Familie van Septimius Severus

Familie van Septimius Severus



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Severan Tondo

Die Severan Tondo of Berlynse Tondo vanaf ongeveer 200 nC, is een van die min voorbeelde van paneelskilderye uit die klassieke oudheid, wat die eerste twee geslagte van die keiserlike Severaanse dinastie uitbeeld, wie se lede die Romeinse Ryk in die laat 2de en vroeë 3de eeu regeer het. Dit beeld die Romeinse keiser Septimius Severus (r. 193–211) saam met sy gesin uit: sy vrou, die augusta Julia Domna, en hul twee seuns en mede-augusti Caracalla (r. 198–217) en Geta (r. 209–211). Die gesig van een van die twee broers is doelbewus uitgevee, waarskynlik as deel van damnatio memoriae. [1]

Die Severan Tondo
Jaar2de eeu nC
Afmetings30,5 cm deursnee (12,0 in)
LiggingAntikensammlung, Altes Museum, Berlyn

Aan die regterkant van die kyker is Septimius Severus, en links Julia Domna. Voor hulle is die seuns Caracalla en Geta, waarskynlik die figuur met die uitgevee gesig aan die linkerkant van die kyker en effens agterop die ander seun. Almal dra versierde goue kranse en keiserlike kentekens, waarvan 'n paar besonderhede verlore geraak het. Nadat die houttondo's ontstaan ​​het uit die oudheidsbedryf, is dit onbekend voordat dit in die 20ste eeu die Antikensammlung Berlyn (inventarisnommer 31329) binnegekom het. Dit is nou in die Altes -museum.


Genesis van die Afrika -keiser: Septimius Severus se opkoms tot mag

Septimius Severus is gebore in 'n prominente en welgestelde familie van olyfoliemagnate in Leptis Magna in die huidige Libië in 145 nC. Besoekers aan die Romeinse oorblyfsels by Leptis Magna kan die boog van Septimius Severus bewonder, wat vandag nog staan ​​en 'n UNESCO -beskermde monument is. Sy honger na sukses het hom in 161 van Afrika na Rome gelei, waar sy kontakte hom toegang tot die magtige senatoriale geledere gegee het.

Septimius sou uiteindelik in 211 nC sterf in York (destyds bekend as Eboracum), die hoofstad van Britannia, die Noord -Romeinse provinsie.

Dit was sy familielid, Gaius Septimius Severus, wat hom gepraat het en hom by die destydse Romeinse keiser Marcus Aurelius aanbeveel het toe hy die eerste keer in Rome aangekom het. Severus het vinnig opgestaan ​​deur verskillende staatsamptenare, bekend as die cursus honorum , en teen die jaar 170 het hy die politieke mag verkry wat hy so begeer het deur in die senaat toegelaat te word. Hy is aangestel as 'n Legatus, 'n senior pos in die Romeinse legioen, sowel as 'n punt van sy klas.

Sy eerste vrou, Paccia Marciana, kom ook uit dieselfde stad Leptis Magna, en hul huwelik duur meer as tien jaar totdat sy skielik in 186 aan natuurlike oorsake sterf.

Septimius Severus was 'n gelowige in die kuns van astrologie en het baie moeite gedoen om enige tekens en voortekens uit die geesteswêreld te volg. Nadat hy 'n profesie gehoor het, trou Septimius Severus in 187 met Julia Domna, 'n welgestelde aristokraat wat in Emesa in Sirië gebore is, terwyl hy as die Romeinse goewerneur in Gallië dien in die stad wat vandag bekend staan ​​as Lyon in Frankryk. Saam het hulle twee seuns gehad, Caracalla en Geta, wat Severus van sy nalatenskap en die begin van die Severn -dinastie verseker het.

Septimius Severus saam met sy vrou Julia Domna, en sy twee seuns, Geta en Caracalla. Let daarop dat die gesig van Geta vernietig is. ( José Luiz Bernardes Ribeiro )


Die belangrikste keisers van Rome

Na die sluipmoord op Commodus in 192 nC, die goewerneur van Bo -Pannonia, wag Lucius Septimius Severus op die regte geleentheid om sy mag te doen.

Vroeg in die daaropvolgende jaar marsjeer hy op Rome, onder voorwendsel van wraak vir die kortstondige keiser Pertinax, wat dan verhef is deur die Praetoriaanse wag. By sy aankoms in Rome ontbind Severus die Praetoriane en werf sy eie manne in 'n nuwe wag. Daarna gaan hy oor die senaat en die mense en wen hy sy belangrikste mededingers: Clodius Albinus (verklaar as keiser in Brittanje) en Pescennius Niger, (uitgeroep deur die oostelike troepe).

Die burgeroorloë was teen 197 nC verby, toe Severus sy aandag op die weermag gevestig het. Alle keisers het baie goed geweet dat die ware bron van hul mag lê in die ondersteuning van die troepe, want met gewapende steun kon hulle alle opposisie onderdruk. Sonder dit kan hulle baie maklik verwyder word. Severus was die eerste om openlik toe te gee dat die weermag sy keiserlike mag verskerp het, en hy het die soldate dienooreenkomstig beloon.

Hy het hulle 'n loonverhoging gegee - die eerste vir baie dekades - en het hulle meer voorregte gegee. Hy het geweet dat diens in die weermag aantrekliker gemaak moet word. 'N Ander vernuwing was om die keiserlike huis van die bevolking te distansieer deur homself en sy gesin heilig te maak en 'n presedent te skep wat aan die einde van die derde eeu deur Aurelianus en Diocletianus tot uiterstes gebring is.

Ooit die realis, op sy sterfbed in York in 211 nC, het Severus sy seuns aangesê om na die soldate om te sien en almal te ignoreer.


Severus: Rome se eerste Afrika -keiser

In 193 nC word Lucius Septimius Severus aangewys as heerser van die Romeinse Ryk en word hy sodoende die eerste Afrika -keiser van Rome. Nadat Severus uit 'n tydperk van burgeroorlog as oorwinnaars uit die stryd getree het, het die grens van die ryk tot nuwe hoogtes uitgebrei, 'n periode van keiserlike transformasie ingelui en 'n dinastie gestig.

Severus, gebore in AD 145 in die prominente Romeinse Libiese stad Leptis Magna in Afrika, kom uit 'n welgestelde en prominente plaaslike familie. In 162 nC gaan Severus na Rome en kry hy toegang tot die senatoriale geledere nadat sy neef Gaius Septimius Severus hom by keiser Marcus Aurelius aanbeveel het.

Severus het deur die geledere van die cursus honorum (openbare ampte van aspirant -Romeinse politici) gestyg, in 170 AD na die Romeinse senaat toegetree en aangestel as legatus, 'n senior pos in die Romeinse leër, in AD 173 nadat sy neef prokonsul geword het van die provinsie Afrika.

Twee jaar later trou hy met Paccia Marciana, 'n vrou uit sy tuisstad Leptis Magna. Die huwelik sou 'n bietjie meer as tien jaar duur voordat Marciana in 186 aan natuurlike oorsake oorlede is. 'N Jaar later tydens sy tyd as goewerneur van Gallië en woonagtig in die stad Lugdunum (moderne Lyon in Frankryk), trou Severus met Julia Domna uit Sirië en die egpaar sou twee seuns hê - Lucius Septimius Bassianus (later die bynaam Caracalla na die tuniek met 'n Galliese kap) hy het altyd gedra) en Publius Septimius Geta.

In 191 nC het die destydse keiser Commodus Severus tot goewerneur van Pannonia Superor, 'n provinsie aan die Donau -grens, gemaak. Die jaar daarna word Commodus vermoor en in 193 nC word sy opvolger Publius Helvius Pertinax tot keiser verklaar, in die jaar van die vyf keisers - 'n tyd waarin vyf mans die titel van Romeinse keiser opgeëis het.

