Victor Emmanuel III - Geskiedenis

Victor Emmanuel III - Geskiedenis



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Victor Emmanuel III

1869-1947

Italiaanse monarg

Victor Emmanuel is op 11 November 1869 in Napels gebore.

Hy word koning van Italië by die moord op sy vader in 1900, waarna Victor Emmanuel as 'n konstitusionele monarg regeer het. In 1915 het hy Italië aan die kant van die Geallieerdes in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gebring, ondanks 'n gebrek aan duidelike steun vir die beweging in die land.

In 1926 het die chaos wat in die strate van Italië geheers het, daartoe gelei dat die koning Mussolini die posisie van premier aangebied het. Mussolini verminder die rol van die koning stelselmatig tot dié van boegbeeld. Die koning het Mussolini ondersteun tot 1944. Victor Emmanuel het in 1946 geabdikeer.


Victor Emmanuel III

Waarom beroemd: Bekend as die 'klein sabel' of die 'klein koning' vanweë sy klein hoogte van 5 voet, duur die bewind van Emmanuel van 1900 tot sy abdikasie in 1946. In hierdie tyd het Italië die opkoms van fascisme met Benito Mussolini beleef en in twee wêreldoorloë geveg.

Hy het Mussolini aangestel as premier na die fascistiese opmars oor Rome in 1922, maar het later in 1943 'n staatsgreep teen hom gelei, wat gelei het tot die ineenstorting van die fascistiese bewind en die totstandkoming van 'n wapenstilstand met die bondgenote wat dieselfde jaar op die vasteland van Italië binnegeval het. .

Die monargie het gedurende die oorlog aansienlike gewilde steun verloor. Hy abdikeer in 1946 voor 'n referendum oor die afskaffing van die monargie, wat geslaag het. Sy seun, Umberto II, was die laaste Italiaanse koning wat slegs 34 dae lank regeer het. Hierna het Victor Emmanuel in Egipte in ballingskap gegaan en in 1947 gesterf.

Gebore: 11 November 1869
Geboorteplek: Napels, Italië
Sterreteken: Skerpioen

Oorlede: 28 Desember 1947 (78 jaar oud)
Oorsaak van dood: Longoedeem


1936: Victor Emmanuel III word keiser van Ethiopië

Dit was die jaar 1936, in 'n tyd toe die Italiaanse politiek deur Benito Mussolini gelei is. Italiaanse militêre magte het Ethiopiërs 'n paar dae vroeër in die sogenaamde Italo-Abessiniese Oorlog verslaan (Abessinië is die ouer naam vir Ethiopië).

Die voormalige keiser van Ethiopië, Haile Selassie, het uit die land gevlug en die Italianers het die regering oorgeneem (hierdie gebeure word breedvoerig bespreek in ons e -kalender).

Koning Victor Emmanuel III was van nature skaam en ietwat teruggetrokke. Hy het die grondwetlike regeringsbeginsel gehou, en daarom het hy gewoonlik nie sy wil opgelê nie.

Maar tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het hy 'n groter impak gehad, maar in 1922 het fasciste die regering oorgeneem, sodat die funksie van die koning redelik simbolies geword het.

Die politiek is gelei deur Benito Mussolini as “Duce ”. Eintlik was die volle titel van Mussolini “Sua Eccellenza Benito Mussolini, Capo del Governo, Duce del Fascismo e Fondatore dell ’Impero ” (Sy Edele Benito Mussolini, regeringshoof, Duce of Fascism en stigter van die Ryk).

Dit blyk dat die titel van keiser van Ethiopië (Imperatore d ’Etiopia), wat Victor Emmanuel III op hierdie dag ontvang het, nie sy gewildheid gehelp het nie.

Die Italiaanse aggressiewe besetting van Ethiopië, waarin die onderontwikkelde plaaslike bevolking deur vliegtuie en gifgas vermoor is, het die wêreld met minagting beskou.

Later is die titel van “King of Albania ” (Re d ’Albania) by die titels van Victor Emmanuel III gevoeg en saam met Mussolini het hy die hoogste rang van “Eerste marskalk van die Ryk ” (primo maresciallo dell ’impero).


