Artist's Conception of Watson Brake Mounds, Louisiana

Artist's Conception of Watson Brake Mounds, Louisiana


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Argeoloë het meer as 100 terreine geïdentifiseer wat tot hierdie heuwelbouer-kultuur behoort, wat ook 'n groot handelsnetwerk gevorm het in 'n groot deel van die oostelike deel van wat nou deur die Verenigde State beset word.

Voor die Poverty Point-kultuur is die Watson Brake-terrein in die huidige Ouachita Parish, Louisiana, waar elf grondheuwels begin is, ongeveer 3500 vC. Watson Brake is een van die vroegste heuwelkomplekse in die Amerikas. [2] Die oudste is die Poverty Point -kultuur, wat gedurende die laat argaïese tydperk in Noord -Amerika gedy het van 1730 - 1350 vC. Bewyse van hierdie heuwelbouer -kultuur is op meer as 100 terreine gevind, waaronder die Jaketown -terrein naby Belzoni, Mississippi. Die grootste en bekendste plek is by Poverty Point, geleë op die Macon Ridge naby die huidige Epps, Louisiana.

Die Poverty Point -kultuur het sy hoogtepunt omstreeks 1500 v.C. bereik. Dit is een van die oudste komplekse kulture, en moontlik die eerste stamkultuur in die Mississippi-delta en in die huidige Verenigde State. Die mense het dorpe beset wat byna 160 en 160 km aan weerskante van die Mississippirivier gestrek het. [3]

Poverty Point -kultuur is gevolg deur die Tchefuncte- en Lake Cormorant -kulture van die Tchula -tydperk, 'n plaaslike manifestasie van die vroeë bosveldtydperk. Hierdie afstammelingskulture het verskil van die Poverty Point-kultuur in handel oor korter afstande, wat minder massiewe openbare projekte geskep het, keramiek vir berging en kook heeltemal aangeneem het, en 'n gebrek aan 'n lapidêre (klipsnyer) -bedryf.


Caddo voorouers

Klik op die prente om te vergroot

Die vroegste mense wat in die omgewing van die Caddo -tuisland gewoon het, was baie mobiele jagters en versamelaars gedurende die vroeë jare Paleo -Indiese era aan die einde van die laaste ystydperk (Pleistoseen), ongeveer 12 000-13 500 jaar gelede (10 000-11 500 v.C.). ('N Toenemende hoeveelheid bewyse dui daarop dat mense duisende jare tevore in Noord -Amerika aangekom het, maar daar word gedebatteer oor die vroegste bewyse.) Vroeë Paleoindiaanse punte, insluitend die Clovis- en Folsom -style, is in die gebied aangetref met kenmerkende lansvormige spies- en veerpunte wat dateer na latere Paleo -Indiese kulture.

Teen ongeveer 8 000 v.C. artefakte van die Dalton- en San Patrice -kulture kom veral in die suidooste voor, wat daarop dui dat bevolkings toeneem en dat verskillende kulture ontwikkel. Binne die Caddo -tuisland word bewyse van die Dalton -kultuur hoofsaaklik in die noorde gevind, terwyl dié van San Patrice hoofsaaklik in die suide is. Buiten die streek is die Dalton -punte in die Mississippi -vallei gekonsentreer en veral talle in die noordooste van Arkansas. Hierdie kontrasterende patrone kan 'n vroeë skeiding tussen etniese/taalkundige groepe weerspieël. Ons weet nie hoe hierdie afleiding met latere mense verband hou nie.

Dalton en San Patrice word deur baie argeoloë beskou as een van die eerste van vele Argaïese kulture (of die nuutste Paleoindiaanse groepe) in die suidooste van die Verenigde State ongeveer 10 000 jaar gelede, vernoem na die kenmerkende veerpyltjies wat hul jagters gemaak het. Die hele Argaïese tydperk strek oor 7 500 jaar tussen ongeveer 8 000 v.C. en 500 v.C. Die Argaïese konsep is oorspronklik voorgestel as 'n ontwikkelingsfase waartydens mobiele jagkulture geleidelik meer gevestig en meer afhanklik is van wilde plante, kleinwild en waterbronne. In die breë sin bly hierdie siening akkuraat, maar ons besef nou dat die Argaïese kulture redelik uiteenlopend was en verantwoordelik was vir baie van die kulturele ontwikkelings wat tot dusver tot die daaropvolgende Woodland -era gedink is. Byvoorbeeld, permanente of semi-permanente dorpsnedersettings, pottebakkery, tuinbou (tuinmaak), kunsmatige ergeheuwels en uitgebreide, verre verhandeling van eksotiese materiaal verskyn almal tydens Argaïese tye op verskillende plekke in die suidooste.

Alhoewel die meeste van die oënskynlik meer gevorderde argaïese kulture bekend is uit gebiede honderde myl na die ooste en noordooste van die Caddo -gebied, het 'n paar baie belangrike ontwikkelings plaasgevind in die onderste Mississippi -vallei onmiddellik na die ooste en suidooste. Byvoorbeeld, in die huidige noordoostelike Louisiana, Argaïese mense het reeds in 4000 v.C. begin met die bou van groot erdeheuwels. Dit was nie grafheuwels nie, maar het blykbaar gedien as platforms waarop mense gewoon het. By Watson Brake naby Monroe, Louisiana, is 11 heuwels van 3 tot 25 voet (1-8 meter) hoog verbind deur rante om 'n ovaal omhulsel van meer as 261 meter oor te vorm. Die argaïese heuwels van Louisiana is almal langs die nou verlate rivierkanale geleë en is gebou deur jag- en versamelaars wat die plaaslike moerasagtige omgewings ryk aan waterlewe uitgebuit het, insluitend vis, voëls en diere.

In dieselfde streek rondom 1700 v.C., is massiewe grondwerke op die terrein van Armoede punt deur mense wat afhanklik was van water- en rivierbronne. Die Poverty Point-grondwerke bevat 'n groot voëlvormige heuwel van meer as 21 meter hoog en 216 meter lank en 'n unieke C-vormige reeks opgehewe berms in ses konsentriese en geneste ringe wat byna drie is -kwartier van 'n myl oor (3,950 voet of 1,2 km) op die breedste punt. Volgens baie kenners was Poverty Point die middelpunt van 'n voortydige samelewing met verre handelsverbindings, soos aangedui deur die vind van baie artefakte van eksotiese of nie-plaaslike klip (sommige kom uit bronne wat honderde kilometers ver is). Hierdie eksotiese items is moontlik na Poverty Point gestuur in ruil vir dopkrale en ornamente, vervaardig by Poverty Point en op gekoppelde plekke aan die Golfkus. Om redes wat nog onduidelik was, het die Poverty Point -kultuur teen 1000 v.C. en het geen duidelike opvolger gelaat nie.

Sover ons nou weet, het die latere argaïese mense wat in die Caddo -tuisland gewoon het, nie ergeheuwels gebou of samelewings gevorm wat vergelykbaar is met die een wat verantwoordelik was vir Poverty Point nie. Laat argaïese groepe in die streek het ten minste indirek deelgeneem aan die Poverty Point -handelsnetwerk. Dit is bekend omdat 'n verskeidenheid artefakte by Poverty Point gevind is wat gemaak is van materiale soos novaculite en kwarts uit die Ouachita -gebergte. Maar laat -argaïese groepe in die Caddo Homeland -gebied blyk relatief klein samelewings te wees wat nie nou verbonde was aan die hoofgebiede van die Eastern Woodlands waar voorbarige ontwikkelings plaasgevind het nie.