Die bewind van Pertinax sou net 86 dae duur voordat 'n ontevrede Praetorian Guard (huishoudelike troepe van die Romeinse keisers), ongelukkig met Pertinax se pogings om strenger dissipline in hul geledere af te dwing, hom vermoor het.

Die Praetorian Guard het daarna iets merkwaardigs gedoen en die keiserskap aan die hoogste bieër opgeveil. Die welgestelde senator Didius Julianus het die meeste geld vir hul ondersteuning aangebied en daarna die pos verseker.

Hoe Julianus na bo gekom het, het hom baie ongewild gemaak in Rome en as sodanig het drie kandidate na vore gekom as mededingers op die keiserlike troon - Clodius Albinus (goewerneur van Brittanje), Pescennius Niger (goewerneur van Sirië) en Severus (goewerneur van Gallië) ). Deur die bevel oor die grootste leër wat die naaste aan Rome was, het Severus die oorhand gehad. Hy het die steun van Albinus verseker deur hom die titel van keiser te bied, en sodoende vir hom 'n plek in die keiserlike opvolging verseker as Severus suksesvol sou wees.

In Junie 193 marsjeer Severus na Rome en verklaar homself die wreker van Pertinax en voordat hy selfs die stad binnekom, word hy deur die Senaat tot keiser verklaar. Julianus is in die paleis tereggestel nadat hy slegs 66 dae lank regeer het.

Severus het vinnig sy mag in Rome verseker deur die huidige Praetorian Guard te ontbind en sy geledere te vul met soldate wat aan hom lojaal was, asook drie nuwe legioene op te rig. In 194 nC wou Severus enige bedreiging van Niger in Sirië onderdruk en verslaan hom tydens die Slag van Issus. Terwyl hy in die Ooste was, het Severus sy magte gedraai teen die Partiese vasale wat Niger ondersteun het.

Met sy volgende stap het hy in konflik gekom met sy kort bondgenoot Albinus. In die hoop om 'n gesinsdinastie te bewerkstellig, verklaar Severus sy oudste seun Caracalla as keiser, wat die bande met Albinus effektief verbreek en die opvolgende hoop wat die goewerneur van Brittanje sou gehad het, kon verbreek. Albinus het daarna in Gallië ingeloop en die magte van die twee mans het in 197 nC bots tydens die hard geveg van Lugdunum - 'n geveg wat die grootste en bloedigste van alle botsings tussen die Romeinse magte was. Severus het as oorwinnaars uit die stryd getree en volle beheer oor die Romeinse Ryk verkry.

Daarna het hy 'n suiwering van die Romeinse senaat uitgevoer en iemand wat hom teëgestaan ​​het of Albinus guns bewys het, uitgevoer. Severus voer toe 'n suksesvolle veldtog teen die Partiese Ryk in die Ooste, vermoedelik as weerwraak vir hul steun aan Niger. Sy magte het die Partiese hoofstad Ctesiphon afgedank en die noordelike helfte van Mesopotamië by die ryk gevoeg. Vir sy pogings is 'n triomfboog ter ere van Severus in die Roman Forum opgerig.

Wees goed teenoor mekaar, verryk die soldate en verdoem die res.

Severus het die Romeinse Ryk verder uitgebrei met veldtogte in Afrika en Brittanje. Hy het aansienlike winste in Caledonië (moderne Skotland) behaal en Hadrian's Wall versterk, maar het sy einddoelwit bereik om die hele Britse eiland onder sy bewind te bring.

Dit was in Romeinse Brittanje dat Severus sy laaste dae sou sien. Die gesondheid wat waarskynlik deur jig veroorsaak is, het die keiser wat in 211 op 65 -jarige ouderdom oorlede is, erg geëis. Op sy sterfbed word gesê dat hy die volgende advies aan sy seuns gee: 'Wees goed vir mekaar, verryk die soldate en verdoem die res. 'Dit was sy behandeling van die soldate wat Severus se bewind verseker het. In sy militêre hervormings het loonverhogings vir soldate plaasgevind, tesame met die opheffing van die huweliksverbod, sodat militêre mans vroue kon hê. Sy behandeling van die weermag sou 'n model word wat toekomstige keisers sou navolg.

Severus was ook gewild onder die Romeinse volk en het stabiliteit gebring na die ondeugde en korrupsie van Commodus se bewind. Hy het ook 'n ryk agtergelaat wat ongeveer 5 miljoen vierkante kilometer strek, die grootste wat dit ooit was.

Sy twee seuns Caracalla en Geta het gesamentlik die troon geërf en 'n rukkie later om vrede met die Caledoniërs gedagvaar en die Romeinse grens is agter Hadrianus se muur teruggebring. Rome sou nooit weer so ver in Caledonië veldtog voer nie.

As hulle hul pa se advies om burgerlik met mekaar te ignoreer, ignoreer, het die verhouding tussen die twee broers gedaal tot die punt dat lede van die Praetorian Guard lojaal aan Caracalla Geta vermoor het, waarskynlik op bevel van Caracalla self. Na 'n grootskaalse opruiming van almal wat getrou is aan Geta, waarvan ongeveer 20 000 mense gedood is, het Caracalla in 212 nC die totale beheer van die keiserskap oorgeneem.

Hy het egter ag geslaan op die woorde van sy vader aangaande die behandeling van soldate, die jaarlikse loonverhoging verhoog en homself dikwels as een van hulle tydens die veldtog uitbeeld.

Sy veldtog teen die Alemanni (Germaanse stamme aan die Bo -Rynrivier) het 'n mate van sukses behaal, terwyl sy Partiese veldtog in die Ooste weinig bereik het. Sy opvallendste daad was die bekendstelling van die Constitutio Antoniniana (Antonine Grondwet), wat burgerskap verleen het aan alle vrye inwoners regoor die Romeinse Ryk.

Uiteindelik sterf Caracalla op 29 -jarige ouderdom en word die slagoffer van 'n sluipmoord deur 'n Praetorian Guard. Die ou bronne beeld hom uit as een van die slegste mense wat na die keiserlike troon opgevaar het, wreed regeer en hom as 'n tiran gedra.


SCHILLER. Gesch. der rom. Kaiserzeit, I (Gotha, 1883) REVILLE, La religion a Rome sous les Sereres (Parys, 1886) NEUMANN, Der romische Staat und die allgemeine Kirche, I (Leipzig, 1890) DE CAVALIERI, La Passio SS. Perpetuae et Felicitatis (Rome, 1896) VON DOMASZEWSKI, Gesch. der r & oumlmischen Kaiser (Leipzig, 1909) DURUY, Hist. van Rome, tr. RIPLEY (Boston, 1894).

APA -aanhaling. Hoeber, K. (1912). Septimius Severus. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13721a.htm

MLA -aanhaling. Hoeber, Karl. "Septimius Severus." Die Katolieke ensiklopedie. Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. & lthttp: //www.newadvent.org/cathen/13721a.htm>.

Transkripsie. Hierdie artikel is getranskribeer vir New Advent deur Joseph E. O'Connor.


Lepcis Magna, Severan Basilica

Lepcis Magna: Fenisiese kolonie, later deel van die Kartago -ryk, die koninkryk Massinissa en die Romeinse ryk. Sy bekendste seun was die keiser Septimius Severus (r.193-211).

Severan Basiliek

Die Severan -basiliek is miskien die bekendste monument van Lepcis, na die boog van Severus. Die twee monumente hoort bymekaar. Die boog is aan die keiser Septimius Severus (r.193-211) aangebied tydens sy besoek in 203 nC, en die keiser reageer deur die basiliek aan te bied, wat deel uitmaak van 'n groter stadsvernuwingsprojek wat eerlik is 'n bietjie verbeeldingloos, hoewel die versierde kolomme in die basiliek pragtig is.