Napoleontiese Italië (1805–1814) Redigeer

Tydens die Napoleontiese oorloë het die geopolitieke onstabiliteit van die streek gelei tot 'n wye verskeidenheid posstelsels. [1] In die Koninkryk Italië, die kortstondige Italiaanse Republiek en ander afhanklike streke, het Napoleon posadministrateurs aangestel wat aan hom lojaal was. [2] [3]

Na die Verdrag van Parys in 1814 het die onafhanklike Italiaanse koninkryke weer beheer oor hul posstelsels gekry.

1814–1860 Redigeer

Die Cavallini ("klein perde") van Sardinië was 'n vroeë privaat posdiens, veral bekendgestel vir die bekendstelling van voorafbetaalde gestempelde briewe in 1819.

Die eerste posseëls in Italië is ook deur die Sardynse koninkryk uitgereik. In 1850 het graaf Camillo Cavour 'n verslag opgestel aan die Kamer van Afgevaardigdes van die Koninkryk Piemonte-Sardinië waarin posthervorming voorgestel word in ooreenstemming met die wat in verskeie Europese state aangeneem is, en voorsiening maak vir die invoering van posseëls, waarvoor 'n nuwe woord - francobollo - is geskep. Die hervorming het in November wet geword en het op 1 Januarie 1851 in werking getree.

Na 'n bietjie ondersoek in die nuutste kuns van seëldruk, het die regering gevestig op die huis van Francesco Matraire in Turyn. Posseëls van die Sardynse koninkryk met die reliëfprofiel van Victor Emmanuel II sonder om die naam van die staat aan te dui, is deur Matraire gedruk en op 1 Januarie 1851 uitgereik.

Na Sardinië het ander Italiaanse state ook seëls uitgereik. Dit sluit in Toskane (April 1851), die Pouslike State (Januarie 1852), Modena (Junie 1852), Parma (Junie 1852), Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Napels - Januarie 1858 Sicilië - Januarie 1859), Romagna (September 1859). In die Lombardo-Venesiaanse koninkryk onder die Oostenrykse ryk is daar ook seëls uitgereik met denominasies in die plaaslike geldeenheid.


'Houtspot '

In 1922 het Victor Emmanuel besluit om nie die weermag teen die fasciste van Mussolini te mobiliseer nie en het hy hom gevra om 'n regering te vorm, wat die weg gebaan het vir 20 jaar diktatuur.

Hy is later ook sterk gekritiseer omdat hy in 1938 rassewette onderteken het wat die vervolging van Jode gewettig het.

Sommige van die afstammelinge van Victor Emmanuel vra dat sy oorskot na die Pantheon, die antieke Romeinse monument, verskuif word waar die eerste twee Savoykonings van Italië lê.

Emanuele Filiberto, sy agterkleinseun, het aan Italiaanse media gesê dat lede van sy huis nie in 'n graf begrawe moet word nie.

"Dit is nie anachronisties om te hoop dat konings gerespekteer word nie," het hy gesê.

Maar die versoek is deur die Joodse gemeenskap in Rome as 'bespotting' bestempel. Baie het daarop gewys dat die Pantheon baie naby die ghetto is - die Joodse woonbuurt in die stad waar in 1943 ongeveer 1 000 Jode afgerond en na Nazi -doodskampe gedeporteer is. Slegs 16 het oorleef.

Selfs die manier waarop die oorblyfsels van die koning fisies na Italië vervoer is, het woede ontlok - op 'n militêre vliegtuig, betaal deur die staat.

'' 'n Aangename keuse, '' het Massimo D ɺlema, 'n voormalige Italiaanse premier, gesê.

"Ons moet versigtig wees met die simbole wat ons stuur," het Luigi Di Maio, die leier van die Five Star Movement, gesê, wat aan die verkiesing deelneem en moontlik die nuwe premier van Italië kan word. "Ons maak 'n wond oop in ons geskiedenis."


