d. 21 Oktober 1915)
  • McFarlane Alan. Pte. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • McFetridge James. L/Cpl.
  • McFetridge James. L/Cpl
  • McGeary Arthur. Pte. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • McGugan J. M .. Pte. (1 Oktober 1915)
  • McKay Watson. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Mcleod Frederick William. Rfmn.
  • Meadows Albert George. Pte. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Melville James. Kpl. (d. 8 Mei 1915)
  • Menzies Andrew. Pte. (oorlede op 27 Januarie 1916)
  • Milne Charles William. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Milne John. Pte. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Milson William James Denton. Sers. (d. 4 Julie 1916)
  • Milton Edward Thomas John. Kapt. (D. 25 September 1915)
  • Milton Joseph John. Pte. (d. 16 September 1916)
  • Monaghan James. Pte.
  • Mongaanse John James. Pte. (oorlede op 27 September 1915)
  • Mongaanse John James. Pte. (d. 27 September 1915)
  • Meer Charles John. Pte. (d. 29 September 1916)
  • Morrison Alexander. Kapt. (D. 25 September 1915)
  • Mount Francis. Kapt. (D. 13 Oktober 1915)
  • Muirhead Thomas Barrie. L/Cpl. (d. 16 Maart 1917)
  • Mulloy Daniel. Pte. (d. 17 Augustus 1916)
  • Mumford Joseph. Pte. (d. 8 Mei 1915)
  • Munn William. Sers. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Murphy Richard. Bmdr.
  • Murphy Thomas. L/Cpl. (1 Oktober 1915)
  • Musson Thomas. Spr. (d. 19 September 1915)
  • Nelson W. B .. Pte. (d. 11 Augustus 1916)
  • Newton William Trafford. Lt. (d. 1 Julie 1916)
  • Nicholls George.
  • Nicholls William. Pte. (d. 13 Oktober 1915)
  • Norris Tom. Pte.
  • Northwood Richard. Pte. (1 Julie 1916)
  • O'Brien Thomas William. Pte. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • O'Hare John Joseph. Pte.
  • Ord George Henry. Pte.
  • Owen Henry. Pte. (d. 17 Februarie 1917)
  • Bladsy Ernest. Pte.
  • Bladsy George Clarence. Kpl.
  • Bladsy Walter E .. Gnr.
  • Palmer Alexander. Pte. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Palmer Charles Stanley Banks. L/Cpl. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Paterson John. Pte (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Payne Jack. Sers.
  • Peachment George. Rflemn. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Pearson Edward. Pte. (d. 26 Mei 1915)
  • Perris Thomas. Pte.
  • Perry Thomas Cyril. Pte. (d. 15 Mei 1916)
  • Perry Thomas Cyril. Pte. (d. 15 Mei 1916)
  • Perry Thomas Edward. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Prys George. Pte. (d. 13 Oktober 1915)
  • Purvis William James. Pte. (d. 13 Oktober 1915)
  • Quigley Christopher. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Randall Henry John. L/Cpl. (d. 3 Januarie 1916)
  • Reick Walter. Pte. (oorlede op 27 September 1915)
  • Richards Lawrence. Pte.
  • Ritson James Bede. Pte. (oorlede op 27 September 1915)
  • Roberts Albert John. Sers.
  • Robertson David Elder. L/Cpl. (d. 3 Mei 1917)
  • Robertson James. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Robson Walter DeFrece. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Rochford Leonard. Kpl.
  • Rocks Patrick. Pte. (oorlede op 27 September 1915)
  • Rudd Charles Flower. Kpl. (d. 9 Januarie 1915)
  • Ruttens Edward. Pte. (d. 19 Julie 1916)
  • Savage H .. Spr.
  • Scott James. Lt. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Scott John. Pte.
  • Scott Walter Eustace. Pte. (d. 27 September 1915)
  • Seston Charles Joseph. Drvr.
  • Herder Ernest George. Sers.
  • Herder Henry. Pte. (oorlede op 7 Julie 1916)
  • Shingleton Albert. Sers.
  • Sillence Alfred Frank. Pte. (d. 19 Oktober 1915)
  • Simpson William John Sydney. Lt.
  • Slim William Henry. Pte.
  • Smith Arthur Leonard.
  • Smith Charles Henry. Pte. (d. 22 November 1917)
  • Smith Fred. Pte. (d. 20 Oktober 1918)
  • Smith Frederick. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Smith Thomas. Pte. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Mossie Frederick. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Spencer George William. L/Cpl
  • Spencer Randolph Churchill. Sers.
  • Edward Edward. Pte. (d. 29 April 1916)
  • Stanford James Vesey. Lt. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Stockton Robert. Dvr.
  • Stoddart Richard Thomas. Pte. (d. 10 Oktober 1915)
  • Strathdee George. Sjt. (d. 12 Oktober 1916)
  • Taylor David Anderson. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Taylor George Laird. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Taylor Thomas. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Terrington Arthur. Spr. (d. 26 September 1915)
  • Thomas Francis Albert. Pte.
  • Thompson George. Pte. (d. 28 September 1915)
  • Werper Robert. Pte (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Wenk George. Pte.
  • Turnbull James.
  • Turner Angus. L/Cpl.
  • Voss William Thomas. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Walker Roland Alex. Pte. (d. 8 Augustus 1918)
  • Wallis William. Pte. (d. 13 Oktober 1915)
  • Wyk James. Pte. (d. 6 Oktober 1915)
  • Warren Frank. Sers. (d. 13 Oktober 1915)
  • Warren Walter Sydney. L/Cpl. (d. 13 Oktober 1915)
  • Watson John Douglas. Sers.
  • Watt Stephen Adamson. Fus. (d. 26 Mei 1915)
  • Wearne Frank Bernard. 2de Lt. (d. 28 Junie 1917)
  • Wells Edwin. Pte. (d. 10 Januarie 1916)
  • Wel Harry. Sers. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Werrill Allan Dowey. Kpl.
  • Wheatley F.G ..
  • Wit John. Pte. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Wilby Sydney Charles. 2de Lt.
  • Wilde William Stanley. Pte. (oorlede op 7 April 1915)
  • Wilson Joseph Harold. A/Sers.
  • Windle Michael William Maxwell. Lt. (d. 25 September 1915)
  • Woodhouse William. Dvr. (d. 28 April 1915)
  • Wright Joseph. Pte. (d. 21 Februarie 1915)
  • Wright Thomas. Pte. (d. 8 Mei 1915)
  • Julle Stanley John. Pte. (d. 14 Oktober 1915)
  • Jong John. (d. 6 April 1916)

