Stern DE -187 - Geskiedenis

Stern DE -187 - Geskiedenis



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Stern
(DE-187: dp. 1.240; 1. 306 '; b. 36'7 "; dr. 8'9; s. 21 k; cpl. 216; a. 3 3", 8 40mm., 10 20mm. , 8 dcp., 2 dct., 1 dcp (hh.); Cl. Cannon)

Stern (DE-187) is op 12 Augustus 1943 deur die Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., Newark, NJ; op 31 Oktober 1943 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Joan M. Stern; en in opdrag van 1 Desember 1943 het Comdr. James R. Hinton, USNR, in bevel.

Stern het haar vaarboot van Bermuda gehou en teruggekeer na New York vir beskikbaarheid na afskakeling. Na 'n kort oefenperiode langs Casco Bay, Maine, het sy 'n konvooi na Ierland begelei en met 'n ander een na New York teruggekeer. Sy het op 23 Maart 1944 met 'n konvooi na Noord -Afrika uit die hawe gestaan ​​en op 2 April by Casablanca aangekom. Op 7 Mei het sy met 'n terugreiskonvooi huis toe gevaar en die 17de in New York aangekom. Stern het van 8 Junie tot 2 Augustus weer 'n heen- en terugreis na Ierland geneem, via Bermuda, en nog een na Bizerte, Tunisië, wat op 7 Oktober in New York geëindig het.

Stern vaar op 23 Oktober na die weskus en arriveer op 10 November in San Diego. Weswaarts gery, het sy op 23 November by Pearl Harbor aangekom, en nadat sy die Marshall -eilande besoek het, het sy op 12 Desember by Ulithi, Caroline -eilande, aangekom. Sy is aangewys by die logistieke groep ter see (taakgroep 30.8) van die 3d-vloot. Stern het van 16 tot 25 Desember en van 29 Desember 1944 tot 28 Januarie 1945 met die 3D -vloot met die 3d -vloot ondersteun en operasies ondersteun om Luzon te bevry. Die skip het op 8 Februarie na Ulithi teruggekeer en was vasgemaak aan die skerm van die aanvalsvervoergroep van die taakspan wat Iwo Jima sou binnedring. Die mag het vroeg die oggend van die 19de van die eiland af gekom, en die aanvalsgroepe het onder intense vyandige vuur begin land. Van daardie oggend tot 1 Maart het die begeleier Amerikaanse vervoer vanaf Iwo Jima beskerm.

Op daardie dag is St0n ~ via Guam na die Filippynse eilande gestuur. Sy het op 8 Maart daar aangekom; is op die skerm van Taakgroep 51.1, die Western Islands Attack Group, toegewys en op 21 Maart na die Ryukyu -eilande gevaar

Stern het die aanvalstransporte op pad na Kerama Retto gekeur en op 26 Maart daar aangekom. Sy het daarna antisubmarine duty van die eilande uitgevoer tot 5 April toe sy beveel is om 'n konvooi na Guam te begelei. Van daar af het sy na Leyte geseil om by 'n ander taakeenheid aan Okinawa aan te sluit en was op 18 April terug van die eiland. Hierdie toer langs Okinawa was tot Julie ononderbroke. Op 13 en 18 Mei het sy elke dag twee vyandelike vliegtuie neergeskiet en 'n enkele op die 27ste gespat.

Op 1 Julie vaar Stern via Ulithi en Pearl Harbor na die weskus van die Verenigde State. Sy het die 25ste in San Pedro, Kalifornië, aangekom. Sy vaar op 20 Oktober uit die hawe en gaan via die Panamakanaal na Norfolk, Va, vir inaktivering. Deur 'n opdraggewer in Maart 1946, sou Stern verkoop word as 'n oorskot aan vlootvereistes. Die verkoop is gekanselleer en die begeleiding is na die Atlantic Reserve Fleet oorgeplaas. Sy is op 26 April 1946 in 'n reserwe geplaas en buite bed in Green Cove Springs, Fla.

Stern is op 1 Maart 1951 heraktiveer en, saam met vyf ander verwoestersbegeleiers, onder die Militêre Bystandsprogram oorgeplaas na die Nederlandse regering. Stern is op 7 Maart 1961 uit die vlootlys geskrap. Sy dien die regering van Nederland as Van Zijill, totdat sy in 1967 onder toesig van die Amerikaanse vloot is. In 1968 is Stern aan Simons Scheepsslooperis NV, Rotterdam verkoop. , en geskrap.

Stern het drie gevegsterre ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.


Destroyer Escort Anekdotes

Bewerings van hoogs geheime eksperimente het lankal die USS ELDRIDGE (DE-173) omring. Hulle het talle webwerwe en selfs 'n fliek geskep, Die Philadelphia -eksperiment (1984) verfilm aan boord van die museumskip USS LAFFEY (DD-724). Terwyl hulle vermaaklik is, het hulle min werklikheid en kan hulle teruggevoer word na die bewerings van 'n enkele verbeeldingryke man.

Die storie rondom die ELDRIDGE loop ongeveer so. Terwyl dit die oggend van 22 Julie 1943 in Philadelphia vasgemeer het, is 'n geheime "onsigbaarheid" -toets getoets, wat veroorsaak het dat die skip uit die oog verdwyn het. Die veronderstelde doel was om die skip onsigbaar vir die blote oog en radar te maak. Maar daar word gesê dat iets skeefgeloop het en die skip teleporteer tot by Norfolk, Virginia, en teleporteer dan terug. Die bemanningslede word siek, verdwyn of 'versmelt' met die staal van die skip.

Hierdie voorval en die vermeende tegnologie daar rondom is verbind met die mite van die "Philadelphia -eksperiment". Dit is ook na verwys as Project Rainbow. Albert Einstein word selfs beweer dat hy by die ontwikkeling daarvan betrokke was en kwantumverstrengelingsbeginsels gebruik om die prestasie te bereik. Na bewering het Einstein deurbraaknavorsing voltooi wat daarna stilgemaak is om dit alles moontlik te maak.

'N Man met die naam Carlos Allende (gebore Carl Allen) het die verhaal uit heel doek geskep. Toe Morriss Jessup sy "The Case for the UFO" publiseer waarin hy teoretiese aandrywingstelsels vir ruimtevaart bespreek, het Allende in 1955 'n briefwisseling met hom gesluit wat later deur Jessup beëindig is. Allende beweer dat hy die gebeure vanaf die dek van die SS Andrew Furuseth as 'n matroos gesien het. Allende, wat geneig was tot vindingryke aantekeninge in die kantlyn van boeke, het 'n afskrif van die boek van Jessup aan die Office of Naval Research gestuur, met opmerkings dat 'n Destroyer Escort onsigbaar gemaak is. Mites het ontstaan ​​oor die outeurskap van hierdie vreemde notasies, die belangstelling van die vloot in die hele aangeleentheid is opgeblaas in hervertellings en die verhaal het vlam gevat. 'N' Varo -uitgawe 'van die boek is gepubliseer, insluitend die aantekeninge, en word vinnig aan ware gelowiges verkoop.

Die waarheid is baie minder sensasioneel. Die skipper van die Eldridge, in 'n televisie -onderhoud, sê in onseker terme dat die skip "nooit na Philadelphia gegaan het nie". Bemanning bevestig sy verhaal. By 'n reünie in 1999 het die bemanning 'n goeie, as dit ietwat verbaas was, gelag oor die hele verhaal en die volharding daarvan. Die bewering dat 'n ander bemanning tydens die eksperiment gebruik is, word weerspreek deur die bemanning wat tydens die konstruksie van die skip in Newark teenwoordig was. In 1969 het Allende erken dat dit 'n hoax was, net om sy bekentenis te herroep toe 'n nuwe skrywer die ou verhaal in 'n nuwe boek opgesom het. Sy familie het bevestig dat hy 'n geskiedenis van wisselvallige gedrag het.