Die basiliek, wat geïnspireer is op die Basilica Ulpia in Rome, behoort tot die Severan Forum, wat in die suidweste deur 'n tempel vir die Septimius -familie gesluit is, en in die noordooste deur die Severan Basilica. Die basiliek was ongeveer 95 meter lank en 35 breed, en was verdeel in drie skote, van mekaar geskei deur rye kolomme van Egiptiese pers graniet. Aan die twee ente was ape, met effens verhoogde platforms wat moontlik deur landdroste gebruik is. Dit dui daarop dat die basiliek vir (onder andere aktiwiteite) regsverhore gebruik is.

Die klein griffioen op die onderstaande foto is 'n merkwaardige toevoeging tot 'n tipiese kolom, aangesien dit tussen die hoofstad en die argitraaf geplaas is.

Inskripsie

Die opskrif op die argitraaf (IRT 428) beskryf hoe Septimius Severus die basiliek begin bou het. Hierdie deel van die teks is opmerklik omdat baie van die algemene afkortings, soos IMP, en syfers volledig uiteengesit word. Die tweede deel noem hoe Severus se seun en opvolger Caracalla (r.211-217) die gebou voltooi het.

Lepcis, Severan Basilica, noordelike apsis, griffioen

Lepcis Magna, Severan basiliek, inskripsie

Lepcis Magna, Severan basiliek, inskripsie

Lepcis Magna, Severan basiliek, inskripsie

Op die eerste oogopslag blyk die inskripsie die begin van die gebou te wees tot die vorige jaar van Septimius, omdat sy titel Britannicus Maximus en sy agtiende jaar as die bevoegdhede van die tribunaal genoem word, maar die teks is in werklikheid na sy dood geskryf, en die vervaardigers gebruik die keiser se volle titulatuur. Die lang titel van Caracalla kan saamgevat word tot 'voltooi in 216', maar mis die punt: in 'n tyd waarin mense nie stil kon lees nie, sou iemand wat die inskripsie lees, alle titels van die keiser noem - wat wys dat hy in staat was lees, en die regering van Caracalla effektief legitimeer.

Kerk

In 533 het die Bisantynse generaal Belisarius beveel dat die basiliek van Septimius Severus herstel moet word. Dit is omskep in 'n kerk, opgedra aan Maria, die Moeder van God. Die preekstoel, wat uit 'n ou hoofstad gemaak is, asof om te wys dat die ou gode magteloos is. Daar was ook 'n doop, in die vorm van 'n kruis, maar ons het vergeet om foto's daarvan te maak.

Kolomme

Die versiering van twee kolomme in die basiliek is besonder mooi. Een daarvan bevat voorstellings van Hercules, die ander een van Dionysus. Sedert Fenisiese tye was hulle die stad se beskermers, hoewel hulle destyds Melk'ashtart en Shadrapa genoem is.

Die kolom van Dionysus, of, soos die Lepcitanians hom dikwels genoem het, Liber Pater ("Vadervryheid"), is versier met allerhande wingerdstokke en kranse, maar ons kan ook onder baie ander dionisiese temas, centaurs en die god onderskei Pan. Silenus, Bacchantes, panters en 'n dronk god ontbreek natuurlik nie.

Die rubriek van Hercules toon verskeie tonele uit sy lewe. Dit sluit die twaalf werk in, maar ook ander tonele. Dit is interessant om op te let dat beroemde ou beeldhouwerke, soos Lysippus se standbeeld van 'n baie gespierde halfgod (bekend as die "Farnese Hercules"), ook ingesluit is.

Lepcis, Severan Basilica, Dionysus -kolom, onderkant

Lepcis, Severan Basilica, Dionysus -kolom, middel

Lepcis, Severan Basilica, Dionysus -kolom, bo

Lepcis, Severan Basilica, Hercules -kolom, hoofstad

Lepcis, Severan Basilica, Kolom van Hercules, Hercules en 'n sentaur

Lepcis, Severan Basilica, Kolom van Hercules, Hercules en Iolaus

Lepcis, Severan Basilica, Column of Hercules, Hercules wat op sy klub rus


Familie van Septimius Severus - Geskiedenis

Die Historia Augusta is waarskynlik in die laat 4de eeu nC saamgestel deur 'n enkele historikus (wat die name van 6 vroeëre historici vervaardig het om meer betroubaar te lyk). Die lewens van Trajanus tot Elagabulus word as baie meer betroubaar beskou as die latere lewens, hoewel almal nie voldoen aan die standaard van Suetonius 'Lives of the Caesars waarop hulle blykbaar geskoei is nie. Hierdie lewe verteenwoordig egter die enigste volledige verhaal van die loopbaan van Septimius waarop moderne historici sterk moet steun.

NA die moord op Didius Julianus, verkry Severus, 'n boorling van Afrika, die ryk. Sy tuisdorp was Lepcis Magna, sy vader was Geta en sy voorouers was Romeinse ridders voordat burgerskap aan almal gegee is. Sy ma was Fulvia Pia, sy ooms was Aper en Severus, oud-konsuls, sy grootvader was Macer en sy grootvader was Fulvius Pius. Hy is self gebore op die derde dag voor die Ides van April, toe Erucius Clarus vir die tweede keer en Severus die konsuls was [11 April AD 146] In sy vroegste kinderjare, voordat hy deurdrenk was van Latynse en Griekse letterkunde, waarin hy hoogs opgelei was, was die enigste wedstryd wat hy met ander seuns gespeel het, 'beoordelaars'. In hierdie spel sou die fasesse en byle voor hom gedra word, en met 'n raad van seuns wat om hom staan, sit hy en oordeel. In sy agtste en agste jaar het hy 'n formele toespraak in die openbaar gehou, waarna hy na Rome gekom het om sy studies te volg, en om die breë streep aansoek gedoen om en ontvang van die vergoddelikte Marcus, met die steun van sy verwant Septimius Severus, wat reeds konsul twee keer.

Met sy aankoms in Rome het hy 'n herbergier raakgeloop wat op daardie tydstip die lewe van die keiser Hadrianus gelees het. Dit beskou hy as 'n teken van toekomstige geluk. Hy het ook 'n ander teken gehad dat hy keiser sou word. Toe hy uitgenooi is na 'n keiserlike banket, het hy 'n Griekse mantel aangekom in plaas van die toga wat hy moes gedra het, en hy het die keiser se amptelike toga gekry om aan te trek. Dieselfde nag wat hy gedroom het, suig hy die spene van 'n wolf, soos Remus of Romulus. Verder gaan sit hy in die keiserstoel, wat deur 'n bediende op die verkeerde plek gesit is, omdat hy nie daarvan bewus was dat dit nie toegelaat is nie. 'N Ander keer, toe hy in 'n taverne slaap, het 'n slang om sy kop gewond, en toe sy vriende ontsteld was en uitgeskree het, het die dier weggegaan sonder om hom te benadeel.

Hy het in sy jeug baie wilde dinge gedoen, nie almal onskuldig nie. Hy is aangekla vir owerspel en het in sy eie verweer gepraat, deur die prokonsul Julianus vrygespreek. (Hy volg Julianus op in die prokonsulsskap, was sy kollega in die konsulaat en volg hom ook op as keiser.) Sy kwestorskap het hy met ywer beklee, nadat hy die militêre tribunaat weggelaat het. Na sy questorskap ontvang hy Baetica deur die loting en vertrek daarna na Afrika om sake tuis te besleg, aangesien sy pa oorlede is. Maar terwyl hy in Afrika was, is hy na Sardinië gestuur in plaas van Baetica, omdat die Moere Baetica verwoes het. Nadat hy sy Sardynse quaestorship voltooi het, het hy die pos van legate na die prokonsul van Afrika geneem. Tydens hierdie legate skip, terwyl hy langs die fasces geloop het, omhels een van sy stadsgenote, 'n man van Lepcis en 'n plebeier, hom as 'n ou kameraad. Severus het die man met 'n knou geslaan, terwyl sy aankondiger uitgeroep het: 'Laat geen plebeiaan straffeloos 'n erfenis van die Romeinse volk omhels nie.' Die gevolg van hierdie voorval was dat legate ook in 'n wa gery het, terwyl hulle voorheen te voet gegaan het.