Een so 'n ontwikkeling was die begin van die makmaak van plante en tuinbou (tuinmaak). In die afgelope paar dekades het argeoloë en etnobotaniste (spesialiste in hoe antieke mense plante gebruik het) getoon dat ten minste vier plante 4 000 tot 5 000 jaar gelede (2000-3000 v.C.) in die oostelike woud geberg is. Deur middel van selektiewe manipulasie is pampoen, sonneblom, moerasouder en chenopodium (gansvoet) almal van wilde plante verander na gewasplante met groter sade en ander gewenste eienskappe. Die beste bewyse kom uit slegs 'n paar grotte en oop plekke in die Amerikaanse Midde -Weste met buitengewone bewaringstoestande. Die naaste aan die hoof Caddo Homeland is die Phillips Spring -terrein in die Ozark -plato in die suide van Missouri, minder as 300 kilometer noord van die Rooi Rivier. Gedompelde pampoen- en bottelpampoenpitte wat by Phillips Spring gevind is, is minstens 5 000 jaar gelede radiokoolstof gedateer.

Die ontdekking dat hierdie styselagtige en olierige saadplante in die middel- en laat -argaïese tye verbou word, het die tradisionele idee dat die Argaïese kulture van die Oos -VSA suiwer jagters en versamelaars was, in die wiele gery. Dit is duidelik dat argaïese mense eksperimenteer het met plantverbouing en waarskynlik allerhande ander manipulasies van die natuurlike omgewing, soos selektiewe skoonmaak, die verspreiding van gewenste plante na nuwe gebiede, ensovoorts. Argeoloë herevalueer nou bestaande idees oor die Argaïese lewe.

Het die laat -argaïese voorouers van die Caddo ook eksperimenteer met tuinmaak en die groei van styselagtige en olierige saadplante? Ons weet nie. Die mening hier is dat dit baie waarskynlik is dat sommige laat -argaïese groepe in die Caddo Homeland -omgewing begin eksperimenteer het met die plant van sade wat verkry is deur handel en uitruil van mense in die noorde en noordooste. Maar tot dusver het ons nie 'n & quoksmoker geweer & quot bewyse — bewaarde mak sade. Dit is ten minste gedeeltelik te wyte aan die huidige bewaringstoestande en die gebrek aan gesamentlike pogings om die nodige bewyse van laat -argaïese terreine te herstel. Dit is 'n belangrike navorsingsvraagstuk wat meer werk benodig.

Wat weet ons van laat -argaïese mense in die Caddo -tuisland? Die laat-argaïese tydperk tussen ongeveer 3000-500 v.C. in die Caddo -tuisland bly taamlik swak bekend. Geïsoleerde en goed bewaarde komponente van die laat-argaïese terrein (diskrete afsettings uit 'n enkele periode of gebruiks episode) is ongewoon en daar is nie baie bestudeer nie. Nietemin, laat pylpunte in die laat-argaïese styl met uitbreidende en kontrakterende stingels, waaronder onder meer die Yarborough-, Ellis- en Edgewood-soorte, is wyd versprei oor die hele gebied en is op baie plekke meer as vroeër style. In 'n groot deel van die streek blyk dit dat die argaïese lewenspaaie langer voortduur as elders in die oostelike woud.

In vergelyking met vroeëre periodes, blyk dit dat die laat -argaïese tyd 'n tyd was van hoër bevolkings en dat die landskap meer intensief gebruik is en dat alle terreine op alle landvorme van groot rivierterrasse tot hoogliggende rante en alles tussenin gevind word. Op sommige plekke, veral in valleie aan die noordekant van die Ouachita -gebergte en in die Great Bend -gebied van Red River, begin vullismiddels (in wese kombuisvullishope) in die laat argaïese tye ophoop. Die bekendste is die Wister -fase van die Wistervallei in die verre ooste van Oklahoma. Daar het in die laat -argaïese tye 'swart middens' begin vorm. Die Fourche Maline -kultuur verteenwoordig deels 'n verskerping van hierdie nedersettingspatroon gedurende die daaropvolgende Woodland -tydperk. Die teenwoordigheid van plekke met digte vullisophopings in die laat -argaïese tye dui daarop dat mense minder beweeglik geword het en vir lang periodes op sekere baie gunstige plekke gebly het.

'N Ander interessante opmerking is dat laat -argaïese mense uitgebreide gebruik gemaak het van plaaslike klippe om gereedskap te maak. Waarom is dit interessant? Want behalwe in gebiede soos die Ouachita-gebergte, is die meeste van die plaaslike klippe van die Caddo-gebied van swak gehalte en kom dit voor in klein klippies wat nie geskik is om mooi afgewerkte klipwerktuie te maak nie (soos veerpyltjies, messe en hout -werktuie). Byvoorbeeld, in dele van Oos -Texas was 'n materiaal wat algemeen gebruik word, versteende of versteende hout. Die feit dat laat -argaïese mense sulke materiaal gebruik het, dui op twee dinge. Eerstens dat hulle nie ver gereis het om diensbare grondstowwe te vind nie, indien minimaal. Tweedens was daar nie veel handel met mense in ander gebiede (soos die Ouachitas of Sentraal -Texas) wat toegang gehad het tot baie materiaal van hoë gehalte nie.

Laat argaïese mense in die omgewing was jagters en versamelaars soos voorheen, afhangende van 'n wye verskeidenheid soogdiere, visse, voëls, sade, neute, bessies en wortels. Herten was die belangrikste grootwild, maar die bene van baie verskillende diertjies kom voor in die laat -argaïese middelee. Daar is bewyse vir 'n groter klem op die versameling en verwerking van neute, veral hickory. Alhoewel hickory neute taai is om neute te kraak, is hul olierige vleis smaakvol en is dit 'n belangrike bron van vet en proteïene. Bewyse vir die toenemende afhanklikheid van hickory is afkomstig van die groot aantal 'klipstene' (klippe met klein koppies wat hickory -neute veilig tydens krake gehou het) en die gereelde herstel van verkoolde moerdoppe in laat -argaïese terreine. Om al die vet te onttrek, is die gekraakte hickory -neute waarskynlik gekook deur warm gesteentes in 'n neute- en watermis in digte geweefde mandjies of velletjiesakkies te gooi, en die vet word van die bokant afgeskep.

In die Cypress Creek -bekken in die noordooste van Texas is ook bewyse gevind vir die gebruik van wortels en ondergrondse knolle van die Psoralea familie (algemene name sluit in skerp ertjie, prairie -raap en broodwortel). Knolle voorberei om te eet is 'n arbeidsintensiewe proses. Hulle moes opgespoor, opgegrawe, gebak of gekook word en dan gedroog (of onmiddellik geëet). Die twee voordele van knolle is dat hulle beskikbaar is as daar niks anders is nie en dat hulle gedroog en gestoor kan word vir latere gebruik.

As ons dit alles saamvoeg, sien ons in die Caddo Homeland -gebied bewyse van mense wat hulle in gelokaliseerde gebiede vestig en intensief plaaslike hulpbronne gebruik, selfs dié wat nie besonder wenslik was nie. Dit dui daarop dat die plaaslike bevolkingsvlakke hoog genoeg was dat daar geen groot onbewoonde gebiede was waarin mense maklik in moeilike tye kon beweeg nie. Mense het bly sit of in kleiner gebiede bly omdat hul opsies beperk was. Alhoewel ons nie op 'n laat argaïese plek kan wys nie en met sekerheid kan sê: "Dit is waar voorvaders van die Caddo gewoon het," het ons min twyfel dat die voorouers van Caddo reeds geleef het in wat hul vaderland sou word. Ons dink ook dat die voorwaardes gestel is vir die kulturele ontwikkelinge wat in die daaropvolgende Woodland -periode sou plaasvind.


