Slag van Iwo Jima Map 1: Algehele uitleg

Slag van Iwo Jima Map 1: Algehele uitleg



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Slag van Iwo Jima: Geografiese uitleg

Kaart van die eiland Iwo Jima, met die geografiese uitleg van die eiland net voor die geveg.

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Iwo Jima artikel
Onderwerpindeks van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog


Slag van Iwo Jima

Die Slag van Iwo Jima (19 Februarie- 26 Maart 1945), of Operation Detachment, was 'n groot geveg waarin die Amerikaanse weermag geveg het en die eiland Iwo Jima uit die Japannese Ryk gevang het. Die Amerikaanse inval het ten doel gehad om die hele eiland, insluitend die drie vliegvelde (insluitend South Field en Central Field), te verower om 'n opvanggebied te bied vir aanvalle op die Japannese hoofeilande. Hierdie stryd van vyf weke bestaan ​​uit die felste en bloedigste gevegte van die oorlog in die Stille Oseaan van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

Na die groot verliese in die geveg, het die strategiese waarde van die eiland omstrede geraak. Dit was nutteloos vir die weermag as 'n verhoogde basis en nutteloos vir die vloot as 'n vlootbasis.

Die keiserlike Japanse leërposisies op die eiland was sterk versterk, met 'n digte netwerk van bunkers, versteekte artillerieposisies en 18 km (11 myl) ondergrondse tonnels. Die Amerikaners op die grond is ondersteun deur uitgebreide vlootartillerie en volledige lugoorheersing oor Iwo Jima vanaf die begin van die geveg deur vlieëniers van die Amerikaanse vloot en Marine Corps. Hierdie inval was die eerste Amerikaanse aanval op Japannese tuisgebied, en die Japannese soldate en mariniers verdedig hul posisies hardnekkig sonder om aan oorgawe te dink.

Iwo Jima was die enigste geveg deur die U.S. Marine Corps waarin die totale Amerikaanse ongevalle (dood en gewond) die van die Japannese oorskry het, alhoewel Japannese gevegsterftes drie keer die van die Amerikaners was gedurende die hele geveg. Van die 22 000 Japannese soldate aan die begin van die geveg op Iwo Jima, is slegs 216 gevange geneem, waarvan sommige gevange geneem is omdat hulle bewusteloos of andersins gestremd was. Die meerderheid van die res is in aksie dood, alhoewel daar na raming tot 3000 in die verskillende grotstelsels weerstand gehou het, wat uiteindelik aan hul beserings beswyk het of weke later oorgegee het.

Ten spyte van die bloedige gevegte en ernstige ongevalle aan beide kante, was die Japannese nederlaag van die begin af verseker. Amerikaanse oorweldigende meerderwaardigheid in wapens en getalle sowel as volledige beheer oor lugmag- tesame met die onmoontlikheid van Japannese terugtog of versterking- het geen aanneemlike omstandighede toegelaat waarin die Amerikaners die geveg kon verloor het nie.

Die geveg is verewig deur Joe Rosenthal se foto van die opheffing van die Amerikaanse vlag bo -op die 166 m (Mount Suribachi) deur vyf Amerikaanse mariniers en een Amerikaanse vloot slagveld Hospital Corpsman. Die foto bevat die tweede vlaghysing op die berg, wat albei op die vyfde dag van die 35 dae lange stryd plaasgevind het. Rosenthal se foto het onmiddellik 'n onuitwisbare ikoon geword - van die geveg, van die oorlog in die Stille Oseaan en van die Marine Corps self - en is wyd weergegee.

Na die Amerikaanse verowering van die Marshall -eilande en die verwoestende lugaanvalle op die Japanse vestingeiland Truk Atoll in die Carolines in Januarie 1944, het die Japannese militêre leiers hul situasie herwaardeer. Alle aanduidings dui op 'n Amerikaanse rit na die Mariana -eilande en die Carolines. Om so 'n offensief teë te werk, het die Imperial Japanese Army en die Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) 'n binneste lyn van verdediging gevestig wat oor die algemeen noordwaarts strek van die Carolines tot by die Marianas, en vandaar na Japan via die vulkaaneilande, en weswaarts vanaf die Marianas via die Carolines en die Palau -eilande na die Filippyne.

In Maart 1944 is die Japannese 31ste leër, onder bevel van generaal Hideyoshi Obata, geaktiveer om hierdie binneste lyn te bewaak. (Let daarop dat 'n Japannese "weermag" ongeveer so groot was as 'n Amerikaanse, Britse leër of Kanadese weermagkorps. die 6de weermag, die 8ste weermag en die 10de weermag in die Stille Oseaan -teater. Ook het die 10de weermag slegs in die lente van 1945 op Okinawa geveg.)

Die bevelvoerder van die Japannese garnisoen op Chichi Jima is nominaal onder bevel van die leër- en vloot -eenhede op die vulkaaneilande. Na die Amerikaanse verowering van die Marianas, het daaglikse bomaanvalle van die Marianas die vasteland getref as deel van Operation Scavenger. Iwo Jima was 'n vroeë waarskuwingstasie wat berigte oor inkomende bomwerpers na die vasteland van Japan gestuur het. Dit het die Japannese lugverdediging toegelaat om voor te berei op die aankoms van Amerikaanse bomwerpers.

Nadat die VSA in Februarie 1944 basisse in die Marshalls in die gevegte van Kwajalein en Eniwetok in beslag geneem het, is die versterkings van die Japannese weermag en vloot na Iwo Jima gestuur: 500 man van die vlootbasis by Yokosuka en 500 van Chichi Jima het Iwo Jima gedurende Maart en April bereik 1944. Terselfdertyd, met versterkings vanaf Chichi Jima en die tuiseilande, bereik die garnisoen van die weermag op Iwo Jima 'n sterkte van meer as 5000 man. Die verlies van die Marianas gedurende die somer van 1944 het die belangrikheid van die Vulkaaneilande vir die Japannese aansienlik verhoog, wat bewus was dat die verlies van hierdie eilande Amerikaanse lugaanvalle op die Tuis -eilande sou vergemaklik, die oorlogsvervaardiging sou onderbreek en die burgerlike moraal ernstig sou benadeel. Finale Japannese planne vir die verdediging van die vulkaaneilande is oorskadu deur die feit dat die keiserlike Japanse vloot reeds byna al sy mag verloor het, en dit kon nie Amerikaanse aanlandings voorkom nie. Boonop was die vliegtuigverliese gedurende 1944 so groot dat selfs al sou oorlogsproduksie nie deur Amerikaanse lugaanvalle beïnvloed word nie, die gekombineerde Japannese lugsterkte tot Maart of April 1945 nie na 3000 oorlogsvliegtuie sou toeneem nie. Selfs dan kon hierdie vliegtuie nie gebruik vanaf basisse in die Tuis -eilande teen Iwo Jima omdat hul reikafstand nie meer as 900 km was nie. Daarbenewens moes alle beskikbare oorlogsvliegtuie bymekaargemaak word om Taiwan en die Japannese Eilande teen enige aanval te verdedig. Verder was daar 'n ernstige tekort aan behoorlik opgeleide en ervare vlieëniers en ander vliegtuigbemanning om die oorlogsvliegtuie wat Japan gehad het, te beman - omdat so 'n groot aantal vlieëniers en bemanningslede om die geveg oor die Salomo -eilande en tydens die Slag van die Filippynse See omgekom het. middel 1944.