Volgens die amptelike mening van die vloot is sprake van matrose oor die degausser van die skip 'n waarskynlike bron van die gerugte. Degaussers gebruik elektriese stroom om magnetiese myne teë te werk. Terwyl die degausser 'n indrukwekkende toestel is, word die skip geensins onsigbaar nie. Dit is ook moontlik dat werk aan die kragopwekkers aan boord van die USS TIMMERMAN (DD-828) weet dat 'n korona-effek geskep is, later verkeerdelik aan die ELDRIDGE toegeskryf is en aan die verhaal geboorte gegee het.

Die waarheid is dat die ELDRIDGE 'n reeks vaarte onderneem het wat die meeste matrose van die Verenigde State algemeen sou vind. Sy het die opdrag gekry op 27 Augustus 1943. Vir die volgende maand het sy 'n vaart ondergaan, en sy is begelei in die omgewing van Bermuda. (Nee, daar was geen vreemde gebeurtenisse in die Bermuda -driehoek nie.) Sy sou 'n reeks Atlantiese konvooie begelei wat na die hawens in Noord -Afrika lei. Op die eerste Augustus 1944 het sy gehelp om 'n Duitse lugaanval op 'n Mediterreense konvooi af te weer. By meer as een geleentheid in die Atlantiese Oseaan het sy kontak gemaak met vermeende Duitse U-bote, wat diepteskade afgevuur het. In Junie 1945 is sy na die Stille Oseaan gestuur om kontak te maak met 'n vermeende Japannese duikboot. Sy sou verder help met die besetting en die Navy Occupation Service Medal verdien. Na 'n tydperk in motbolle dien sy in die Griekse vloot as die Leon (D-54) van 1951 tot 1991, net soos die Slater as die Aetos (D-01).

Gedeeltes aangepas uit History's Mysteries: The True Story of the Philadelphia Experiment, 2002.

USS WHITEHURST gebruik vir verfilming Die vyand hieronder.

USS SLATER is gebruik vir die verfilming van die Japannese film Laaste operasies onder die Orion in 2008.

Destroyer Escorts in die films

Destroyer -begeleiers is beslis nie 'n vreemdeling vir die silwer skerm nie, alhoewel dit dikwels sonder krediet is. Teaterfilms het DE's in hul erwe ingesluit sedert die skepe in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog begin het. Alhoewel hierdie skepe dikwels sentraal was in die rolprent se optrede, is dit ongelukkig te dikwels beskou as lewensgroot rekwisiete eerder as karakters uit eie reg. By die oorweging van 'n film uit enige tydperk, het selfs skeepsdeskundiges verkeerdelik geraak oor watter tipe skip en watter presiese skip gebruik is om verskillende stukke te vervaardig, dan is daar ander gevalle waar die werklike debat lê in wat werklik gebeur het rondom die geskiedenis van 'n skip. .

Bo -aan die lys, ten minste in terme van bekendheid, sou dit ongetwyfeld wees Die vyand hieronder. Die verhaal van die verfilming is geskryf deur Eric Rivet in die tweede kwartaal van 2008, uitgawe van TRIM, maar DOODLIK. Sedert sy debuut in 1957 het die rolprent DE's lewendig gemaak deur die interaksie van kaptein Murrell (Robert Mitchum) en bevelvoerder Von Stolberg (Curt Jurgens). Gelukkig was daar geen debat dat dit die USS WHITEHURST DE634 was wat in die film gebruik is as die skip waaroor Murrell bevel gehad het nie, wat 'n belangrike rol gespeel het om die Duitse duikboot onder Von Stolberg se gesag te soek.

Namate die plot dikker word, is die bemanning tereg skepties oor die taktiek wat gebruik word wanneer Murrell die Duitsers lok om 'n torpedo af te vuur. Die reaksie is net soos die kaptein verwag het en die heen en weer gaan voort, terwyl die Duitse duikboot terugtrek in die dieptes van die see, letterlik kreunend van die druk, in 'n poging om weg te steek vir die verwoester van die verwoester. Dit is 'n dramatiese herontwerp van 'n toneel wat baie matrose verduur het en gewag het vir die volgende stap in beide dele. Uiteindelik beveel Von Stolberg 'n torpedo -aanval wat veroorsaak dat die Amerikaanse skip as gevolg van die groot skade begin sink. Die aksie word weer na die oppervlak gebring, aangesien Murrell hoop om die sub nader te lok en skade te herstel. Uiteindelik is die DE in staat om die laaste aanval te maak, wat sukses behaal met die Duitse duikboot nadat die uitgebreide strategiese spel ontvou het. Die film sluit af met 'n daad van eenheid 'n groter boodskap van die oorwinning van die situasie waarin die matrose gegooi is. Met genoeg aksie om die gehoor betower te hou, slaag die film steeds daarin om 'n breër boodskap oor te dra, en vir baie was dit die eerste keer dat die Duitse kaptein as 'n humanistiese karakter uitgebeeld word, eerder as slegs die bose vyand. Die film het die Oscar -toekenning vir beste spesiale effekte in 1957 gewen.

Alhoewel dit nie noodwendig so 'n sentrale speler is soos die WHITEHURST nie Die vyand hieronder, die USS FINCH DER328 en USS NEWELL DER322 het tyd in die kollig gehad in die film Tora! Tora! Tora! Hierdie plot, wat in 1941 afspeel, fokus meer op konflik met die Japannese. As diplomasie misluk, het die Japannese weermag 'n plan opgestel vir 'n verrassende lugaanval op die Amerikaanse basis in Pearl Harbor. Die film se titel kom van die kodewoorde wat deur die hoof Japannese vlieënier gebruik word om aan te dui dat hulle die element van verrassing suksesvol gebruik het.

'N Sleutelelement in die verhaal is die aanval op 'n Japannese duikboot deur die vernietiger van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, USS WARD, twee uur voordat vyandelike vliegtuie die eerste bomme laat val het. Aangesien daar geen vintage vernietigers oorgebly het om die WARD uit te beeld nie, is verwoesters vergesel om die rol te speel. Hierdie film is in 1970 vrygestel, met behulp van die radarpaaltjie DERs USS NEWELL vir binnetonele en die USS FINCH vir die buiteskote. Daar is 'n mate van verwarring oor die sekerheid hiervan dat die FINCH krediet in sommige bronne ontvang het, in ander die NEWELL, en albei word selde toegeskryf. Die NEWELL is in 1969 getref en uiteindelik in 1970 verkoop vir afval, wat haar in die regte tydsbestek geplaas het om in hierdie filmverhaal gebruik te word. Die FINCH is in 1969 gestaak, in 1974 getref en 'n paar maande later vir afval verkoop, wat dit ook in 'n gepaste tydsraamwerk plaas. Een bron noem wel dat die NEWELL as 'n slagskip in die film gebruik is, hoewel dit 'n verkeerde benaming kan wees, maar dit kan 'n ander manier verklaar waarop beide skepe op verskillende maniere aan dieselfde film deelgeneem het. Miskien kan 'n voormalige bemanningslid, film ekstra of onskuldige omstander bevestig watter skip of skepe as 'n drywende rekwisiet vir die film gedien het.

Die USS VAMMEN DE644 het sy aanspraak op roem byna misgeloop toe 'n voorval die fiktiewe USS Kornblatt in Moenie die skip prysgee nie soos gespeel deur die USS STEMBALL DD644. Gelukkig is dit uiteindelik besef dat die STEMBALL, 'n verwoester, 'n ander soort skip was as die fiktiewe verwoester -begeleier, en die VAMMEN het die regte krediet ontvang. Hierdie komiese rolprent, met Jerry Lewis, volg die soektog na 'n 'verlore' verwoester -begeleier en die daaropvolgende kappertjies.