Heilige plekke in die Verenigde State

Arizona
Ribbon Falls, Grand Canyon
Mount Graham
I'ito (Montezuma se hoof), Pima County
'Oks Daha (ou vrou sit), Pima County
Mount Humphreys (Doko O Sliid)
Ruïnes van Canyon de Chelly
Mount Baboquivari
Meteor krater
Mount Newberry (heilige berg Yuman)
Black Mesa, Hopi -bespreking
Bygelowige berge
Die heilige meer van Zuni by die aansluiting van die riviere Little Colorado en Zuni

Arkansas
Hot Springs Nasionale Park

Kalifornië
Mount Shasta
Mount Tamalpais
Mount Diablo
San Jacinto
Mt. Lassen
Joshua Tree nasionale monument
Mount Cuchama (Tecate)
Soldaatberg (Simolaki -berg, heilig vir Ajumawi -Indiane)
Conception Point, naby Santa Barbara (heilige plek Chumash)

Colorado
Indian Burial Rock, El Paso County
Groot sandduine
Blanca (Sisnajini)
Mount Hesperus (Dibe ’Nitsaa)
Pagosa Springs
Eilandmeer, La Plata -gebergte

Florida
Crystal River -heuwels
Pantherheuwel, Everglades
Mount Royal -heuwels
Lake Jackson -heuwels, naby Tallahassee

Georgië
Klipberg
Ocmulgee Park
Etowah -heuwels, Cartersville

Hawaii
Haleakala -vulkaan, Maui
Mauna Kea -vulkaan, Hawaii
Piilanihale Heiau -tempel, Maui
Moku’ula, Maui, Hawaii
Iao Valley, Maui, Hawaii
Mo ’okini Luakini Heiau, Hawaii
Pu ’uhonua O Honaunau, Honauna Bay, Hawaii
Kilauea, Hawaii (geboorteplek van Pele, godin van vulkane)
Kaulu Paoa Heiau, Kauia -eiland

Idaho
Rookplek, Bitterwortelberge
Heart of the Monster, heilige plek Nez Perce, Clearwaterrivier, naby Klamath

Illinois
Monnikeheuwel, Cahokia, naby Collinsville
Kincaid -heuwels

Indiana
Mounds State Park
Engelheuwels

Iowa
Nasionale monument van Effigy heuwels, Marquette
Beerhoop

Louisiana
Poverty Point -heuwel, Epps
Watson -remhoop, naby Monroe
Natchez -heuwels
Tchefuncte heuwels
Marksville -heuwels, naby Monroe

Maine
Mount Katahdin

Michigan
Norton heuwels
Sleeping Bear Dunes, naby Empire

Minnesota
Pipestone Quarry, Pipestone National Monument
Jeffers Petroglyph -webwerf, Jeffers

Mississippi
Smaragdheuwel, Tupelo

Montana
Geneeskunde boom webwerf, Ravalli county
Annashisee Lisaxpuatahcheeashiee (Big Horn Medicine Wheel)
Chief Mountain, Montana (Mount Ninaistakis heilig vir Blackfeet Indiane)
Giant Springs
Sweetgrass Hills

Nebraska
Pahuk Pawnee -heuwel, noord van Cedar bluffs, in die ooste van Nebraska

Nevada
Cave Rock, County Douglas
Spirit Mountain (Avi Kwa 'Ame), County Clark
Avikwa'ame (Spirit mountain), Grapevine Canyon, Laughlin (Yuman heilige plek)

New Hampshire
Mount Washington
Mystery Hill, Salem

New Mexico
Mount Taylor (Tsoodzil), New Mexico
Ruïnes van die Chaco Canyon Anasazi, New Mexico
White Sands -duine, New Mexico
Chimayo kerk, New Mexico
Ute Mountain, New Mexico
Blue Lake, New Mexico
Gobernador Nob, New Mexico
Shiprock, New Mexico
Mount Huerfano, New Mexico
Truchas Peaks, New Mexico
Chicoma Mountain, New Mexico (heilige berg Tewa)
Mount Conjilon, New Mexico
Mount Capitan, New Mexico (Mescalero Apache heilige berg)
Mount San Augustin, New Mexico (Mescalero Apache heilige berg)
Mount Salinas, New Mexico (heilige berg Mescalero Apache)
Hosta Butte ('Ak'i Dah Nast'ani') suid van Chaco Canyon
Bandelier Nat. Monument Stone Lion -heiligdomme van Yapashi, naby Running Eagle Falls
Petroglyphs National Monument, New Mexico

New York
Berg Marcy
Gebalanseerde rots, Noord -Salem
Heiligdom van geboorteplek van Kateria Tekakwitha, Auriesville
Shrine of Illumination van Kateria Tekakwitha, Fonda

Noord-Carolina
Mount Richland-Balsam
Loodsberg

Ohio
Serpent Mound, Ohio

Oklahoma
Antilope- en Buffelbronne, Arbuckle -berge
Spiro Mounds State Park

Oregon
Wallowa -meer
Wizard Island, Crater Lake
Mount Hood

Suid -Dakota
Harney Peak
Windgrot
Buffalo Gap
Mnikata warmwaterbronne
Craven canyon
Inyan Kara -berg, Crook County, Black Hills
Bear Butte, Suid-Dakota (Noaha-vose Cheyenne Sacred Mountain)
Bad Lands, Suid -Dakota

Texas
Betowerde rots, naby Fredericksburg
Mount Guadalupe (heilige berg Mescalero Apache)

Utah
Hovenweep ruïnes
Mount Zion

Washington
Mount Adams
Snoqualmie -waterval
Mount Ranier (Tacoma), Washington

Wes -Virginia
Moundsville

Wisconsin
Aztalan -heuwel, Lake Mills
Tempelheuwels
Blue Mound State Park

Wyoming
Ou Baldy
Duiwels toring
Big Horn Medicine Wheel, naby Lovell

Martin Gray is 'n kulturele antropoloog, skrywer en fotograaf wat spesialiseer in die studie en dokumentasie van pelgrimstogte regoor die wêreld. Gedurende 'n tydperk van 38 jaar het hy meer as 1500 heilige plekke in 165 lande besoek. Die Wêreld pelgrimstog gids webwerf is die mees omvattende bron van inligting oor hierdie onderwerp.