Victor Emmanuel III - Geskiedenis

Victor Emmanuel III, koning van Italië. b. Napels, 11 November 1869 d. Alexandrië, Egipte, 28 Desember 1947. Koning van Italië, 1900 - 1946 Die enigste seun van koning Umberto I en Margherita di Savoia,

Victor Emmanuel studeer geskiedenis en regte, en ontvang militêre opleiding wat gelei het tot sy beklee -posisies vanaf 1887. Hy trou met Elena, die dogter van prins Nikolaas van Montenegro, in Oktober 1896, en volg sy vader op die troon na die sluipmoord op laasgenoemde in 1900. Oortuig dat die reaksionêre pogings van die regering van generaal Luigi Pelloux en ander gedurende sy pa se laaste jare kontraproduktief was, ondersteun Victor Emmanuel gematigde en liberale praktyke tot ná die Groot Oorlog. Hy het die ekonomiese ontwikkeling en sosiale/politieke hervormings van Giovanni Giolitti gesteun, wat in die jare 1900-1914 iets van 'n Italiaanse New Deal gemaak het. Victor Emmanuel III handhaaf steun vir Italië se lidmaatskap in die Triple Alliance met Duitsland en Oostenryk-Hongarye, maar stem ook saam met die Italiaanse toenadering met Brittanje, Frankryk en Rusland-die Triple Entente-aangaande Mediterreense aangeleenthede, wat Italië se militêre onderneming in Libië teen die Turke, 1911-1912. Gedeeltelik as gevolg van hierdie situasie het generaal Alfred von Schlieffen van die Duitse generale staf Italiaanse versterkings ingesluit in sy punte langs die omtrek van die & quotencirclement & quot van Duitsland in die jare voor die oorlog.

Alhoewel baie Italiaanse aristokrate en kerkmanne pro-Oostenrykse gevoelens met die uitbreek van vyandighede vertoon het, het die Koning vroeg in die konflik die behoefte aan neutraliteit begryp en net soos Sydney Sonnino het Victor Emmanuel pro-Entente ingryping ondersteun. Tydens 'n ernstige krisis vir die Salandra-Sonnino-regering in Mei 1915, ondersteun die koning die intervensioniste, onderteken die oorlogsverklaring teen Oostenryk-Hongarye en vertrek na die front sodra vyandighede begin het.

In die nasleep van die deurbraak by Caporetto en die daaropvolgende krisis van Oktober-November 1917 het Victor Emmanuel kalm getoon en besliste leierskap uitgeoefen. Toe die Franse marskalk Ferdinand Foch die virtuele gebrek aan 'n hoë bevel onder die Italiaanse generaal Luigi Cadorna berig, het die koning laasgenoemde vervang met generaal Armando Diaz. Victor Emmanuel het toe die ander Geallieerde leiers oortuig dat Italië die vyand by die Piave -rivier kon hou, en hy het die nasie en die weermag aangespoor om saam te kom vir die verdediging van die Piave -lyn. Die nasie, insluitend die meeste sosialiste en ander anti-oorlogsgroepe, het hul land te hulp gekom tydens die krisis, en die Italianers het vasgehou.

Die gedrag van die koning in die jare na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het nie die karakter gehad waarmee hy tydens die oorlog opgetree het nie. Hy het geweier om premier Luigi Facta se noodbesluit teen die Fascistiese optog in Rome in 1922 goed te keur en het Benito Mussolini toegelaat om die eerste fascistiese regering te vorm, hoewel die fasciste slegs 35 parlementslede verkies het. Daarna het Victor Emmanuel, af en toe sy klagtes teen Mussolini opsy gesit, die Fascistiese diktatuur ondersteun in feitlik elke groot krisis tot die geallieerde inval van 1943, 'n gedrag wat hom sy troon in Mei 1946 gekos het en wat Italië se afskaffing van die monargie kort daarna vergemaklik het.

Silvio Bertoldi, Vittorio Emanuele III. Turyn: UTFT, 1971.
H. James Burgwyn, The Legend of the Mutilated Victory: Italië, die Groot Oorlog,
en die Vredeskonferensie in Parys, 1915-1919. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,
1993.
Paolo Puntoni, Parla Vittorio Emanuele III. Milaan: Aldo Palazzi, 1958.