Destyds, in 'n sekere Afrikaanse dorp, het hy angstig 'n astroloog geraadpleeg. Toe sy horoscoop gegiet is, sien hy 'n geweldige toekoms voor hom, en die astroloog sê vir hom: 'Gee my jou eie horoscoop, nie 'n ander nie.' Severus het gesweer dat dit syne was, en die man het alles voorspel wat daarna gebeur het. Hy het die tribunaat van die plebs verkry op aanbeveling van keiser Marcus, en het dit met groot strengheid en energie uitgevoer. Destyds trou hy met Marciana, oor wie hy in sy eie verslag van sy lewe as privaat burger swyg. Daarna het hy tydens sy bewind vir haar standbeelde opgerig. Hy is deur Marcus aangewys as praetor, nie as 'n kandidaat van die keiser nie, maar as een van 'n menigte mededingers in sy twee-en-dertigste jaar. Nadat hy na Spanje gestuur is, het hy eers gedroom dat hy aangesê is om die tempel van Augustus in Tarraco te herstel, wat toe verval was. Hierna het hy gedroom dat hy vanaf die piek van 'n baie hoë berg afkyk op die hele wêreld en op Rome, en dat die provinsies saam sing onder begeleiding van die lier of fluit. Na sy vertrek na Spanje het hy in afwesigheid openbare speletjies aangebied. Daarna is hy in bevel van die legioen IV Scythica, naby Massias, geplaas. Na hierdie pos het hy na Athene gegaan, beide om sy studies te volg en om godsdienstige redes, en om die openbare geboue en oudhede te sien. Terwyl hy daar was, is hy op verskillende maniere beledig deur die Atheners, wat veroorsaak het dat hy hulle vyandig geword het en wraak geneem het nadat hy keiser geword het deur hul voorregte te verminder. Vervolgens is hy aangestel as die legaat van Lugdunensis. Toe hy 'n tweede keer wou trou, nadat hy sy vrou verloor het, het hy ondersoek ingestel na die horoskope van potensiële bruide, aangesien hy self baie vaardig was in astrologie, en aangesien hy gehoor het dat daar 'n sekere vrou in Sirië is, wie se horoscoop voorspel dat sy sou trou koning, soek hy haar hand. Dit was natuurlik Julia, en hy het haar as sy bruid gekry deur middel van bemiddelingsvriende. Sy het hom dadelik 'n pa gemaak! 3 Hy was geliefd op die Galliërs vanweë sy strengheid, eerbare gedrag en terughoudendheid. Daarna regeer hy die Pannonias met prokonsulêre mag. Hierna verkry hy die provinsiale provinsie Sicilië in die erf en kry hy 'n ander seun in Rome.

Op Sicilië is hy tereggestel op aanklag van die raadpleging van waarsêers of astroloë oor die keiserlike posisie. Die prefekte van die wag wat aangestel is om sy saak aan te hoor, het hom vrygespreek - Commodus het al gehaat geword - en die valse beskuldiger is gekruisig. Hy het sy eerste konsulskap by Apuleius Rufinus beklee, as een van 'n baie groot aantal wat Commodus aangewys het. Na hierdie konsulskap was hy ongeveer 'n jaar sonder amptelike pligte en daarna, op aanbeveling van Laetus, het hy die bevel oor die Duitse leër gekry.By sy vertrek na die Duitse leërs koop hy ruim plesiergronde, terwyl hy voorheen slegs 'n baie klein huis in Rome en een plaas op die gebied van Veii. Hy het 'n beskeie ete geëet terwyl hy op die grond in hierdie tuine saam met sy seuns was, en sy oudste seun, toe vyf jaar oud, het met 'n redelik weelderige hand die vrugte verdeel wat naby sy pa gesit is, teregwysend hom: 'Deel dit minder spaarsaam, want u besit nie koninklike rykdom nie', en die seuntjie antwoord: 'Maar ek sal dit besit.' Na sy vertrek na Duitsland gedra hy hom in sy goewerneurskap so dat hy sy reputasie, wat reeds opmerklik geword het, verhoog.

Tot op hierdie stadium was sy militêre aktiwiteit as 'n privaat burger. Maar toe, nadat verneem is dat Commodus vermoor is en boonop dat Julianus die ryk te midde van universele haat het, word hy deur die Duitse legioene in Carnuntum op die Ides van Augustus tot keiser uitgeroep, hoewel hy wel weerstand gebied het aan die talle wat hom aangespoor het. Hy het die soldate gegee. . . sesterces elk. Na die versterking van die provinsies wat hy agterop gelaat het, marsjeer hy op Rome. Alles het hom toegegee waar hy ook al gegaan het, terwyl die leërs van Illyricum en Gallië, onder die druk van hul generaals, alreeds getrou was aan hom - want hy is deur almal ontvang as die wreker van Pertinax. Terselfdertyd is Septimius Severus op aandrang van Julianus tot openbare vyand verklaar, en gesante is na die weermag gestuur om die soldate te beveel om hom te verlaat, in opdrag van die senaat. Toe Severus eers hoor dat die gesante deur 'n senatoriese besluit gestuur is, was hy baie bang. Daarna het hy deur die gesante omkoop, gesorg dat hulle in die guns van die weermag praat en na sy kant toe gaan. Nadat hy dit geleer het, het Julianus 'n besluit van die Senaat aangeneem oor sy deel van die ryk met Severus. Dit is onseker of hy dit as 'n truuk gedoen het, alhoewel hy al voorheen sekere mans gestuur het, bekend om hul moord op generaals, wat Severus sou doodmaak. Op dieselfde manier het hy mans gestuur om Pescennius Niger, wat ook die opposisie van keiser in opposisie teen hom was, te vermoor op aandrang van die Siriese leërs. Maar Severus het ontsnap uit die hande van diegene wat Julianus gestuur het om hom te vermoor en 'n brief aan die praetoriaanse wag gestuur, wat hulle die sein gegee het om Julianus te verlaat of om hom dood te maak. Hy is dadelik gehoorsaam Julianus is in die paleis vermoor en Severus is na Rome genooi. Sodoende het Severus die oorwinnaar geword na willekeur - iets wat nog nooit met iemand gebeur het nie - en het hom onder die wapen na Rome gehaas.

Nadat Julianus vermoor is, het Severus nog steeds in die kamp en onder doek gebly, asof hy deur vyandelike gebied beweeg, en die senaat stuur 'n deputasie van honderd senatore om hom geluk te wens en om sy guns te smeek. Hulle het hom by Interamna [Terni] ontmoet, en nadat hulle klere geskud het as hulle wapens dra, het hulle hom gegroet, gewapen soos hy was, met gewapende mans wat rondstaan. Die volgende dag, toe die hele paleishuis hom voorgedoen het, het hy die lede van die senatoriale deputasie elk sewehonderd en twintig goue stukke gegee en dit voor hom uitgestuur, nadat hy die kans gegee het om te bly en na Rome terug te keer met hom. Hy het ook aangestel as prefek van die wag Flavius ​​Juvenalis, wat Julianus as sy eie derde prefek aangeneem het.


Intussen was daar in Rome geweldige bewing onder soldate en burgerlikes, want hulle het geweet dat Severus, in wapens, nou teen hulle kom - en hulle het hom tot 'n openbare vyand verklaar. Hierby het Severus verneem dat Pescennius Niger deur die Siriese legioene tot keiser uitgeroep is, maar hy onderskep Niger se bevele en briewe aan die mense en die senaat, deur die boodskappers, om te verhoed dat hulle voor die mense gestel word of in die senaat voorgelees word. Huis. Terselfdertyd het hy ook daaraan gedink om Clodius Albinus sy adjunk te maak, aan wie die mag van 'n keiser reeds deur Commodus bepaal is. Maar omdat hy baie senuweeagtig was oor dieselfde manne, oor wie sy mening korrek was, het hy Heraclitus gestuur om beheer oor die Britse provinsies en Plautianus te neem om die kinders van Niger te gryp. Toe Severus Rome bereik, beveel hy die wag om hom ongewapen te ontmoet, net geklee in die klere wat onder die wapenrusting gedra word. Hy het hulle so na sy tribunaal ontbied, met gewapende mans rondom.