Veral een verwoester -begeleier is wyd gedramatiseer omdat dit ook 'n oomblik verlore geraak het, maar in 'n heel ander sin, terwyl hy in Philadelphia Harbour sit. Legendes, gerugte en samesweringsteoretici is dit eens dat die USS ELDRIDGE DE173, saam met sy bemanning, onsigbaar geword het en later later weer sigbaar was. Hierdie voorval word uitgebeeld in die film van 1984, Die Philadelphia -eksperiment sowel as alle ander aspekte van die populêre kultuur, insluitend televisieprogramme, boeke en selfs videospeletjies. Baie teorieë is gebaseer op 'n misverstand van die navorsing wat eintlik aan die gang was, terwyl dit lyk asof die populêre kultuur verlustig in die idee van 'n skip wat verdwyn en 'n verwoestende bemanning. In die film is die museumvernietiger USS LAFFEY DD724, deel van die Patriots Point Naval Museum, gebruik om die ELDRIDGE interessant uit te beeld dat verwoesters op die skerm en verwoesters so dikwels uitruilbaar is.

USS PETERSON DE152 het 'n kort rukkie in die kollig gehad in die film wat die oorlogsdiens van John F. Kennedy uiteengesit het. Terwyl hy tydens die tweede helfte van 1962 as opleidingsskip vir studente van die U.S. Fleet Sonar School, Key West, gedien het, was PETERSON 'n rolprentster, wat die rol gespeel het van die Japannese vernietiger AMAGIRI, die skip wat PT-109 gelam en gesink het.

Die paddas is 'n film uit 1951 wat gebaseer is op operasies deur die Amerikaanse vloot se onderwater -afbrekingspanne, in die volksmond bekend as "paddas" teen die Japannese weermag en vlootmagte in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Die padda -magte word beskou as die voorlopers van die Navy SEALs. Die Amerikaanse vloot was heeltemal geskik vir die verfilming van Die paddas en dit was die ondersteuning en samewerking wat toegelaat het dat Twentieth Century Fox verantwoordelik was vir die enigste film oor die onderwater -sloopteams, ondanks die belangstelling tussen verskeie ateljees. Die boordtonele is aan boord van USS KLEINSMITH APD134 (voorheen DE718) verfilm terwyl hulle van Key West af was, en baie van die boot- en hoëspoed-vervoertonele is uit KLEINSMITH geskiet terwyl hulle van St. Thomas, Amerikaanse Maagde-eilande af was. Hierdie hoë profiel van dapperheid in 'n nuwe afdeling van die vloot was 'n groot gebruik van 'n ou DE.

USS SLATER het drie speelfilms verskyn, die eerste in 'n Griekse musiekkomedie uit 1961 Alice in die vloot of Ek Aliki sto Naftiko (die oorspronklike Griekse titel). Die rolprent met Aliki Vougiouklaki en Dimitris Papamichael handel oor die dogter van 'n admiraal wat verlief is op 'n matroos wat aan boord van die AETOS dien. Omdat hy hom wou sien, vermom Aliki haar as 'n matroos en sluip aan boord van die skip van haar kêrel. Dinge word ingewikkelder as haar pa saam met haar op 'n skip vaar. Hierdie lighartige film is 'n afwyking van die aksiegebaseerde films waarvoor tipies DE's gebruik word.

Dieselfde jaar het AETOS 'n bietjie aan die epiese avontuur deelgeneem Die gewere van Navarone, wat ons terugbring in die verwagte aksiegenre vir vernietigers. Die rolprent speel Gregory Peck, David Niven en Anthony Quinn waarin die pogings van 'n groep kommando's uitgebeeld word om 'n oënskynlik onneembare Nazi -geweerbattery wat die geallieerde seevaart in die Egeïese See bedreig het, te vernietig. AETOS verskyn naby die einde, terwyl die vernietiger wat die oorlewende kommando's red terwyl die geweerbatterye vernietig word.

Eers in 2008, lank nadat SLATER na Amerika teruggekeer het, het die skip in sy volgende funksie gespeel. Die Japanese filmonderneming, Orion Productions, het haar in die film gebruik Laaste operasies onder die Orion of Manatsu no Orion. SLATER is gebruik om 'n Amerikaanse verwoester -begeleier, USS PERCIVAL, uit te beeld in 'n lewens- of doodsverhouding met 'n Japannese duikboot in die laaste dae van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Die film is vervaardig deur Shohai Kotaki wat gesê het dat hy die USS SLATER gekies het vanweë die egtheid van haar herstel. Die rolprent is geregisseer deur Tetsuo Shinohara, met Hiroshi Tamaki, Keiko Kitagawa, Yoshikuni Dochin, Yuta Hiraoka, David Winning en Joe Rayome. Die Amerikaanse eenheid het twee weke lank aan boord van SLATER verfilm en baie realistiese tonele geskep. Ongelukkig is die film nooit in die Verenigde State vrygestel nie, maar is dit op DVD beskikbaar via aanlyn oorsese bronne.

Die USS SLATER het die voorreg gehad om op televisieprogramme te verskyn sowel as in films wat verskyn het in twee produksies van History Channel, een ondersoek van die Philadelphia -eksperiment waarin sy USS ELDRIDGE uitgebeeld het, en 'n ander "History's Mysteries" dokumentêr waarin sy die vernietiger MURPHY.

Of dit nou gaan om vernietigers of om hul ware rol as verwoesters te vergesel, hierdie klein skepe het beslis hul eie op die silwerdoek gehou. Films kan 'n manier wees om die geskiedenis lewendig te hou, meer as datums en feite te maak deur die aard van die komponente daarvan en die ervaring van oorlewing uit te druk. Net soos films, bly SLATER aan die gang om die ervaring van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog elke jaar vir soveel besoekers lewendig te maak, wat andersins moeilik sou wees om 'n tasbare manier te vind om aan te sluit. Ons hoop om hierdie skip in 'n toestand te hou wat veterane herinner aan hul ervaring en jonger geslagte aan wat hulle net in die flieks gesien het.


Stern DE -187 - Geskiedenis

Charles M Stern Jr. is gebore op 10 Maart 1915. Volgens ons rekords was New York sy tuis- of werfstaat en Albany County is in die argiefrekord opgeneem. Ons het Albany as die stad gelys. Hy het by die Amerikaanse vloot aangesluit. Betree die diens via Reserve Military. Gedien tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Stern het die rang van vlag gehad. Sy militêre beroep of spesialiteit was vaandrig. Diensnommertoewysing was 0096113. Aangeheg by USS Oklahoma. Tydens sy diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is Navy Ensign Stern as vermis aangemeld en uiteindelik op 7 Desember 1941 dood verklaar. Opgetekende omstandighede toegeskryf aan: Gedood in aksie, Vermis in aksie. Voorval: Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Charles M Stern Jr word begrawe of gedenk by Courts of the Missing, Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii. Dit is 'n ligging van die American Battle Monuments Commission.

Die laers

Ons begin met die laers van die agterste buise. Hierdie komponente is gemaak van gietyster met 'n wit metaalvoering (olie- of ghriesmeer) of nie-metaallagers (watersmering). Die laers dra die vrag vanaf die skroef en die as.

Wit metale wat vir die voering van die laers gebruik word, word rofweg verdeel in lood- en blikmetale. Watter een geskik is vir u skip hang af van baie faktore, soos regulasies, afmetings, vragte en assnelheid. Ons kundiges kan u help om die regte keuse te maak.


Stern Bende

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Stern Bende, ook genoem Stern Groep of Lehi, formeel Loḥamei Ḥerut Yisraʾel (Hebreeus: "Fighters for the Freedom of Israel"), Sionistiese ekstremistiese organisasie in Palestina, gestig in 1940 deur Avraham Stern (1907–42) na 'n skeuring in die regse ondergrondse beweging Irgun Zvai Leumi.