Die DaVincis van vuil: geo -argeologiese perspektiewe op die inheemse Amerikaanse heuwelgebou in die Mississippi -rivierkom

Die kompleksiteit van die konstruksie van die heuwels, soos geopenbaar deur geo -argeologiese ontledings, dui aan dat die kulturele betekenis van die heuwels net so goed weerspieël kan word in die erde konstruksiemateriaal en die rangskikking daarvan, soos in die artefakte wat op hul kruine verlaat is. Ons gebruik geo-argeologiese voorbeelde van drie terreine in die Mississippi-rivierkom, Shiloh Mounds, Cahokia en Poverty Point, om 'n geo-argeologiese benadering voor te stel wat veelvuldige skale van die plaaslike gronde en geomorfologie, veldwaarneming van litostratigrafiese eenhede, na die mikroskaal-identifikasie oorweeg van die mineralogie en grondontwikkeling om die bron en verwerking van die gronde en sedimente te ontsyfer. Ons fokus op die gebruik van vyf soorte konstruksies waarna hier verwys word: sooiblokke, grondblokke, gelaaide vullings, gesoneerde vullings en fineer. Ons kyk ook na die seleksie en vervoer van gronde en sedimente wat in die bou van heuwels gebruik word en wat hierdie tipe afsettings onthul oor die metodes wat gebruik word om heuwels te bou. Hierdie data kan gebruik word om die organisasie van arbeid, konstruksietempo en die voorkoms van die heuwel te evalueer en te verstaan. Ons is van mening dat daar 'n aansienlike (hoewel ongekwalifiseerde) verskil is tussen grondverskuiwing en heuwelbou en dat die konstruksie van hierdie belangrike monumente aansienlike kennis, vaardigheid, beplanning, harde werk en aandag aan simboliese en rituele betekenis vereis.

Grafiese opsomming

Navorsingshoogtepunte

► 'n Geo -argeologiese perspektief dui daarop dat die bou van 'n heuwel 'n beplande inspanning vereis, wat terreinvoorbereiding, gesofistikeerde kennis van grondeienskappe en aansienlike ingenieursvaardighede insluit. ► Ons konsentreer op konstruksie en identifiseer 5 soorte neerslae: sooiblok, grondblok, gelaaide vulsel, gesoneerde vulsel en fineer. ► Heuwels is komplekse argitektoniese opbouings wat deel uitmaak van die simboliese en rituele praktyke van hierdie samelewings.


Vrydag, 04 Julie 2008

Geluk aan die Amerikaanse ambassadeur vir sy sang in inheemse taal

Ek was bly om te hoor dat 'n inheemse Suid -Amerikaanse taal, Guarani, en 'n Amerikaanse ambassadeur onlangs opslae gemaak het:

Die Amerikaanse ambassadeur in Paraguay het 'n musieksensasie in die land geword nadat hy 'n album volksliedjies in die inheemse Guarani -taal opgeneem het. 'Wat ek probeer doen, is om respek te toon vir Paraguay en vir die kultuur daarvan,' het James Cason aan die BBC gesê. Die opbrengs uit die albumverkope gaan Engelse taaltoelaes vir arm Paraguayaanse studente befonds. Cason se pogings is goed ontvang, hoewel een politikus gemor het oor sy uitspraak. Cason se liedjies is op die radio gespeel en luisteraars was entoesiasties, sê hy. 'Ek dink hulle is net verbaas en verheug dat iemand die tyd sal neem om 'n taal te leer wat waarskynlik moeiliker is as Chinees,' sê Cason, wat op 2 Augustus Paraguay verlaat.


Woensdag, 26 September 2018

'N Paar Suid-Amerikaanse geskiedenis van 4000-2000 vC

Tierra del Fuego in Argentinië
Dit is 'n berig oor die Suid-Amerikaanse geskiedenis van 4000-2000 vC. Onthou, ek is glad nie 'n kenner van hierdie tydperk nie, en daar is nog baie wat nog onbekend is en wat deur argeoloë ontdek word, maar die breë trekke van wat ek hier sal beskryf, is hopelik meestal korrek. Die datums wat hier aangebied word, sal 'n baie breë skatting wees, en dit kan baie sleg wees. Dit is 'n tyd voordat dit in hierdie deel van die wêreld geskryf word, sodat die belangrikste bronne heeltemal argeologies sal wees. Alhoewel mondelinge geskiedenis belangrik is, is hierdie spesifieke tydperk te ver in die verlede sodat mondelinge geskiedenis hier nuttig kan wees.

Vir die doeleindes van hierdie blog sal Suid -Amerika bestaan ​​uit die vasteland van Suid -Amerika, uitgesluit die eilande van die Karibiese Eilande, wat kortliks behandel is in die blogpos oor die geskiedenis van Noord -Amerika.

Soos met Noord -Amerika, was die meerderheid van Suid -Amerika voor die jaar 4000 vC bewoon. Selfs die natuurlewe van Patagonië en Tierra del Fuego is blykbaar vinnig bereik deur mense by die eerste aankoms in Amerika.

Die presiese datum vir die aankoms van mense in die Amerikas is 'n raaisel, maar die meeste is dit eens dat daar 'n aankoms was omstreeks 10 000 v.C. waar die mees onlangse gletsermaksimum die seevlak verlaag het sodat 'n landbrug in die Beringstraat kon ontstaan. Dit het Noord -Amerika en Asië verbind en klein groepe voerkragte kon oorsteek. Daar was moontlik vroeëre nedersettings, maar dit is onduidelik. Die groep wat omstreeks 10 000 vC aangekom het, word die Clovis -kultuur genoem (vernoem na hul vuurwapens wat eers in die stad Clovis in die staat New Mexico in die Verenigde State gevind is). Binne ongeveer 'n millennia het die mensdom tot by die suidpunt van Suid -Amerika versprei. Die groot soogdiere wat in die Amerikas gewoon het, het verdwyn, moontlik omdat die mense hulle gejag het, maar moontlik as gevolg van die druk van klimaatsverandering, gekombineer met voedselkompetisie van mense.

Cueva de las Manos in Argentinië
Rondom 7000 vC in 'n grot in die suide van Argentinië, sou jagtersversamelaars in grotte hul hande teen die muur van die grot, bekend as Cueva de las Manos, plaas en 'n soort verf oor die hande blaas, en 'n afdruk laat wat vir millennia. Mense gebruik kuns om vir toekomstige geslagte te sê dat hulle daar was.

Die oorspronklike inwoners van die Amerikas was jagter-versamelaars, maar namate die bevolkings uitgebrei en die groter diere verdwyn het, wil dit voorkom asof die bewoners in die warmer klimate meer begin staatmaak op die versameling van voedsel. Sommige voedsel is versorg en herplant en geleidelik het dit oorgegaan in tuinmaak en van tuinmaak tot landbou. Baie van die vernaamste gewasse van die Amerikas, soos mielies en boontjies, is in Mexiko mak gemaak, maar sommige, soos katoen en aartappel, is blykbaar onafhanklik in die gebied wat nou bekend staan ​​as Peru.

Die proefkonyn is deur die inwoners van die Andes geboer, waarskynlik as 'n bron van vleis eerder as omdat dit oulik is. Rondom hierdie tyd is die alpaca en die lama ook mak gemaak. Dit was veral nuttig vir vleis en wol. Alhoewel dit moontlik is dat lama's vragte kan dra, is hul kapasiteit redelik beperk in vergelyking met 'n perd of 'n kameel.

Aardewerk is eers in die Amerikas in die Amasone -bekken ontwikkel, moontlik omstreeks 5500 vC. Daar is keramiekvoorwerpe uit Guyana wat kort na hierdie tyd verskyn. Aardewerk het blykbaar stadig noordwaarts versprei na Colombia, waar dit veral op die San Jacinto -terrein duidelik blyk. Die latere tradisies van uitgebreide pottebakkery het egter nog nie ontwikkel nie. Hierdie items is nog nie wyd gebruik nie, en daar word gereeld na hierdie tydperke verwys as aceramiek, wat beteken, sonder keramiek, of pre-keramiek. Vanuit Colombia sou erdewerk noord en suid versprei, in Meso -Amerika en Ecuador en van Ecuador na Peru.

