Amerikaanse burgeroorlog: 1861

Amerikaanse burgeroorlog: 1861



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In die drie maande wat gevolg het op die verkiesing van Abraham Lincoln, het sewe state van die Unie afgeskei: Suid -Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana en Texas. Verteenwoordigers van hierdie sewe state het vinnig 'n nuwe politieke organisasie gestig, die Konfederale State van Amerika. Op 8 Februarie het die Konfederale State van Amerika 'n grondwet aangeneem en Jefferson Davis binne tien dae as president verkies en Alexander Stephens as vise-president. Montgomery, Alabama, het die hoofstad geword en die Stars and Bars is as vlag aangeneem. Davis is ook gemagtig om 100,000 troepe in te samel.

Tydens sy inhuldigingstoespraak het president Lincoln probeer om konflik te vermy deur aan te kondig dat hy geen voorneme het "om in te meng met die instelling van slawerny in die state waar dit bestaan ​​nie. Ek glo dat ek geen wettige reg het nie, en ek het geen neiging om doen so." Hy het bygevoeg: "Die regering sal u nie aanval nie. U kan geen konflik hê sonder dat u die aanvallers is nie."

President Jefferson Davis was van mening dat federale forte, nadat 'n staat afgestig het, die eiendom van die staat geword het. Op 12 April 1861 eis generaal Pierre T. Beauregard dat majoor Robert Anderson Fort Sumter in die Charleston -hawe moet oorgee. Anderson het geantwoord dat hy bereid sou wees om die fort binne twee dae te verlaat as sy voorraad leeg was. Beauregard verwerp hierdie aanbod en beveel sy Konfederale troepe om te vuur. Na 34 uur se bombardement is die fort ernstig beskadig en moes Anderson oorgee.

Toe hy die nuus hoor, belê Abraham Lincoln 'n spesiale kongresessie en kondig 'n blokkade van die hawens van die Golf van Mexiko aan. Hierdie strategie was gebaseer op die Anaconda -plan wat ontwikkel is deur generaal Winfield Scott, die bevelvoerende generaal van die Unie -leër. Dit het behels dat die weermag die lyn van die Mississippi beset en die Konfederale hawens versper het. Scott het geglo dat die Suide 'n vredesooreenkoms sou onderhandel as dit suksesvol gedoen sou word. Aan die begin van die oorlog het die Amerikaanse vloot egter slegs 'n klein aantal skepe gehad en was hy nie in staat om al die 3 000 myl van die suidelike kus te bewaak nie.

Op 15 April 1861 het president Lincoln 'n beroep op die goewerneurs van die noordelike state gedoen om 75 000 milisies te voorsien om drie maande lank te dien om die opstand te beëindig. Virginia, Noord -Carolina, Arkansas en Tennessee het almal geweier om troepe te stuur en het by die Konfederasie aangesluit. Kentucky en Missouri was ook nie bereid om mans aan die Unie -leër te verskaf nie, maar besluit om nie kant te kies in die konflik nie.

Sommige state het goed gereageer op Lincoln se oproep om vrywilligers. Die goewerneur van Pennsilvanië het 25 regimente aangebied, terwyl Ohio 22. Die meeste mans is aangemoedig om in te skryf deur gawes wat deur staatsregerings aangebied word. Hierdie geld lok die armes en werkloses. Baie Afro -Amerikaners het ook probeer om by die weermag aan te sluit. Die oorlogsdepartement het egter vinnig aangekondig dat hy "geen voorneme het om bruin soldate in diens van die regering te neem nie". In plaas daarvan het swart vrywilligers werk gekry as kampbedieners, kelners en kokke.

Generaal -majoor Irvin McDowell kry bevel oor die Unie -leër en in Julie 1861 stuur Lincoln hom om Richmond, die nuwe basis van die Konfederale regering, te neem. Op 21 Julie het McDowell die Konfederale Weermag by Bull Run betrek. Die Konfederale troepe onder leiding van Joseph E. Johnston, Thomas Stonewall Jackson, James Jeb Stuart, Jubal Early, E. Kirby Smith, Braxton Bragg en Pierre T. Beauregard, verslaan maklik die onervare Unie -leër. Die Suide het die eerste groot slag van die oorlog gewen en die noordelike slagoffers was in totaal 1,492 met nog 1,216 vermis.

Na hierdie nederlaag by Bull Run het Abraham Lincoln besluit om George McClellan aan te stel as leier van die Army of the Potomac. McClellan, wat slegs 34 jaar oud was, het daarop aangedring dat sy leër nuwe aanvalle moes onderneem totdat sy nuwe troepe volledig opgelei is.

Op 30 Augustus 1861 het generaal -majoor John C. Fremont, bevelvoerder van die Unie -leër in St. Abraham Lincoln was woedend toe hy die nuus hoor toe hy vrees dat hierdie optrede slawe-eienaars in grensstate sou dwing om die Konfederate te help. Lincoln het Fremont gevra om sy bestelling te verander en slegs slawe wat deur Missourians besit word, aktief vir die Suide vry te stel. Toe Fremont weier, is hy ontslaan en vervang deur generaal Henry Halleck. Dit het die Radikale Republikeine in die kongres ontstel wat die konflik in 'n oorlog teen slawerny wou verander.

In die herfs van 1861 het die hoofaksie in Kentucky plaasgevind. Op 4 September verhuis generaal Leonidas Polk en 'n groot konfederale leër na die staat en begin 'n hoë grond beset met uitsig op die rivier die Ohio. Ulysses S. Grant en sy Unie -weermag was bymekaar in Cairo, Illinois. Hy het nou sy troepe na Kentucky verplaas en vinnig beheer oor die monding van die riviere Tennessee en Cumberland gekry toe hulle in die Ohio vloei. President Jefferson Davis, bewus daarvan dat die uniemagte nou die hoofweg in die hart van die Konfederasie beheer het, het generaal Joseph E. Johnston met versterkings ingestuur.

In November 1861 besluit Lincoln om George McClellan as hoofkommandant van die Unie -leër aan te stel. Hy het 'n strategie ontwikkel om die Konfederale Weermag te verslaan, wat 'n leër van 273,000 man ingesluit het. Sy plan was om Virginia vanuit die see binne te val en Richmond en die ander groot stede in die suide in te neem. McClellan was van mening dat om die weerstand tot die minimum te beperk, duidelik gemaak moet word dat die magte van die Unie nie met slawerny sal inmeng nie en dat dit sal help om die opstand van slawe te onderdruk.

Ek het geen doel, direk of indirek, om in te meng met die instelling van slawerny in die state waar dit bestaan ​​nie. Ek glo ek het geen wettige reg om dit te doen nie, en ek het geen neiging om dit te doen nie.

Ek dink die Unie is ononderbroke. Ek sal sorg dat die wette van die Unie in alle state getrou uitgevoer word. Daar hoef geen bloedvergieting of geweld te wees nie; en daar sal niemand wees nie, tensy dit op die nasionale owerheid afgedwing word.

Die regering sal jou nie aanval nie. U kan geen konflik hê sonder dat u die aggressors is nie. U het geen eed in die hemel om die regering te vernietig nie, terwyl ek die plegtigste sal hê om dit te bewaar, te beskerm en te verdedig.

My stelsel is gebou op die idee as 'n heersende, naamlik dat ons die vraag voor die publiek moet verander van een oor slawerny, of oor slawerny, vir 'n vraag oor eenheid of verdeeldheid. Met ander woorde, van wat as 'n partyvraag beskou sou word tot 'n vraag oor patriotisme of vakbond.

Die besetting of ontruiming van Fort Sumter, hoewel dit eintlik nie 'n slawerny of 'n partyvraag is nie, word so beskou. Getuig van die humeur wat die Republikeine in die vrystate, en selfs deur die Unie -manne in die Suide, toon.

Ek sou dit dus beëindig as 'n veilige manier om die probleem te verander. Ek ag dit gelukkig dat die laaste administrasie die noodsaaklikheid geskep het. Vir die res sou ek gelyktydig al die hawens in die Golf verdedig en versterk en die vloot van buitelandse stasies laat terugroep om voorbereid te wees op 'n blokkade. Stel die eiland Key West onder krygswet.