Aan die einde van die Slag van Leyte in die Filippyne het die Geallieerdes 'n stilte van twee maande in hul offensiewe operasies gelaat voor die beplande inval in Okinawa. Iwo Jima was strategies belangrik: dit het 'n lugbasis vir Japannese vegvliegtuie gebied om B-29 Superfortress-bomwerpers met 'n lang afstand te onderskep, en dit was 'n toevlugsoord vir Japannese vlooteenhede wat dringend hulp nodig het. Daarbenewens is dit deur die Japannese gebruik om lugaanvalle op die Mariana -eilande van November 1944 tot Januarie 1945 uit te voer. Die gevangname van Iwo Jima sou hierdie probleme uitskakel en 'n opvanggebied bied vir Operation Downfall - die uiteindelike inval van die Japanese Home Islands . Die afstand van B-29-aanvalle kan (hipoteties) in twee gesny word, en 'n basis sou beskikbaar wees vir P-51 Mustang-vegters om die bomwerpers te begelei en te beskerm.

Inligtingsbronne was vol vertroue dat Iwo Jima binne een week sou val. In die lig van die optimistiese intelligensieverslae is die besluit geneem om Iwo Jima binne te val: hierdie amfibiese landing kry die kodenaam Operation Detachment. Hulle was nie bewus daarvan dat die Japannese 'n komplekse en diep verdediging voorberei nie, wat radikaal van hul gewone strategie afwyk. So suksesvol was die Japannese voorbereiding dat dit na die geveg ontdek is dat die honderde tonne geallieerde bomme en duisende rondes swaar skietgeweer die Japannese verdedigers tot dusver byna ongedeerd en gereed gemaak het om verliese aan die Amerikaanse mariniers te berokken. die Stille Oseaanoorlog.

Verenigde State se Marine Corps (USMC)

Keiserlike Japanse leër


Inhoud

Na die Amerikaanse verowering van die Marshall -eilande en die verwoestende lugaanvalle op die Japanse vestingeiland Truk Atoll in die Carolines in Januarie 1944, het die Japannese militêre leiers hul situasie herwaardeer. Alle aanduidings dui op 'n Amerikaanse rit na die Mariana -eilande en die Carolines. Om so 'n offensief teë te werk, het die Imperial Japanese Army en die Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) 'n binneste lyn van verdediging gevestig wat oor die algemeen noordwaarts strek van die Carolines tot by die Marianas, en vandaar na Japan via die vulkaaneilande, en weswaarts vanaf die Marianas via die Carolines en die Palau -eilande na die Filippyne.

In Maart 1944 is die Japannese 31ste weermag, onder bevel van generaal Hideyoshi Obata, geaktiveer om hierdie binneste lyn te bewaak. (Let daarop dat 'n Japannese weermag ongeveer so groot was as 'n Amerikaanse, Britse leër of Kanadese leërkorps. Die Japannese leër het baie leërs gehad, maar die Amerikaanse weermag het slegs tien op sy hoogtepunt gehad, met die 4de leër, die 6de leër, die 8ste weermag, en die 10de weermag in die Stille Oseaan -teater. Ook het die 10de leër slegs in die lente van 1945 op Okinawa geveg.)

Die bevelvoerder van die Japannese garnisoen op Chichi Jima is nominaal onder bevel van die leër- en vloot -eenhede op die vulkaaneilande. Β ] Na die Amerikaanse verowering van die Marianas het daaglikse bomaanvalle van die Marianas die vasteland getref as deel van Operasie Aasvanger. Iwo Jima was 'n vroeë waarskuwingstasie wat berigte oor inkomende bomwerpers na die vasteland van Japan gestuur het. Dit het die Japannese lugverdediging toegelaat om voor te berei op die aankoms van Amerikaanse bomwerpers. Β ]

Nadat die VSA in Februarie 1944 basisse op die Marshall -eilande in beslag geneem het by die gevegte Kwajalein en Eniwetok, is versterkings van die Japannese weermag en vloot na Iwo Jima gestuur: 500 man van die vlootbasis by Yokosuka en 500 van Chichi Jima het Iwo Jima gedurende Maart bereik en April 1944. Terselfdertyd, met versterkings vanaf Chichi Jima en die tuiseilande, bereik die garnisoen van die weermag op Iwo Jima 'n sterkte van meer as 5000 man. Β ] Die verlies van die Marianas gedurende die somer van 1944 het die belangrikheid van die Vulkaaneilande vir die Japannese aansienlik verhoog, wat daarvan bewus was dat die verlies van hierdie eilande Amerikaanse lugaanvalle op die Tuis -eilande sou vergemaklik, wat oorlogsvervaardiging en die burgerlike moraal ernstig benadeel. Β ] Finale Japannese planne vir die verdediging van die vulkaaneilande is oorskadu deur die feit dat die keiserlike Japanse vloot reeds bykans al sy mag verloor het, en dit kon nie Amerikaanse aanlandings voorkom nie. Boonop was die vliegtuigverliese gedurende 1944 so groot dat selfs al sou oorlogsproduksie nie deur Amerikaanse lugaanvalle beïnvloed word nie, die gekombineerde Japannese lugsterkte tot Maart of April 1945 nie na 3000 oorlogsvliegtuie sou toeneem nie. Selfs dan kon hierdie vliegtuie nie gebruik vanaf basisse in die Tuis -eilande teen Iwo Jima, omdat hul reikafstand nie meer as 900 km was nie. Daarbenewens moes alle beskikbare oorlogsvliegtuie bymekaargemaak word om Taiwan en die Japannese Eilande teen enige aanval te verdedig. Β ] Verder was daar 'n ernstige tekort aan behoorlik opgeleide en ervare vlieëniers en ander vliegtuigbemanning om die oorlogsvliegtuie wat Japan het te beman - omdat so 'n groot aantal vlieëniers en bemanningslede om die geveg oor die Salomonseilande en tydens die Slag omgekom het. van die Filippynse See middel 1944.

In 'n naoorlogse studie beskryf die Japannese stafoffisiere die strategie wat in die verdediging van Iwo Jima gebruik is, in die volgende terme:

In die lig van bogenoemde situasie, aangesien dit onmoontlik was om ons lug, see en grond/ operasies op Iwo Island [Jima] uit te voer na die uiteindelike oorwinning, is daar besluit om tyd te kry wat nodig is vir die voorbereiding van die tuislandverdediging, ons magte moet slegs staatmaak op die gevestigde verdedigingstoerusting in daardie gebied en die vyand kontroleer deur taktiek te vertraag. Selfs die selfmoordaanvalle deur klein groepies van ons weermag- en vlootvliegtuie, die verrassingsaanvalle deur ons duikbote en die optrede van valskermeenhede, hoewel effektief, kan slegs as 'n strategiese oplossing vir ons beskou word. Dit was 'n baie neerdrukkende gedagte dat ons geen beskikbare middele oorgehad het om die strategiese geleenthede wat van tyd tot tyd in die loop van hierdie operasies kan ontstaan, te benut nie. ⎛ ]

Aan die einde van die Slag van Leyte in die Filippyne het die Geallieerdes 'n stilte van twee maande in hul offensiewe operasies gelaat voor die beplande inval in Okinawa. Iwo Jima was strategies belangrik: dit was 'n lugbasis vir Japannese vegvliegtuie om B-29 Superfortress-bomwerpers met 'n lang afstand te onderskep, en dit was 'n toevlugsoord vir Japannese vlooteenhede wat dringend hulp nodig het. Daarbenewens is dit deur die Japannese gebruik om lugaanvalle op die Mariana -eilande van November 1944 tot Januarie 1945 op te voer. Die gevangname van Iwo Jima sou hierdie probleme uitskakel en 'n opvanggebied bied vir Operation Downfall - die uiteindelike inval van die Japanese Home Islands . Die afstand van B-29-aanvalle kan (hipoteties) in twee gesny word, en 'n basis sou beskikbaar wees vir P-51 Mustang-vegters om die bomwerpers te begelei en te beskerm. Β ]

Amerikaanse bronne van intelligensie was vol vertroue dat Iwo Jima binne een week sou val. In die lig van die optimistiese intelligensieverslae, is besluit om Iwo Jima binne te val en die operasie kry die kodenaam Operation Afsondering. Β ] Amerikaanse troepe was nie bewus daarvan dat die Japannese 'n komplekse en diep verdediging voorberei nie, wat radikaal afwyk van hul gewone strategie van 'n strandverdediging. So suksesvol was die Japannese voorbereiding dat dit na die geveg ontdek is dat die honderde ton geallieerde bomme en duisende rondes swaar skietgeweer die Japannese verdedigers byna onbeskadig gelaat het en gereed was om die Amerikaanse mariniers verliese te berokken.