Chinchorro Mummie
Die Chinchorro -kultuur, wat strek oor die noordelike streke van Chili en die suidelike streke van Peru, is ook van belang. Dit dateer uit die tydperk waarna ons kyk, en gaan moontlik terug na 7000 vC. Dit was 'n visvangkultuur wat daarin kon slaag om in die uiters dorre gebied van die Atacama -woestyn te oorleef deur in die kuswaters te hengel. Die droogte van die land het beteken dat die dooie lede van hierdie kultuur soms behoue ​​gebly het. Die natuurlike versiering en hoë soutinhoud van die grond sou die weefsel van die oorledene in 'n natuurlike mummifikasieproses behou. Dit gebeur in baie droë streke van die wêreld en is ongewoon, maar nie ongekend nie. Deur hierdie proses te benut, het die Chinchorro -mense hul dooies begrawe met rituele goedere en die natuur toegelaat om sy gang te gaan. Die Chinchorro -mense was moontlik die eerste mense ter wêreld wat probeer het om hul dooies te bewaar en te mummifiseer.

Later, omstreeks 5000 vC, het die Chinchorro -mense probeer om te verseker dat hul dooies gemummifiseer word deur die sagte weefsel van 'n persoon te verwyder en dit dan weer aanmekaar te sit, die vel (of vervangende seëlvel) weer bo -op die aspasta te plaas om te verseker dat die gelykenis van die dooies behoue ​​gebly het. Die vel is toe swart geverf. Die gevolglike mummie was nou meestal as eerder as menslik en ek wonder of 'n ander term eerder as mummie meer akkuraat sou wees. Die sorg aan die dooies sou moontlik daarop dui dat die Chinchorro hul voorouers aanbid het, maar dit is spekulatief. Baie kulture behandel hul dooies uitvoerig, maar aanbid hulle nie. Teen die jaar 4000 vC gebruik die Chinchorro nog steeds die swart mummietegniek en sal dit nog steeds duisend jaar lank doen.

Ongeveer 3700 keramiek is in Puerto Hormiga in Colombia gevind, wat die gebruik van die nuwe tegnologie toon. Aardewerk is destyds egter nog nie wyd in hierdie streek gebruik nie.

Argeologiese terrein in die Casma -vallei
Omstreeks die jaar 3500 vC verskyn die eerste tekens van verstedeliking in Suid -Amerika. Die perseel in Huaricanga is uit hierdie tydperk bewoon deur mense uit 'n kultuur wat soms na verwys word as die Norte Chico -kultuur (wat beteken#8220 Little North ” in Peru, want daar is verwarrend ook 'n aparte Norte Chico -streek in Chili). Die perseel by Huaricanga was in 'n droë gebied, maar argeologie toon aan dat hulle gewasse gebruik het om hul dieet van vis aan te vul. Dit lyk asof die kombinasie van ontluikende landbou gekombineer met seevissery die mense van die Norte Chico -kultuur ondersteun het. Die vroeë perseel by Huaricanga was klein, maar was moontlik nie die enigste perseel rondom hierdie tyd nie.

Ongeveer honderd kilometer verder noord loop die Casma -rivier en sy sytak, die Sechin -rivier, uit die berge na die see. Langs die oewers van hierdie riviere het 'n ander kultuur ontwikkel, moontlik verbonde aan die Norte Chico -kultuur. Die nabyheid van hierdie twee kulture maak dit waarskynlik dat daar 'n vorm van interaksie tussen hulle was en dit sou baie vreemd wees as hulle nie van mekaar geweet het nie. Dit is 'n oop vraag oor watter kultuur die vroegste was, maar dit lyk asof die Casma-Sechin-kultuur ook rondom hierdie tyd begin verstedelik het. Die argeologiese terrein van Sechin Bajo het moontlik die vroegste monumentale gravures in Suid -Amerika. Hierdie webwerf was egter duisende jare later beset, dus die gravures wat besoekers byna almal sal sien, dateer later.

'N Later tempel uit Bandurria
'N Ander plek, ongeveer honderd kilometer suid van Huaricanga, was die nedersetting Bandurria. Dit was baie naby die kuslyn en dateer moontlik so vroeg as 4000 vC, maar die bewyse is onduidelik en die terrein is beskadig. Dit is egter duidelik dat 'n aantal kulture langs die noordelike Stille Oseaan -kus in Suid -Amerika begin ontstaan ​​het. As verstedeliking eers begin plaasvind, word dit vinnig gekopieer, en ons sien gebiede in die Midde -Ooste begin om op dieselfde tyd na verstedeliking te beweeg. 'N Soortgelyke proses moes langs hierdie kus plaasgevind het.

Omstreeks 3400 het die Valdivia -kultuur ontstaan ​​in die huidige Ecuador. Soos die Chinchorro-, Casma-Sechin- en Norte Chico-kulture, was dit langs die kuslyn gebaseer en die inwoners was hoofsaaklik afhanklik van visse uit die see. Omdat al hierdie kulture toegang tot 'n vorm van kusbote sou gehad het, het hulle moontlik met mekaar in aanraking gekom, maar dit is nie duidelik nie en daar is geen handelsware wat dit definitief kan uitwys nie. Die mense van die Valdivia -kultuur het in sirkelvormige dorpe gewoon, wat gewasse verbou om hul dieet van vis aan te vul en byna dieselfde gewasse te gebruik as wat later in die streek belangrik was, soos mielies, bone en muurbal. Dit het beteken dat die drie susters van die Meso -Amerikaanse landbou reeds die Stille Oseaan -kus van Suid -Amerika bereik het.

'N Piramide uit die stad Caral
Omstreeks 3100 vC het die Norte Chico-kultuur begin uitbrei, net soos die ander kulture in die streek, soos die Casma-Sechin-kultuur. Hulle stedelike terreine het groter geword en kan nou begin word om stede te noem, alhoewel die verskil tussen 'n klein stad en 'n groot stad werklik akademies is. Die riviere het belangriker begin wees as die kuslande, hoewel visvang nog steeds belangrik was.

Omstreeks 3000 vC begin die preramiese periode in die Casma-Sechin-kultuur. Dit het die voortgesette uitbreiding van nedersettings en die stigting van nuwes, soos die kusstad Huaynuná, tot gevolg gehad. Kanale is ook gebou om meer landbou uit die riviere moontlik te maak.

Omstreeks hierdie tyd het die Chinchorro -mense 'n ander styl as die Black Mummy -tegniek begin gebruik. Hierdie nuwe metode van mummifikasie is die modderjas -tegniek genoem en het behels dat die dooies bedek is met 'n modderlaag modder, sand en 'n tipe mortier wat as 'n tipe sement funksioneer. Hierdie metode het nie die organe van die oorledene verwyder nie en dit amper as tipe standbeelde gelaat.

Aardewerk is gevind uit die Valdivia -kultuur wat dateer uit 2700 vC. Dit toon dat die gebruik van erdewerk geleidelik deur Suid -Amerika versprei het, hoofsaaklik langs die kuslyne. Rondom hierdie tyd begin daar ook klein nedersettings groei in die huidige Colombia.

Omstreeks 2500 vC het die mense van die Chinchorro -kultuur ook die Red Mummy -tegniek begin gebruik. Dit is ongeveer vyfhonderd jaar lank gebruik om die interne organe van die dooies te verwyder, die oorblywende liggaamsholte te droog, die oorblyfsels met strooi te stop en dit met 'n masker, kunshare en vel te bedek en dan die oorblyfsels met rooi oker te verf. The Red Mummy and Mud Coat techniques seem to have overlapped in time. This was probably just a change of technique rather than a change of culture or religion.