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Die Slag van die Somme - Meer verhale

Hierdie funksie vertel die verhale van Skotse soldate en eenhede aan die Somme-front in Frankryk vanaf begin Julie tot middel November 1916. Afsonderlike kenmerke, Battle of the Somme 1916 op hierdie webwerf en Stories of the Somme op die ScotlandsPeople-webwerf, beklemtoon verhale van agt mans wat op 1 Julie aan die aanvanklike aanvalle deelgeneem het.

Privaat Thomas Murray, 9de Bataljon, Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) 6 Julie 1916

Min dokumente weerspieël die bloedbad van die langdurige Slag by die Somme so sterk as die wil van Thomas Murray, 11718 Private, 9de Bataljon, Cameronians (Scottish Rifles), wat op 6 Julie 1916 in aksie gedood is.

Detail van die testament van Thomas Murray (286 KB jpeg)
National Records of Scotland, SC70/8/370/78/3

Gedurende die eerste dag van die Slag van die Somme het die 9de Kamerone in die reservaat gebly as deel van die 27ste Brigade, 9de Afdeling, en op 3 Julie het hulle na die voorste linie by Montauban beweeg. Toe die Kamerone die 2de Bataljon, Wiltshire Regiment, verlig, het swaar Duitse beskieting hul aanvanklike sterkte van 20 offisiere en 659 man uitgeput. Die werk om hul loopbane in die voorste linie te konsolideer, is bemoeilik deur swaar reën en baie gevaarlik deur artillerievuur. Die oorlogsdagboek van die bataljon in The National Archives toon aan dat hul slagoffers tussen 3 en 8 Julie, toe die Kameroniërs verlig is, 32 sterf, 5 sterf aan wonde, 100 gewondes en 2 vermiste vermoordes.