Iwo Jima tesis

& quot Onder die Amerikaners wat op Iwo Island gedien het, was ongewone dapperheid 'n algemene deug. & quot; Dit was die woorde van admiraal Chester W. Nimitz, wat as admiraal op die eiland Iwo Jima gedien het. Hy was 'n man wat baie soldate geken het as sy vriende op die eiland. Admiraal Nimitz, wat hy in een van die bloedigste veldslae van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog sien veg en sterf het, was 'n eerbewoner en het altyd probeer om sy manne in die beste posisie te plaas. Hierdie stryd is die moeite werd om van te weet. Veral omdat as


Tweede Wêreldoorlog databasis


ww2dbase Iwo Jima is 'n klein stukkie in die Stille Oseaan, dit is 4,5 myl lank en op sy breedste punt 2,5 myl breed. Iwo is die Japannese woord vir swael, en die eiland is inderdaad vol swael. Geel swawelmis styg gereeld uit die krake van die aarde, en die eiland ruik duidelik na vrot eiers.

ww2dbase Sedert hy Saipan in die vorige jaar gewen het, het die Amerikaanse bombardebevelvoerder, Curtis LeMay, van daar af aanvalle op die Japanse tuiseilande beplan, en die eerste van sulke bombardemente het in November 1944 plaasgevind. Die bomwerpers is egter in twee gedreig deur Iwo Jima maniere. Eerstens het die Zero -vegters gebaseer op Iwo Jima die bomwerpers fisies bedreig, tweedens het Iwo Jima ook as 'n vroeë waarskuwingstasie vir Japan gedien, wat Tokio twee uur gewaarsku het voordat die Amerikaanse bomwerpers hul doelwitte bereik het. Boonop kon (en het) die Japannese lugoperasies teen Saipan vanaf Iwo Jima begin. Uiteindelik kan die Verenigde State 'n ekstra vliegveld kry vir toekomstige operasies teen Japan as Iwo Jima gevange geneem kan word. In die Filippyne is die operasie op die eiland Leyte met agt weke gestoot weens 'n gebrek aan beduidende weerstand, wat 'n venster oopgemaak het vir 'n ekstra operasie. Dus is Operation Detachment against Iwo Jima beslis.

ww2dbase Die verdedigers onder bevel van Tadamichi Kuribayashi was gereed. Die doel van die verdediging van Iwo Jima was om die geallieerde magte ernstige ongevalle te berokken en die inval van die vasteland te ontmoedig. Elke verdediger sou sterf ter verdediging van die vaderland en neem 10 vyandelike soldate in die proses. Binne Mount Suribachi en onder die rotse is 750 groot verdedigingsinstallasies gebou om gewere, blokhuise en hospitale te beskerm. Sommige van hulle het staaldeure om die artilleriestukke binne te beskerm, en byna almal is verbind met 'n totaal van 13 000 meter tonnels. Op die berg Suribachi alleen was daar 1 000 grotingange en pilkaste. Binne hulle het 21 000 mans gewag. Admiraal Toshinosuke Ichimaru, bevelvoerder van die Special Naval Landing Forces op Iwo Jima het die volgende gedig geskryf toe hy by sy ondergrondse bunker kom:

Laat my val soos 'n blomblaar
Mag vyandelike bomme op my gerig word, en vyandelike skulpe
Merk my hul teiken.

ww2dbase Baie jare later het skrywer James Bradley, seun van een van die beroemde vlaghysers (meer oor die vlaghysing later), die eiland besoek. Hy het opgemerk dat die tonnels uiters gesofistikeerd is. Sommige van die mure is gepleister, baie van die kamers is goed geventileer en beddens in die hospitaal is noukeurig uit die rotswande gekerf om die ruimte doeltreffend te benut.

ww2dbase Die Amerikaners het geweet dat die Japannese hulle verwag, maar toe die veldoffisiere die inligtingsverslae sien, was hulle verstom oor hoeveel gewere op die eiland teenwoordig was. Swart kolletjies wat kusverdedigingsgewere, jakkalsgate, artillerieplase, vuurwapengeweer, blokhuise, pilskaste en allerhande verdediging voorstel, het die hele eiland bedek. Die Amerikaanse intelligensie het slegs die teenwoordigheid van 12 000 Japannese opgespoor, en selfs teen die sterk onderskatte hoeveelheid sou dit reeds 'n moeilikste landing wees. Kaptein Dave Severance van die United States Marine Corps het opgemerk dat die kyk na die inligtingskaart die angs [hom] bang gemaak het. " Om die verdediging te versag, begin op 8 Desember 1944, B-29 Superfortress en B-24 Bevryers -bomwerpers het die eiland begin stamp. Die Amerikaanse sewende lugmag het 70 dae lank in 80000 bomme op die eilandjie afgegooi. Holland Smith, die mariniers -generaal in beheer van die landingsoperasie, het geweet dat selfs die indrukwekkendste lugaanvalle nie genoeg sou wees nie, en het 10 dae se vlootbomaanval versoek voordat sy mariniers die strande sou tref. Tot sy verbasing en woede het die vloot die versoek van die hand gewys. Die beperking op die beskikbaarheid van skepe, probleme met die vervanging van ammunisie en die verlies aan verrassing, het die vloot gesê, het 'n langdurige bombardement onmoontlik gemaak. In plaas daarvan sou die vloot slegs 'n driedaagse bombardement verskaf. Toe die bombardement op 16 Februarie begin, het Smith besef dat dit nie eers 'n volledige bombardement van drie dae was nie. Sigbaarheidsbeperkings as gevolg van die weer het slegs op die eerste en derde dae tot 'n halfdag-bombardement gelei. Viseadmiraal Raymond Spruance het aan Smith gesê dat hy spyt is oor die onvermoë van die vloot om ten volle by die mariniers aan te pas, maar die mariniers behoort daarmee te kan wegkom.

ww2dbase Omstreeks 0200, die oggend van 19 Februarie, dui die geveg van die slagskip aan op die begin van D-Day, gevolg deur 'n bombardering van 100 bomwerpers, gevolg deur nog 'n vlug van die vlootgewere. Marine -privaat Jim Buchanan van Portland, Oregon, leun teen die reling van sy skip toe hy die indrukwekkende ontploffings sien. Dink jy dat daar nog 'n Japannese vir ons sal oorbly? " vra hy sy maat langs hom. Min het hy geweet, terwyl die 70 dae van lugbombardeer, 3 dae seevloerbombardeering en die ure van voorafbom-bombardement elke duim vuil op hierdie klein eiland omgekeer het, was die verdedigers nie op hierdie eiland nie. Hulle was daarin. Die massiewe vertoning van vuurwerke het net 'n klein duik in die verdedigers se getalle gemaak.