Uiters anti-Brits, het die groep herhaaldelik Britse personeel in Palestina aangeval en selfs hulp van die asmagte genooi. Die Britse polisie het teruggekap deur Stern in Februarie 1942 in sy woonstel dood te maak, en baie van die bende se leiers is daarna gearresteer. Die groep se terreuraktiwiteite strek verder as Palestina: twee lede vermoor Lord Moyne, Britse minister van buitelandse sake in die Midde -Ooste, in Kaïro (November 1944). Later het die Stern -bende vliegvelde, spoorwegwerwe en ander strategiese installasies in Palestina aangeval, gewoonlik met sukses, maar met groot verlies aan lede wat gedood of gevange geneem is. Na die stigting van die staat Israel (1948) is die groep, wat nog altyd deur gematigde leiers van die Joodse gemeenskap in Palestina veroordeel is, onderdruk, en sommige van sy eenhede is opgeneem in die Israeliese weermag. Anders as die Irgun Zvai Leumi, 'n voorloper van die Ḥerut ("Vryheid") Party, het die Sternbende geen politieke party gelaat om sy politieke programme voort te sit nie.

Hierdie artikel is onlangs hersien en bygewerk deur Laura Etheredge, mede -redakteur.


Nadraai

In 1943 is die USS Stern, 'n verwoester-begeleier van die Cannon-klas, gebou en vernoem ter ere van Stern. Sy bedien die Amerikaanse vloot van 1943 tot 1951 toe dit aan Nederland verkoop word. Van daar af bedien dit die Koninklike Nederlandse Vloot van 1951 tot 1967. Sy is in 1968 geskrap.

In September 1947 het die American Graves Registration Service die taak gekry om onbekende soldate se oorskot uit die Pacific Theatre te identifiseer. Hulle kon egter slegs vyf en dertig van die bemanningslede van die USS Oklahoma identifiseer. In Oktober 1949 het die American Graves Registration Service Stern Jr., saam met baie soldate wie se oorskot nie geïdentifiseer is nie, as onherstelbaar beskou.

Stern se naam is op die Honolulu Memorial's Courts of the Missing on Court 2 en is op die USS Oklahoma Memorial.


Desember 1994, Deel 1, nommer 11

Kiesers in Kalifornië het op 8 November 59 tot 41 persent gestem om voorstel 187, die "Save Our State" -inisiatief goed te keur. Voorstel 187 is 'n inisiatiefwet waarvan die bepalings staatsreg bly, tensy dit afgekeur word deur 'n tweederde stem van die Kaliforniese wetgewer of deur 'n ander inisiatief.

'N Federale regter het die implementering van feitlik alle afdelings van Prop. 187 tot minstens 14 Desember geblokkeer, met verwysing na' 'n swaarkrybalans wat beslis wen ten gunste van 'voortgaan om dienste aan ongemagtigde immigrante te lewer. Die regter het spesifiek gesê dat die inisiatief nie grondwetlik is nie, omdat dit nie behoorlike prosedures bied nie, of 'n verhoor voordat 'n individu voordele soos skoolopleiding of gesondheidsorg ontken word. Die bevel van die regter verhoed dat Kalifornië regulasies bekendstel om Prop. 187 aan te kondig. Slegs die gedeeltes wat boetes oplê vir die maak of gebruik van vals dokumente, is nie geblokkeer nie.

Prop. 187 het vyf hoofafdelings. Eerstens belet dit onwettige vreemdelinge van die staat se openbare onderwysstelsels van kleuterskool tot universiteit, en vereis dat openbare opvoedkundige instellings die regstatus van beide studente (effektief 1 Januarie 1995) en hul ouers (met ingang van 1 Januarie 1996) moet begin verifieer.

Onderwysinstellings in Kalifornië verifieer vandag die koshuis, maar nie die regstatus van leerlinge en studente nie. Daar is geen klasgeld vir K-12-onderwys nie. Een van Kalifornië se drie stelsels vir hoër onderwys-die staatsuniversiteitstelsel-hef onwettige vreemdelinge in die stad in teen laer staatsonderrig, terwyl gemeenskapskolleges en universiteitskoste hoër staatsonderrig vra.

Tweedens moet alle verskaffers van openbare betaalde, nie-noodsorgdienste, die regstatus van persone wat dienste soek, verifieer om deur die staat GR vergoed te word.

Derdens vereis prop. 187 dat alle persone wat kontantbystand en ander voordele soek, hul regstatus verifieer voordat hulle voordele ontvang. In die vierde plek moet alle diensverskaffers vermeende onwettige vreemdelinge by die prokureur -generaal van Kalifornië en die INS aanmeld, en die polisie moet die regstatus van persone wat gearresteer is, bepaal. In die vyfde plek is die maak en gebruik van vals dokumente nou 'n staatsmisdaad.

Prop. 187 is 'n wet waarvan die afdelings individueel geïmplementeer kan word. Op 9 November het goewerneur Wilson beveel dat die gesondheidsdienste vir voorgeboortelike sorg so gou as moontlik gestaak moet word, en dat nie meer ongemagtigde vreemdelinge ingeskryf moet word vir langtermyn-gesondheidsorgprogramme (verpleeginrigtings) nie.

Die ontkenning van openbare onderwys aan onwettige uitheemse kinders is waarskynlik die mees omstrede afdeling van prop. 187 wat deur die howe opgelos moet word. Die 1982 Plyler v Doe Amerikaanse Hooggeregshof -besluit verklaar dat die gelyke beskermingsklousule van die 14de wysiging almal binne die grense van 'n staat beskerm, ongeag die immigrasiestatus. Die hof het egter 5-4 verdeel oor die vraag of "gelyke beskerming" vir onwettige vreemdelingskinders dieselfde onderrig insluit wat beskikbaar is vir kinders van Amerikaanse burgers. Die meerderheid het beklemtoon dat opvoeding veral nodig is om die ontwikkeling van 'n onderklas te voorkom, het die minderheid aangevoer dat die hof sosiale beleid volg.

Openbare onderwys is die duurste diens wat onwettige vreemdelinge in Kalifornië gebruik-onderrig vir die geskatte 300,000 tot 400,000 onwettige uitheemse kinders in skole in Kalifornië is verantwoordelik vir ongeveer die helfte van die beraamde jaarlikse koste van $ 3 miljard aan dienste wat aan die beraamde 1,7 miljoen onwettige vreemdelinge gelewer word. in Kalifornië [Kalifornië se staatsbegroting is $ 40 miljard per jaar].

Verskeie skooldistrikte het pakte saamgesnoer om die ontkenning van openbare onderwys van Prop. 187 ongrondwetlik te laat verklaar. Dit het weer protesoptrede veroorsaak en in enkele gevalle dreigemente om herroepingsveldtogte te begin teen staatsamptenare wat stem om geld uit die belastingbetaler te bestee om Prop. 187 te bestry. In Los Angeles, waar 51 persent van die kiesers Prop. 187 ondersteun het, was daar dreigemente met herroepingsveldtogte teen skoolraadslede wat gestem het om 'n regsgeding in te dien wat probeer om Prop. 187 se openbare skoolvoorskrifte om te keer. Die Staatsraad van Onderwys het op 21 November beveel dat noodvoorskrifte opgestel moet word om Prop. 187 in werking te stel in die geval dat die howe die bevel ophef wat tans die uitvoering daarvan verhinder.

Daar is verskeie scenario's wat die volgende sal wees. Goewerneur Wilson en 'n paar ondersteuners van Prop. 187 voer aan dat ongemagtigde vreemdelinge, wat nie openbare dienste kan ontvang nie, Kalifornië sal verlaat. Prop. 187-ondersteuners hoop om soortgelyke maatreëls in ander state-Arizona, Texas en Florida-te borg, en op 'n Prop.13-wyse 'n nasionale poging om die toegang van ongemagtigde immigrante tot openbare dienste te beperk.

Ander voorspel dat prop. 187, plus versterkte arbeidswetgewing en grenshandhawing, hoofsaaklik addisionele ongemagtigde immigrante sal ontmoedig om na Kalifornië te kom. Hulle waarsku dat Prop. 187 hoofsaaklik gesien moet word as 'n geskiktheidsmaatreël, nie as 'n grensbestuur of arbeidsmarkmaatreël nie.