Een van die 11 mans wat op 6 Julie vermoor is, toe die vyandelike artillerie 'die aktiefste' was, was privaat Thomas Murray, 24 jaar oud. Sy testament uit sy betaalboek word bewaar in NRS, met dié van ses van sy kamerade wat ook gesterf het dag. Soos ander soldate, het Murray waarskynlik sy betaalboek in 'n borssak van sy tuniek gedra. Die dokument is die gewone eenvoudige testament, maar dit getuig van die verskriklike gevolge van dopvuur in die bloedbevlekte impakmerke van die stuk granaat wat waarskynlik tot Murray se dood bygedra het.

Alhoewel sy testament herstel is, het sy liggaam daarna verlore gegaan en word hy herdenk op die Thiepval -oorlogsmonument vir die 72 000 mans sonder 'n bekende graf op die Somme. 'N Volledige beeld van Thomas Murray se testament (352 KB jpeg) kan hier gesien word.

Thomas Murray is gebore in Govan, Glasgow, waar hy saam met honderde ander vrywilligers aangesluit het in die lokaal gewerfde bataljon van die Kamerone. Voor die oorlog lyk dit asof hy sy pa gevolg het in een van die Govan -werwe, waar hy as seuntjie van 'n plater gewerk het. In 1913 trou hy met Margaret McDonald, aan wie hy alles in sy testament gelaat het, geskryf op 13 Mei 1915, die dag nadat sy bataljon in Frankryk geland het. Die testament is ongewoon omdat 'n kameraad met 'n geoefende hand dit namens hom geskryf en onderteken het. Die egpaar se eerste seun is in die kinderjare oorlede, en die tweede, John, is gebore kort nadat Thomas na Frankryk gegaan het. Dit lyk asof die gesin herenig is tydens 'n kort verlof van die Front wat Thomas ongeveer Januarie 1916 geniet het, want Margaret het op 15 September 1916 'n dogter, Jane, gebaar.

Tweede strydfase - lewe en dood in die voorste linie

Aanvalle langs die Britse front is op 14 Julie op 'n baie verminderde skaal en op minder punte hernu. Die hoë grond rondom Bazentin en Longueval was 'n teiken met die doel om die nuwe voorlyn reg te stel ter voorbereiding op 'n latere veldtog.

Weereens het die aanvallende afdelings swaar gely. Die 51ste Highland -afdeling het 3,500 ongevalle opgedoen vir min winste, hoewel die 9de afdeling beter gevaar het in die wenveld op Longueval Ridge. Naby die 8ste brigade (in die 3de afdeling) het noord van Montauban aangeval, waar byvoorbeeld die 1ste bataljon, Royal Scots Fusiliers, deur ongesnyde doringdraad omhoog gehou is, een van die faktore wat 1 Julie 'n ramp gemaak het. Sestig mans is dood deur vyandelike vuur op die hange van die Longueval -rif. Dit was die plaaslike koste van die Britse uitputtingsstrategie. Sulke verliese het op 14 Julie gelee tot 9 000 Britse ongevalle, en nog vele meer in die daaropvolgende weke.

Privaat Alexander Dryburgh, 2/7de Bataljon Royal Warwickshire Regiment, 19 Julie 1916

Op 19 en 20 Julie het verdere aanvalle op die Somme -sektor begin. Om die swakhede in die Duitse verdediging te benut wat veroorsaak is deur die oordrag van troepe om die Somme te versterk, het die Britte elders huis toe aangeval. By Fauquissart naby Aubers Ridge, ongeveer 50 kilometer noord van die Somme, het die 182ste Brigade 'n posisie op die voorste linie ingeneem nadat hulle op 22 Mei na Frankryk begin het. Die brigade bestaan ​​hoofsaaklik uit bataljons van die Royal Warwickshire Regiment.

Alexander Dryburgh (gebore 1892), wat in die D -geselskap diens gedoen het, was 'n voorbeeld van die vele Skotte wat in Engelse regimente gedien het. Op 29 Mei 1916 skryf hy aan sy vader John Dryburgh, 'n steenkoolmyner, en sy stiefma Ann, wat in Coaltown van Wemyss, Fife, gewoon het. Hy het 'n afskrif van die testament in sy betaalboek aangeheg en 'n grap gemaak oor sy gemaklike baksteenbed en die beskieting deur die 'Grey fellows' wat hom in sy slaap geskud het. Om die pen van die sensor te vermy, beskryf hy sy ligging as die 'land Watt's in', met verwysing na sy neef Walter Dryburgh van die Machine Gun Corps.