ww2dbase Die vlootbombardement stop om 0857, en by 0902 vertrek die eerste van 'n uiteindelike 30 000 mariniers van die 3de, 4de en 5de mariene afdeling, onder V Amphibious Corps, met hul landingsvaartuie. Hulle kom 3 minute later by die strand aan. Dit was sonder probleme. Hulle was seker dat optimiste soos Jim Buchanan reg moes wees; daar was geen Japannese meer om die stryd te beveg nie, maar verdrinkings veroorsaak deur 'n kragtige onderneming. Nog 'n paar golwe landingsvaartuie het die strand getref en hul manne, tenks en voorrade in die volgende uur deurlopend afgelaai, en dit was toe dat die donder van die Japannese gewere getref het. Onder die spesifieke instruksies van Kuribayashi, het hulle 'n uur gewag totdat die strand saamdrom voordat die gewere klink, sodat elke skoot die Amerikaners maksimum skade kan berokken. " Rook en geluid van die ore het skielik die heelal gevul, en die mariniers het nêrens weggekruip nie, aangesien die vulkaniese sand te sag was om 'n behoorlike jakkalsgat te grawe. Al wat hulle kon doen, is om vorentoe te beweeg; sommige van diegene wat nie vorentoe kon beweeg nie, is verpletter deur tenks wat soos die manne van die strand wou afklim. Marinekorpsman Roy Steinfort onthou dat hy met die aankoms op die strand aanvanklik bly was om te sien dat talle mariniers geneig was om die strandkop te verdedig. Dit het nie lank geneem om te besef dat die mans nie geneig was nie, hulle was almal dood. Verwoestende radiooproepe het teruggekeer na die operasies se hoofkwartier: "Alle eenhede vasgemaak deur artillerie en mortiere ", " gevalle swaar ", " neem swaar vuur en voorwaartse beweging gestop ", en " artillerievuur die swaarste ooit gesien ". Teen sononder het die Amerikaners reeds 2,420 sterftes opgedoen.

ww2dbase Die eerste aand was die weer net so 'n harde vyand as die Japannese. Golwe van vier voet het op die strand gestamp terwyl die Amerikaanse mariniers die voortgesette Japannese artillerie-beskutting weerstaan ​​het.

ww2dbase Die 30 000 wat die aanvanklike landing oorleef het, staar 'n hewige vuur van die berg Suribachi aan die suidpunt van die eiland in die gesig en veg oor onherbergsame terrein terwyl hulle die ruwe vulkaniese as vorentoe beweeg, wat nie veilige voet of grawe van 'n jakkalsgat moontlik maak nie. Die mariniers vorder op 'n slag, en veg die gewelddadigste gevegte wat hulle nog beleef het. Dit lyk asof daar geen skoon wonde was nie, net fragmente van lyke, het William Manchester gesê. Die enigste manier om tussen 'n Amerikaanse en Japannese liggaam te onderskei, was om na die bene te kyk: die Japannese leggings was van kakie en die Amerikaanse doek. Werf by jaart het die Amerikaanse mariniers gevorder na die basis van die berg Suribachi. Die skietery was ondoeltreffend teen die Japannese wat goed ingegrawe was, maar vlamgooiers en granate het die bunkers skoongemaak. Sommige van die Amerikaners het te vinnig aangekla sonder dat hulle dit geweet het. Omdat hulle gedink het dat die vyand se sterkpunte ingehaal is, het hulle vorentoe gegaan, net om te sien dat die Japannese dieselfde bokse en masjiengeweerneste van ondergrondse uitgange sou terugneem en van agter af skiet. Verslaggewer Robert Sherrod het opgemerk dat die opmars niks minder as 'n nagmerrie in die hel was nie. [The Marines] is dood met die grootste moontlike geweld. Nêrens in die Stille Oseaan het ek sulke erg verminkte lyke gesien nie. Baie is vierkantig in twee gesny. Bene en arms lê vyftig voet van enige liggaam af. "

ww2dbase Kapelaan Gage Hotaling, aangekla van begrafnisse, onthou dat hy vyftig tegelyk begrawe is in erwe wat begrawe is. Ons het nie geweet of hulle Joods, Katoliek of wat ook al is nie, en daarom het ons 'n algemene verbintenis gesê: "Ons verbind u in die aarde en aan die genade van die Almagtige God." Ek het agtienhonderd seuns begrawe.

ww2dbase Te midde van die geveg het aptekersgenoot John Bradley, James ' pa, 'n vlootkorpsman wat aan die mariniers verbonde was, heen en weer gehardloop om te doen wat hy kon om die gewondes te red. Op die tweede dag van die geveg hardloop hy oor 'n veld met masjiengeweer en artillerievuur na 'n mariene wat bloed verloor in 'n gevaarlike tempo. Bradley het homself tussen die Marine en die Japannese geplaas en het eerstehulp toegedien, en daarna het die Marine self teruggetrek na veiligheid. Hiervoor is hy later bekroon met 'n vlootkruis, maar hy het sy familie nooit van die eer vertel nie. Die dood wat hy gesien het, was te veel vir hom om te verduur.

ww2dbase Vir die Marines se verligting het tenks uiteindelik op die tweede dag van die inval aangekom. Beskerm deur die dik pantser, kon die Amerikaanse troepe uiteindelik onder die dekmantel vorder terwyl hulle na die voet van die berg beweeg.

ww2dbase Dag drie van die inval was net so moeilik by Mount Suribachi as die vorige dag, maar vir sommige van die Marines het die dag erger begin as wat hulle kon dink. Aanvalsvliegtuie gebaseer op vloot is gelanseer om op Japannese posisies te slaan, maar die bomme het naby Amerikaanse posisies geval. Kaptein Severance het probeer om 'n frekwensie wat vir die topkoper gereserveer is, te gebruik om die vloot van die vriendelike vuur te waarsku, en tot sy verbasing is hy aangesê om van die frekwensie af te kom. Gelukkig het 'n veldkolonel die noodoproep gehoor en beveel dat die bombardement moet ophou voordat enige Amerikaners deur hul eie bomme beseer word.

ww2dbase Uiteindelik, op 23 Februarie, was die beraad binne bereik, maar die Amerikaners het dit nog nie geweet nie. 'N Patrollie van 41 mans is gestuur, kolonel Chandler Johnson het die luitenant wat die patrollie gelei het, 'n vlag gegee. "As jy bo kom, " het hy gesê, " sit dit op. " "As " die woord was wat hy gebruik het. Stap vir stap klim die patrollie stadig en versigtig op die berg, elkeen onthou later dat hulle oortuig was dat dit hul laaste sou wees, maar hulle het dit reggekry. Min weet hulle, hulle word deur elke paar oë op die suidelike helfte van die eiland dopgehou, en ook 'n paar van die skepe. Toe hulle die top bereik, het luitenant Schrier, peloton -sersant Ernest Thomas, sersant Hansen, korporaal Lindberg en Louis Charlo die vlag gehys. Tot hul verrassings, brul die eiland in gejuig. Sekretaris van die vloot James Forrestal, waarnemend vanuit 'n vlootvaartuig, het opgewonde beweer dat die opheffing van die vlag op Suribachi 'n mariene korps vir die volgende vyfhonderd jaar beteken. " Ewe ekstaties was generaal Holland Smith dit met Forrestal eens dat die vlag sou die vloot se sekretaris se aandenking wees. Kolonel Chandler Johnson kon nie die onredelike eis van Forrestal glo van die strydlustige mariniers wat die vlag tereg verdien het nie, en besluit het om die vlag so vinnig as moontlik te beveilig. Hy het 'n ander patrollie beveel om na die berg te gaan om die vlag te gaan haal voordat Forrestal dit in die hande kon kry. "En maak dit 'n groter een," het Johnson gesê.