Ten slotte is daar die moontlikheid dat prop. 187 grotendeels 'n simboliese maatstaf sal wees, net soos prop. 63. In 1986 het driekwart van die kiesers in Kalifornië gestem om Engels die staat se "amptelike taal" te maak. Prop. 63 het min invloed gehad op die manier waarop openbare aangeleenthede in Kalifornië gevoer word. As die immigrasie vertraag en die ekonomie van Kalifornië herstel, is daar sommige wat voorspel dat Prop. 187 slegs simbolies kan wees.

Joan Biskupic, "Courts Walk Fine Line on Immigration Issues Raised by California Law," A21 Laura Mecoy, "Anti-187-regsgedinge in LA bring dreigemente in herinnering," Sacramento Bee, 20 November 1994, A1 Sally Buzbee, "Many Outside CA like anti-immigrasiereg, "Associated Press, 28 November 1994.

Die Prop. 187-inisiatief begin met 'n groot voorsprong in meningspeilings-dit het 'n voorsprong van 37 punte in Julie gehad, en het middel-September 1994 met 62 tot 29 persent onder die kiesers gelei. dat soveel moontlik kiesers gekant was as wat SOS ondersteun het. Die meeste politici en meningsleiers het aangevoer dat kiesers Prop. 187 moet verwerp omdat dit 'n te stomp instrument is om die komplekse kwessie van onwettige immigrasie te hanteer.

In die week voor die verkiesing het goewerneur Wilson, wat met 55 persent van die stemme herkies is, beweer dat as SOS wet word, sal hy van staats- en plaaslike regering vereis dat hulle vermoedelike onwettige vreemdelinge moet aanmeld soos vereis deur SOS. Die prokureur-generaal van Kalifornië, Dan Lungren, wat ook herkies is, het belowe om noodregulasies op te stel om die inisiatief onmiddellik in werking te stel, maar het opgemerk dat daar geen boete is vir persone wat nie vermoedelik onwettige vreemdelinge aanmeld nie.

Wilson se veldtog het die enigste pro-SOS TV-advertensies gekoop wat uitgesaai is, terwyl die anti-SOS-veldtog bydraes van dokters en onderwysers gebruik het om anti-SOS TV-advertensies uit te voer. Aan die einde van haar veldtog het die Demokratiese uitdager Kathleen Brown se geld vir TV -advertensies opraak, en 'n draai gemaak op hoërskool- en kollege -kampusse en studente aangemoedig om te werk om SOS te verslaan.

President Clinton betoog teen SOS. Volgens Clinton, "is dit nie verkeerd dat jy [Kaliforniërs] onwettige immigrasie wil verminder nie. En dit is nie verkeerd dat jy sê dat dit 'n nasionale verantwoordelikheid is nie." Clinton het gesê dat "die federale regering meer moet doen om onwettige immigrasie te stop en om Kalifornië te help om die koste van die onwettige immigrante wat daar is, te dra", maar het 'n beroep op die kiesers in Kalifornië gedoen om SOS te verwerp en die federale regering toe te laat om "voort te gaan werk aan wat ons doen dit - versterk die grenspatrollie, versterk die sanksies teen werkgewers wat willens en wet onwettige immigrante aanstel, versterk ons ​​vermoë om onwettige immigrante uit die arbeidsmag te kry, verhoog ons vermoë om mense wat misdade gepleeg het te onttrek wat onwettige immigrante is. ” Clinton belowe dat die federale regering meer sal doen om 'Kalifornië en ander state te help om gevangenisstraf, gesondheids- en opvoedingskoste van onwettige immigrasie te hanteer'.

Sommige waarnemers meen dat Clinton moontlik sy kans om Kalifornië in die presidensiële wedloop van 1996 te verminder, verminder het deur so kragtig teen Prop. 187 te veg. Die "wit manlike terugslag" teen onwettige immigrasie kan volgens hierdie waarnemers ook manifesteer in aanvalle op regstellende aksie. en soortgelyke programme. 'N' California Civil Rights Initiative 'wat staatsregstellende aksieprogramme uitskakel, word reeds voorberei.

Die laaste dae van die veldtog is gekenmerk deur 'n groot aantal Spaanse studente wat uit die hoërskool gestap het om SOS te betoog. Volgens die mening van baie prop. 187-teenstanders was hierdie protesoptogte teenproduktief-die Mexikaanse vlae wat hulle gewaai het, het na berig word baie onbesliste kiesers oortuig om Prop.17 te ondersteun.

Die sluitingsdae van die veldtog is ook gekenmerk deur aanklagte van skynheiligheid tussen die Amerikaanse senaatskandidate Feinstein en Huffington. Beide het sterk standpunt ingeneem teen onwettige immigrasie, en albei het daarvan beskuldig dat die ander 'n onwettige uitheemse diensmeisie in diens geneem het. Feinstein het in die vroeë 1980's 'n onwettige huishoudster aangestel-voordat dit onwettig was vir 'n Amerikaanse werkgewer om bewustelik onwettige werkers te huur-en Huffington het 'n onwettige vreemdeling in die laat 1980's en vroeë 1990's aangestel, toe sodanige aanstelling onwettig was. Sommige ondersteuners van Huffington beweer dat onwettige vreemdelinge vir Feinstein stem, wat nou herkies is.

'N Meerderheid kiesers in 50 van Kalifornië se 58 provinsies het Prop.17 ondersteun-die uitsonderings was agt provinsies in San Francisco Bay Area. Volgens uitgangspeilings het 64 persent van die blankes, 57 persent van die Asiërs-Amerikaners, 56 persent van die Afro-Amerikaners en 31 persent van die Latino's ten gunste van Prop. 187 gestem. Van diegene wat ten gunste van Prop. 187 stem, stem 78 persent saam that "it sends a message that needs to be sent" and 51 percent agreed that "it will force the federal government to face the issue." Some 40 percent of voters in one exit poll said that they voted primarily because Prop. 187 was on the ballot.

Of those voting against the measure, 60 percent agreed with the statement that it "doesn't solve the problem" and about 40 percent agreed that "it would throw children out of school" and that "it is racist/anti-Latino."

California's population is 57 percent white, 25 percent Latino, nine percent Asian-American, and seven percent African American. However, voters on November 8 were 75 to 80 percent white, eight to 10 percent Latino, four to five percent Asian-American, and 10 percent African-American.

In Texas, only 35 percent of that state's 1.3 million registered Hispanic voters cast ballots. Hispanic voters supported Democratic gubernatorial candidate Ann Richards three to one over Republican George W. Bush. A study by Rhino Information Systems concluded that the 1994 election will problably be the last time Democrats can count on the Hispanic vote, as Hispanics are becoming more conservative and more Republican. Hispanic households with incomes over $27,000 per year, for example, are more likely to vote Republican than Democratic. Exit polls in Texas found that Hispanics favor increased border patrols to halt illegal immigration, but they oppose Prop. 187-like measures.

Prop. 187 was based on the theory that changes in immigrant policy would affect immigration policy--denying public services to unauthorized aliens would discourage them from coming to the US. Governor Wilson asserted that, since public services were a magnet for at least some unauthorized aliens, denying them services would encourage them to leave California.

There were conflicting reports after November 8 about the behavior of unauthorized immigrants. Some hospitals and clinics reported sharply fewer patients, and there were scattered reports that some of the estimated 300,000 to 400,000 unauthorized children in California schools were not going to school. However, most health facilities and schools reported business as usual.

In one widely-reported case, illegal alien parents reportedly did not seek medical care for their 12-year old son for fear of deportation to Mexico. He subsequently died. Many service providers printed up materials in their clients' language explaining that nothing had changed, and that patients and students would not be asked to prove legal status before they received services.