As deel van wat bekend geword het as die Slag van Fromelles, het die bataljon om 18:00 op 19 Julie die Duitsers se goed voorbereide posisies aangeval. Die Warwickshires het 'n paar winste behaal voordat hulle twee uur later moes onttrek nadat hulle 13 offisiere en 305 onderoffisiere en mans gesterf het. Alexander Dryburgh was een van die vele vermoorde. Die dag nadat hy sy brief geskryf het, sterf 'n ander neef, John Dryburgh, 'n sersant in die 8/10th Gordon Highlanders, elders aan die Wesfront. John se jonger broer Watt, wat die Franse Medaille Militaire gewen het, het 'n jaar later op 1 Augustus 1917 sy lewe verloor.

1/6de Bataljon, Black Watch, 153ste Brigade, 51ste (Highland) Afdeling 25-30 Julie 1916

Op 25 Julie, ter voorbereiding van 'n afdelingsaanval as deel van die uitgerekte stryd om Bazentin Ridge, het die bataljon van 'n reserwe-posisie by Mametz na die front naby Bazentin-le-Grand opgeskuif. Dit het mans verloor wat doodgemaak en gewond is deur 'n vuurwapen in die dae voordat dit op 30 Julie beveel is om sy eerste aanval te doen. Ondersteun deur ander bataljons en die 29ste divisie, het die 1/6de Black Watch High Wood, suidwes van Bazentin-le-Grand en Bazentin-le-Petit, aangerand en is deur 'n hewige vuurwapengeweer aangeval. Die aanval het misluk. Meer as 100 offisiere en mans is dood nadat die 1/6de in die voorste linie ingetrek het. Die sterftes in hierdie territoriale bataljon het swaar geval op die perseel van Perthshire, byvoorbeeld in die gemeente Tibbermore naby Perth, wat vier mans die dag verloor het.

Sterfte van lede van 1/6de Bataljon, Black Watch, 30 Julie 2016
National Records of Scotland, Minor Records, volume 123/225

Private Andrew McNulty, 16de Bataljon, Royal Scots, 101ste Brigade, 34ste Afdeling 1-3 Augustus 1916

Nadat hulle op 1 Julie, die 16de Bataljon, baie swaar verliese gely het, was Royal Scots weer in aksie. Op 31 Julie trek hulle op in die lyn by Bazentin-le-Petit. Gedurende die daaropvolgende dae, toe die bataljon op die Duitsers toegeslaan het in hul nuutgeskepte loopgraaf, die 'intermediêr' genoem, is baie mans dood deur 'n swaar skulpvuur. Gedurende die nag van 3-4 Augustus het twee kompanieë deelgeneem aan wat 'n groter aanval in die gebied sou wees, en hul duur mislukking om 'Intermediate' te vang, het tot onregverdige kritiek gelei deur die afdelingsbevelvoerder van 'n bataljon wat nog swak was na 1 Julie .

Onder die slagoffers in die eerste drie dae van Augustus was privaat Andrew McNulty, 'n kruidenier en lid van die Independent Labour Party in vredestyd. Weens die slagveldtoestande is sy lyk nie gevind nie en word hy herdenk op die Thiepval -gedenkteken. Hy is gebore in 1887 in Cockpen, Midlothian, vier maande nadat sy vader Charles, 'n papiermeulwerker, aan tuberkulose gesterf het. Hy woon jare lank by sy oom Jeremiah McNulty op die plaas Mauricewood, Glencorse, en werk later by die Penicuik Co-Operative Association. By die uitbreek van die oorlog het hy ingeskryf by die 16de Bataljon, Royal Scots, ook bekend as McCrae's na sy dapper bevelvoerder en stigter, sir George McCrae.