Toe klim hy onder wapens, met gewapende soldate, die Kapitool binne. Van daar af het hy in dieselfde kleredrag na die Palatine gegaan, met die standaarde wat hy van die wag voor hom geneem het, afwaarts gehou en nie hoog gehou nie. Toe, oral in die stad, het soldate hul stasie ingeneem, in die tempels, in die porties en in die paleis, hulle behandel as hul woonplekke en die binnekoms van Severus wek haat en skrik, want die soldate ruk goedere sonder om te dreig om plunder die stad. Die volgende dag, styf omring deur gewapende mans - nie net soldate nie, maar ook sy vriende - kom hy na die Senaat. In die senaatshuis gee hy 'n verduideliking van sy aanname van die keiserlike posisie en gee dit as 'n voorwendsel dat Julianus manne gestuur het wat bekend was vir hul moord op generaals om hom te vermoor. Hy het ook 'n senatoriese besluit uitgevaardig dat die keiser nie geoorloof sou wees om 'n senator dood te maak sonder die toestemming van die senaat nie. Maar terwyl hy in die senaat was, het die soldate in 'n toestand van muitery tienduisend sesters per man geëis, op presedent van diegene wat Octavianus Augustus na Rome gelei het en so 'n groot bedrag ontvang het. Severus wou hulle in bedwang hou en kon dit nie, maar hy het hulle weggestuur deur 'n bykomende oorvloed.

Daarna het hy 'n staatsbegrafnis gehou met 'n beeld van Pertinax en hom as een van die vergoddelike keisers ingewy, en 'n Helviaanse flamen en sodale bygevoeg, wat voorheen Marcian was. Hy het ook beveel dat hy self die naam Pertinax moet neem, hoewel hy later wou hê dat die naam afgeskaf moet word asof dit 'n teken is. Toe betaal hy sy vriende se skuld af. Hc het sy dogters, met bruidskat, getroud met Probus en Actius. Hy het sy skoonseun Probus die prefektuur van die stad aangebied, maar hy het geweier en gesê dat dit 'n mindere ding is om prefek te wees as om die skoonseun van die keiser te wees. Boonop het hy dadelik elkeen van sy skoonseuns konsul gemaak, en elkeen het hy verryk. Die volgende dag het hy na die senaat gekom, en nadat hy beskuldigings daarteen gemaak het, het hy die vriende van Julianus verwerp en tereggestel. Hy het baie regsgedinge aangehoor en ernstige landdroste wat deur die provinsies beskuldig is, gestraf toe die aanklagte teen hulle bewys is. Hy het so sorg gegee vir die graanvoorraad, wat hy baie laag gevind het, dat hy by sy dood 'n oorskot van sewe jaar aan die Romeinse volk sou laat.

Hy het Rome verlaat om die oostelike situasie te besleg, en nog niks in die openbaar oor Niger gesê nie. Hy het egter legioene na Afrika gestuur om te verhoed dat Niger deur Egipte en Libië verhuis om dit te beset en die Romeinse volk ontbering veroorsaak deur die graanvoorraad af te sny. Hy verlaat Domitius Dexter as prefek van die stad in die plek van Bassus, en vertrek binne dertig dae na sy aankoms in Rome. Nadat hy uit die stad na Saxa Rubra verhuis het, moes hy 'n ernstige uitbraak van die weermag verduur vanweë die plek wat gekies is vir kampeer. Sy broer Geta het hom dadelik tegemoetgegaan en het die opdrag gekry om die provinsie te beheer wat aan hom toevertrou is, hoewel hy op iets anders hoop. Die kinders van Niger, wat na hom gebring is, behandel hy met dieselfde respek as sy eie. He had indeed sent ahead a legion to take possession of Greece and Thrace, to prevent Pescennius from occupying them but Niger was already holding Byzantium and, wishing to seize Perinthus as well, killed a great many men from this force. He was therefore declared a public enemy, together with Aemilianus. Niger invited Severusto share the empire, but he was treated with contempt. Severus did, to be sure, promise him a safe exile, if he wanted it, but he did not pardon Aemilianus. Then Aemilianus was defeated in the Hellespont by the generals of Severus, and fled first to Cyzicus and then to another city, where he was killed on their orders. Niger's own forces were also put to flight by the same generals. When he had heard these things, Severus sent a letter to the Senate, as if everything had been dealt with. Then he fought with Niger and killed him at Cyzicus, and carried his head round on a spear. After this he sent Niger's `children, whom he had treated on an equal basis to his own, into exile with their mother. He sent a letter to the Senate concerning the victory and he did not inflict punishmcnt on any of the senators who had belonged to Niger's party, except for one.

He was more angry with the people of Antioch, for two reasons: they had made fun of him when he was serving in the east and they had helped Niger even when he had been defeated. Eventually he took away many of their privileges from them. He also deprived the people of Neapolis [Nablus] in Palestine of their citizenship, because they were in arms on behalf of Niger for a long time. He took savage reprisals against many who had followed Niger, other than members of thc senatorial order. He inflicted penalties and indemnities on many cities ofthe same party too. He put to death those senators who had served in Niger's army with the rank of general or tribune. Then he undertook a great deal in the region of Arabia, bringing the Parthians back under Roman authority, and the Adiabenians too, all of whom, indeed, had taken the side of Pescennius. On account of this, when he returned, a triumph was offered him, and he was named Arabicus Adiabenicus Parthicus. But he rejected the triumph, so as not to seem to be triumphing for a victory in civil war. He also declined the name of Parthicus, so as not to provoke the Parthians. While he was actually on his way back to Rome, after the civil war with Niger, another civil war, with Clodius Albinus who rebelled in Gaul, was announced to him. For this reason his sons were later put to death, together with their mother. He therefore at once declared Albinus a public enemy, together with those who had written to Albinus, or had replied to his Ictters, in favourable terms. At Viminacium, on his march against Albinus, he nominated his elder son Bassianus, who had been given the name Aurelius Antoninus, as Caesar. This was in order to destroy the hopes which Severus' brother Geta had conceived of gaining the imperial position. The reason why he gave his son the name Antoninus was that he had dreamed that an Antoninus would succeed him. Hence some think that Geta pus younger son] was also called Antoninus, so that he too might succeed him as emperor. Some think that Bassianus was called Antoninus because Severus himself wanted to pass over into the family of Marcus.