There were also numerous workshops on campuses, in churches, and in ethnic communities in which speakers decried the passage of Prop. 187 and urged opponents to get politically involved. Some speakers denounced the "racism" that, they asserted, motivated the vote, and some asserted that unauthorized immigrants report "feeling hatred" in the streets.

Activists in several other states threatened to boycott California in retaliation for the approval of Prop. 187. Denver's mayor urged city residents to boycott California, and the 110,000 member League of United Latin American Citizens said that most of its December conference would be devoted to planning a California boycott. Several other Hispanic organizations announced that they would not hold conventions in California, and some Hispanic leaders urged a boycott of Disneyland to send a signal of their dissatisfaction with the California vote.

Denying public services to unauthorized aliens may not be easy because many California households include persons with different legal statuses. In so-called "mixed families," family members include US citizens, legal immigrants, and unauthorized persons. Some fear that, if a US citizen or legal immigrant seeks services to which they are entitled, they may expose an unauthorized family member to immigration authorities. To prevent such detection, many public employees pledged not to comply with Prop. 187's verification requirements, which have not yet gone into effect.

Prominent Republicans scrapped over immigration. Former cabinet secretaries Bill Bennett and Jack Kemp attacked California Governor Wilson for supporting Prop. 187. They argued that immigrants are "natural Republicans" who support low taxes and family values, and that Wilson risks turning the Republican party into a party of protectionism and xenophobia. According to Bennett, "its assimilation, stupid"--meaning that the major problem is not the number or type of immigrant entering the US. Instead, Bennett argues that fears that newcomers will not integrate into American society result from "too many" programs such as bilingual education that, he argues, promotes multiculturalism.

Governor Wilson responded that the Republicans should hew to a law and order line, and emphasize the sharp distinction between legal and illegal immigrants. According to Wilson, the U.S. Border Patrol has a "Mission Impossible" task trying to keep people from entering the US illegally, but the federal government guarantees services and benefits "to everyone who succeeds in evading the Border Patrol."

Incoming House of Representatives Speaker Gingrich assured Wilson that he believes the federal government should either fully reimburse states for the costs they incur to provide services to illegal aliens, or eliminate the requirement that the states provide services to them.

The conservative magazine National Review weighed in on the side of Wilson, asserting that the economic benefits of immigration are small, and that immigration threatens national identity because it promotes multiculturalism and the welfare state.

Ronald Brownstien, "Wilson Proposes U.S. Version Of Prop. 187, " Los Angeles Times, November 19, 1994, A1. Roberto Suro, "Kemp Says Battle Over Immigration Policy May Rend Republicans," Washington Post, November 22, 1994, A10. B. Drummund Ayres, "New Fears for California's Undocumented Aliens," New York Times, November 21, 1994, A10. James Borhemeier, "Kemp, Bennett Warn of GOP Rift over Prop. 187," Los Angeles Times, November 22, 1994, A1. Brad Hayward, "Wilson Lashed on Immigration," Sacramento Bee, November 22, 1994, A1. "Why Kemp and Bennett Are Wrong on Immigration," National Review, November 21, 1994. Paul Feldman and Patrick McDonnell, Prop. 187 Sponsors Swept up in National Whirlwind," Los Angeles Times, November 14, 1994. "Hispanic Vote Becoming More Conservative, Study Finds," Houston Post, November 19, 1994.

After Prop. 187--Labor Law Enforcement

In campaigning against SOS, the Clinton Administration asserted that policy initiatives already underway would prove more effective at curbing illegal immigration. For example, on November 2, Labor Secretary Robert Reich asserted that a Department of Labor crackdown against the employers of illegal aliens would curb illegal immigration by denying them jobs.

Reich announced that a Georgia onion grower and the farm labor contractor that brought immigrant workers to his farm have been assessed a penalty of $1.2 million, including $675,000 in back wages, for paying farmworkers less than the minimum wage and violating other farm labor protection laws. According to Reich, if US employers are unable to pay less than minimum wages, US workers are more likely to be attracted to jobs now filled by illegal aliens.

According to Reich, employers of illegal aliens also violate other laws, so that penalizing employers who hire illegal aliens in order to pay below minimum wages will help to curb illegal immigration. In a sweep of 44 southern California garment shops, 41, or 95 percent, were found to be violating federal labor laws, and 40 percent of the workers in these shops were illegal aliens. In 1993, DOL ordered employers to pay $3.1 million to underpaid workers, up 30 percent from 1992.

Labor law enforcement has traditionally depended on complaints, because it is too expensive to randomly check on the six million employers in the US and the 750,000 employers in California. Some opponents of Prop. 187 argue that, instead of putting more resources into verifying the legal status of applicants for public services, we should put more effort into enforcing labor laws--if employers could not "exploit" illegal alien workers, this argument runs, illegal aliens would be less likely to be hired and thus less likely to come to the US.

Brad Hayward, "Better Solution than Prop. 187, Reich Says," Sacramento Bee, November 3, 1994, A6. Wall Street Journal, November 3, 1994, A4. Robert Scheer, "Instead of 187: Enforcement of Labor Laws," Los Angeles Times, November 20, 1994.

After Prop. 187--Hispanic Political Activism

Hispanics are about 28 percent of California's 32 million people, but they are just 15 percent of the state's eligible voters, and they cast only eight to nine percent of the November 8 ballots. Many are too young to vote, many adults are not US citizens, and many Hispanic US citizens do not vote.

About 2.7 million illegal aliens were legalized in 1987-88 and, after a period of temporary residence, most became legal immigrants after October 1988. These immigrants became eligible to become US citizens in October 1993. As a result of the Prop. 187 campaign, many school districts that offer citizenship classes expect enrollment to jump--in the case of the Los Angeles School District, from an average 500 to 25,000 by January 1995. About 90,000 immigrants became US citizens in Los Angeles in 1994, double the 1993 level--315,000 aliens became naturalized US citizens in 1993.

Hispanic high school and college students were especially active in opposing SOS, walking out of class frequently in late October and early November. Several commentators predicted that the activism born of opposition to SOS would be a defining moment for Hispanics, turning them into a political force in the same way that the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s encouraged Blacks to participate in the political process.

After Prop. 187--US-Mexican Relations

Many commentators were surprised by the active opposition of the Mexican government to Prop. 187 , and the extensive coverage of the campaign for and against Prop. 187 in the Mexican media. In his final state-of-the-nation address, Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari asserted that "Mexico affirms rejection of this xenophobic campaign, and will continue to act in defense of the labor and human rights of our migrant workers," although he acknowledged that Mexico could not hope to use economic sanctions against the US or California to protest the approval of Prop. 187.

Ernesto Zedillo, who becomes Mexico's President on December 1, asserted during his November trip to Washington, DC that Mexico "cannot object to legitimate enforcement of US laws," but Mexico objects to "enforcement [that] might lead to deprivation or violation of basic human rights. [including] education and health care." The Mexican government promised to contribute attorneys and funds to fight Proposition 187 in US courts.

A week after SOS was enacted, President Salinas called on the US to discuss a bilateral agreement that would permit Mexicans to work legally in the US under a guestworker program. According to Salinas, the movement of Mexican workers to the US "is inevitable, and it is better to order and regulate it than to confront it with administrative measures that are not going to stop it because the force of the economies is greater." Governor Wilson, in a widely reported November 18 speech to the Heritage Foundation, announced his support for a program to import Mexican guestworkers.

Knowledgeable US observers are skeptical, doubting that the Zedillo Administration will make the enactment of what would be a controversial guestworker program a top priority. Indeed, some advise the Mexican government that any guestworker proposal in the current US political climate could be counterproductive. The Mexican government does not want to have the US close the safety valve on which several million of its citizens depend. Mexico sees no significant lessening of emigration pressures during the 1990s.