ww2dbase En so styg die tweede vlag, en soos dit blyk, is die vlag van 'n sinkende skip by Pearl Harbor teruggevind. Die manne wat die taak gehad het om die vlag na die top van Suribachi te bring, het nie veel van die missie gedink nie, dit was immers net 'n vervangende vlag. Maar hulle het nie geweet dat die fotograaf Joe Rosenthal 'n entjie agter hulle was wat op die regte tyd op die plek was om die beroemde "Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima " foto te neem. Die foto was 'n ruk later die dryfveer vir 'n rekordbreuk in die Verenigde State, en dit sou Rosenthal ook 'n Pulitzer-prys in die sak bring.

ww2dbase Eerste luitenant Barber Conable van die Marines van die Verenigde State, wat later die president van die Wêreldbank sou word, het wakker geword toe hy die tweede vlag bokant Mount Suribachi sien wapper. Hy onthou:

Dit was my eerste keer in die geveg en ons was almal doodbang. Iemand spring in my jakkalsgat en sweer: 't was nie so op Bougainville nie. ' Die offisier wat ek die meeste bewonder, die man in die volgende jakkalsgat, 'n sersant wat ek geken het - hulle is almal vermoor. My gehoor is tot vandag toe verswak. 'N Majoor kom op soek na 'n plek vir 'n begraafplaas en word deur 'n skerpskutter geskiet. Ek was gelukkig. Toe sy hoor (die vlaghysing), sê Tokyo Rose dat die vlag op die berg in die see sou gooi. Ek het meer as sestig uur lank nie geslaap nie, en ek het nie gesien hoe hulle dit oplig nie, en dit was wonderlik om wakker te word. Ek moet sê ek het 'n bietjie gehuil toe ek dit sien. "

ww2dbase Met die landingsgebied veilig, kom meer mariniers en swaar toerusting aan wal en die inval gaan noordwaarts om die vliegvelde en die res van die eiland te vang. Met hul gebruiklike dapperheid het die meeste Japannese soldate tot die dood toe geveg. Van die 21 000 verdedigers is slegs 1 000 gevange geneem.

ww2dbase Die Geallieerde magte het 25 000 slagoffers gely, met byna 7 000 dood. Meer as 1/4 van die eremedaljes wat in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog aan mariniers toegeken is, is gegee vir optrede tydens die inval in Iwo Jima.

ww2dbase Die eiland Iwo Jima is op 14 Maart 1945 deur Chester Nimitz as verower verklaar, en het opgemerk dat alle regeringsbevoegdhede van die Japannese Ryk op hierdie eilande hiermee opgeskort is. gevegte het geensins opgehou op die eiland nie. Wie dink die admiraal dat hy 'n grap maak? " skree Marine Private Bob Campbell. Op 16 Maart het generaal Schmidt verklaar dat die veilige gevegte teen daardie tyd nog nie geëindig het nie, maar Kuribayashi het geweet dat dit die einde nader. Op dieselfde dag as die Schmidt -verklaring, stuur Kuribayashi Tokio uit dat die stryd sy einde nader. Sedert die vyand aangekom het, sou selfs die gode huil oor die dapperheid van die offisiere en voortekens onder my bevel. " Op 21 Maart het Kuribayashi berig dat ons vyf dae lank nie geëet of gedrink het nie, maar ons veggees bly hoog. " 'n Dag later, toe sy laaste soldate om hom val, het hy uitgesaai wat sy laaste woorde op amptelike rekord sou word: "Die krag onder my bevel is nou ongeveer vierhonderd. Tanks val ons aan. Die vyand het voorgestel dat ons oorgee deur 'n luidspreker, maar ons offisiere en mans het net gelag en geen aandag gegee nie. " Kuribayashi sal waarskynlik op dieselfde dag vermoor word, maar sy lyk is nooit gevind nie. Die Verenigde State verklaar die eiland amptelik op 26 Maart, twaalf dae na Nimitz se aanvanklike verklaring.

ww2dbase Dan van der Vat het oor die operasie kommentaar gelewer:

As die vang van Iwo Jima nodig was, moes sommige Amerikaners sekerlik ly en sterf. Maar die slagoffers hoef nie 30 persent onder die landingsmagte te bedra het nie, nie minder nie as 75 persent in die infanterie -eenhede van die vierde en vyfde mariene divisie, 4 900 gedood op die eiland en 1 900 vermiste of later oorlede aan wonde, en 19 200 gewonde Amerikaanse oorlewendes. "

ww2dbase In totaal het Iwo Jima die enigste groot geveg in die hele Stille Oseaan -veldtog gesien waar Amerikaanse ongevalle die Japannese dooies oortref het. Al die lewens, aan beide kante van die geveg, vir tien vierkante myl om hierdie rede, is admiraal Richmond Turner deur die Amerikaanse pers gekritiseer omdat hy die lewens van sy mans vermors het. Teen die einde van die oorlog blyk dit egter ook dat Iwo Jima baie Amerikaners gered het. 2 400 B-29-landings het by Iwo Jima plaasgevind, baie was onder noodtoestande wat andersins 'n ongeluk op see kon beteken.

ww2dbase Die Marine Corps War Memorial in Arlington, Virginia, onmiddellik buite Washington en aangrensend aan die Arlington National Cemetery, herdenk alle Amerikaanse mariniers met 'n standbeeld van die beroemde prentjie.

ww2dbase Bronne: Vlae van ons vaders, totsiens duisternis, die Stille Oseaan -veldtog.