In Oktober 1915 terwyl die bataljon in Sutton Veny naby Warminster was, het Andrew oorweeg om sy moontlike dood tydens die onvermydelike buitelandse pos. Sy gedagtes draai in dankbaarheid en liefde na sy uitgebreide familie, en hy skryf aan sy tante Kate en vra 'al my vriende om op my beste aan my te dink, om die goeie van my te onthou en die slegte te vergeet.' Kate sou syne wees die belangrikste begunstigde, en sy broer, neefs, niggies en nefies sou keuse besittings ontvang. Die McNultys was Rooms-Katolieke, en Andrew wou dat daar jaarliks ​​'n mis gehou word vir die rus van die siel van Kate se ouer suster, sy geliefde tante Rose (1855-1911), 'wat vir my meer as 'n moeder was'. (NRS, SC70/8/415/77, brief van Andrew McNulty aan sy tante, Kate McNulty, 20 Oktober 1915)

Eerste bladsy van die brief van Andrew McNulty aan Kate McNulty (131 KB jpeg)
National Records of Scotland, Soldiers Wills, SC70/8/415/77

Privaat Robert Purves, verbonde aan 5/6de Bataljon, Cameronians (Scottish Rifles), 19de Brigade, 33ste Afdeling 29 Augustus 1916

Detail van die koevert van Purves se testament, 1916 (197 KB jpeg)
National Records of Scotland, SC70/8/418/2/1

Beset loopbane in die voorste linie wat onderworpe was aan vyandelike artillerie-bombardemente, sluipskieters en aanvalle wat op die senuwees van sowel offisiere as mans vertel is, en dit kan die liggaam se fisiese sowel as geestelike veerkragtigheid afneem. Dit was nie ongewoon dat soldate hulself wonde toegedien het om van die voorste linie verwyder te word nie, maar dit was selde dat mans hulself doodmaak.

Einde Augustus was 'n privaat in die 5/6th Battalion of the Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) wanhoop om ooit weer by die huis te kom om sy ouers naby Prestonpans in Oos -Lothian te sien, en besluit dat hy nie die swaarkry en lyding van hierdie lewe kan verduur nie langer '. Op 29 Augustus 1916 skiet hy homself met sy geweer deur die kop en sterf kort daarna. 'N Nota wat hy in sy betaalboek geskryf het, het sy gevoelens en voornemens duidelik gemaak. Dit was die belangrikste getuienis wat daartoe gelei het dat die weermag se ondersoekhof die volgende dag tot die gevolgtrekking gekom het dat hy van plan was om homself dood te maak. Die oorspronklike dokument word bewaar onder die soldate-testamente in NRS (SC70/8/418/2), terwyl sy diensrekord, wat die bevindinge van die hof en verwante dokumente bevat, in die National Archives (WO363/P1669, vlg. 182-256) ).

Volgens sy diensrekord was Robert Andrew Lomax Purves 'n nege-en-twintigjarige advokaat toe hy op 3 Desember 1915 vir militêre diens by die werwingskantoor in Edinburgh aangesluit het. Hy was enkellopend, effens gebou en kortsigtig. Einde Januarie 1916 sluit hy aan by die 9de Bataljon, Royal Scots in Glencorse Barracks. Na slegs 'n paar maande se opleiding is hy op 14 Julie na Frankryk gestuur, en op 22 Julie was hy verbonde aan 5/6th Battalion of the Cameronians (Scottish Rifles), 'n onlangse samesmelting van die 1/5de en 1/6de territoriale bataljons . In Augustus was sy eenheid in reservaat by Fricourt Wood in die middel van die Somme -sektor, ter voorbereiding op 'n hernieude aanval in Oktober.

Op 1 Augustus skryf Purves 'n testament wat sy ma bevoordeel het van sy 'eiendom en gevolge' - hy was die enigste kind. Op 29 Augustus, toe hy besluit het oor sy laaste optrede, het Purves gehoop dat God sy ouers sou 'seën en troos', en dat Clarkson en Collins, 'twee goeie offisiere', sou oorleef. Sy maats sou enige van sy persoonlike besittings aan die voorkant hê, iets wat gewoonlik was nadat 'n soldaat gesterf het. Die duidelike woorde van sy aantekening is die enigste bekende bewys van sy gedagtes en gevoelens terwyl hy sonder hoop sy toekoms in die oorlog bedink het. By die hantering van sy testament het die Oorlogskantoor die oorsaak van sy dood as 'Killed in Action (self-inflicted)' aangeteken, maar in die Service Returns of Deaths en elders het dit eenvoudig 'in aksie gedood' geword.