At first, indeed, the generals of Severus were defeated by those of Albinus. Severus, in his anxiety, then consulted Pannonian augurs, from whom he learned that he would be the victor, but that his adversary would neither fall into his power nor escape, but would perish beside the water. Many friends of Albinus at once deserted and came to Severus, and many of Albinus' generals were captured, and punished by Severus. Meanwhile, after many varying encounters, Severus fought against Albinus successfully in Gaul for the first time at Tinurtium. It was then that he came into extreme peril by a fall from his horse he was believed to have died from a lead ball, and the army was on the point of choosing another man as emperor.At that time, Severus read in the senatorial minutes a motion congratulating Clodius Celsinus, a Hadrumetine and a kinsman of Albinus. Severus was enraged with the Senate, as though it had recogruzed Albinus by this act. He therefore decreed that Commodus should be enrolled among the de)fied emperors, as though in this way he would be able to revenge himself on the Senate. He proclaimed the de)fication of Commodus before the soldiers first, and then announced thc fact in a letter to the Senate, with the addition of a victory speech. Next, he ordered that the bodies of the senators who had been killed in the war should be torn limb from limb. Then he ordered that the head of Albinus, whose body had been brought to him half alive, should be cut o_and sent to Rome, and he accompanied it with a letter. Albinus was defeated on the eleventh day before the Kalends of March [9 February A.D. 197]. Moreover, Severus ordered that the remains of Albinus' corpse should be exposed before his own house and should lie there for a long time. Besides this, he himself rode on horseback over the corpse of Albinus, and admonished his horse when it took fright and even loosened its reins so that it might trample boldly. Others add that he ordered the man's corpse to be thrown into the Rhone - and the bodies of his wife and children at the same time. Countless members of Albinus' party were put to death, in cluding many leading men in the state and many distinguished women the property of all of them was confiscated and swelled the state treasury. Many of the Spanish and Gallic notables were also killed at this time. Finally, he gave the soldiers a rate of pay that none of the emperors had reached. To his sons, too, he left an inheritance from this proscription greater than any of the emperors had left, since he had made a large part of the gold throughout Gaul, Spain and Italy. This was the time when the procuratorship of the Privy Purse was first established. Of course, many who remained loyal to Albinus after his death were defeated in battle by Severus. At that time, more over, the legion of Arabia was reported to have defected to Albinus.

Therefore, having taken a heavy vengeance on the desertion ofthe Albinians by putting a great many of them to death, and also wiping out Albinus' family, he came to Rome, angry with both the people and the Senate. He praised Commodus in the Senate and at an assembly of the people, declared him to be a god and said that it was tbe depraved with whom he had been unpopular. It was apparent that Severus was quite openly in a rage. After this he dealt with the subject of his own clemency, although he was.exceedingly cruel and killed the senators listed below. He did in fact kill, without any hearing of their case, these nobles:


Mummius Secundinus, Asellius Claudianus, Claudius Rufus,
Vitalius Victor, Papius Faustus, Aelius Celsus, Julius Rufus,
Lollius Professus, Aurunculeius Cornelianus, Antonius
Balbus, Posturnius Severus, Sergius Lustralis, Fabius Paulinus,
Nonius Gracchus, Masticius Fabianus, Casperius Agrippinus,
Ceionius Albinus, Claudius Sulpicianus, Memmius Rufinus,
Casperius Aemilianus, Cocceius Verus, Erucius Clarus,
Julius Solon, Clodius Rufinus, Egnatuleius Honoratus,
Petronius Junior, the Pescennii (Festus and Veratianus and
Aurelianus and Materianus and Julianus and Albinus), the
Cerellii (Macrinus and Faustinianus andJulianus), Herennius
Nepos, Sulpius Canus, Valerius Catullinus, Novius Rufus,
Claudius Arabianus, Marcius Asellio.

Yet the murderer ofthese men, so many and so distinguished - for many among them were consulars, many praetorian in rank, all certainly of high degree - is regarded by the Africans as a god! He falsely accused Cincius Severus of making an attempt on his life with poison, and for this reason pUt him tO death. Then he cast to the lions Narcissus, the man who strangled Commodus. Besides this, he put to death many persons of lowly status, not counting those whom the fury of battle had consumed.

After this, since he wanted to make himself popular with people, he transferred the posting service from private individuals to the imperial treasury. Then he caused his son Bassianus Antoninus to be named Caesar by the Senate, and the imperial insignia were granted him by decree. A rumour then arose of a Parthian war.

He set up statues to his father, mother, grandfather and first wife. Plautianus had been a very close friend, but when Severus learned of his way of life he held him in such hatred that he declared him a public enemy, had his statues throughout the world overthrown, and made him famous for the severity of his punishment. Severus was particularly angered that Plautianus had set up his own statue among the likenesses of Severus' relatives and kinsmen. He revoked the penalty imposed on the Palestinians for supporting Niger. Afterwards Severus returned to his friendship with Plautianus, and after entering the city as though celebrating an ovation, he came to the Capitol. However, he killed him eventually. He gave his younger son Geta the toga of manhood andjoined the daughter of Plautianus in marriage with his elder son. Those who hat called Plautianus a public enemy were deported. Thus there is always change in everything, as if by a law of nature. Then he designated his sons to the consulship. He buried his brother Geta.

Then he set out for the Parthian war, having put on a gladiatorial show and given largess to the people. In the meantime he killed many people on charges that were either genuine or faked. A great many were condemned for making jokes, others because they kept silene, others for making a lot of contrived remarks, such as: Behold an emperor true to his name, a true Pertinax, a true Severus It was certainly commonly said that Septimius Severus' motive for the Parthian war was a desire for glory, and that it was not launched out of any necessity. At any rate, having taken the army across from Brundisium he came to Syria without breaking his joumey and drove offthe Parehians. After this he resumed to Syria so as to prepare himself and take the offensive against the Parehians. In the meantime on the instigation of Plautianus he hunted down the remnants of Pescennius' following, to the extent that he even laid hold on some of his own friends as conspirators against his life. He also killed many for allegedly consulting astrologers or seers about his healeh, especially each and every person suitable for the imperial office, since he himselfhad sons who were still small boys, and he either believed, or heard, that this was being said by those who were predicting the position of emperor for themselves. In the end, when not a few had been killed, Severus made excuses for himself, and after their death denied that he had ordered what had been done. This applied particularly to Laetus, according to Marius Maximus. When his sister, a woman of Lepcis, had come to him, scarcely able to speak Latin, and the emperor was very embarrassed about her, he gave the broad stripe to her son and many gifts to her, and told the woman to return to her home town - with her son as well, who died shortly afterwards.

When the summer was already ending, therefore, he invaded Parthia, defeated the king, came to Ceesiphon, and took it. It was almost winter for in those regions wars are better carried out in winter, although the soldiers live on the roots of grasses and contract diseases and sickness as a result. Therefore, when he was unable to proceed farther, because the Parthians were making a stand, and the soldiers' bowels were loosened on account ofthe unfamiliar diet, he nonetheless persisted and took the town, put the king to flight, killed a great number of men and earned the title Parthicus. Because of these things, also, the soldiers hailed his son Bassianus Aneoninus, then in his thirteeneh year and already with the title Caesar, as co-emperor. They called Geta his younger son Caesar also, naming him Aneoninus as well, according to most writers.He gave the soldiers a very generous donative on account of these titles, and all the bogey of the Parthian town was handed over to them. Then he returned into Syria, as a conqueror and as Parthicus. The senators offered him a triumph, but he refused, the reason being that his arthritis made it impossible for him to stand up in the chariot. He did, to be sure, allow his son to triumph - the Senate had decreed him a triumph over the Jews, because of successes achieved in Syria by Severus. Then, when he had crossed to Antioch, he bestowed the toga of manhood on his elder son and designated him as consul, as colleague to himself and they at once entered on their consulship, while seill in Syria.

After this, he gave the soldiers an increase in their pay and then set out for Alexandria. On the journey he established many laws for the Palestinians. He prohibited conversion to Judaism under heavy penalties, and laid down the same penalty in the case of Christians too. Then he gave the Alexandrians the right to have town-councillors - up till that time they used to live without a public authority just as they had under their kings, content with the single magistrate whom Caesar had appointed. Besides this he changed many of their laws. This tour was pleasant for him - as Severus himself subsequently always made clear - because of his devotion to the god Sarapis, because he became acquaineed with the antiquities and because he saw rare animals and strange places. For he diligently inspected Memphis and Memnon, the pyramids and the labyrinth.

But since it is tedious to follow up minor details, this man's great deeds were the following when Julianus had been conquered and killed, he dismissed the praetorian cohorts, enrolled Pertinax among the gods contrary to the will of the soldiers, and ordered that the decrees of Salvius Julianus should be abolished here, however, he was unsuccessful. Then he appears to have had the surname of Pertinax not so much ae his own wish as on account of his parsimonious characeer. In fact, through the unlimited slaughter of many he was regarded as somewhat cruel. When a certain man from the enemy had surrendered to him as a suppliant and had asked, what would Severus have done in his place, he was not softened by the good sense of such a question, and ordered the man to be put to death. Besides this, his fervent aim was to liquidate opposing factions, and there was almost no encounter from which he did not emerge the victor. He subdued Abgarus, king of the Persians.