Laaste groot opdatering: September 2006

Slag van Iwo Jima interaktiewe kaart

Slag van Iwo Jima tydlyn

14 Julie 1944 Iwo Jima, Chichi Jima, and Haha Jima were the targets of land-based aircraft for the first time as US Navy Bombing Squadron 109 PB4Y Liberator bombers based at Isley Field, Saipan, Mariana Islands dropped bombed on their airfields. In the United States, USAAF chief General Hap Arnold warned the Joint Planning Staff about the new Japanese Ki-84 fighters. As a precaution, he recommended seizing Iwo Jima to provide emergency airfields for bombers that might be damaged by new Japanese fighters such as the Ki-84.
1 Januarie 1945 19 American B-24 bombers based in Saipan, Mariana Islands struck Japanese positions at Iwo Jima.
5 Januarie 1945 American cruisers, destroyers, and carrier aircraft attacked the Bonin Islands. At Iwo Jima, a Japanese landing ship was sunk by destroyer fire. At Chichi Jima, destroyer USS Fanning sank a Japanese freighter by gunfire and a torpedo, while destroyer USS David W. Taylor was damaged by a mine.
29 Januarie 1945 19 American B-24 bombers based in Guam, Mariana Islands attacked Iwo Jima, Japan.
16 Februarie 1945 USS Yorktown (Essex-class) and TF58 strike the Tokyo area of Honshu, Japan in the first carrier-borne air strikes against the Japanese home islands since the Doolittle Raid on 18 Apr 1942.
16 Februarie 1945 USS Anzio, USS Tabberer, and the rest of their task group arrived southwest of Iwo Jima where the carriers launched pre-invasion strikes against the island.
17 Feb 1945 USS Yorktown (Essex-class) and TF58 strike the Tokyo area of Honshu, Japan before heading toward the Bonin Islands.
18 Feb 1945 USS Yorktown (Essex-class) bombed and strafed installations on Chichi Jima, Bonin Islands
19 Februarie 1945 At 0905 hours, the first of 30,000 US Marines landed on Iwo Jima, Japan after heavy naval bombardment.
20 Feb 1945 USS Yorktown (Essex-class) launched 3 days of support missions over Iwo Jima, Bonin Islands.
21 Feb 1945 Air Group 80 from USS Hancock flew one strike in support of operations on Iwo Jima 1 aircraft was lost.
21 Feb 1945 The Japanese Army and Navy launched a combined tokko attack, dispatching 4 and 21 suicide aircraft, respectively. The fleet carrier USS Saratoga and escort carrier USS Lunga Point were hit and damaged, while escort carrier USS Bismarck Sea was sunk.
23 Februarie 1945 US Marines and a Navy corpsman raised an American flag atop Mount Suribachi at Iwo Jima, Japan.
25 Februarie 1945 USS Yorktown (Essex-class) launched raids to bomb and strafe airfields in the vicinity of Tokyo, Japan.
6 Mar 1945 28 American P-51 Mustang and 12 P-61 Black Widow aircraft landed on Iwo Jima, Japan.
11 Maart 1945 American fighters began flying escort operations from Iwo Jima, Japan.
14 Maart 1945 The island of Iwo Jima was declared conquered by Chester Nimitz, noting that "all powers of government of the Japanese Empire in these islands are hereby suspended", but fighting would continue.
16 Maart 1945 Americans declared Iwo Jima, Japan secure, but fighting continued.
18 Mar 1945 USS Yorktown (Essex-class) arrived in the operating area off Japan and began launching strikes on airfields on Kyushu, Honshu, and Shikoku. The task group came under air attack almost as soon as operations began. Yorktown was struck by a single bomb that killed 5 but otherwise caused minimal damage.
19 Maart 1945 USS Yorktown (Essex-class) continued air operations against the three southernmost islands of Japan.
25 Mar 1945 Tadamichi Kuribayashi passed away on Iwo Jima, Japan. He reportedly committed ritual suicide, but his body was never found.
26 Mar 1945 The Japanese mounted the final suicide charge with 200-300 men at Iwo Jima, Japan.
29 Mar 1945 USS Yorktown (Essex-class) launched two raids and one photographic reconnaissance mission over Kyushu, Japan. A single Yokosuka D4Y ?Judy? dive bomber made a diving attack on Yorktown but missed the carrier by about 60 feet.
5 Apr 1945 Americans established an advanced air base on Iwo Jima, Japan.

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Iwo Jima was the scene of one of the most fiercely fought battles in human history, the battle of Iwo Jima, which pitted the forces of the United States, led by people such as marine general Holland M. Smith against Imperial Japanese forces under overall command of Tadamichi Kuribayashi who was to become famous for his defensive tactics during the battle for the volcanic island.

The map is very small at slightly bigger than 9600x9600, and the biggest size you should set a battle to is aforementioned number.

The map is well-suited for close combat, with a few good overlook spots. I have compromised slightly with the historical terrain to create more cover, and infantry should have no difficulty finding cover everywhere, from rough terrain to dispersed trees, and I have had to add dirt roads on Mt. Suribachi to make it accessible. Obviously, no undeground tunnel network could be added due to engine limitations.

I have strived to recreate Iwo Jima (1945) to the best of my ability using free internet sources. Some things need a bit more tweaking, and more locations could be added, e.g. the airfield terrain is not straightened out yet.

I would like to make an accompanying database, including marines, army and IJA/IJN forces, although it will take quite some time should I really dedicate to this.


Battle Of Iwo Jima Map

The battle of iwo jima was fought from february 19 to march 26 1945 during world war ii 1939 1945. What is this map.

Japan Changes Iwo Jima S Name Wikinews The Free News Source

And did it play a role in the battle of iwo jima.

Battle of iwo jima map. Battle of iwo jima map. The battle of iwo jima 19 february 26 march 1945 was a major battle in which the united states marine corps and navy landed on and eventually captured the island of iwo jima from the imperial japanese army ija during world war iithe american invasion designated operation detachment had the goal of capturing the entire island including the three japanese controlled airfields. The us military occupied iwo jima until 1968 when.

The battle of iwo jima was fought between the united states and japan between february 19 th and march 26 th 1945. Marine corps in 1954. The island became globally recognized when joe rosenthal who worked for the associated press at the time published his photograph raising the flag on iwo jima which was photographed on mount suribachi.

The island was the location of the battle of iwo jima between february 1945march 1945. History detectives attends the 65th anniversary battle of iwo jima reunion and talks to the very men who fought in the battle. The battle of iwo jima the island of iwo jima is located 750 miles south of the main island of japan along a line of islands known as the bonin islands.

Battle of iwo jima. Battle of iwo jima significant events. The battle took place in the pacific campaign of world war 2 and finished with the us.

The american invasion of iwo jima came after allied forces had island hopped across the pacific and had conducted successful campaigns in the solomon gilbert marshall and mariana islands. Batalha de iwo jima le pacifique military photos military history history online world history world war ii battle of iwo jima mount suribachi this is a nice reproduction of an original wwii photograph showing bombs from a usaaf b 24 bomber falling on iwo jima. Map the battle of iwo jima february 19 march 26 1945 or operation detachment was a battle in which the united states fought for and captured iwo jima lit.

This was the last island in the island hopping campaign done by the united states. The island of iwo jima translates to sulfur island and smells terrible. Landing on iwo jima american forces encountered much fiercer resistance than expected and the battle.

Map from iwo jima amphibious epic published by the historical branch of the us. The battle produced some of the fiercest fighting in the pacific campaign of world war ii. Sulfur island from japan.

Being victorious and gaining control of both the island and the japanese airfields located at that location.

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Iwo Jima was officially labeled as being a strategic island due to the need for a closer base for fighter support of long-range bombing missions being flown against mainland Japan. The U.S. bombers were flying out of the Mariana Islands which were too far for fighters to fly in escort for the duration of the bombing missions. The capture of Iwo Jima would also provide an emergency landing strip for B-29’s returning from bombing runs with significant damage. The island would also provide a strategic point from which to base sea and air blockades to further degrade the Japanese air and naval forces.

Taking Iwo Jima would not prove easy for the U.S. forces. The assault would take 36 days and is epitomized by the following quote by Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz, “Among the Americans who served on Iwo Island, uncommon valor was a common virtue.” For the Japanese defenders, the island held key strategic value as the last obstacle to the American forces before they would invade Okinawa and mainland Japan.


Battle of Iwo Jima Map 1: Overall Layout - History

The Drive North (continued)

As the Marines struggled to wrest the second airfield from the Japanese, the commanding terrain features rising to the north caught their attention. Some would become known by their elevations (although there were three Hill 362s on the island), but others would take the personality and nicknames assigned by the attackers. Hence, the 4th Marine Division would spend itself attacking Hill 382, the "Amphitheater," and "Turkey Knob" (the whole bristling complex became known as "The Meatgrinder"). The 5th Division would earn its spurs and lose most of its invaluable cadre of veteran leaders attacking Nishi Ridge and Hills 362-A and 362-B, then end the fighting in "The Gorge." The 3d Division would focus first on Hills Peter and 199-Oboe, just north of the second airfield, then the heavily fortified Hill 362-C beyond the third airstrip, and finally the moonscape jungle of stone which would become know as "Cushman's Pocket."

Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Cushman, Jr., a future Commandant, commanded the 2d Battalion, 9th Marines at Iwo Jima. Cushman and his men were veterans of heavy fighting in Guam, yet they were appalled by their first sight of the battlefield. Wrecked and burning Sherman tanks dotted the airstrips, a stream of casualties flowed to the rear, "the machine-gun fire was terrific." Cushman mounted his troops on the surviving tanks and roared across the field. There they met the same reverse-slope defenses which had plagued the 21st Marines. Securing the adjoining two small hills—Peter and 199-Oboe—took the 3d Marine Division three more days of intensely bitter fighting.