15 April 1861: Deur die verheerlikings van die triomfantlike Suide te verdrink, harder as hul kanonboom, gehoor bo hul klokkies en trompette, luid die stem van Abraham Lincoln wat drie maande lank vir vyf-en-sewentigduisend vrywilligers roep. Hierdie afkondiging was soos die eerste bliksem van 'n donderwolk wat die troebel lug opruim. Die Suide het dit as 'n oorlogsverklaring ontvang; die Noorde as 'n belydenis dat die burgeroorlog begin het; en die hele Noorde het as een man opgestaan.

17 April 1861: Die 6de Massachusetts, 'n volle regiment duisend sterk, het per trein vanaf Boston begin. 'N Groot menigte mense het in die omgewing van die treinstasie Boston en Albany byeengekom om te sien hoe hulle vertrek. Die groot menigte was klaarblyklik onder die invloed van diep gevoel, maar dit was onderdruk, en die betogings was nie raserig nie. Trane loop nie net oor die wange van vroue nie, maar ook oor die wange van mans; maar daar was geen wankel nie.

Voordat ek by my voorhek inkom, het ek my oë opgelig en die prentjie van my klein gesin by die venster gesien. Huis, gesin, troos, skoonheid, vreugde, liefde was saamgedrom in 'n oomblik van gedagte en gevoel, toe ek deur die deur spring en vinnig die trap opklim.

My vrou was patrioties, sterk vanweë die integriteit van die Unie, vol van die heroïese gees, en toe die krisis aanbreek, al was dit so skielik en moeilik om te verduur, het sy nie een negatiewe woord gesê nie. Ek het gesien hoe sy my dophou terwyl ek teen die helling afstap in die rigting van die veerboot, terugkyk en my hoed waai terwyl ek agter die rand en bome verdwyn.

Gisteraand in mev Davis se sitkamer het die president by my gaan sit op die bank waar ek gesit het. Hy het byna 'n uur lank gepraat. Hy het gelag vir ons geloof in ons eie kragte. Ons is soos die Britte. Ons dink dat elke Suidlander minstens gelyk is aan drie Yankees. Ons sal nou gelykstaande aan 'n dosyn moet wees. Hy het gesê dat slegs dwase twyfel aan die moed van die Yankees of hul bereidwilligheid om te veg wat hulle goedvind. En noudat ons hulle trots gesteek het, het ons hulle opgewek totdat hulle soos duiwels sal veg.

By die spoorwegstasies in Maine, oor die nader en vertrek van ons treine, was daar groot gejuig en bemoedigende woorde. Hier en daar was daar egter onenige krete. Min, inderdaad, was die dorpe waar geen stem van opposisie verhef is nie. Maar later in die oorlog, in die vrye state na die verwonding en die dood van vaders, broers en seuns, sou ons sensitiewe, geteisterde tuismense dit wat hulle noem, nie verraai nie.

Ek stel voor om te bekragtig wat ook al bekragtig moet word. Ek stel voor om my duidelike en duidelike goedkeuring te gee, nie net vir die maatreël nie, maar ook vir die motief wat dit bevorder het. Ek stel voor om die hele mag van die land, wapens, mans, geld te leen en dit byna onbeperk in gesag te plaas, tot die einde van hierdie stryd. Ek wil skielike, gewaagde, vorentoe, vasberade oorlog; en ek dink nie dat iemand so 'n oorlog kan voer nie, sowel as 'n diktator.

Ek het onmiddellik die gewenste gesag ontvang om die regiment te verhoog, en vertrek na die stad New York. Ek het die mense van New York gevind in die gloed van die patriotiese emosies wat opgewonde was oor die afvuur op Fort Sumner en die oproep van die president om vrywilligers. Daar was werwingstasies in alle dele van die stad. Die vorming van regimente het vinnig verloop. Ryk handelaars het met mekaar uitgedaag om uiters geld by te dra vir die inrigting van troepe, en talle vroue uit alle klasse van die samelewing was besig om kledingstukke of verbande aan die soldate te stik, of om standaarde te borduur.

In New York het ek gevind dat baie van die Duitse kavaleriste waarop ek gereken het, reeds by die infanterieregimente aangesluit het. Maar daar was genoeg van hulle oor om my in 'n baie kort tydjie te kan organiseer, en ek moes beslis my regiment gedurende die somerveldtog voltooi het as ek nie deur 'n ander oproep van die regering ingekort was nie. . Ek het 'n brief van die minister van buitelandse sake ontvang waarin ek meegedeel is dat omstandighede my vertrek na my plek in Madrid uiters wenslik gemaak het, en dat hy wou hê dat ek myself so gou as moontlik by Washington moes aanmeld.

Wie is hulle? Hulle behoort tot die fanatiese afskaffingskliek wat probeer om hierdie oorlog van sy wettige doel af te lei na 'n uitroeiende kruistog teen suidelike slawerny.

Daar was gister 'n groot stryd. Die Yankees is oorweldigend verbyster. Duisende van hulle is dood. Ek was in die stryd. Ons het een keer twee ure lank onder 'n volmaakte storm van skote gestaan ​​- dit was 'n wonderwerk dat nie een van ons geselskap dood is nie. Ons het al hul kanonne van hulle afgeneem; onder die batterye wat vasgevang was, was Sherman - die geveg het ongeveer 7 uur geduur - ongeveer 90 000 Yankees, 45 000 van ons manne. Die kavalerie het hulle agtervolg tot donker - 6 of 7 myl gevolg. Generaal Scott het hulle beveel. Ek ruk net die oomblik om te skryf - ek is by die deur in die reën - ek sal vir u alle besonderhede skryf as ek 'n kans kry. Ons begin net sodra ons ons ontbyt kan kry om hulle na Alexandria te volg. Ons het 'n gedwonge opmars gemaak om na die geveg te kom - ongeveer 65 myl afgelê sonder om te stop. My liefde vir julle almal. In haas.

Toe die vakbondlede hul vordering hervat, het die rebelle suksesvol weerstaan ​​teen hul aanvallige aanvalle op verskillende punte. Met elke onsuksesvolle poging was die aanvallers vinnig besig om weg te smelt. Al hoe minder offisiere en mans kon bymekaarkom vir nog 'n voorskot. Teen vieruur het die rebelle sterk genoeg gevoel om die offensief aan te gaan. 'N Brigade met 'n battery onder Earle het daarin geslaag om die Federale regterkant op die flank en agterkant te slaan en in totale verwarring te kom wat vinnig oor die hele voorkant versprei het. Nou kom die rampspoedige einde. Sonder enige formele bevele om terug te trek, het die oorblywende van die verskillende organisasies tot 'n algemene impuls gelei om die veld te laat vaar. Beamptes en mans word beheer deur die een gedagte om so ver as moontlik van die vyand te kom.

Ek sien die manne van Burnside, wat teruggekeer het uit die veld met hul muskiete in die son. Hulle het 'n vorm van voorkoms gehad en het op hul arms gerus. Ek het opgemerk dat ander troepe meer verstrooid was; ambulanse in lang kolomme wat die veld met die gewondes verlaat. Daar was mans met gebreekte arms; gesigte met verbande wat met bloed bevlek is; liggame deurboor; baie loop of hink na agter; intussen het doppe geskreeu en die verhitte lug ingebreek. Ek was inderdaad jammer dat diegene wat oor was van my manne die beproewing moes deurstaan.

By die vorming het ek my so op die berg gestasioneer dat die manne, twee -tweetjies, by my verbystap. Ek het hulle fyn dopgehou. Hulle was bleek en bedagsaam. Baie kyk op in my gesig en glimlag. Sodra dit gereed was, het die eerste lyn teen die helling opgejaag, deur 'n besprinkeling van bome, in 'n oop ruimte op hoë grond. 'N Vyand se battery na ons voorkant en 'n paar muskietskote sonder dat 'n vyand duidelik sigbaar was, het die eerste ergernis veroorsaak. Binnekort het nog 'n battery aan ons regterkant wat in posisie was, die gevaar vergroot. En, erger as die batterye, stort van musketballetjies uit die hout, tweehonderd meter verder.