The scenario for Mexico requesting and the US negotiating a guestworker program in 1995 runs something like this. Labor shortages develop, perhaps in the May 1995 Oregon strawberry harvest. The INS meanwhile, concludes that Operation Gatekeeper has succeeded in reducing the influx of illegal aliens, and discusses ways to make legal border crossings easier. US employers argue that the current H-2 programs under which foreign workers may be imported to the US in the event of labor shortages is too inflexible, and Mexico asks for a bilateral program that recognizes its proximity and the tradition of US employers hiring Mexican workers.

In such a scenario, the discussion could very quickly shift from whether there should be a guestworker program with Mexico to what kind of program. Given Prop. 187, it is already clear that any guestworkers would have little access to US public services while here, and that a significant portion of their wages are likely to be withheld to encourage their return.

Several newspapers have suggested that the guestworker idea proposed by Salinas would be the best way to engage in "immigration damage control." The Sacramento Bee, for example, editorialized on November 16, 1994 that a guestworker program could protect Mexican workers who are temporarily in the US and prove that California welcomes foreign workers who "play by the rules."

A few days before the California election, protesters vandalized a McDonalds' restaurant in Mexico City to protest the passage of Prop. 187. California exports goods and services worth about $7 billion annually to Mexico, and several Mexicans urged a boycott of Disneyland to "send a message" to California. Some businessmen fear that Mexico may shun California firms when it requests bids for projects to upgrade Mexico's infrastructure.

Mexicans continue to be apprehended attempting entry into the US, about 700 per night in San Diego. Deputy Foreign Minister Rozenthal predicted that, as North America integrates economically under NAFTA, "immigration is going to be the No. 1 issue between the US and Mexico for the next several years."

Mexico's economy is expected to grow by 3.5 percent in 1994, and US-Mexico trade is booming, up about 20 percent in 1994. US airlines in 1993 flew more passengers to Latin America--15.8 million--than to Europe--15.6 million--or across the Pacific--13.6 million.

Between January and October 1994, Mexico deported 60,000 illegal aliens who entered the country through its southern border.

Immigration is likely to be a central issue during December's Summit of the Americas in Miami. Leaders of several Central American countries are expected to tell President Clinton that their economies must grow faster in order to stem the flow of illegal immigrants to the north. Central American leaders have begun an intensive lobbying effort to prevent the return of their citizens after the passage of Prop. 187 and the threat of not renewing temporary protected status for El Salvadorans(see related story on El Salvador).

Tim Golden, "Government Joins Attack on Ballot Idea," New York Times, November 4, 1994, A13. Todd Robertson, "Salinas, Other Mexicans Protest California Anti-Immigrant Vote," Washington Post, November 10, 1994, A49, 55 Tim Golden, "Salinas Urges Talks on Free Migrant Flow," New York Times, November 14, 1994, A10. "Immigration damage control," Sacramento Bee, November 16, 1994, B6 Mexico deports 60,000 illegal aliens this year, The Xinhua News Agency, November 3, 1994


Let’s start at the sixth boro’s own Kearny Point. Federal Ship Building & Dry Dock used to be there. On December 1, 1943, a time when that place was turning out a vessel a week or so, hull #303 was delivered as USS Stern, DE-187. After eight years as a USN vessel, she was transferred to the Netherlands as F-811, HNLMS Van Zijll, her identity until 1967 when she was returned to the US and scrapped.

John van der Doe, frequent contributor on this blog, sailed on F-811 around the world in 1954󈞣, as he says “employed with the US Naval Task-force Pacific fleet 4 or 6 (forgot the number) during the Korean war.”

Port Said, 1954, north entrance to the Suez Canal. The large statue shows Ferdinand de Lesseps. A few years later, the statue was dynamited as celebration of the nationalization of the Canal.

Hong Kong, awaiting orders.

hier. That background landscape is still recognizable today.

Click here for some more of that era.

Original “mule” style. Click here (and scroll) for photos of the mules from 2012. I wonder what the next generation will be.

And here’s a photo of the Kearny-built vessel taking on stores in Ponta Delgada, Azores.

Later, Jan took this photo in then-Leningrad. I believe that’s St. Isaac’s Cathedral.


Titanic: Before and After

Because of a shortage of lifeboats and the lack of satisfactory emergency procedures, more than 1,500 people went down in the sinking ship or froze to death in the icy North Atlantic waters. Most of the 700 or so survivors were women and children. A number of notable American and British citizens died in the tragedy, including the noted British journalist William Thomas Stead and heirs to the Straus, Astor and Guggenheim fortunes.

One hour and 20 minutes after Titanic went down, the Cunard liner Carpathia aangekom. The survivors in the lifeboats were brought aboard, and a handful of others were pulled out of the water. It was later discovered that the Leyland liner Californian had been less than 20 miles away at the time of the accident but had failed to hear the Titanic‘s distress signals because its radio operator was off duty.

Announcement of details of the tragedy led to outrage on both sides of the Atlantic. In the disaster’s aftermath, the first International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea was held in 1913. Rules were adopted requiring that every ship have lifeboat space for each person on board, and that lifeboat drills be held. An International Ice Patrol was established to monitor icebergs in the North Atlantic shipping lanes. It was also required that ships maintain a 24-hour radio watch.


Edition 1:87

Designed as a multirole, lightweight transportation helicopter, the German armed forces received their first batch of four Bell UH-1Ds in the spring of 1966. Of altogether 352 Bell UH-1Ds in service with the German armed forces, 345 were manufactured under license at Dornier. 132 of them were delivered to the German Air Force. With over 7,000 units of the Bell UH-1 built, it is by far the most numerous rotary-wing aircraft in aviation history. Schuco is going to produce a miniature model of this Bell UH 1D to a scale of 1:87. Military models come with a metal body and chassis. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Bell UH-1H US Army 1:87

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Boxer Transportpanzer BW 1:87

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Fuchs infantry transport vehicle "ISAF", 1:87

They began developing an armoured, all-terrain, light-wheeled tank for the German Armed Forces as early as 1961. The 6-wheeled Fox armoured personnel carrier was then introduced in the mid-1960&rsquos as a successor to the small Hotchkiss infantry combat vehicle and the M113 armoured personnel carrier. As well as the driver and front passenger, the Fox can carry up to eight soldiers in its rear compartment and, up to 1993, over 1,000 were purchased by the German Armed Forces. The Fox is used in a wide range of areas in the force in various configurations and has a range of up to 800 kilometres. Its maximum speed is at least 105 km/h. Schuco is going to produce a miniature model of this Fuchs to a scale of 1:87. Military models come with a metal body and chassis. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Leopard 2A1 infantry combat vehicle "Bundeswehr", 1:87

Produced since 1979 and in service with the German armed forces, the Leopard 2 battle tank is the successor to the Leopard 1. It is manufactured in different variants and stages of development at Krauss-Maffei-Wegmann, the latest variant being the Leopard 2A7. The Leopard 2A1 on which the Schuco model is based was built between 1982 and 1984 (750 were made), weighed 60 tons and, driven by a 1,500 PS 12-cylinder diesel engine, reached a top speed of about 70 km/h . Schuco is going to produce a miniature model of this Leopard 2A1 to a scale of 1:87. Military models come with a metal body and chassis. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Leopard 2A6 BUNDESWEHR 1:87

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Liebherr Radlader 550 BW 1:87

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

M47G infantry combat vehicle "Bundeswehr", 1:87

The M47 Patton battle tank was an American tank from the Cold War. The Army Department&lsquos official designation for the M47 was - M47 Medium Tank &ndash 90 mm Gun. The vehicle was named after General George S. Patton, the extremely popular but not uncontroversial commander of the 3rd US army during World War 2. Since Germany still had none of its own newly-developed tanks in the mid-1950s, it was decided to purchase a total of 1100 M47 tanks from the Americans. The first M-47 battle tank was handed over to the German Army on 19.01.1956 in Andernach. At the time, it was a major advantage to the German Army that the US Army had started to convert its tank units from the M-47 to the new M-48 in 1955. Because of this, used M-47 tanks were available at low cost or even free of charge in some cases. Only 600 of the 8500 M47 tanks which were built were delivered to the US Army. The remaining 8000 or so tanks were delivered to the NATO partners of the USA during the Cold War period. Schuco is going to produce a miniature model of this M47G infantry combat vehicle to a scale of 1:87. Military models come with a metal body and chassis. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