"The Grenade," an acrylic painting on canvas by Col Charles H. Waterhouse. Marine Corps Combat Art Collection

General Schmidt, considering the 3d Division attack in the center to be his main effort, provided priority fire support from Corps artillery, and directed the other two divisions to allocate half their own regimental fire support to the center. None of the commanders was happy with this. Neither the 4th Division, taking heavy casualties in The Amphitheater as it approached Hill 382, nor the 5th Division, struggling to seize Nishi Ridge, wanted to dilute their organic fire support. Nor was General Erskine pleased with the results. The main effort, he argued, should clearly receive the main fire. Schmidt never did solve this problem. His Corps artillery was too light he needed twice as many battalions and bigger guns—up to 8-inch howitzers, which the Marine Corps had not yet fielded. He had plenty of naval gun fire support available and used it abundantly, but unless the targets lay in ravines facing to the sea he lost the advantage of direct, observed fire.

Marine Corps Air Support During Iwo Jima

For a few special moments just prior to the landing on D-day at Iwo Jima the Marines' long-cherished vision of an integrated air-ground team seemed to have been realized. As assault troops neared the beach in their tracked amphibian vehicles, dozens of Marine Vought F4U Corsairs swept low over the objective, paving the way with rockets and machine-gun fire. "It was magnificent!" exclaimed one observer. Unfortunately, the eight Marine fighter squadrons present at Iwo that morning came from the fast carriers of Task Force 58, not the amphibious task force three days later TF 58 left for good in pursuit of more strategic targets. Thereafter, Navy and Army Air Force pilots provided yeoman service in support of the troops fighting ashore. Sustained close air support of amphibious forces by Marine air was once again postponed to some future combat proving ground.

Other Marine aviation units contributed significantly to the successful seizure of Iwo Jima. One of the first to see action was Marine Bombing Squadron (VMB) 612, based on Saipan, whose flight crews flew North American PBJ Mitchell medium bombers in nightly, long-range rocket attacks against Japanese ships trying to resupply Iwo Jima from other bases in the Volcano and Bonin Islands. These nightly raids, combined with U.S. Navy submarine interdictions, significantly reduced the amount of ammunition and fortification material (notably barbed wire) delivered to Iwo Jima's defenders before the invasion.

The contributions of the pilots and aerial spotters from three Marine observation squadrons (VMOs-1, -4 and -5) are described at length in the text. Flying into Iwo initially from escort carriers, or launched precariously by the infamous "Brodie Slingshot" from LST 776, or eventually taking off from the captured airstrips, these intrepid crews were quite successful in spotting enemy artillery and mortar positions, and reporting them to the Supporting Arms Control Center. When Japanese anti-aircraft gunners managed to down one of the "Grasshoppers," Marines from all points of the island mourned.

Marine LtCol Donald K. Yost in his F4U Corsair takes off from the flight deck of the Cape Gloucester (CVE 109) to provide close air support to the fighting troops ashore. This was one of a number of Marine aircraft flown at Iwo Jima. Department of Defense Photo (USMC) 262047

Marine transport aircraft from Marine Transport Squadrons (VMR) 952, 253, and 353 based in the Marianas delivered critical combat cargo to the island during the height of the battle. The Marines frequently relied on aerial delivery before the landing force could establish a fully functional beachhead. On D+10, for example, VMR-952 air-dropped critically needed mortar shells, machine gun parts, and blood within Marine lines. On 3 March, Lieutenant Colonel Malcolm S. Mackay, CO of VMR-952, brought in the first Marine transport to land on the island, a Curtiss Commando R5C loaded with ammunition. All three squadrons followed suit, bringing supplies in, taking wounded men out.

On 8 March, Marine Torpedo Bomber Squadron (VMTB) 242 flew in to Iwo Jima from Tinian to assume responsibility for day and night anti-submarine patrols from the departing escort carrier force.

Colonel Vernon E. Megee, USMC, had the distinction of commanding the first Landing Force Air Support Control Unit, a milestone in the evolution of amphibious command and control of supporting arms. Megee came ashore on D+5 with General Schmidt, but the offloading process was still in such disarray that he could not assemble his communications jeeps for another five days. This did little to deter Megee. Using "borrowed" gear, he quickly moved inland, coordinating the efforts of the Air Liaison Parties, encouraging the Navy pilots to use bigger bombs and listening to the complaints of the assault commanders. Megee's subsequent work in training and employing Army P-51 Mustang pilots in direct support was masterful.

Before the battle's end, General Kuribayashi transmitted to Tokyo 19 "lessons learned" about the problems of defending against an American amphibious assault. One of these axioms said: "The enemy's air control is very strong at least thirty aircraft are flying ceaselessly from early morning to night above this very small island."

Schmidt's problems of fire support distribution received some alleviation on 26 February when two Marine observation planes flew in from the escort carrier Wake Island, the first aircraft to land on Iwo's recaptured and still fire-swept main airstrip. These were Stinson OY single-engine observation planes, nicknamed "Grasshoppers," of Lieutenant Tom Rozga's Marine Observation Squadron (VMO) 4, and they were followed the next day by similar planes from Lieutenant Roy G. Miller's VMO-5. The intrepid pilots of these frail craft had already had an adventurous time in the waters off Iwo Jima. Several had been launched precariously from the experimental Brodie catapult on LST 776, "like a peanut from a slingshot." All 14 of the planes of these two observation squadrons would receive heavy Japanese fire in battle, not only while airborne but also while being serviced on the airstrips as well. Yet these two squadrons (and elements of VMO-1) would fly nearly 600 missions in support of all three divisions. Few units contributed so much to the eventual suppression of Kuribayashi's deadly artillery fire. In time the mere presence of these small planes overhead would influence Japanese gunners to cease fire and button up against the inevitable counterbattery fire to follow. Often the pilots would undertake pre-dawn or dusk missions simply to extend this protective "umbrella" over the troops, risky flying given Iwo's unlit fields and constant enemy sniping from the adjacent hills.

A Marine dashes past a fallen Japanese killed a short time earlier, all the while himself a target of searching enemy fire, during heavy fighting in the north. Department of Defense Photo (USMC) 110922

"Fire in the Hole," an acrylic painting on untempered masonite by Col Charles H. Waterhouse, reflects the extensive use of TNT to blast Japanese caves. Marine Corps Combar Art Collection

The 4th Marine Division finally seized Hill 382, the highest point north of Suribachi, but continued to take heavy casualties moving through The Amphitheater against Turkey Knob. The 5th Division overran Nishi Ridge, then bloodied itself against Hill 362-As intricate defenses. Said Colonel Thomas A. Wornham, commanding the 27th Marines, of these defenses: "They had interlocking bands of fire the likes of which you never saw." General Cates redeployed the 28th Marines into this slugfest. On 2 March a Japanese gunner fired a high-velocity shell which killed Lieutenant Colonel Chandler Johnson immediately, one week after his glorious seizure of Suribachi's summit. The 28th Marines captured Hill 362-A at the cost of 200 casualties.

On the same day Lieutenant Colonel Lowell E. English, commanding the 2d Battalion, 21st Marines, went down with a bullet through his knee. English was bitter. His battalion was being rotated to the rear. "We had taken very heavy casualties and were pretty well disorganized. I had less than 300 men left out of the 1200 I came ashore with." English then received orders to turn his men around and plug a gap in the front lines. "It was an impossible order. I couldn't move that disorganized battalion a mile back north in 30 minutes." General Erskine did not want excuses. "You tell that damned English he'd better be there, he told the regimental commander. English fired back, "You tell that son of a bitch I will be there, and I was, but my men were still half a mile behind me and I got a blast through the knee."