Die gevegte van September 1916

Vanaf begin September het 'n reeks swaar Britse aanvalle veld gewen, wat die Duitsers van hul tweede en derde lyn af verdryf het. Die sterkpunte van Guillemont, Ginchy, Delville Wood en High Wood is ingeneem, wat die weg gebaan het vir verdere vordering. Tydens die Slag van Flers-Courcelette, wat op 15 September begin het, het die Britte tenks vir die eerste keer in oorlogvoering ontplooi. Kanadese en Nieu -Seelandse afdelings het ook vir die eerste keer geveg en hulself onderskei. Onder die talle Britse eenhede wat betrokke was, was die afdeling Garde, wat, sodra dit sy deel in die duur gevegte by Flers-Courcelette beëindig het, hom voorberei op 'n hernude offensief op 25 September, wat bekend staan ​​as die Slag van Morval. Selfs die deurmekaar frontlyn tussen aanvalle was baie gevaarlik.

Luitenant die Edele Edward Wyndham Tennant, 4de Bataljon, Grenadierwagte, 3de Garde Brigade 22 September 1916

Portret van E W Tennant deur John Singer Sargent, 1915 (296 KB jpeg)
National Records of Scotland, GD433/2/357/83, p.8 met vergunning van Michael Brander

Einde September 1916 was die 4de Bataljon van die Grenadier Guards, deel van die 3rd Guards Brigade, in die tou naby die nuut gevange dorpie Guillemont. Een geselskap beklee 'n blootgestelde posisie in 'n sap of 'n uitgestrekte sloot waarvan die ander helfte deur Duitse troepe beset was. Onder die amptenare van die maatskappy was luitenant Edward Tennant. On the night of 21-22 September, while attempting to snipe the Germans, Tennant was himself shot in the head by a sniper, a fate that befell many soldiers at the front who were picked off in unlucky or careless moments. His death at the age of nineteen was mourned by the men whom he commanded as well as by his fellow officers.

The Honourable Edward Wyndham Tennant was born in 1897, the son of Sir Edward Tennant, whose family originated in Glasgow and great great grandson of Charles Tennant, the founder of an industrial chemical empire based in Glasgow. Married to the aristocratic Pamela Wyndham, Sir Edward pursued a political career as a Liberal MP, and in 1911 was raised to the peerage as 1st Baron Glenconner. At the age of five Edward attended the village school near The Glen, the family’s baronial mansion near Peebles. Later he was privately educated and became in some ways a typical product of the class and education system that supplied the British Army with most of its junior officers during the Great War. Of the 594 boys who left his boarding school, Winchester, in the six years before the war, 531 joined up before conscription started in 1916. Having left school in 1914 with the intention of visiting Germany to learn the language in preparation for a diplomatic career, Tennant volunteered in August 1914. As a former member of the school’s officer training corps, he was quickly commissioned as a subaltern, despite being under age at only seventeen years old.

Known to family and friends as ‘Bim’, Edward Tennant was born to a privileged position, but he belonged to an even smaller elite. His mother was one of ‘the Souls’, the social and intellectual circle of the 1880s and 1890s which included A J Balfour, the Conservative MP, and members of the Asquith family. Edward’s aunt Margot Tennant was married to Herbert Henry Asquith MP, so he went to war as the Prime Minister’s nephew. With his family firmly embedded in the Anglo-Scottish establishment, it was natural for him to join the senior guards regiment. In August 1915, at the end of a year’s training, Tennant’s likeness was capture by the fashionable artist John Singer Sargent. Soon afterwards the eighteen year-old subaltern was posted to the Western Front with his battalion, in time to see action in the Battle of Loos in late September.

Like others of his generation and class, Tennant was schooled in the values of faith, patriotism, duty, courage, and sacrifice. By all accounts he more than fulfilled the expectations placed on him as a leader, and although severely tested by front-line conditions, he was full of fun and took pains not to show fear to his men. As one of them wrote: ‘When things were at their worst, he would pass up and down the trench, cheering the men’ (‘Edward Wyndham Tennant: a Memoir’, p. 242). His help and encouragement, and no doubt the extra cigarettes that he obtained for his soldiers, reportedly endeared him to them. To the battalion he was known as the ‘Boy Wonder’, and his fine character was also appreciated by his brother officers, who included Harold Macmillan, a future prime minister.