Tweede oorlog van Italiaanse onafhanklikheid, 1859-61

Die Tweede Oorlog van Italiaanse Onafhanklikheid (1859-61) was die belangrikste van die vier oorloë en het gelei tot die stigting van 'n koninkryk van Italië wat heel Italië bevat, afgesien van Venetië en die gebied rondom Rome.

Teen die negentiende eeu was Italië al meer as duisend jaar lank in 'n aantal mededingende state verdeel. Die Franse, Oostenrykers en Spaans het almal op verskillende tydperke oorheers, en aan die begin van die Franse Revolusionêre Oorloë beheer die Oostenrykers Lombardy en Toskane, terwyl takke van die Bourbon -familie in Parma, Modena en Napels regeer het. 'N Groot deel van Sentraal -Italië is beheer deur die pous en vorm die pouslike state. Uiteindelik is die noordweste van Italië en Sardinië deur die Huis van Savoye regeer as die Koninkryk Piemonte-Sardinië. Hierdie mengsel is tydens die Napoleontiese oorloë meegesleur, en van 1806 tot die einde van die oorloë is Italië in twee verdeel. In die noorde was die koninkryk van Italië, met Napoleon as koning terwyl Marshal in die suide regeer het in Napels.

Na die finale nederlaag van Napoleon is die vooroorlogse status quo amper herstel. Die Bourbons keer terug na Napels, die Huis van Savoie na Piemonte-Sardinië en die Habsburgers na Lombardy. Die pouslike state is herstel. Venesiaanse onafhanklikheid, wat deur Napoleon beëindig is, is nie herstel nie en Venetië het deel geword van Habsburg Lombardy. Nuwe Habsburgse heersers het in Toskane, Parma en Modena oorgeneem.

Italië het hom nie gevestig onder die herstelde status-quo nie. 'N Reeks revolusies het oral in die land uitgebreek, gewoonlik met een van die twee doelstellings, óf om 'n konstitusionele regering op te lê óf om buitelandse heersers te verdryf. Die twee doelwitte het uiteindelik saamgesmelt en teen die middel van die negentiende eeu was die meeste Italiaanse revolusionêre liberale, wat 'n verenigde Italiaanse staat wou hê sonder buitelandse heersers en grondwetlike bewind.

Daar was dus 'n reeks opstande in Italië tussen die einde van die Napoleontiese oorloë en die Tweede Vryheidsoorlog. Napels het in 1820 opgestaan ​​in Piemonte in 1821 Parma, Modena en die pouslike state in 1830. Elkeen van hierdie opstande is met behulp van Oostenrykse troepe neergelê. In 1848 het revolusies uitgebreek oor groot dele van Europa, insluitend Italië. Hierdie keer het die revolusionêre steun van een van die belangrikste Italiaanse reëls, koning Charles Albert I van Piemonte-Sardinië. Hy verklaar oorlog teen Oostenryk, maar die gevolglike Eerste Oorlog van Italiaanse Onafhanklikheid (1848-49) was 'n totale ramp. Charles Albert is in 1848 en 1849 in veldtogte verslaan en abdikeer. Hy word opgevolg deur sy seun Victor Emmanuel II. Opstand in Venesië en Rome is ook neergelê.

Een van die min suksesvolle opstande in 1848 was in Frankryk, waar die herstelde Bourbons omvergewerp is en Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte president van die Tweede Franse Republiek geword het. Louis-Napoleon het eintlik tydens die opstande van die 1830's in Italië geveg en homself as pro-Italiaans beskou. Die nuwe republiek was van korte duur en word in 1851 deur sy eie president omvergewerp. In 1852 word hy as Napoleon III gekroon. Die nuwe keiser sou 'n waardevolle bondgenoot vir Piemonte-Sardinië wees. 'N Tweede belangrike figuur kom in 1852 op die toneel en Camillo Benso, graaf van Cavour, word premier van Piemonte-Sardinië. Die diplomasie van Cavour sou beteken dat die Italianers die volgende keer sou probeer om die Oostenrykers te verdryf, dat hulle nie alleen sou veg nie.