He received the submission of the Arabs. He compelled the Adiabeni to pay tribute. He fortified Britain - and this was the greatest glory of his reign - with a wall led across the island to the Ocean at each end in recognition of this he also received the title Britannicus. He rendered Tripolitania, from whence he sprang, completely safe, having battered the most warlike tribes and he donated to the Roman people in perpetuity a free and lavish daily supply of olive oil.

The same emperor, although implacable towards offences, likewise displayed singular judiciousness in encouraging all hard-working persons. He was quite interested in philosophy and the practice of rhetoric, and enthusiastic about learning in general. He took some measures against brigands everywhere. He composed a convincing autobiography dealing with both his private and his public life, making excuses only for the vice of cruelty. With regard to this, the Senate pronounced that either he ought not to have been born or that he ought not to die, since he appeared to be both excessively cruel and excessively useful to the republic. However, as concerns his family he was less careful, retaining his wife Julia who was notorious for her adulteries and was also guilty of conspiracy.

Once, this emperor, when crippled in his feet, was delaying a war, and the soldiers in their anxiety made his son Bassianus, who was there with him, Augustus. Severus had himself lifted up and was carried to the tribunal, and then summoned all the tribunes, centurions,generals and cohorts responsible for the deed Finally, he ordered that his son, who had accepted the name of Auguseus, should appear before him. He ordered that all those responsible for the deed should be punished except for his son, and all of them, prostrate before the tribunal, begged for pardon. Then he couched his head with his hand and said. 'At last you realize that it is the head that rules and not the feet.' It was he that said, when fortune had led him from a humble status through pursuits of study and military posts to the imperial power, through many stages: 'I have been everything - and gained nothing.

He died at Eboracum [York] in Britain, having subdued the tribes which appeared hostile to Britain, in the eighteeneh year of his reign, stricken by a very grave illness, now an old man.

He left two sons, Antoninus Bassianus, and Geta, to whom he had given the same name, in honour of Marcus Antoninus. He was laid in the sepulchre of Marcus Antoninus, whom of all the emperors he so greatly revered that he even deified Commodus, and thought it right that the name of Aneoninus should be added to the name of all future emperors use like the name Auguseus. He himself was enrolled among the deified emperors by the Senate, on the motion of his sons, who gave him a splendid funeral.

His outstanding public buildings now extant are the Septizodium (A three-storied building nearly 100 feet high and over 300 feet long, erected in A.D.203 at the south-eastern corner of the Palatine Hill.) and the Severan Baths (the precise location of these baths is unknown and they were perhaps incorporated in the Baths of Caracalla) and his too are the doors in the Transtiberine region, next to the gate that bears his name. Their frame collapsed at once, interfering with their use by the public.

The universal judgement on him after his death was thee he was great, especially because for a long while no benefit came to the republic from his sons, while subsequenely, with many usurpations, the Roman state was a prey to plunderers.

This emperor wore such meagre clothing that even his tunic scarcely had any purple, while he covered his shoulders with a shaggy cloak. He ate sparingly, being very addicted to his native vegetable, sometimes fond of wine, often abstaining from meat. His person was handsome, he was of huge size,(Dio Cassius, who knew Severus personally, says that he was small) with a long beard and curly white hair. His face inspired reverence, his voice was resonant but with a trace of an African accent right up to his old age. He was equally beloved after his death, when envy, or the fear of his cruelty, had disappeared.

I recall that I have read in Aelius Maurus(the author apparently made up this name to give credence to the following fictions), a freedman of Hadrian's Phlegon, that when he was dying Septimius Severus rejoiced quite unrestrainedly because he was leaving the republic two Antonines with equal power, after the example of Pius, who left the republic Verus and Marcus Antoninus, his sons by adoption. He was doing better than this because Pius left sons by adoption and he was giving dhe Roman republic rulers begotten by himself Antoninus - Bassianus that is - was of course born to him from his first marriage and he had Geta by Julia. But his hope greatly deceived him, for fratricide made the one hateful to the republic and his own character dhe other, and the name of Antoninus did not long remain sanctified in any instance. Indeed, when I reflect on the matter, Diocletian Augustus, it is sufficiendy clear that no great man has left a son who is excellent and useful. For such men either die widhout children or for dhe most part have children of such a kind chat it would have been better for dhe human race if they had died without descendants. To begin from Romulus: he left no children, and Numa Pompilius left none chat could be of use to the republic. What of Camillus? He surely did not have children like himself? What of Scipio? What of the Catos, who were such great men? And then, what shall I say about Homer, Demosthenes, Virgil, Crispus Sallust and Terence, Plautus and all the rest? What about Caesar? What about Tullius [Cicero], for whom especially it would have been better not to have had children? What about Augustus, who did not even have a good son by adoption, although he had the power of choosing from all men? Trajan himself, also, made a mistake in choosing his fellow-townsman and nephew. But to omit adoptive sons, lest the Antonines, Pius and Marcus, divine spirits of the republic, occur to us, let us turn to real sons. What would have been more fortunate for Marcus, than not to have Commodus as his heir? What more fortunate for Severus Septimius, than not to have Bassianus? - who straightaway destroyed his brother, supposed to have designed a conspiracy against himself, a fratricidal contrivance who took his stepmother - and what stepmother? rather she was his mother! - to wife,(i.e. Caracalla marrying his mother Julia Domna which we will discuss when we read Dio Cassius on Julia) in whose bosom he had killed her son Geta who killed Papinianus, sanctuary of the law and treasury of legal learning, and who was prefect (so that a man great in himself and through his knowledge might not be lacking in rank). Finally, to omit other things, I think it was because of Bassianus' character that Severus, a somewhat harsh man in every way, indeed somewhat cruel also, was held to be righteous and worthy of the altars of the gods. He at any rate, labouring under his disease, is said to have sent his elder son the god-like speech of Sallust, in which Micipsa urged his sons to peace. But that was in vain . . . and so great a man, in ill health . . .(the manuscripts have a blank spot here). Antoninus lived on then, hated by the people for a long time, and that hallowed name was for a long time less beloved, although he both gave clothes to the people, whence he was called Caracallus, and built most magnificent baths. There survives of course at Rome a portico of Severus portraying his deeds, set up by his son, according to most accounts.

The signs of his death were these: he himself dreamed that he was dragged up into the sky by four eagles and a jewelled chariot, while some kind of huge creature of human shape flew in front and while he was being carried away, he counted out numbers up to eighty-nine, beyond which number of years he did not live even a single one,(62) for he came-to the imperial position as an old man and when he had been placed in a huge circle of air, for a long while he stood solitary and set apart then when he began to be afraid that he might fall headlong, he saw himself being called by Jupiter and placed among the Antonines. On the day of the circus games, three little plaster Victories had been set up, in the usual fashion, holding palms. The middle one, which carried a globe inscribed with his own name, was struck by the wind and fell down upright from the podium, and stayed on the ground the one which was inscribed with the name of Geta collapsed and shattered completely but the one which carried the inscription of Bassianus, though it lost its palm in the gust of wind, managed to remain standing, although only just. After giving a Moor his discharge from the army, on the Wall, he was resuming to the nearest halting-place (mansio), not merely as victor but having established etemal peace. He was turning over in his mind what sort of man should meet him, when a certain 'Ethiopian' [black man] from the military unit (numerus), with a famous reputation among the jesters and whose jokes were always much quoted, met him with a wreath made of cypress. Enraged, Severus instructed that the man should be removed from his sight, being nettled by the ominous colour and wreath and the man is recorded to have said, as a joke: 'You have overthrown all things, you have conquered all things, now be a conquering god!' Coming to the town, he wanted to make sacrifice but first he was led to the temple of Bellona by a mistake on the part of the rustic soothsayer, and then the sacrificial victims provided were black. He rejected them and was on his way back to the palace, when through the attendants' carelessness the black sacrificial victims followed the emperor, right up to the threshold of the imperial residence.