Tennant had another quality that distinguished him from most of his comrades. From his schooldays he was a budding poet, and his first published volume, ‘Worple Flit’, appeared in the month he was killed. In October 1916 a memorial service was held in St Margaret’s, Westminster, timed to allow MPs and peers to attend. To family and friends attending the service, his grieving mother distributed a private commemoration, a copy of which is preserved among the Balfour family papers (National Records of Scotland, GD433/2/357/83). It reproduced Sargent’s portrait, which reappeared in his mother’s memoir in 1919.

Tennant’s cousin Raymond Asquith, son of the premier, a barrister and fellow Grenadier officer, was killed as the Guards advanced in the battle of Flers-Courcelette on 15 September. They were buried in the same cemetery row. Another cousin, Mark Tennant of the Scots Guards, was killed on 16 September. The loss of these and other members of the youthful generation of Britain’s cultural and political elite has helped shape posterity’s perception of the Great War. The question of what they might have achieved had they survived is unanswerable, as it is for countless other humbler combatants.

Final phase November 1916

By the end of October successive British attacks had gained the high ground along the centre and right of the Somme front, and were pushing against German defences further back, despite being hampered by torrential rain and appallingly muddy conditions. Positioned on the far right of the British units where they adjoined the French forces, the 100th Brigade in 33rd Division included the 1/9th ‘Glasgow Highlanders’, a territorial battalion of the Highland Light Infantry.

Private William Broad Grossart, 1/9th Battalion, Highland Light Infantry, 100th Brigade, 33rd Division 1 November 1916

Private William Grossart of 9th Battalion had turned twenty on 12 July 1916. Born in Alloa in 1896 to an unmarried servant, Betsy Scott, William was adopted at a young age by Betsy’s sister Helen and her husband John Grossart, a bakery manager. Later the family moved to Glasgow, where John worked as a shoemaker. William enlisted in Glasgow and was posted to France by 1916.

Like other British soldiers, Grossart had the remarkably efficient army postal service to thank for the delivery of mail and parcels sent from home - the lifeline that connected soldiers to their family and friends. Parcels of treats such as cake, tinned food, sweets and chocolate supplemented the monotonous army rations, and were usually shared with comrades. The touching birthday letter that Grossart received is proof of a mother’s love, and survives because he wrote his will on it, leaving everything to her.

On 1 November 1916, 100th Brigade was part of a co-ordinated assault with the adjacent French forces on German positions east of Lesboeufs. Attacking in late afternoon, the Glasgow Highlanders and the 2nd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment struggled forward over very muddy and cratered ground, into which they sank, only to come under devastating machine gun fire. About 100 Glasgow Highlanders and 80 Worcesters died in the failed attack. So bad were the conditions that the remains of very few men were identified for burial, and most, including William Grossart, were therefore commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial. Many more were wounded, some of them surviving in the open until 3 November, when a second attack by two other battalions allowed them to be rescued. But the 1/9th also had to cope with the loss of their inspirational commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel J C Stormonth-Darling, who was killed by a German sniper on the morning of 1 November.

Private John Wood, 1/5th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders, 153rd Brigade, 51st Division 13 November 1916

On 13 November, among the many Scottish units fighting in the final assault of the Battle of the Somme, known as the Battle of the Ancre, was 51st Highland Division, tasked with the capture of part of the German lines at Beaumont Hamel. It included the 1/5th and 1/7th territorial battalions of the Gordon Highlanders.

On the morning of 13 November 1916, before going over the top to attack the German positions, an eighteen year old British soldier wrote his will in his pay book. Private John Wood was born into a fishing family, in Portlethen, Kincardineshire, but at the outbreak of war it was the army that he joined, along with many other men of this coastal community. Wood and about 60 other ranks of the 1/5th Battalion were lost that day, alongside 6 officers. Some 9,500 Gordon Highlanders died during the First World War, and the wills of almost 3,000 of them are held in NRS.