On the left flank, the 26th Marines mounted its most successful, and bloodiest, attack of the battle, finally seizing Hill 362-B. The day-long struggle cost 500 Marine casualties and produced five Medals of Honor. For Captain Frank C. Caldwell, commanding Company F, 2d Battalion, 26th Marines it was the worst single day of the battle. His company suffered 47 casualties in taking the hill, including the first sergeant and the last of the original platoon commanders.

Overall, the first nine days of the V Amphibious Corps drive north had produced a net gain of about 4,000 yards at the staggering cost of 7,000 American casualties. Several of the pitched battles—Airfield No. 2, Hill 382, Hill 362-B, for example—would of themselves warrant a separate commemorative monograph. The fighting in each case was as savage and bloody as any in Marine Corps history.

This was the general situation previously described at the unsuspected "turning point" on 4 March (D+13) when, despite sustaining frightful losses, the Marines had chewed through a substantial chunk of Kuribayashi's main defenses, forcing the enemy commander to shift his command post to a northern cave. This was the afternoon the first crippled B-29 landed. In terms of American morale, it could not have come at a better time. General Schmidt ordered a general standdown on 5 March to enable the exhausted assault forces a brief respite and the opportunity to absorb some replacements.

The 3d Battalion, 28th Marines, finds the terrain on Iwo Jima more broken and forbidding than the black sands of the beaches as they advance in a frontal attack northward against unremitting fire from determined Japanese troops. Department of Defense Photo (USMC) 111933

The issue of replacement troops during the battle remains controversial even half a century later. General Schmidt, now faced with losses approaching the equivalent of one entire division, again urged General Smith to release the 3d Marines. While each division had been assigned a replacement draft of several thousand Marines, Schmidt wanted the cohesion and combat experience of Colonel James M. Stuart's regimental combat team. Holland Smith believed that the replacement drafts would suffice, presuming that each man in these hybrid units had received sufficient infantry training to enable his immediate assignment to front-line outfits. The problem lay in distributing the replacements in small, arbitrary numbers—not as teamed units—to fill the gaping holes in the assault battalions. The new men, expected to replace invaluable veterans of the Pacific War, were not only new to combat, but they also were new to each other, an assortment of strangers lacking the life saving bonds of unit integrity. "They get killed the day they go into battle," said one division personnel officer in frustration. Replacement losses within the first 48 hours of combat were, in fact, appalling. Those who survived, who learned the ropes and established a bond with the veterans, contributed significantly to the winning of the battle. The division commanders, however, decried the wastefulness of this policy and urged unit replacements by the veteran battalions of the 3d Marines. As General Erskine recalled:

I asked the question of Kelly Turner and Holland Smith and the usual answer was, "You got enough Marines on the island now there are too damn many here." I said, "The solution is very easy. Some of these people are very tired and worn out, so take them out and bring in the 3d Marines." And they practically said, "You keep quiet—we've made the decision." En dit was dit.

Most surviving senior officers agreed that the decision not to use the 3d Marines at Iwo Jima was ill advised and costly. But Holland Smith never wavered: "Sufficient troops were on Iwo Jima for the capture of the island . . . . two regiments were sufficient to cover the front assigned to General Erskine." On 5 March, D+14, Smith ordered the 3d Marines to sail back to Guam.

Holland Smith may have known the overall statistics of battle losses sustained by the landing force to that point, but he may not have fully appreciated the tremendous attrition of experienced junior officers and senior staff noncommissioned officers taking place every day. As one example, the day after the 3d Marines, many of whose members were veterans of Bougainville and Guam, departed the amphibious objective area, Company E, 2d Battalion, 23d Marines, suffered the loss of its seventh company commander since the battle began. Likewise, Lieutenant Colonel Cushman's experiences with the 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, seemed typical:

"Turkey Knob," the outcropping which anchored the positions of the Japanese 2d Mixed Brigade against the advance of the 4th Marine Division for many days, was sketched by Cpl Daniel L. Winsor, Jr., USMCR, S-2 Section, 25th Marines. Marine Corps Historical Collection

Weary troops of Company G, 2d Battalion, 24th Marines, rest in a ditch, guarded by a Sherman tank. They are waiting for the tanks to move forward to blast the numerous pillboxes between Motoyama Airfields No. 1 and No. 2. Department of Defense Photo (USMC) 109666

A light machine gun crew of Company H, 2d Battalion, 27th Marines, hugs the ground and takes advantage of whatever cover it can from an enemy gunner. Department of Defense (USMC) 110626

The casualties were fierce. By the time Iwo Jima was over I had gone through two complete sets of platoon leaders, lieutenants. After that we had such things as artillery forward observers commanding companies and sergeants leading the platoons, which were less than half-strength. It was that bad.

Lieutenant Colonel English recalled that by the 12th day the 2d Battalion, 21st Marines, had "lost every company commander . . . . I had one company exec left." Lieutenant Colonel Donn Robertson, commanding the 3d Battalion, 27th Marines, lost all three of his rifle company commanders, "two killed by the same damned shell." In many infantry units, platoons ceased to exist depleted companies were merged to form one half-strength outfit.


The American Dream In James Bradley's ɿlags Of Our Fathers'

this philosophy is threatened by other nations. During WWII the Imperial Japanese empire wanted to take over Asia, and they saw the US as the only ones in their way. After the battle of Midway the tides had turned and the US began to win the war. They began the long offensive island hopping campaign to get to Japan. In Flags of Our Fathers, by James Bradley, Marines storm the island of Iwo Jima to protect America’s ideals and to stop the threat of Japan. Fueled by the freedom and liberty he had&hellip


The Battle of Iwo Jima

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During the winter of 1945, in the midst of World War II, the Pacific island of Iwo Jima, part of Japan, was an attractive target for the Allied command. American B-29 bombers were flying sorties over Japan at the time but were suffering heavy losses on the long-range missions. The bombers were able to travel much greater distances than smaller fighter planes, but without a nearby airfield they were forced to fly without proper fighter escort. Iwo Jima, well within striking distance of Tokyo, was seen as an ideal staging area for expanded bombing runs with fighter cover and a key location for damaged bombers to land in emergency situations.

So the Allies decided to invade.

The 4th and 5th Marine Divisions were sent in on February 19, 1945, and the intense fighting that ensued during the 36-day assault would be immortalized in the words of Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, who said, "Among the Americans who served on Iwo Island, uncommon valor was a common virtue."

The Japanese had constructed a complex series of underground tunnels and bunkers to protect themselves from the heavy shelling that Iwo Jima had seen earlier in the war. When the Americans first hit the beach, not much resistance was encountered. When the Japanese came up from underground, the real fighting began. Later in the conflict other Marine Divisions took part in the action, including the 3rd and 28th.

The most famous image from the Battle of Iwo Jima is undoubtedly the photograph of the flag raising at the summit of Mount Suribachi that was taken by the AP's Joe Rosenthal. The flag-raisers as seen in the photo, are (from left to right) Ira Hayes, Franklin R. Sousley, Michael Strank, John Bradley, Rene A. Gagnon, and Harlon Block.

Strank, Block, and Sousley were killed in the battle that continued on Iwo Jima. The remaining three flag-raisers returned to the U.S. as reluctant heroes.

The picture, which won the 1945 Pulitzer Prize in News Photography among other awards, is perhaps the most reproduced photograph in history. On Nov. 10, 1954, a bronze monument of the famous flag-raising, sculpted by Felix de Weldon and located in Arlington National Cemetery, was dedicated.


Kyk die video: D-day Vs Iwo Jima. No HUD. Cod WW2 Vs Battlefield 5 - Gameplay comparison