Excavations at Ventarron
Around 2500BC the temple complex at Ventarron was inhabited. This was a site on the northern Pacific Coast of Peru, about ten kilometres from the sea and further north than the Casma Valley. Here, a large temple complex was founded with some indications that the people here were trading with the civilisations both north and south of them.

Also around this time, the city of Caral was inhabited. Caral lay on the Supe River, not far from Huaricanga. While previous settlements resembled large towns, Caral was unquestionably a city. The city covers 150 hectares and contains large public squares and buildings. Some of these are formed like low pyramids and were almost certainly temples. The people of Caral traded extensively with the nearby coastlands and their hinterland, which consisted of at least nineteen smaller settlements, even going so far as to import the vertebrae of blue whales to use as stools. The population was probably not very large however. The city itself may have had a population of just three thousand people. But the valley probably had around twenty thousand and more may have come from even farther afield to attend religious ceremonies.

The magnificent remains of the city of Caral
Religious ceremonies were probably held there regularly. Buildings that were built to preserve fire were dotted around the city, possibly suggesting a fire cult. A geoglyph, a carving scratched onto the ground, similar to the later Nazca Lines, was created near the city, and has some resemblance to carvings at Casma-Sechin. What its meaning was is unclear. Bone flutes have been found that may well have been used in religious ceremonies.

If Caral was a religious centre, as seems likely, then it was also a trading centre. Items have been found there that show that by this point, the peoples of Caral had contact with the Valdivia culture of Ecuador and with the higher Andean regions, with some goods even coming from as far afield as the rainforest on the far side of the Andes.

While the history of Caral is a mystery and will probably always be so, it is possible that even at this early stage the peoples of the region had progressed to proto-writing. Knotted strings have been found that resemble later Incan quipu. Quipu are knotted ropes that can be carried swiftly by runners from place to place and the number and positioning of the knots on the ropes will carry messages. But it is not likely that these strings would tell us much even if they are in fact quipus. Quipus were generally more like tally sticks in certain ways. They were very good for detailing transactions but not for handling more complex content. So the dealings of Caral are likely to remain a mystery forever.

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The temples of Kotosh
Around 2300BC the Kotosh site was inhabited. This was a small site, further inland, to the southeast of the Casma River valley and further into the mountains. This is the type site for a culture that is referred to as the Kotosh Religious Tradition. It may have been a ceremonial centre for the people of the mountain valleys. The site itself is not large, but a nearby site called La Galgada may have been larger. It was continuously inhabited, perhaps by a class of priests. The temples in Kotosh had reliefs of crossed hands, but it is not certain what this signified. The Kotosh tradition would form a link to later cultures in Peru.

Around 2250BC a broken gourd showing a staff wielding deity was found. While it can never be exactly certain that this is a symbol of a deity it is almost certainly the same Staff God that was worshipped later in Peru. The Incas knew the Staff God as Viracocha and worshipped him as the creator of the world. If this broken gourd does indeed depict a god and if it is the same god, it shows that there was a cultural continuity from the time of the Norte Chico civilisation until the fall of the Inca Empire.

The mural of Ventarron, destroyed by fire in 2017
Image from the BBC
Around 2000BC the earliest dated murals in the Americas were made on the walls of the temples of Ventarron, along the northern coast of Peru. One of the murals depicted a snake like creature being caught in a net perhaps a scene from mythology or perhaps simply an illustration from the lives of a fishing people. Sadly, at least one of the murals was destroyed in a fire in 2017.

This brings our survey of South American history for this period to an end. I will write more in a later post. Before closing I would like to take some time to briefly address a misconception. There is a city in Bolivia called Tiwanaku, sometimes called Tiahuanaco that is sometimes stated as being extremely ancient. An explorer from the early 20th Century believed that the site was at least 11,000 years old and, more plausibly, it has been said to date from around 1600BC. More recent estimates suggest that the city should be dated as being occupied from around 300BC onwards. Some older publication may include the earlier dates for the city, so one should be aware of this while reading about South American history. Some conspiracy websites have also taken up this line, speaking of the Tiwanaku civilisation as being the oldest city on earth and probably to do with aliens or something. This diminishes the real achievements of the earlier civilisations such as the ones at Casma Sechin, or Caral.

Later relief of the Staff God from Tiwanaku
Related Blog Posts:
Some South American history from 4000-2000BC


Archeology and Artifacts

You've Never Seen Anything Like This Before, Goblin Valley, Utah. Building Cities in 50 Years. (3) Past Tartarian Civilizations (Turkmenistan) 15 Oldest Technologies That Scientists Can't Explain. (1) Atmospheric Abnormality. Old World Remains - California 1870's. (11) The Great Mud Flood, Tartaria, Reset Civilization. All About Red Bricks. Red bricks are widely used for building construction.

Here we talk about history, how clay bricks are made and fired, differences in quality and strength, how to select a good brick and how they should be used. See the full Fixed Abode article here “a-frog-in-your-brick.pdf” What is brick? A brick is a small rectangular block of fired or sun dried clay. It is a beautiful building material with warm colours, a natural appearance and, once built, it needs no ongoing maintenance. Another Monolith Discovered, It's Ancient! Chief Vann House – Historical Belle. During the 1790s, James Vann became a Cherokee Indian leader and wealthy businessman.

He was the son of a Cherokee woman and Scots-Irish man, and because of his mixed ancestry was able to do business with the Europeans and Indigenous People of the area. James Vann established the largest and most prosperous plantation in the Cherokee Nation, working his 1,000 acres with African slave labor. The house, which was built on Cherokee Land is now apart of Murray County, Georiga. In 1804 Vann completed construction of a beautiful 2 ½ story brick home. After Vann was murdered in 1809, his son Joseph inherited the mansion and plantation.

The house has many beautiful architectural features including this 12 foot mantle. Our guide, who was fantastic, told us that these are the original colors of the house, which I think is so cool! Ancient Impossible Engineering So Advanced it's Beyond Our Imagination. (2) Old World Fountains of Fire. What You Need To Know About ARCHEOLOGY And FORBIDDEN DISCOVERIES. Disposable Civilizations. Largest Early World Map - Monte's 10 ft. Planisphere of 1587. An extraordinary 60 sheet manuscript world map made in 1587 by Urbano Monte has been added to the David Rumsey Map Collection at Stanford University. At 10 foot square, this map or planisphere is the largest known early map of the world. It was hand drawn by Monte in Milan, Italy, and only one other manuscript copy exists. Little People in a GIANTS WORLD. Tartarian Copper Mines of California. Untitled. Untitled. Tartarian Extinction Event

Billions of Lives Destroyed by DEW.

Proof a Mysterious Lost Ancient GLOBAL Civilization Spanned Virtually the Entire Planet… Did One Of The Egyptian Pyramids Explode 12,000 Years Ago? First temple of god depicted as skinned human discovered in Mexico. © Meliton Tapia Davila/APA skull-like stone carving and stone trunk depicting the Flayed lord.

Part 28, The History of the ”Roman” empire (NEWER IMPROVED VERSION AVILABLE) Post Reset Civilization. Mystery History #4 giants tartaria flood mudflood hidden history. (1) RARE HISTORICAL IMAGES YOU HAVE TO SEE TO AVOID DEATH. America Before: The Key to Earth’s Lost Civilisation, by Graham Hancock. Forbidden History, King Arthur Died in America, Dinosaurs Walked with Man. (12) You Won’t Believe What’s Buried Under the Sahara…Hidden Lost Ancient Civilizations.