Baie beamptes het gewerk om hul manne bymekaar te hou, maar ek het gesien dat dit niks onder vuur kan veroorsaak nie. Uiteindelik beveel ek almal om terug te val na die vallei en agter die ruigtes te hervorm. Maar voor baie minute was dit duidelik dat paniek al die troepe binne sig bereik het. Sommige ervare veteraanoffisiere, soos Heintzelman, het hul ondergeskiktes gesmeek en beveel om beurte om hulle manne byeen te bring; maar niks kon die wegdringing en swaai van die massas keer wat vinniger en vinniger na agter vloei nie.

Kaptein Heath, van die Derde Maine, wat later tot luitenant -kolonel bevorder en in die slag van Gaines Mills neerval, loop 'n geruime tyd langs my perd en huil trane terwyl hy met my praat: 'My manne sal nie saam bly nie, kolonel, hulle sal my nie gehoorsaam nie, ”het hy gesê. Ander dapper beamptes het gepleit en gedreig. Chirurge wat teruggebly het, wys na hul gewondes en huil: "Om God se onthalwe, stop; moenie ons verlaat nie!" Niks kon destyds die vlugtende skare bereik en beïnvloed nie, behalwe paniekerige geskreeu soos: "Die vyand is op ons! Ons sal gevat word!" Hierdie uitroepe het verwarring en vlug verhoog.

Heintzelman, met sy gewonde arm in 'n slinger, het op en af ​​gery en 'n laaste poging aangewend om die orde te herstel. Hy het elke beampte wat hy teëgekom het skerp berispe. Hy het vir my gesweer. Van tyd tot tyd het ek my pogings hernu. My broer, C. H. Howard, as hy my 'n oomblik sien ontspan, sing hy: "O, probeer weer!" 'N Gedeelte van die veertiende New York uit Brooklyn het noord van Bull Run saamgedrom en in 'n goeie toestand gegaan. "Sien hulle," sê my broer; "laat ons so probeer vorm!" Ons het dus probeer, 'n paar bymekaargemaak, maar tevergeefs. Toe stop ek alle pogings, maar stuur hierdie boodskap uit en herhaal dit aan elke Maine- en Vermont -man binne bereik: "Na die ou kamp in Centerville. Tydren by die Centerville -kamp."

Die optrede van generaal Jackson vereis ook die uitnemende vermelding van 'n bekwame, vreeslose soldaat en verstandige bevelvoerder, een geskik om sy doeltreffende brigade te lei. Sy vinnige, tydige aankoms voor die plato van die Henry House en sy oordeelkundige ingesteldheid oor sy troepe, het baie bygedra tot die sukses van die dag. Alhoewel hy pynlik in die hand gewond was, het hy op die veld gebly tot die einde van die geveg en waardevolle hulp verleen.

Ons oorwinning was so volledig as wat die infanterie en artillerie alleen behaal het. 'N Voldoende kavaleriekrag sou dit deurslaggewend gemaak het. Dit is onder die almagtige God te danke aan die vaardigheid en resolusie van generaal Beauregard, die bewonderenswaardige optrede van generaals Bee, Kirby Smith en Jackson en kolonel Evans, Cocke, Early en Elzey, en die moed en onwrikbare vasberadenheid van ons patriotiese vrywilligers. .

Die verslaan troepe het Maandag, 22 Julie, met daglig begin oorstroom oor die Long Bridge in Washington. Die dag bedruip deurgaans met reën. Die Saterdag en Sondag van die geveg was tot op die uiterste uitgedroog en warm - die stof, die vuiligheid en die rook, in lae, sweet in, hul klere versadig met die kleipoeier wat die lug vul - oral op die droë gebiede paaie en getrapte velde deur die regimente, swermwaens, artillerie. Al die manne met hierdie laag sweet en reën, wat nou terugval, oor die Long Bridge stort - 'n aaklige optog van twintig myl, wat terugkeer na Washington, verbaasd, verneder en paniekbevange. Soms, 'n seldsame regiment, in perfekte orde, met sy offisiere ('n paar leemtes, dooies, die ware dappers) wat in stilte marsjeer, met gesigte neerlê, streng, moeg om te sink, almal swart en vuil, maar elke man met sy muskiet, en lewendig trap; maar dit is die uitsonderings.

In die dorpie Hampton was daar 'n groot aantal negers, saamgestel in 'n groot mate vroue en kinders van die mans wat daarheen gevlug het om my te beskerm, wat ontsnap het uit groeperings van rebelle wat bymekaargekom het- swartes om hulle te help om hul batterye op die James- en York -riviere te bou. Ek het die manne in Hampton in diens geneem om verskansings op te wek, en hulle werk ywerig en doeltreffend by hierdie plig en red ons soldate van die arbeid onder die skyn van die middagson.

Ek het gesien dat daar 'n bevel deur generaal McDowell in sy departement uitgereik is, wat alle vlugtende slawe aansienlik verbied om binne sy lyne te kom of daar opgesluit te word. Is die bevel toegepas in alle militêre departemente? Indien wel, wie moet as vlugtende slawe beskou word? Moet 'n slaaf as 'n voortvlugtige beskou word, wie se meester weghardloop en hom verlaat? Is dit vir die troepe verbode om die negerkinders wat daarin voorkom, te help of te huisves, of is die soldaat, as sy optog hul lewensmiddele vernietig het, om hulle te laat honger ly omdat hy die Rebel -meesters verdryf het?

In 'n lojale toestand sou ek 'n opstand teen die diens neerlê. In 'n toestand van opstand. Ek sou beslag lê op dit wat gebruik is om my wapens te weerstaan, en al die besittings wat die rykdom van die staat uitgemaak het, in beslag neem, behalwe dat dit die oorsaak van die oorlog was; en as daardeur beswaar gemaak moet word dat mense gekoop is vir die vrye genot van lewe, vryheid en die strewe na geluk, sal sulke beswaar dalk nie veel aandag moet skenk nie.

Lincoln beteken goed, maar het geen karakterkrag nie. Hy word omring deur Old Fogy Army -offisiere, waarvan meer as die helfte reguit verraaiers is en die ander helfte simpatiseer met die Suide. 'N Maand gelede het ek begin twyfel of hierdie vervloekte opstand met 'n rewolusie in die huidige administrasie neergelê kon word.

Sherman het openlik erken, nadat hy onder bevel van die departement was, dat hy dit nie gewens het nie en bang was vir sy nuwe verantwoordelikhede. Met die lewendige verbeelding van genie, het hy duidelik gesien hoe formidabel die probleme was van die rol wat van hom verwag sou word om die rebellie te onderdruk. Hulle het hom eenvoudig ontstel. Hy bevind hom in bevel van rou troepe, nie meer as twintigduisend in getal nie. Hy het geglo dat hulle baie keer vermenigvuldig moet word. Hy was bevrees dat die rebellemagte in die staat grootliks sy eie was, en hy kon nie ontslae raak van die vrees dat as hy aangeval sou word, hy geen kans op sukses sou hê nie.

Dit was nie juis gebrek aan vertroue in homself wat hom tot hierdie gemoedstoestand gebring het nie, maar, soos dit vir my gelyk het, sy intense patriotisme en wanhoop oor die behoud van die Unie met die oog op die fanatiese, bloeddorstige vyandigheid daarteen. Die Suid. Hierdie angs het hom beetgepak, hy het letterlik dag en nag daaroor gebroei. Dit het hom selfs buite sy hoofkwartier in lang, stil buie laat verval. Hy het in die Galt House gewoon en kamers op die grondvloer beset. Hy stap deur die uur op en af ​​in die gang wat na hulle toe lei, rook en is duidelik in onderdrukkende gedagtes gedompel. Hy het dit in so 'n mate gedoen dat dit deur die gaste en werknemers van die hotel algemeen opgemerk en opgemerk is. Sy vreemde maniere het tot skinderpraatjies gelei, en daar word gou gefluister dat hy aan geestelike depressie ly.