John Wood’s will, 13 November 1916 (41 KB jpeg)
National Records of Scotland, SC70/8/473/7/3

The 51st Highland Division captured its objectives on 13 November, and its success cemented its reputation as a fine fighting force. The capture of Beaumont Hamel was achieved at the cost of 2,200 casualties, far fewer than the loss of more than 5,000 men of the 29th Division during its failed attack on the same German strongpoint on 1 July 1916. Nevertheless, British casualties were so high, and the weather so adverse, that further attacks on the Somme were cancelled. The British Army had suffered about 400,000 killed, wounded and missing since 1 July. Counting the French and German casualties, the total has been estimated at more than one million men.


HMS Onoorwinlik

The bow and stern of HMS Invincible stick out of the water during the Battle of Jutland. HMS Invincible's ammunition magazine exploded after the battlecruiser was hit by German shells. HMS Badger can be seen in the distance as it moves in to rescue survivors, but only six men survived.

Beatty withdrew until Jellicoe arrived with the main fleet. The Germans, now outgunned, turned for home. The British lost 14 ships and over 6,000 men, but were ready for action again the next day. The Germans, who had lost 11 ships and over 2,500 men, avoided complete destruction but never again seriously challenged British control of the North Sea.

Although it failed to achieve the decisive victory each side hoped for, the Battle of Jutland confirmed British naval dominance and secured its control of shipping lanes, allowing Britain to implement the blockade that would contribute to Germany’s eventual defeat in 1918.


The Footballer of Loos

Frank Edwards, known as the “Footballer of Loos”, was a keen footballer who brought team spirit to the battle that was for the Allies, the first ‘big push’ in the First World War.

A list of men who appealed against conscription during the First World War has been made available by the National Archives. These were men who were not prepared to enlist for military service. One such claimant, Henry Henderson, resided at the house at Number 42, Colonial Avenue in 1914. Fifty years later, in 1964, reporters congregated outside Number 42, to report on the death of a new occupant living there – a man who had, in contrast to Mr Henderson, enthusiastically enlisted for service when Kitchener’s call to arms came.

His name was Frank Edwards.

Frank Edwards was born and raised in a working class district of Chelsea. At the age of just nineteen, he suffered the loss of his young wife and child, during labour. When the call for men to enlist came, it is little wonder then that he eagerly signed up with his then local regiment: the London Irish Rifles. A keen footballer, Edwards soon became captain of his regiment’s football team, and led them to a win at the Brigade Final, days before they left for France in March 1915. Within just a few weeks of arriving in France, Edwards saw action on the front line, and by September, the Rifles were “dug in” at a small mining village in the north, known as Loos.

Frank Edwards Image Courtesy of Susan and Ed Harris

The 1914 Christmas ceasefire, and the football games played by both sides, had led to the banning of footballs on the Front Line. Many Generals in the military perceived socialising with the enemy as near mutiny. An attack by the infantry, which included the London Irish Rifles, was planned for the 25 th September, 1915. Edwards, inspired by the Christmas Truce, was determined that he and his pals would enjoy the game as they went over the top of the line. Concealing a deflated ball in his tunic, he challenged the orders of the Generals, and when the whistle blew at 6:30am, the Rifles advanced towards the German lines, following Frank’s re-inflated football.

Dodging the hail of bullets, aerial mines and artillery shells bursting around them, the infantry took the first, second, and third German lines, finally halting close to the village of Loos, where they awaited reserves. The following days saw the German army prepare for a successful attack, which allowed them to recapture the British gains.

Suffering from not only gunshot wounds, but also from the effects of poison gas, Edwards was returned home. After the war, he worked in a variety of roles, including serving with the Military Police, and with the NSPCC. He and his family moved to Twickenham, and later, following the death of his wife, Edwards came to live with his daughter, in Colonial Avenue – once home to Mr Henderson.

His death in 1964 was widely reported. The story of Frank Edwards, the Footballer of Loos, thereafter became somewhat forgotten. The Loos football was stored in a shoebox before being uncovered in 2011, when its significance was rediscovered. The football has since been restored, and holds pride of place amongst the great history of the London Irish Rifles.

Frank Edwards Image Courtesy of Susan and Ed Harris

At 6:30am on September 25th, a free 40 minute audio drama entitled ‘The Greater Game’ was released to commemorate the 100th Anniversary of the Battle of Loos. Click here for more information and to listen or download the podcast.

Find out more about Frank Edwards and the Battle of Loos at Twickenham Museum.


Kyk die video: BITKA KOD SENTE - 11. septembar 1697. u 15,45h