Oostenryk was in 1859 meer geïsoleerd as wat haar leiers besef het. Die Russe het gehelp om die Oostenrykse gesag te herstel na die rebellies van 1849, maar die Oostenrykers het Russies tydens die Krimoorlog (1854-56) nie ondersteun nie. Die Russe stel dus nie daarin belang om Oostenryk weer in 1859 te help nie. Oostenryk was nog steeds 'n belangrike mag in Duitsland, maar hulle het die Pruise vervreem. Die Duitse Konfederasie het eers na Solferino 'n faktor in die oorlog geword, toe die dreigement van Pruisiese ingryping een van die faktore was wat gehelp het om Napoleon III te oortuig om die oorlog te beëindig.

Cavour het geweet dat die houding van Napoleon III en Frankryk die sleutel tot 'n suksesvolle veldtog sou wees. In Januarie 1858 lyk dit asof Cavour se hoop verpletter is toe Felice Orsini, 'n aanhanger van die republiek -revolusionêre Giuseppe Mazzini, probeer het om Napoleon III te vermoor. Orsini se aanval en sy bewering dat Napoleon die Italianers verraai het, het Napoleon tot aksie geskok. Napoleon en Cavour het etlike maande geheime onderhandelinge gevoer, voordat hulle op 21 Julie 1858 in Plombi & egraveres vergader het.

Die Plombi & egraveres -ooreenkoms het die basis gelê vir die komende oorlog. Cavour en Napoleon het tot 'n verdedigende alliansie ooreengekom - as Cavour die Oostenrykers kon mislei om Piemonte aan te val, sou Napoleon haar te hulp kom en nie ophou voordat die Oostenrykers uit Lombardy en Venetië verdryf is nie. In ruil daarvoor sou Piemonte Frankryk die hertogdom Savoye en die graafskap Nice gee. Alhoewel hierdie gebiede die oorspronklike tuiste van die Huis van Savoie was, was dit grotendeels Franssprekend. Piemonte sou ook die hertogdomme Modena en Parma kry. Die Koninkryk van Napels sou onaangeraak bly. In die middel van Italië het Napoleon die vorming van 'n nuwe koninkryk van Sentraal -Italië voorgestel wat Toskane, die Romagna en die pouslike legasies sou insluit. Die pous sou wees met Umbrië, die Marche en die gebied rondom Rome. Die voorbereidings het vroeg in 1859 voortgegaan, onder die dekking van 'n huwelik tussen prins J en eacuter & ocircme Napoleon en Clothilde, dogter van Victor Emmanuel II. Terselfdertyd het Franse offisiere Piemonte besoek en die twee state het begin beplan vir oorlog.

Al wat Cavour nou nodig gehad het, was 'n manier om die Oostenrykers uit te lok. Sy oorspronklike plan was om opstande in die Oostenrykse of geallieerde gebied aan te moedig wat 'n harde Oostenrykse reaksie sou veroorsaak. Hy het hierdie plan gou laat vaar en moedig Italianers in die Oostenrykse noordooste aan om oor die grens te vlug om militêre diens te vermy. Sommige van hierdie manne het by 'n nuwe militêre eenheid aangesluit onder bevel van die beroemde revolusionêr Giuseppe Garibaldi, wat saam met sy meer ekstreme kollegas uitgeval het en nou bereid was om saam met die Piemonteese monargie te werk.

Terselfdertyd is die Weermag van Piemonte na die oostelike grens (Januarie) verskuif, verlof is gekanselleer (Februarie) en mobilisering is beveel (Maart). Einde April het die Piemonte 77.348 mans onder die wapen gehad. Terselfdertyd het die Franse troepe suidwaarts beweeg, en Napoleon het 120 000 man in die suide gereed om middel April na Italië te verhuis. Daar was planne om hierdie leër na Italië te vervoer, sommige met 'n stoomskip, ander grotendeels per spoor.