'N Deel van die manne van die 27ste Regiment, in die Stonewall Brigade, wat twaalf maande lank as vrywilligers gewerk het, het gevind dat hul jaar pas verby is. As hulle aanneem dat die toepassing van die laaste diensplig vir hulle 'n oortreding van geloof was, het hulle geëis dat hulle ontslaan word en weier om 'n ander dag te dien. Hul kolonel, Grigsby, het die saak na generaal Jackson verwys vir instruksies. Toe hy dit uitvoerig hoor, roep hy uit, sy oog flitsend en sy wenkbrou styf met 'n ernstige hardnekkigheid: "Wat is hierdie bietjie muitery? Waarom verwys kolonel Grigsby na my om te weet wat ek met 'n muitery moet doen? Hy moet hulle skiet waar hulle staan. " Daarna wend hy hom tot sy adjudant en beveel die kolonel 'n bevel om sy regiment onmiddellik met 'n gelaaide muskiet te paradeer om die onbevoorregte kompagnies voor hulle op te stel, ontwapen en hulle die alternatief te bied om terug te keer na diens, of om versmoor te word. op die plek. Die bevel is gehoorsaam, en die muiteraars, toe hulle met onmiddellike dood gekonfronteer word, het hul besluit onmiddellik heroorweeg.

Na die slag van Donelson, het moeder Bickerdyke in Kaïro in die eerste hospitaalboot gegaan en gehelp met die verwydering van die gewondes na Kaïro, St. Op pad na die slagveld het sy sake perfek gesistematiseer. Die beddens was gereed vir die insittendes, tee, koffie, sop en gruis, melkpons en yswater is in groot hoeveelhede berei, onder haar toesig, en soms haar eie hand.

Toe die gewondes aan boord gebring word, amper uit menslike gedaante vermink; die bevrore grond waaruit hulle gesny is, kleef daaraan; verkoel van die intense koue waarin sommige vier en twintig uur gelê het; flou met bloedverlies, liggaamlike pyn en gebrek aan voeding; met 'n vreeslike rit van vyf myl oor bevrore paaie, in ambulanse, in gewone Tennessee-waens, sonder vere; brand van koors; Ma Bickerdyke se boot was gereed vir hulle, terwyl hulle in gejaag geraak het of in die dood se flouheid was.

Ek het nog nooit iemand soos sy gesien nie. Vir ons chirurge was daar niks anders as om wonde aan te trek en medisyne toe te dien nie. Sy het skoon hemde of laaie uit die een hoek getrek, wanneer dit nodig was. Voeding was gereed vir elke man sodra hy aan boord gebring is. Almal was gespog van bloed en bevrore modder van die slagveld, sover sy toestand dit toelaat. Sy bloedstyf, en soms verskriklik vuil uniform, word verruil vir sagte en skoon hospitaalklere. Onophoudelike uitroepe van "Moeder! Ma! Ma!" lui deur die boot, in elke noot van smeking en angs. En na elke man draai sy met 'n hemelse teerheid, asof hy inderdaad haar seun is.


Lys van wapens in die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog

Die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog, wat tussen die Unie en die Konfederale magte geveg is, het van 1861 tot 1865 plaasgevind. Tydens die oorlog is 'n verskeidenheid wapens aan beide kante gebruik. Hierdie wapens sluit randwapens in soos messe, swaarde en bajonette, vuurwapens, soos geweermuskette, stuiters en herhalende wapens, verskillende artillerie soos veldgewere en beleggeweer en nuwe wapens soos die vroeë granaat en landmyn. [1]

Die burgeroorlog word dikwels as een van die eerste 'moderne' oorloë in die geskiedenis genoem, aangesien dit die mees gevorderde tegnologie en vernuwings van die destydse oorlog insluit. Sommige van die vooruitgang en vernuwings van die burgeroorlog sluit in massaproduksie van oorlogsmateriaal, geweervate en die gebruik van die Minié -bal, die koms van herhalende vuurwapens en metaalpatrone, vervoerspoorweë met gewapende lokomotiewe, ystergedrewe oorlogskepe, duikbote, een van die eerste gebruik van lugkorps vir lugverkenning, kommunikasie (veral die telegraaf), vooruitgang in die geneeskunde en die geleidelike afname van taktiek uit vorige eeue. [2]


Vir 70 jaar, Amerikaanse erfenis was die toonaangewende tydskrif vir Amerikaanse geskiedenis, politiek en kultuur. Lees meer & gt & gt

Die tydskrif is gedwing om die gedrukte publikasie in 2013 op te skort, maar 'n groep vrywilligers het die argiewe gered en in 2017 weer in digitale vorm begin. Gratis inskrywing & gt & gt

Oorweeg asseblief 'n skenking om ons te help om hierdie Amerikaanse skat lewendig te hou. Ondersteuning met 'n skenking & gt & gt


Toe die Amerikaner in 1776 onafhanklikheid van Engeland wen, was daar 13 kolonies wat 'n federale regering gevorm het. Kolonies het teen 1861 van die ooskus na die weste uitgebrei en 34 state gevorm. Daar was verskille tussen state in die noorde en state in die suide, wat die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog tot gevolg gehad het.

Die verskil in die houding teenoor slawerny kan gesien word as die oorsaak van die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog. Dit het ook gevolge gehad op die ekonomiese en politieke gebied. Die faktore wat tot die uitbreek van die burgeroorlog in Amerika gelei het, kan soos hieronder gekonsolideer word.


Die Burgeroorlog en Nebraska, 1861

Hierdie jaar is die sesjarige herdenking (150ste herdenking) van die begin van die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog op 12 April 1861, die datum waarop die konfederale magte op Fort Sumter in die hawe in Charleston, Suid -Carolina, losgebrand het. Nebraska was toe 'n Amerikaanse gebied, waarvan die ontstaan ​​in 1854 deur die sogenaamde Kansas-Nebraska Act 'n belangrike faktor was wat gelei het tot oorlog. Die wet het Suid -Afrikaners die reg gegee om hul slawe na nuwe gebiede wes van die Missouri -rivier te neem, 'n deel van die 1803 Louisiana -aankoop waar slawerny voorheen verbied was. Noordelike verontwaardiging oor die vooruitsig dat slawerny na die Weste sou versprei, het die opkoms van die nuwe Republikeinse Party veroorsaak, wat vasbeslote was om die verlenging van slawerny te weerstaan. Die verkiesing van die Republikeinse benoemde Abraham Lincoln in 1860 tot die presidensie het Suid-Carolina, en binnekort nog tien ander slawe-besitstate van die diep suide, gevra om die Unie te verlaat en die Konfederale State van Amerika te vorm.

Ondanks die afstand van die Nebraska -gebied tot die groot burgeroorlogsdrama wat tussen 1861 en 1865 op die slagvelde in die Ooste en Suid en in die mededingende hoofstede afspeel, was Nebraskane nie bloot omstanders nie. 'N Groot persentasie van die gebiedsmanne het in die Unie -leër gedien. Die burgerlikes in Nebraska is ook geraak deur die oorlog, insluitend politici wat in partykonvensies vergader het of redakteurs in die openbare amp gehad het wat oor oorlogskwessies in hul koerante gedebatteer het en handelaars en boere wat die winkels bedryf en die gewasse opgee. Soos in alle oorloë, het die wat tuis was, tevergeefs gewag op die veilige terugkeer van geliefdes uit die gevegsfront. Telegraaflyne wat Nebraska in 1860 bereik het, het beteken dat plaaslike redakteurs oorlogsnuus ontvang het wat slegs 'n paar dae oud was. Minder as 'n week nadat die Konfederate op Fort Sumter afgevuur het, het Robert W. Furnas van die Brownville, Adverteerder in Nebraska, redaksioneel oor die uitbreek van die oorlog in die uitgawe van 18 April. Furnas, 'n Republikein wat Abraham Lincoln as president gesteun het, was woedend oor die aanval en het 'n oproep geroep vir patriotte om die Amerikaanse regering en die Unie te ondersteun:

"Die burgeroorlog is op ons en dit is nou die taak van die regering om so 'n koers te volg, wat die verraaiers die vinnigste en effektiefste sal stilmaak en die oppergesag van wet en orde weer kan vestig. Die onsterflike sentiment van Stephen Decatur is die leuse van die mense-Mag my land ooit reg wees, maar reg of verkeerd, my land altyd ... Die verdoemende vlek moet uitroei moet word, verraad moet verpletter word met die sterk arm van die regering, en die majesteit van die wet word op die punt van die bajonet bevestig indien nodig. Die tyd vir appèl, betoog en versoening is verby. Laat die toksin nou uit elke heuwel en vallei klink, en laat patriotte na die roeping van hul land saamtrek, en 'wee hom wat die storm van 'n volk se toorn sal weerstaan'.