New Zealand Skeletons in the Cupboard - Under The Carpet. Ancient American Roots by Jon Levi. Good catch, Ice.

I believe we've made this connection before—the Scythians (Tartarians) being warlike nomads who specialized in horse archery and were the first-known wearers of pants. But these were not primitive nomads, as their goldwork alone reveals a level of artistry approaching perfection.What I find most interesting is this passage from the article from above:The unnamed correspondent from the previous month's issue has a theory in which he is so confident as to claim it a certainty, that the Native Americans are the degenerated stock of Tartarians who were forced to flee their cities by invaders.

3,000 photos of the lost world. Mount Rainier's Osceola Mudflow. Once Upon A Reset (San Francisco) New Ellora Caves Documentary 2019 The Mind-Boggling Rock Cut Temples of India. Inheritors of a Nation. Peculiars you've never seen. The Nephilim In The Ohio Valley! - Anunnaki/Human "Hybrids" in Ancient North American Indian Tribes! Pre-1600’s Built for Giants. Highlights of the NewEarth Findings - the True Ancient History of the Human Races. Hawksmoor Churches. Whether you like them or not (and I'm not a great fan) Hawksmoor's churches certainly make an impact on London, if only by their sheer size.

They range from large to enormous and I sometimes wonder whether there was an error of scale on the drawings and they got built much bigger than intended! Tartarian Empire - Covered Up By People & Mud #Mudflood. Mud Flood Hills Must Go. Flood Remains Used All Along. American History (Untold) Version. New York Mud Flood. Malta Caves and Tunnels Documentary: Giants, Secret History and Strange Locations. No One Knows How To Explain This. Mystery History #4 giants tartaria flood mudflood hidden history. Revealed Photos Show Something Huge May be Hidden in Ancient Egypt – Lost Civilizations & Egyptians. Frank Joseph, Lemuria, Atlantis & Humans 20 Million Year Timeline. Secret American Archaeology 2017. Is Planet Earth Just One Giant Ancient Quarry. Mayan Ruins in Georgia ? 2016. New Ancient Discoveries Documentary 2018 Greatest Archaeological Mysteries of the Past. New Sumerian Artifacts 2018 Documentary The Forgotten History of Sumer.

Louisiana's 5,400 Year Old Mystery Site. 200,000 Year Old Ancient Levitation Technology That Defies the Laws of Physics. EXCLUSIVE! L.A. Marzulli Reveals DNA That Opens New Chapter In History. The Advanced Pre Ice Age Civilizations that Vanished From Earth [FULL VIDEO] Pyramids and Hieroglyphics in America B.C. - Secrets not taught in Public School Pt-2. The Untangled Gathering - Origins - Dr Sam Osmanagich. Joseph P Farrell SECRET STRUCTURES your not suppose to know about. Part 1 of 'Standing with Stones' Historic Timeline Based on Historic Sites & Artefacts Instead of Blind Belief in the Quakademia. Suppressed Ancient Artifacts that Dont Match Current Beliefs. The BIGGEST SECRET Hidden in Plain SIGHT - The ROCKS were ALIVE.

Top 10 Nazca Line Figures. What you need to know about the ATACAMA HUMANOID and the land in which it was found. Ancient Human Origins, Why History is Wrong. Man finds Nephilim giants in Utah. ANTARCTICA CASTLE DISCOVERY REWRITES HISTORY. BREAKING NEWS. Derinkuyu & The Underground Cities of Cappadocia. In 1963, a man in the Nevşehir Province of Turkey knocked down a wall of his home.

Behind it, he discovered a mysterious room. The man continued digging and soon discovered an intricate tunnel system with additional cave-like rooms. What he had discovered was the ancient Derinkuyu underground city, part of the Cappadocia region in central Anatolia, Turkey. The elaborate subterranean network included discrete entrances, ventilation shafts, wells, and connecting passageways. Ancient City of Sigiriya. Arkaim Russia’s Stonehenge and a Puzzle of the Ancient World. Ancient Megaliths and Historic sites. The Highlanders. The terracotta army is maybe the most extraordinary discovery of the 20th century.

While digging for a well, a group of Chinese farmers found a few ancient bronze weapons and pieces of broken terracotta. This was the beginning of a great discovery, which would reveal an entire underground city, guarded by terracotta soldiers and horses. Photo Source: famous-places.com. Secret Ancient History of Pyramids, Stone Spheres and Megaliths [FULL VIDEO]

Megaliths and the True Ancient History of Earth and the Inhabiting Races. The Last "ECHO": Did you know we have Pyramids In America? Pyramids In America!

The earthworks of the lower Mississippi were centers of life long before the Europeans arrived in America, as was the river itself. The alluvial soil of its banks yielded a bounty of beans, squash, and corn to foster burgeoning communities. Over the Mississippi's waters, from near and far, came prized pearls, copper, and mica. Did you know we have Pyramids in America? Most people are aware of the Pyramids in Egypt but little to no talk is mentioned regarding the ones here at home.

Poverty Point combines mounds with an aspect of ancient Rome ­ an amphitheater. Documented uses for Mississippian platform mounds include semi-public chief’s house platforms, public temple platforms, mortuary platforms, charnal house platforms, earth lodge/town house platforms, residence platforms, square ground and rotunda platforms, and dance platforms. Megalithic Monuments of Mu.

By Robert Stanley from UnicusMagazine Website In September of 1985, after traveling to 57 countries, I was absolutely amazed to discover the ruins of a lost civilization in my own backyard.

The questions I'm most often asked about the ancient, megalithic monuments I found in Malibu are: If this is real how come now one has ever reported it before? GRAHAM HANCOCK ANCIENT & FUTURE CATACLYSM - THE GREAT RETURN OF THE COMET! DARK JOURNALIST. Elusive Giant Megaliths from Sigiriya to France and "Elf" Castles in Bulgaria (with vehicle tracks) The 6,000 Year Old Crown Found in a Dead Sea Cave. Rockwall TX & Lost Secrets of Ancient America Josh Reeves In Houston FULL Presentation.

Roman Sword discovered off Oak Island radically suggests Ancient Mariners visited New World 1,000 years before Columbus. Researchers investigating the mysterious Oak Island, located on the south shore of Nova Scotia, Canada, have made a startling announcement regarding the discovery of a Roman ceremonial sword and what is believed to be a Roman shipwreck, radically suggesting that ancient mariners visited North America more than a thousand years before Columbus.

Evidence of the finding, which was exclusively revealed to Johnston Press and published in The Boston Standard, was uncovered by researchers involved in The History Channel’s series Curse of Oak Island, which details the efforts of two brothers from Michigan as they attempt to solve the mystery of the Oak Island treasure and discover historical artifacts believed to be concealed on the island. J. Hutton Pulitzer, lead researcher and historic investigator, along with academics from the Ancient Artifact Preservation Society, have compiled a paper on the finding, which is scheduled to be published in full in early 2016.

Mysterious Stone Chambers & Giants Discovered in New England- Jim Vieira. The Forbidden History of Ancient China: Aryan Mummies and Hundreds of Pyramids. [Hitler regarded individuals who were 6ft. 6in. and taller as being closest genetic relatives of the original proto-Aryan tribes from central Asia from which the Caucasian people and civilizations are said to have descended. Recent discoveries of hundreds of ancient mummies in Asia are forcing a re-examination of old Chinese books that describe as being of great height, with deep-set blue eyes, long noses, full beards, and red or blonde hair. The discoveries of the giant 4,000-year-old “Beauty of Loulan” and (six-foot, six-inch) “Charchan Man” support the legends about these mythical ancient Aryans.]