Hulle was nog steeds in die minderheid deur die Oostenrykers. Aan die begin van die jaar het die Oostenrykse Tweede Weermag slegs 44 837 man gehad, maar drie nuwe korps is oor die Alpe geskuif, en teen die begin van die oorlog was die veldleër 110 235 sterk, terwyl die helfte soveel mans in garnisoene in Lombardy was en Venetië.

Die dreigende krisis was duidelik en die Europese moondhede reageer op verskillende maniere. Tsaar Alexander II het 'n geheime ooreenkoms met Napoleon bereik om nie in te meng nie. Die Britse regering het probeer om 'n internasionale kongres te reël. As dit gebeur het, sou Cavour se planne waarskynlik misluk het. Napoleon moes instem om dit by te woon, want sy rol as 'n onskuldige party wat tot 'n verdedigingsoorlog gedwing is, sou andersins nogal onoortuigend gewees het.

Gedurende April het die Franse, Oostenrykers, Russe en Pruise almal ingestem om die Britse internasionale kongres by te woon, maar keiser Franz Josef het dit nie ernstig opgeneem nie. Hy het geglo dat die Duitse Konfederasie hom sou ondersteun en sodoende sou verhoed dat die Franse ingryp. Op 23 April stel die Oostenrykers 'n ultimatum aan Piemonte, wat haar drie dae gee om haar leër te demobiliseer en die normale vredestydse weermag aan die grens met Lombardy te onttrek.

Dit was al wat Cavour nodig gehad het. Die ultimatum is na Parys getelegrafeer, teen die aand. Napoleon III kon sy verdedigende alliansie aktiveer, en daardie nag is die Franse leër beveel om met die skuif na Piemonte te begin. Terwyl die Oostenrykers gewag het, was die Franse aan die gang. Teen die tyd dat Victor Emmanuel die ultimatum op 26 April amptelik verwerp het, het die eerste 10 000 troepe by Genua aangekom.

Die Frans-Oostenrykse oorlog van 1859

Die gevegte in die Frans-Oostenrykse oorlogstydperk het in twee fases verdeel. In die eerste fase, wat geduur het vanaf die begin van die oorlog op 26 April tot 12 Mei, het die Oostenrykers die voordeel in getalle gehad. Die Piemontese was dus gedwing om op die verdediging op te tree terwyl hulle gewag het dat die Franse sou arriveer, terwyl die Oostenrykers 'n kans kon kry om die offensief aan te gaan en die een bondgenoot te verslaan voordat die ander kon aankom.

Die tweede fase van die geveg het begin toe die Franse van krag geword het en duur van 12 Mei tot die wapenstilstand van Villafranca op 11 Julie in werking getree het. In hierdie tydperk het die bondgenote die offensief aangegaan en die belangrikste veldslae van die oorlog bevat.

Planne en eerste bewegings

Die Oostenrykse leër in Italië was onder bevel van die Feldzeugmeister Franz graaf Gyulai. Hy en sy personeel het besef dat hul beste hoop op oorwinning 'n vinnige opmars na Turyn was. Hulle kan wen óf deur die geïsoleerde Weermag van Piemonte te verslaan óf deur Turyn te dreig, 'n stap wat Victor Emmanuel kan dwing om vredesvoorwaardes te soek eerder as om die verlies van sy kapitaal te waag.

Aan die geallieerde kant het die Piemonte besluit om hul oostelike grens op die Ticino te laat vaar en in plaas daarvan 'n lyn te verdedig wat noord van Novi aan die rand van die Appenines loop, na die spoorlyn by Alesandria en noordwaarts na Casale. Vier infanteriedivisies is in hierdie gebied geplaas, waar hulle albei die Oostenrykse opmars na Turyn kan bedreig en die spoorverbinding na Genua kan bewaak, die hawe wat die meeste Franse troepe sou gebruik. Een infanterie en een kavalleriedivisie is op die Dora Baltea, nader aan Turyn, geplaas om enige Oostenrykse aanval te stuit.