Vandag in die geskiedenis: Die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog begin (1861)

Op 12 April 1861 begin die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog amptelik met die aanval op Fort Sumter, Suid -Carolina. Die oorlog was en bly een van die bloedigste burgeroorloë wat ooit in die mensegeskiedenis gevoer is, wat meer as 600 000 slagoffers tot gevolg gehad het.

Vyandelikhede het 'n paar jaar opgedoen tussen die suidelike staatsregerings en die federale (Unie) regering voordat die oorlog amptelik begin het. Daar was verskeie redes vir die vyandighede, maar die hoofrede was die kwessie van slawerny in die Verenigde State. Meer spesifiek, die meningsverskille wat plaasgevind het voordat die geweld uitgebreek het, was oor die wettigheid van slawerny in die uitbreidende westelike gebiede.

Namate die Verenigde State groter geword het (soos sedert die vroeë 1800's met die Louisiana -aankoop), het setlaars na die weste vertak en gebiede en later state gestig wat by die vakbond sou aansluit. Die beleid van die federale regering was vir enige nuwe gebied of staat wat geskep is om slawerny te wees.

Die eintlike kwessie hier was dat as hierdie gebiede as vrye state en gebiede tot die unie toetree, dit hul verteenwoordiging in die kongres sou beïnvloed, wat die vrye noorde baie meer mag sou gee.

Amerikaanse geskiedenisprente

Daar was verskeie politieke debatte en kompromieë wat gelei het tot die burgeroorlog. In 1820 is die Missouri -kompromie aangeneem, waarin Maine as 'n vrystaat toegelaat word en Missouri as 'n slawestaat. Dit het ook opdrag gegee dat enige nuwe gebied of staat bo die 36 & prime / 30 & prime breedtegraadlyn slegs as 'n vrystaat toegelaat kan word (met die uitsondering van Missouri).

In 1850, na die einde van die oorlog met Mexiko, is nuwe gebiede bygevoeg, wat die debat oor die uitbreiding van slawerny weer laat ontstaan ​​het. Met die kompromie van 1850, wat deur Henry Clay en Daniel Webster bepleit is, is Kalifornië toegelaat as 'n vrystaat, terwyl New Mexico en Utah self kon besluit.

Hierdie kwessie is steeds gedebatteer totdat die burgeroorlog begin het. Buiten die politiek het die veel groter bevolking van die vrye noorde steeds die kongres onder druk geplaas om slawerny op morele gronde af te skaf. In 1854 het geweld in Kansas uitgebreek tussen pro-en anti-slawerny-setlaars wat kwaad was oor 'n ander kongreswet, een wat 'n deel van die Missouri-kompromie herroep het (dit het Kansas en Nebraska in staat gestel om self te kies ondanks hul ligging). The fighting even included members of Congress between 1856 and 1858, when brawls broke out over the debate to extend slavery to the western territories.

In the two years before the war, occasional violence would erupt and the debate over the issue of slavery intensified. The South saw their rights being trampled on by the North. It is this feeling that ultimately led to seven Southern states to secede in early 1861, and that would lead to the first real shots being fired on April 12 at Fort Sumter.

The war would rage for four years, and would cost at least 600,000 people their lives. It remains to this day the bloodiest war in American history.


American Civil War: 1861 - History

November 6, 1860 - Abraham Lincoln, who had declared "Government cannot endure permanently half slave, half free. " is elected president, the first Republican, receiving 180 of 303 possible electoral votes and 40 percent of the popular vote.

December 20, 1860 - South Carolina secedes from the Union. Followed within two months by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas.

Auction and Negro sales, Atlanta, Georgia.

February 9, 1861 - The Confederate States of America is formed with Jefferson Davis, a West Point graduate and former U.S. Army officer, as president.

March 4, 1861 - Abraham Lincoln is sworn in as 16 th President of the United States of America.

April 12, 1861 - At 4:30 a.m. Confederates under Gen. Pierre Beauregard open fire with 50 cannons upon Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina. The Civil War begins.

Fort Sumter after its capture, showing damage from the Rebel bombardment of over 3000 shells and now flying the Rebel "Stars and Bars" - April 14, 1861.

April 15, 1861 - President Lincoln issues a Proclamation calling for 75,000 militiamen, and summoning a special session of Congress for July 4.

Robert E. Lee, son of a Revolutionary War hero, and a 25 year distinguished veteran of the United States Army and former Superintendent of West Point, is offered command of the Union Army. Lee declines.

April 17, 1861 - Virginia secedes from the Union, followed within five weeks by Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina, thus forming an eleven state Confederacy with a population of 9 million, including nearly 4 million slaves. The Union will soon have 21 states and a population of over 20 million.

Map of Allegiances of the States - 1861.

April 19, 1861 - President Lincoln issues a Proclamation of Blockade against Southern ports. For the duration of the war the blockade limits the ability of the rural South to stay well supplied in its war against the industrialized North.

April 20, 1861 - Robert E. Lee resigns his commission in the United States Army. "I cannot raise my hand against my birthplace, my home, my children." Lee then goes to Richmond, Virginia, is offered command of the military and naval forces of Virginia, and accepts.

July 4, 1861 - Lincoln, in a speech to Congress, states the war is. "a People's contest. a struggle for maintaining in the world, that form, and substance of government, whose leading object is, to elevate the condition of men. " The Congress authorizes a call for 500,000 men.

July 21, 1861 - The Union Army under Gen. Irvin McDowell suffers a defeat at Bull Run 25 miles southwest of Washington. Confederate Gen. Thomas J. Jackson earns the nickname "Stonewall," as his brigade resists Union attacks. Union troops fall back to Washington. President Lincoln realizes the war will be long. "It's damned bad," he comments.

Ruins of the Stone Bridge over which Northern forces retreated until it was blown up by a Rebel shell adding to the panic of the retreat, with the Federals returning to Washington as "a rain-soaked mob."

July 27, 1861 - President Lincoln appoints George B. McClellan as Commander of the Department of the Potomac, replacing McDowell.

McClellan tells his wife , "I find myself in a new and strange position here: President, cabinet, Gen. Scott, and all deferring to me. By some strange operation of magic I seem to have become the power of the land."

September 11, 1861 - President Lincoln revokes Gen. John C. Frémont's unauthorized military proclamation of emancipation in Missouri. Later, the president relieves Gen. Frémont of his command and replaces him with Gen. David Hunter.

November 1, 1861 - President Lincoln appoints McClellan as general-in-chief of all Union forces after the resignation of the aged Winfield Scott . Lincoln tells McClellan, ". the supreme command of the Army will entail a vast labor upon you." McClellan responds, "I can do it all."

November 8, 1861 - The beginning of an international diplomatic crisis for President Lincoln as two Confederate officials sailing toward England are seized by the U.S. Navy. England, the leading world power, demands their release, threatening war. Lincoln eventually gives in and orders their release in December. "One war at a time," Lincoln remarks.

January 31, 1862 - President Lincoln issues General War Order No. 1 calling for all United States naval and land forces to begin a general advance by February 22, George Washington's birthday.