MAN Truck 5t gl 1:87

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Marder 1A2 BUNDESWEHR 1:87

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Mercedes-Benz -/8 commander vehicle "Bundeswehr", 1:87

The Mercedes-Benz /8 was introduced in 1968 and was the successor of the legendary Mercedes-Benz Fintail. As a 200-series model, the vehicle produced 95 PS and reached a top speed of up to 165 km/h. Many /8 vehicles were also procured by the German Army during the course of their construction period, when they were mainly used as commander vehicles for division commanders. Schuco is going to produce a miniature model of this Mercedes-Benz -/8 to a scale of 1:87. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Mercedes-Benz LG 315 Tank truck "Bundeswehr", 1:87

From 1955 onwards it was an important task to equip the new German army with reliable 5-ton trucks. Following a very comprehensive tendering process, MAN and Mercedes-Benz emerged as the winners. The LG 315 was a further development of the L 4500 army truck, and was delivered with an all-steel driver&rsquos cab from 1957 onwards. From mid-1958 the Daimler-Benz 315 was exclusively produced with the standard driver&rsquos cab and a folding soft top. More than 6600 of these vehicles were supplied to the German army over the course of time. The long-bonnet vehicle was powered by a 6-cylinder multifuel engine with a capacity of 8276 ccm and output of 145 BHP. Its unladen weight was a respectable 7.7 tons. Schuco is going to produce a miniature model of this Mercedes-Benz LG 315 to a scale of 1:87. Military models come with a metal body and chassis. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Mercedes-Benz O302 Bus "Bundeswehr", 1:87

Under the internal designation KOM gr (a long-distance coach), the Mercedes-Benz O302 was procured by the German armed forces as far back as the mid 1960s. Vehicles such as the O302 are used whenever large numbers of people need to be transported over long distances in comfort as well as economically. Variants based on the Mercedes-Benz O302 were also procured that could be converted into ambulances (KrKw gr) without great effort. Schuco is going to produce a miniature model of this Mercedes-Benz O302 to a scale of 1:87. Military models come with a metal body and chassis. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Puma infantry combar vehicle "Bundeswehr", camouflaged, 1:87

The Puma armoured infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) supplied to the German armed forces since 2015 as a successor to the Marder, is currently the heaviest and also the most powerful IFV worldwide by virtue of its MTU-V10 diesel engine which outputs 1,090 PS. The vehicle developed and produced by KMW and Rheinmetall achieves a range of up to 600 kilometres with a three-man crew and a squad of up to six infantry men on board. Schuco is going to produce a miniature model of this Puma IFV to a scale of 1:87. Military models come with a metal body and chassis. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Self-propelled gun 2000 "Bundeswehr", camouflaged, 1:87

The armoured howitzer 2000, or PzH 2000 for short, was adopted by the German armed forces in 1998. The self-propelled armoured piece of artillery is manufactured by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) and Rheinmetall and has also been procured by other European NATO member states. With an unladen weight of just under 50 tons, the artillery piece reaches speeds of 60 km/h on the road and 45 km/h off-road. This is with an operational range of up to 420 kilometres. Schuco is going to produce a miniature model of this howitzer 2000 to a scale of 1:87. Military models come with a metal body and chassis. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Serval ISAF "KSK", camouflage, 1:87

The Serval lightweight, all-wheel drive, air-transportable multipurpose vehicle was originally developed to meet the needs of special operations forces of the German military and for use in Afghanistan. The Serval, which is based on the Mercedes-Benz G-Class, is also known as a Wolf AGF (reconnaissance and combat vehicle) or LIV (SO) Light Infantry Vehicle (Special Operations). As is usual for special forces vehicles, the Serval&lsquos distinguishing features are comparatively powerful weaponry and optional degrees of armouring. Schuco is going to produce a miniature model of this Serval to a scale of 1:87. Military models come with a metal body and chassis. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Set winter camouflage 1:87

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Tank companie "Bundeswehr", camouflaged, 1:87

From the autumn of 1981, in accordance with the Army Structure 4, the Tank Battalion 543 (TkBtl) was issued. A tank company consisted at that time of three tank platoons, each with four battle tanks as well as a battle tank for the company commander. The company was supplemented by a crew transport tank such as the M113, a truck and a VW bus. The Schuco Military 1:87 Series Tank Platoon constitutes a typical TkBtl 543 platoon. Military models come with a metal body and chassis. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Tankhowitzer M-109G 1:87

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Truck 5t gl MAN 630 L2A 1:87

Following its establishment in 1955, the Bundeswehr (German armed forces) was in desperate need of a reliable 5-tonne truck. This led to a extensive tendering process in the German truck industry, from which Mercedes-Benz and MAN emerged as the ultimate victors. The MAN 630 L2A and MAN 630 L2AE variants of the MAN 630 were subsequently delivered to the Bundeswehr starting in 1958. The L2AE variant was equipped with single tyres. Approximately 20,000 models of this variant were purchased by the Bundeswehr. Both the MAN 630 L2A and L2AE were all-wheel drive trucks suitable for high terrain and featured a 136 hp multi-fuel engine with an 8.275 litre capacity.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Truck 5t gl MAN 630 L2AE 1:87

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Unimog S404 BUNDESWEHR 1:87

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

VW T3 bus "Bundeswehr", camouflaged, 1:87

As the vehicle designation already indicates, the VW T3 was the third generation of transporters from the Volkswagen Group. The T3 was produced between 1979 and 1992, and gradually superseded the many VW T2&rsquos in the many different troop units in the German Army from the beginning of the 1980&rsquos. Here the T3 was used as an 8-seater for carrying personnel, as an ambulance vehicle, as a military police vehicle and as a flatbed truck for transporting materials. Schuco is going to produce a miniature model of this VW T3 bus to a scale of 1:87. Military models come with a metal body and chassis. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

VW T5 Bus "Bundeswehr", 1:87

The kit carrier most commonly used by the German armed forces continues to be the Volkswagen T4 Transporter. But it is gradually being replaced by its successor, the VW T5. Schuco is going to produce a miniature model of this VW T5 bus to a scale of 1:87. Military models come with a metal body and chassis. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

VW Typ 181 Kübelwagen "Bundeswehr", camouflaged, 1:87

Originally developed and produced for use by the German army, exactly 15,275 of the VW Type 181 partially militarised courier cars (Pkw 0.4 t tmil 4×2) (2 of 4 wheels driven and 0.4 ton payload) were supplied to the German armed forces between 1969 and 1979. The Type 181 often also referred to as the VW Kübelwagen (bucket-seat car) was later also offered for sale to authorities and private customers. In the USA, the Type 181 very quickly acquired cult status and was nicknamed &bdquoThe Thing&ldquo. Schuco is going to produce a miniature model of this VW 181 to a scale of 1:87. Military models come with a metal body and chassis. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.

Waarskuwing! Not suitable for children under 14 years.

Wolf G military police "Feldjäger", 1:87

Daimler-Benz and its Austrian development partner Steyr-Puch were commissioned to build the Wolf in 1968 as a successor to both the VW Iltis (LKW 0.5 t gl) and the VW Type 181 Kübelwagen (PKW 0.4 t). Based on the Mercedes-Benz G-Class, around 12,000 of the Wolf LKW 0.5t gl vehicles were supplied to the German armed forces in about 50 different variants, divided among the three wheelbases of 2,400, 2,850 and 3,120 mm. Schuco is going to produce a miniature model of this Wolf G to a scale of 1:87. Military models come with a metal body and chassis. As is expected of Schuco models, a number of key features have been reproduced exactly with the greatest attention to detail.