There are in many cities outstanding building works of his. There was indeed magnanimity in his graciousness, in that he restored all the public buildings at Rome that were falling into disrepair from the effects of time, and virtually nowhere had his own name inscribed on them, the inscriptions of the original builders being preserved. On his death he left enough grain for seven years supply to be weighed out at a daily rate of 75,000 pecks and so much olive oil, in fact, that for five years there was sufficient not only for the use of the city but also for the whole of Italy which needed oil.

His last words are said to have been the following: 'I took over the republic in a disturbed condition everywhere, and I leave it pacified even among the Britons. Now an old man crippled in the feet, I bequeath to my Antonines, a stable empire if they will bc good, a weak one if bad.' Then he ordered the watchword 'tot us work' to be given to the tribune, because Pertinax when he was admitted to the imperial position had given the watchword 'Let us be soldiers'. He had intended next that the royal image of Fortune, who customarilyaccompanies the emperors and is placed in their bed- chambers, should be duplicated, sothat he might leave that most sacred figureto each of his sons but when he saw that the hour of death was pressing strongly upon him, he is supposed to have ordered that Fortune should be placed on alternate days in the bed- chambers of his sons the emperors. Bassianus ignored this - and then committed fratricide.

His body was carried from Britain as far as Rome, greatly revered by the provincials although some say that it was only a golden urn containing the remains of Severus, and that this was laid in the sepulchre of the Antonines, since Septimius had been cremated in the place where he died.


Emperor Septimius Severus dies at York

Richard Cavendish remembers the death of Emperor Septimius Severus on February 4th, AD 211.

Edward Gibbon thought that the decline of the Roman Empire began with Severus (b. AD 145). He came from Leptis Magna, a thriving port with a fine natural harbour in what is now Libya, near Tripoli. His mother belonged to an influential Roman family, but his father was Carthaginian. The future emperor grew up speaking Latin with a provincial accent and his biographer Anthony Birley called him Rome’s ‘first truly provincial emperor’. He went to Rome in his teens and his mother’s family helped him on his ambitious way up until in 191 he was made governor of Upper Pannonia, covering parts of today’s Hungary, Austria and Bosnia. In 193, at his suggestion and promises of reward, his troops proclaimed him emperor after the murder of the Emperor Pertinax by the Praetorian Guard. Severus led his army swiftly to Italy, took Rome and over the next four years crushed the rival claimants.

He ruled Rome as a military dictator, with his sons Caracalla and Geta as Caesars. At substantial expense he beautified his native city of Leptis Magna, whose ruins are considered the most impressive in Roman Africa and include a triumphal arch in his honour as well as an arena that seats 50,000 spectators. He built a new forum as well as the ‘hunting baths’ decorated with scenes including a leopard hunt.

After successful campaigns in the Near East and Africa, in 208 he took Caracalla and Geta with him to Britain. Though by this time suffering agonies from gout, or perhaps arthritis, he led an invasion of Caledonia (Scotland), whose inhabitants, according to the contemporary historian Dio Cassius, lived naked in tents and had their women in common. The mythical Celtic hero Fingal was afterwards credited with defeating the Romans in battle, but in fact, naked or not, the Caledonians avoided battles. They excelled in guerrilla warfare and they led the Romans a dance all the way up to the Moray Firth or beyond until a temporary peace was organised in 210.

Exhausted, ill and ready to die, Severus returned to York and ordered himself a cremation urn. When he saw it, he told it: ‘You will hold a man that the world could not hold.’

There was a story that Caracalla tried to bribe the doctors to hasten his father’s end. When the emperor did expire, aged 65, the troops acclaimed his two sons as joint emperors. The brothers went back to Rome where Caracalla had Geta murdered the following year.


Publius Septimius Geta

Publius Septimius Geta (fl. 2nd century, c. 110-aft. 198) was the father of Lucius Septimius Severus, father-in-law of the Roman empress Julia Domna and the paternal grandfather of Roman emperors Caracalla and Geta. His name was found as an inscription in Cirta, Africa.

Geta was of Libyco-Berber origin. His ancestry had been based in Leptis Magna (East of Tripoli, Africa, modern Libya, North Africa). His Gens Septimia was originally a Plebeian one. His family were local, wealthy and distinguished in Leptis Magna.

Geta's father Lucius Septimius Severus (c. 70-aft. 110) was a Roman Eques, who may have been the wealthy equestrian that is highly commemorated by the Flavian dynasty poet Statius. Geta's mother Vitoria, born c. 85, was a daughter of Marcus Vitorius Marcellus (c. 60-aft. 105), Consul Suffectus in 105, and wife Hosidia, born c. 65 and daughter of Gaius or Gnaeus Hosidius Geta. Geta's paternal grandparents were Marcus Septimius Aper, born c. 35, and wife Octavia. He also had a sister named Septimia Polla, born c. 110.

Geta had two cousins, both brothers, sons of a Septimius, who served as Consuls under Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius. One was Gaius Septimius Severus, Consul Suffectus in July 160 and Governor of Numidia in 173-174 and then again in 177. The other was Publius Septimius Aper, who served as Consul Suffectus in July 153 and was the father of Publius Septimius Aper and grandfather of Lucius Septimius Aper, Consul Suffectus in 160. Another relative of his, Lucius Septimius F. was Consul Suffectus in 183. Another of his relatives, probably a grandson of Publius Septimius Aper, was Gaius Septimius Severus Aper, Consul Ordinarius in 207, who died in 212. Yet another relative of his was Septimius Bassus. He might also have been related to Tertullian.

Geta seems to have held no major political status.

He married Fulvia Pia (c. 125-bef. 198), a woman of Roman descent belonging to the gens Fulvia, an Italian patrician family that originated in Tusculum, daughter of Fulvius Pius, born c. 100, and wife Plautia Octavilla, born c. 110, and aunt of Gaius Fulvius Plautianus. Her paternal grandfather was Fulvius Pius, born c. 100, son of Fulvius Pius, born c. 70, grandson of Fulvius, born c. 40, great-grandson of Fulvius, born c. 10, and great-great-grandson of Marcus Fulvius Saturnius (c. 20 BC-aft. 25), a Nobleman in Leptis Magna. Her paternal grandmother was Plautia Octavilla, born c. 110, daughter of Lucius Plautius Octavianus (c. 90-aft. 150), a Nobleman in Leptis Magna c. 150, and wife Aquilia Blaesilla, born c. 190, in turn daughter of Gaius Aquilius Postumus, born c. 55, and wife Hateria, born c. 70.

Geta and Pia had three children, a son Lucius Septimius Severus, another son a younger Publius Septimius Geta and a daughter Septimia Octavilla.


Dood

Although his military expenses were expensive for the empire, Severus was a strong and capable leader. The Roman Empire reached the greatest extent under his rule – more than 5 million square kilometers. His expansion of the Limes Tripolitanus provided to Africa the agricultural base of the Empire. His victory over the Parthian Empire was decisive for some time, protecting the empire from Nisibis and Singara and establishing the status quo of Roman rule in the region until 251.

Severus’s campaign was interrupted when he fell ill. He retired to Eboracum (York) and died there in 211. Although his son Caracalla continued the campaign the following year, he soon agreed to peace. The Romans never again went deep into Caledonia. Soon after, the frontier was forever allotted south to Hadrian’s wall.

For the last 6 years I live in the Eternal City. Traveling, exploring new things, writing blogs, shooting vlogs are my main hobbies, but the thing that I like even more is to share my experience and thoughts with you! Explore Rome with Us :)


Kyk die video: Unbiased History: Rome XIII - The Severan Dynasty