February 6, 1862 - Victory for Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in Tennessee, capturing Fort Henry, and ten days later Fort Donelson. Grant earns the nickname "Unconditional Surrender" Grant.

February 20, 1862 - President Lincoln is struck with grief as his beloved eleven-year-old son, Willie, dies from fever, probably caused by polluted drinking water in the White House.

March 8/9, 1862 - The Confederate Ironclad 'Merrimac' sinks two wooden Union ships then battles the Union Ironclad 'Monitor' to a draw. Naval warfare is thus changed forever, making wooden ships obsolete. Engraving of the Battle

The Monitor at dock, showing damage from the battle.

In March - The Peninsular Campaign begins as McClellan's Army of the Potomac advances from Washington down the Potomac River and the Chesapeake Bay to the peninsular south of the Confederate Capital of Richmond, Virginia then begins an advance toward Richmond.

President Lincoln temporarily relieves McClellan as general-in-chief and takes direct command of the Union Armies.

April 6/7, 1862 - Confederate surprise attack on Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's unprepared troops at Shiloh on the Tennessee River results in a bitter struggle with 13,000 Union killed and wounded and 10,000 Confederates, more men than in all previous American wars combined. The president is then pressured to relieve Grant but resists. "I can't spare this man he fights," Lincoln says.

April 24, 1862 - 17 Union ships under the command of Flag Officer David Farragut move up the Mississippi River then take New Orleans, the South's greatest seaport. Later in the war, sailing through a Rebel mine field Farragut utters the famous phrase "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!"

May 31, 1862 - The Battle of Seven Pines as Gen. Joseph E. Johnston 's Army attacks McClellan's troops in front of Richmond and nearly defeats them. But Johnston is badly wounded.

June 1, 1862 - Gen. Robert E. Lee assumes command, replacing the wounded Johnston. Lee then renames his force the Army of Northern Virginia. McClellan is not impressed, saying Lee is "likely to be timid and irresolute in action."

June 25-July 1 - The Seven Days Battles as Lee attacks McClellan near Richmond, resulting in very heavy losses for both armies. McClellan then begins a withdrawal back toward Washington.

Young Georgia Private Edwin Jennison, killed in the Seven Days Battles at Malvern Hill - the face of a lost generation.

July 11, 1862 - After four months as his own general-in-chief, President Lincoln hands over the task to Gen. Henry W. (Old Brains) Halleck .

Tweede Slag van Bull Run

August 29/30, 1862 - 75,000 Federals under Gen. John Pope are defeated by 55,000 Confederates under Gen. Stonewall Jackson and Gen. James Longstreet at the second battle of Bull Run in northern Virginia. Once again the Union Army retreats to Washington. The president then relieves Pope.

September 4-9, 1862 - Lee invades the North with 50,000 Confederates and heads for Harpers Ferry , located 50 miles northwest of Washington.

The Union Army, 90,000 strong, under the command of McClellan, pursues Lee.

September 17, 1862 - The bloodiest day in U.S. military history as Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Confederate Armies are stopped at Antietam in Maryland by McClellan and numerically superior Union forces. By nightfall 26,000 men are dead, wounded, or missing. Lee then withdraws to Virginia.

Confederate dead by the fence bordering Farmer Miller's 40 acre Cornfield at Antietam where the intense rifle and artillery fire cut every corn stalk to the ground "as closely as could have been done with a knife."

September 22, 1862 - Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation freeing slaves issued by President Lincoln.

President Lincoln visits Gen. George McClellan at Antietam, Maryland - October, 1862

November 7, 1862 - The president replaces McClellan with Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside as the new Commander of the Army of the Potomac. Lincoln had grown impatient with McClellan's slowness to follow up on the success at Antietam, even telling him, "If you don't want to use the army, I should like to borrow it for a while."

December 13, 1862 - Army of the Potomac under Gen. Burnside suffers a costly defeat at Fredericksburg in Virginia with a loss of 12,653 men after 14 frontal assaults on well entrenched Rebels on Marye's Heights. "We might as well have tried to take hell," a Union soldier remarks. Confederate losses are 5,309.

"It is well that war is so terrible - we should grow too fond of it," states Lee during the fighting.

January 1, 1863 - President Lincoln issues the final Emancipation Proclamation freeing all slaves in territories held by Confederates and emphasizes the enlisting of black soldiers in the Union Army. The war to preserve the Union now becomes a revolutionary struggle for the abolition of slavery.

January 25, 1863 - The president appoints Gen. Joseph (Fighting Joe) Hooker as Commander of the Army of the Potomac, replacing Burnside.

January 29, 1863 - Gen. Grant is placed in command of the Army of the West, with orders to capture Vicksburg.

March 3, 1863 - The U.S. Congress enacts a draft, affecting male citizens aged 20 to 45, but also exempts those who pay $300 or provide a substitute. "The blood of a poor man is as precious as that of the wealthy," poor Northerners complain.

May 1-4, 1863 - The Union Army under Gen. Hooker is decisively defeated by Lee's much smaller forces at the Battle of Chancellorsville in Virginia as a result of Lee's brilliant and daring tactics. Confederate Gen. Stonewall Jackson is mortally wounded by his own soldiers. Hooker retreats. Union losses are 17,000 killed, wounded and missing out of 130,000. The Confederates, 13, 000 out of 60,000.

"I just lost confidence in Joe Hooker," said Hooker later about his own lack of nerve during the battle.

Confederate soldiers at the Sunken Road, killed during the fighting around Chancellorsville.

May 10, 1863 - The South suffers a huge blow as Stonewall Jackson dies from his wounds, his last words, "Let us cross over the river and rest under the shade of the trees."

"I have lost my right arm," Lee laments.

June 3, 1863 - Gen. Lee with 75,000 Confederates launches his second invasion of the North, heading into Pennsylvania in a campaign that will soon lead to Gettysburg.

June 28, 1863 - President Lincoln appoints Gen. George G. Meade as commander of the Army of the Potomac, replacing Hooker. Meade is the 5th man to command the Army in less than a year.

July 1-3, 1863 - The tide of war turns against the South as the Confederates are defeated at the Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania.

Union soldiers on the Battlefield at Gettysburg.

July 4, 1863 - Vicksburg , the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River, surrenders to Gen. Grant and the Army of the West after a six week siege. With the Union now in control of the Mississippi, the Confederacy is effectively split in two, cut off from its western allies.

July 13-16, 1863 - Anti-draft riots in New York City include arson and the murder of blacks by poor immigrant whites. At least 120 persons, including children, are killed and $2 million in damage caused, until Union soldiers returning from Gettysburg restore order.

July 18, 1863 - 'Negro troops' of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment under Col. Robert G. Shaw assault fortified Rebels at Fort Wagner, South Carolina. Col. Shaw and half of the 600 men in the regiment are killed.

August 10, 1863 - The president meets with abolitionist Frederick Douglass who pushes for full equality for Union 'Negro troops.'

August 21, 1863 - At Lawrence, Kansas, pro-Confederate William C. Quantrill and 450 pro-slavery followers raid the town and butcher 182 boys and men.

September 19/20, 1863 - A decisive Confederate victory by Gen. Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee at Chickamauga leaves Gen. William S. Rosecrans ' Union Army of the Cumberland trapped in Chattanooga, Tennessee under Confederate siege.

October 16, 1863 - The president appoints Gen. Grant to command all operations in the western theater.

November 19, 1863 - President Lincoln delivers a two minute Gettysburg Address at a ceremony dedicating the Battlefield as a National Cemetery.

Lincoln among the crowd at Gettysburg - Nov 19, 1863

November 23-25, 1863 - The Rebel siege of Chattanooga ends as Union forces under Grant defeat the siege army of Gen. Braxton Bragg. During the battle, one of the most dramatic moments of the war occurs. Yelling "Chickamauga! Chickamauga!" Union troops avenge their previous defeat at Chickamauga by storming up the face of Missionary Ridge without orders and sweep the Rebels from what had been though to be an impregnable position. "My God, come and see 'em run!" a Union soldier cries.