After years of controversy and political intrigue, archaeologists using genetic testing have proven that Caucasians roamed China’s Tarim Basin thousands of years before East Asian people arrived. The Great Smithsonian Cover-Up: 18 Giant Skeletons Discovered in Wisconsin. Scientists are remaining stubbornly silent about a lost race of giants found in burial mounds near Lake Delavan, Wisconsin, in May 1912. The dig site at Lake Delavan was overseen by Beloit College and it included more than 200 effigy mounds that proved to be classic examples of 8th century Woodland Culture. But the enormous size of the skeletons and elongated skulls found in May 1912 did not fit very neatly into anyone’s concept of a textbook standard. They were enormous. These were not average human beings. Bigger than Baalbek. The amazing megaliths of the Ural Mountains, Megalithic Archeological sites.


The Gods Destroy Earth

The theater in the sky comes to a sudden end in 3147 BC. Earth experiences a violent disturbance which brought the civilizations of the Earth to a stop with a massive flood, except on highlands in Mesopotamia (as in Persia and Anatolia), the foothills of the Himalayas, and in protected river valleys (as in Egypt). Floods and the return of a colder climate are noted in the archaeological and climatological records.

The year 3147 BC marks the worldwide flood. It is the flood which generates stories all over the world of survivors in arks or boats or canoes. In flood tales throughout the world, nearly all the boats or canoes moor to a high mountain peak. The "mountain" is a celestial apparition dominating the skies directly after and for an additional 280 years. It is Jupiter in plasma discharge to its surroundings from its south polar region.

Among farmer populations, the stories tell of arks provisioned with seeds and farm animals, an event actually experienced earlier by the people fleeing the Black Sea flood of 5600 BC. The Black Sea flood story had been carried far afield with the diaspora of the survivors, who show up in Eastern and Central Europe, Central Asia (as far east as the border of China), Mediterranean Europe, Anatolia, and of course in Mesopotamia between 5400 and 3000 BC. The Black Sea survivors were farmers and fishermen, and thus generated a hundred stories of family, farm animals, and seeds saved aboard a multiplicity of boats. It is only from the casual references in Mesopotamian documents to a "flood before the flood" that we know that the Sumerians understood the repeating nature of worldwide floods.

Yet another worldwide "flood event" would happen in 2349 BC. This also was understood as a major flood. The Chinese Annals of Shu report that it took Yu, in the service of the emperor Yao, nine years to empty the mountain valleys of water from the "inundation which overtopped the hills." Yu is dated to around 2200 BC. The "legendary" Yu is traditionally placed as reaching the throne of the Xia dynasty in 2205 BC. The Xia lasted to about 1750 BC. The Chinese "flood event" is dated to approximately the same time as the Noachian flood of the Bible, but neither of these were floods. It was a period of extreme rains and hurricanes. More on this in a following chapter.

The whole issue of "flood" is complicated by the fact that similar events are likely to be collapsed in memory, especially when these happen at the infrequent interval of one or two thousand years. People will always think of the last flood as "the flood," and the image will merge with previous memories into a composite.

This was true for the Hebrews, for whom the "flood" of 2349 BC, the flood of Noah, was the only flood in their recorded experience. However, the Noachian flood story incorporates elements of the earlier World Flood of 3147 BC, and perhaps also the earlier Black Sea flood, as does the story of the flood of Gilgamesh.

This last is hinted at in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Although nominally describing the flood of 3147 BC, the Epic of Gilgamesh clearly refers back to the spectacular flooding of the Black Sea basin in 5600 BC, with its descriptive references to the Black Sea (the "Sea of Death") and the Bosporus Strait (which Gilgamesh's ferryman navigates by hanging a basket of rocks over the edge of his boat). Gilgamesh, in an impulsive gesture reminiscent of Hercules, cuts the ropes to the basket. On the north shore Gilgamesh visits with the Sumerian Noah, Utnapishtim. [note 32]

Flood stories are ubiquitous, and, interestingly, none of them recall local events where only thousands died. The flood stories all claim to be about a universal deluge, a worldwide catastrophic event which killed nearly everyone and also decimated the plants and animals. [note 33]

"But Deucalion in the ark, floating over the sea for nine days and as many nights, grounded on Parnassus, and there, when the rains ceased, he disembarked, and sacrificed to Zeus."

-- Apollodorus, 2nd century

"Tahiti was destroyed by a flood. A husband and a wife were saved. They had a chicken, dog, kitten, and a pig with them. They took refuge on Mount O Pitohito."

-- Tahiti, contemporary

"When the Moon did not yet exist, a bearded old man named Botschika taught the arts of agriculture, clothing, worship and politics to the people. His beautiful but malevolent wife was Huythaca. She caused a flood in which most people perished. Botschika then turned her into the Moon."

-- Columbia, contemporary [note 34]

At this point we have flood dates for circa 5600 BC, 3147 BC, and 2349 BC. But apparently the disturbance of 3147 was absolutely overwhelming. Die Epic of Gilgamesh expresses the regrets even the Gods had for the utter destruction this flood caused.

"How could I do this!
Am I so stupid,
That I give life
Only to take it away,
So that people fill the sea like fishes?"

-- Inanna, in the Epic of Gilgamesh


Inhoud

It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and the present-day United States. The prevailing theory proposes that people migrated from Eurasia across Beringia, a land bridge that connected Siberia to present-day Alaska during the Ice Age, and then spread southward throughout the Americas and possibly going as far south as the Antarctic peninsula. This migration may have begun as early as 30,000 years ago [4] and continued through to about 10,000+ years ago, when the land bridge became submerged by the rising sea level caused by the ending of the last glacial period. [5] These early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.

The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period. While technically referring to the era before Christopher Columbus‘ voyages of 1492 to 1504, in practice the term usually includes the history of American indigenous cultures until they were conquered or significantly influenced by Europeans, even if this happened decades or even centuries after Columbus’ initial landing.

Native development prior to European contact

Native American cultures are not normally included in characterizations of advanced stone age cultures as “Neolithic,” which is a category that more often includes only the cultures in Eurasia, Africa, and other regions. The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips‘ 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology. They divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases [6] see Archaeology of the Americas.

The Clovis culture, a megafauna hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artefakte uit hierdie kultuur is die eerste keer in 1932 naby Clovis, New Mexico, opgegrawe. The Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and also appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, by which it was inserted into a shaft. Dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B.P. (roughly 9100 to 8850 BCE).

Numerous Paleoindian cultures occupied North America, with some arrayed around the Great Plains and Great Lakes of the modern United States of America and Canada, as well as adjacent areas to the West and Southwest. According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living on this continent since their genesis, described by a wide range of traditional creation stories. Other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River. [7] Genetic and linguistic data connect the indigenous people of this continent with ancient northeast Asians. Archeological and linguistic data has enabled scholars to discover some of the migrations within the Americas.

The Folsom Tradition was characterized by use of Folsom points as projectile tips, and activities known from kill sites, where slaughter and butchering of bison took place. Folsom tools were left behind between 9000 BCE and 8000 BCE. [8]


Kyk die video: Все об Америке: Луизиана. Discoveries.. America: Louisiana


Kommentaar:

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  7. Manfrid

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