March 9, 1864 - President Lincoln appoints Gen. Grant to command all of the armies of the United States. Gen. William T. Sherman succeeds Grant as commander in the west.

May 4, 1864 - The beginning of a massive, coordinated campaign involving all the Union Armies. In Virginia, Grant with an Army of 120,000 begins advancing toward Richmond to engage Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, now numbering 64,000, beginning a war of attrition that will include major battles at the Wilderness (May 5-6), Spotsylvania (May 8-12), and Cold Harbor (June 1-3).

In the west, Sherman, with 100,000 men begins an advance toward Atlanta to engage Joseph E. Johnston's 60,000 strong Army of Tennessee.

A council of war with Gen. Grant leaning over the shoulder of Gen. Meade looking at a map, planning the Cold Harbor assault.

June 3, 1864 - A costly mistake by Grant results in 7,000 Union casualties in twenty minutes during an offensive against fortified Rebels at Cold Harbor in Virginia.

Many of the Union soldiers in the failed assault had predicted the outcome, including a dead soldier from Massachusetts whose last entry in his diary was, "June 3, 1864, Cold Harbor, Virginia. I was killed."

June 15, 1864 - Union forces miss an opportunity to capture Petersburg and cut off the Confederate rail lines. As a result, a nine month siege of Petersburg begins with Grant's forces surrounding Lee.

The 13-inch Union mortar "Dictator" mounted on a railroad flatcar at Petersburg. Its 200-pound shells had a range of over 2 miles.

July 20, 1864 - At Atlanta, Sherman's forces battle the Rebels now under the command of Gen. John B. Hood , who replaced Johnston.

August 29, 1864 - Democrats nominate George B. McClellan for president to run against Republican incumbent Abraham Lincoln.

September 2, 1864 - Atlanta is captured by Sherman 's Army. "Atlanta is ours, and fairly won," Sherman telegraphs Lincoln. The victory greatly helps President Lincoln's bid for re-election.

October 19, 1864 - A decisive Union victory by Cavalry Gen. Philip H. Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley over Jubal Early's troops.

November 8, 1864 - Abraham Lincoln is re-elected president, defeating Democrat George B. McClellan. Lincoln carries all but three states with 55 percent of the popular vote and 212 of 233 electoral votes. "I earnestly believe that the consequences of this day's work will be to the lasting advantage, if not the very salvation, of the country," Lincoln tells supporters.

November 15, 1864 - After destroying Atlanta's warehouses and railroad facilities, Sherman, with 62,000 men begins a March to the Sea. President Lincoln on advice from Grant approved the idea. "I can make Georgia howl!" Sherman boasts.

December 15/16, 1864 - Hood's Rebel Army of 23,000 is crushed at Nashville by 55,000 Federals including Negro troops under Gen. George H. Thomas . The Confederate Army of Tennessee ceases as an effective fighting force.

December 21, 1864 - Sherman reaches Savannah in Georgia leaving behind a 300 mile long path of destruction 60 miles wide all the way from Atlanta. Sherman then telegraphs Lincoln, offering him Savannah as a Christmas present.

January 31, 1865 - The U.S. Congress approves the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, to abolish slavery. The amendment is then submitted to the states for ratification.

February 3, 1865 - A peace conference occurs as President Lincoln meets with Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens at Hampton Roads in Virginia, but the meeting ends in failure - the war will continue.

Only Lee's Army at Petersburg and Johnston's forces in North Carolina remain to fight for the South against Northern forces now numbering 280,000 men.

March 4, 1865 - Inauguration ceremonies for President Lincoln in Washington. "With malice toward none with charity for all. let us strive on to finish the work we are in. to do all which may achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations," Lincoln says.

March 25, 1865 - The last offensive for Lee's Army of Northern Virginia begins with an attack on the center of Grant's forces at Petersburg. Four hours later the attack is broken.

At Petersburg, Virginia, well supplied Union soldiers shown before Grant's spring offensive.

April 2, 1865 - Grant's forces begin a general advance and break through Lee's lines at Petersburg. Confederate Gen. Ambrose P. Hill is killed. Lee evacuates Petersburg. The Confederate Capital, Richmond , is evacuated. Fires and looting break out. The next day, Union troops enter and raise the Stars and Stripes.

A Confederate boy, age 14, lies dead in the trenches of Fort Mahone at Petersburg.

April 4, 1865 - President Lincoln tours Richmond where he enters the Confederate White House . With "a serious, dreamy expression," he sits at the desk of Jefferson Davis for a few moments.

April 9, 1865 - Gen. Robert E. Lee surrenders his Confederate Army to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at the village of Appomattox Court House in Virginia. Grant allows Rebel officers to keep their sidearms and permits soldiers to keep horses and mules.

"After four years of arduous service marked by unsurpassed courage and fortitude the Army of Northern Virginia has been compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources," Lee tells his troops.

General Lee surrendered in the parlor of this house.

Lee posed for this photo by Mathew Brady shortly after the surrender.

April 10, 1865 - Celebrations break out in Washington.

Final portrait of a war weary president - April 10, 1865

April 14, 1865 - The Stars and Stripes is ceremoniously raised over Fort Sumter. That night, Lincoln and his wife Mary see the play "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theater. At 10:13 p.m., during the third act of the play, John Wilkes Booth shoots the president in the head. Doctors attend to the president in the theater then move him to a house across the street. He never regains consciousness.

April 15, 1865 - President Abraham Lincoln dies at 7:22 in the morning. Vice President Andrew Johnson assumes the presidency.

April 18, 1865 - Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston surrenders to Sherman near Durham in North Carolina.

Funeral Procession on Pennsylvania Ave. - April 19, 1865

April 26, 1865 - John Wilkes Booth is shot and killed in a tobacco barn in Virginia.

May 4, 1865 - Abraham Lincoln is laid to rest in Oak Ridge Cemetery, outside Springfield, Illinois.

In May - Remaining Confederate forces surrender. The Nation is reunited as the Civil War ends. Over 620,000 Americans died in the war, with disease killing twice as many as those lost in battle. 50,000 survivors return home as amputees.

A victory parade is held in Washington along Pennsylvania Ave. to help boost the Nation's morale - May 23/24, 1865.

December 6, 1865 - The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, is finally ratified. Slavery is abolished.

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1861–1865 : The Civil War and International Diplomacy

In 1861, eleven states seceded from the United States to form the Confederate States of America and, over the course of the next four years, the U.S. fought to bring the Confederate States back under control.

During the Civil War the Confederacy repeatedly sought international support for its cause, often calling upon foreign reliance on its cotton exports to obtain it. The Union, on the other hand, strove to prevent other nations from recognizing the Confederacy as a legitimate nation and from getting involved in the Civil War.

In an attempt to starve the Confederate economy and to cut it off from its international supporters, the Union engaged in a blockade of Confederate ports—a move that was of questionable legality in international law. Despite the Confederacy’s significant international commercial ties, the lack of definitive military victories for the South and the success of Union efforts to link the Confederacy with the institution of slavery ultimately prevented any of the European powers from officially recognizing or supporting the South.


The American Civil War 1861 1865

The American Civil war was fought between 1861-1865. This war is also known as the War Between the States. This war was the consequence of the eleven Southern slave states declaring their separation from the United States. These slaves had formed the Confederate States of America or the Confederacy, under the guidance of Jefferson Davis. The American Civil war was regarded as one of the earliest industrial wars.

The American Civil War 1861 1865

Background of The American Civil War

In 1860 Republican Party leader, Abraham Lincoln had won the Presidential elections. Within a year of Lincolns win six more Southern slave states declared their independence and joined the Confederates. Prior to the war, a Peace Conference in 1861 was held which proved futile to solve the slavery problems.

Lincoln suggested for the restoration of the bonds of the union but dismissed any possibility of negotiations with the Confederates as it was not a legitimate government. The forts under the control of the Union were Fort Monroe, Fort Sumter, Fort Pickens, Fort Jefferson and Fort Taylor. However, problems began in 1861 when the Confederates launched an attack on Fort Sumter. The Union had to surrender the fort. After the attack, the Confederates moved their capital to Richmond.

During the first year of the war, both sides engaged a large number of volunteers which were beyond their capacity to train for the war. The volunteers were encouraged or at times even forced to join the war. This was done by using a draft law known as Conscription. These draft laws were unpopular amongst the volunteers.

The Union suffered a major defeat in the First Battle of Bull Run wherein they were forced to return back to Washington D.C. The U.S.Congress in an effort to prevent more states declaring independence passed the Crittenden-Johnson Resolution. As per this resolution, the war was to preserve slavery and not end it.

The Eastern theater and the Western theater wars were fought between 1861-1863. The Battle of Antietam is regarded as the bloodiest day in the American history. The Battle of Gettysburg fought in 1863 was the bloodiest battle in the Eastern theater and was considered to be the turning point in this battle. The Union defeated the Confederates in the Eastern theater.

The Battle of Chickamauga was considered to be one of the deadliest battles in the Western theater wherein the Confederates emerged victoriously. The Union under the directions of Ulysses S. Grant captured the Forts of Henry and Donelson. The Battle of Shiloh and the Battle of Vicksburg gave the control of the Mississippi River in the hands of the Union. The Western theater ended with the defeat of the Confederates.

The U.S army under the direction of Commanding General Winfield Scot planned the Anaconda Plan to win the war against the Confederates. In 1861, Union blockade was declared in respect of the Southern ports. This directly hampered the economy of the Confederates. The Southern ports thrived on their export of cotton but after the blockade, King Cotton was dead as barely 10 % of the cotton could be exported. The blockade also affected the food supplies, railroads, there was a loss of control of the main rivers, the standard of living of the people fell drastically. All these problems led to inflation and by 1864 the internal food distribution had broken down.

In the early 1864 Grant, the commander appointed for all the Union armies realized that the only way to put an end to the on-going war was to completely defeat the Confederates. The victory of the Union was to be achieved by destroying the homes, farms, and railroads of the Confederacy. In short, to completely shatter their economy. Thus a strategy was planned to launch an attack on Confederacy from all sides.

The Union suffered heavy losses at the Wilderness, Spotsylvania and Cold Harbour but they were successful in forcing the Confederates to fall back repeatedly. The two armies were engaged in trench warfare for more than nine months in the Siege of Petersburg. General Philip Sheridan chosen by Grant to fight for the Union was successful in defeating Maj. Gen. Jubal A.

Early in many battles like the Battle of Cedar Creek. Sherman was also successful in defeating the Confederates and had claimed victory over the territory ranging from Chattanooga to Atlanta. Another important win for the Union was the Battle of Nashville. The Battle of Five Forks was the decisive battle in which the Union came out as winners. The Confederate capital was captured by the Union XXV Corps and the surviving units escaped to the west after the lost at Sayler’s Creek.

After this large scale loss, the Confederates realized that it was tactically and logically impossible to continue the war. In 1865, Confederate commander Lees army surrendered at the McLean House and after Lees surrender, the Confederates in the South also surrendered. This marked the end of the long war. However, on 14th April 1865, after the Confederates surrendered, Abraham Lincoln was shot.

He succumbed to his injuries the next morning. The war had resulted in the deaths of almost 3% of the country’s population. The number of casualties in this war is believed to be the same as the number of deaths in other American wars combined together.

The reconstruction work of the whole of the Union had begun during the war-time and continued until 1877. It was an attempt made to resolve the issues which had arisen as a result of the reunion. The main issue was the legal status of the states which had declared their secession. By the virtue of Emancipation Proclamation, almost all the Confederacy slaves were freed.

The slaves in the Border States and those in the previously occupied Confederate territory were released in 1865 by the Thirteenth Amendment. The reasons for the devastating war remain ambiguous even today. The positive aspect of this war was that slavery was abolished everywhere in America.


American Civil War September 1861

September 1861 saw further political pressure put on General McClellan to attack Confederate forces near to Washington. McClellan presented his plan of attack to Lincoln on September 27th 1861. McClellan contimued to resent the political pressure that was being put on him as he knew that if his plan failed he would be blamed for possibly losing the American Civil War for the North.

September 1 st : Union forces commanded by General Rosecrans tightened their hold on western Virginia.

September 2 nd : President Lincoln voiced his concerns with regards to the declaration of martial law in Missouri. He believed that it would turn away those in the state who were sympathetic to the Union.

September 3 rd : General Polk ordered Confederate troops into Kentucky. When war started, Polk was a bishop in the Episcopal Church but resigned from the Church because of its support of the Union.

September 4 th : Troops commanded by Polk seized Columbus, thus ending Kentucky’s attempt to stay neutral in the war.

September 5 th : Union troops commanded by Ulysses Grant prepared to move into Kentucky in response to the move made by Polk.

September 6 th : Union forces captured Paducah without bloodshed. This town gave the Union a large measure of control over the river systems that were vital to the region.

September 9 th : Lincoln was advised by numerous senior military figures to relieve General Frémont of his command in Missouri. Lincoln did not take this advice but appointed General David Hunter to assist Frémont.

September 10 th : The Confederacy appointed General Albert Sidney Johnston as commander of the Confederate Armies of the West.

September 11 th : Lincoln ordered Frémont to withdraw his order regarding property and slave confiscation in Missouri for anyone who voiced their support for the Confederacy. Lincoln ordered Frémont to come into line with the Confiscation Act passed by Congress. To emphasise his order, Lincoln sent Judge Joseph Holt to St. Louis to push Frémont towards moderating his stance.

September 12 th : Lee, with 30,000 men under his command, expected to fight a force led by the Unionist General Rosecrans at Meadow Bridge, western Virginia. However, at the last moment Rosecans changed his direction of movement and engaged a Confederate force at Cheat Mountain, comprehensively defeating them. Union losses were 9 dead and 12 wounded while the Confederates lost nearly 100 men.

September 14 th : ‘USS Colorado’ sank the ‘Judah’, which was attempting to break the Federal blockade on Southern ports.

September 15 th : Confederate forces continued their efforts to capture Lexington. 3,600 Union defenders faced 18,000 Confederate troops. Colonel Mulligan, the Union commander of Lexington, waited for reinforcements unaware that all his messages to General Frémont were being read by the Confederates.

September 16 th : Union reinforcements sent to Lexington were captured en route by the Confederates who knew their movements beforehand.

September 18 th : Having received supplies, including ammunition, the Confederates launched a major assault on Lexington. The Union defenders were cut off from their fresh water supplies by Confederate snipers.

September 19 th : Confederate forces captured the hills around Lexington thus making the city even more open to artillery attacks. An attempt to get supplies to the Union defenders via the river system failed when the Confederates captured the supply boats along with their supplies.

September 20 th : Lexington finally fell to Confederate forces. Along with 1,600 prisoners, the Confederates also found $1 million – the Union forces payroll. Frémont’s perceived failure to help the Union defenders at Lexington badly counted against him in Washington DC.

September 21 st : All the evidence pointed to the situation in Missouri descending into chaos. Law and order had broken down with murder a common offence, as was the destruction of property.

September 24 th : Frémont shut down a newspaper printed in St Louis that questioned his leadership during the siege of Lexington. The editor of the ‘St. Louis Evening News’ was also arrested.

September 27 th : McClellan responded to the public’s overwhelming desire for him to launch an offensive against Confederate forces near Washington. McClellan discussed his strategy with President Lincoln. McClellan based his future strategy on highly inflated figures regarding the strength of Confederate forces near the capital. He told Lincoln that there were 150,000 Confederate troops near Washington DC. In fact, there were probably no more than 50,000. The president was told that 35,000 men were needed to guard the city with a further 23,000 needed to guard the Potomac River. This left him with about 75,000 men to launch his campaign against Confederate forces. McClellan demanded a force of 150,000 men to give him parity with the perceived strength of the Confederates.

September 30 th : Great public pressure was put on Lincoln to give his backing to an attack on Richmond led by McClellan. The president had to balance public desires with what McClellan had told him about the size of the Confederate force near the capital.


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