Die Franse beplan om voordeel te trek uit die spoornetwerk in Frankryk en Piemonte en stoomskepe aan die Middellandse See om hul hele leër binne tien dae in plek te stel. Die keiserlike garde en twee korpse sou van onderskeidelik Parys en Lyon na Marseille en Toulon verhuis. Hulle sou dan na Genua stoom en die Piedmontese spoornetwerk gebruik om na Alessandria (slegs drie uur noord) of na Turyn (ses uur meer) te verhuis. Nog twee korps sou die Franse spoorweë gebruik om Savoye te bereik, oor die Alpe te marsjeer en dan die Piedmontese spoorweë te gebruik om Turyn te bereik.

Om onduidelike redes kon die Oostenrykers nie hul kans op 'n vroeë oorwinning benut nie, en hulle het eers die Ticino oorgesteek en Piemonte binnegeval tot op 29 April, drie dae na die verwerping van die ultimatum. Teen hierdie datum het 30 000 Franse troepe reeds by Genua geland, en meer het oor die Alpe nader gekom.

Begin Mei begin die Oostenrykers uiteindelik stadig. Benedek se VIII Korps vorder na die suide van die Po, waar dit die lewensbelangrike spoorlyn van Genua kon bedreig, maar dit is teruggetrek sonder om skade aan te rig. II, III, V en VII Korps vorder na die Geallieerde sentrum rondom Valenza en Casale, maar oefen geen druk op die Piedmontese lyn uit nie. Een brigade van VII Korps het wel die geallieerde linkses by Vercelli bedreig.

Aan die einde van die eerste week in Mei het die Oostenrykse regtervleuel uiteindelik noordwes begin beweeg om Turyn te bedreig. Victor Emmanuel wou Marshal Canrobert se IV Corps gebruik om die lyn van die Dora Baltea te versterk en Turyn regstreeks te verdedig, maar Canrobert het die koning oortuig dat die doeltreffendste manier om die hoofstad te verdedig, is om verder na die suidooste, by Alessandria, te konsentreer. Die teenwoordigheid van 'n Franse leër op sy linkerflank was te veel vir Gyulai, en op 9-10 Mei kanselleer hy die voorskot en beveel sy manne om na die ooste terug te trek.

Teen 12 Mei was een brigade nog by Vercelli. VIII Korps was op die Po terwyl die res van die leër rondom Mortara gekonsentreer was. Die twee hoofleërs was nou teenoor mekaar op 'n lyn wat vanaf die noordweste rondom Vercelli na die suidooste van Alessandria was. Op 12 Mei het Napoleon III ook op sy vlagskip, die Reine Hortense, om persoonlike bevel oor die leër te neem. Die gevaar van 'n vinnige Oostenrykse oorwinning was verby.

Die geallieerde offensief

Napoleon III was nie veel vinniger om op te tree as die Oostenrykers nie. 'N Week het verloop na sy aankoms voordat die Geallieerdes uiteindelik op die offensief begin, en selfs toe was hul eerste beweging op redelik klein skaal. Hierdie vertraging het die Oostenrykers in staat gestel om hul magte te herorganiseer. VII Korps by Vercelli het hul reg gemaak. II en III Korps was die volgende aan die beurt by Mortara, met V Korps halfpad na Pavia en VIII Korps by Pavia. Urban se IX Korps het ook op die toneel aangekom en is gepos te Piacenza, heel links van die lyn. Die Oostenrykse weermag was nou van wes na oos opgestel, gereed om teen enige geallieerde beweging suid van die Po te waak.

Die eerste belangrike botsing van die veldtog was suid van die Po. Die Geallieerdes het Marshal Baraguey d'Hilliers se I Corps ooswaarts van Alessandria verhuis, eers na Tortona en daarna na Vohera. Generaal Forey se afdeling, ondersteun deur drie Piedmontese kavalerieregimente, is 'n bietjie ooswaarts gestoot, na Montebello.

Forey het dele van twee Oostenrykse korpse raakgeloop. Gyulai het besluit om 'n geldige verkenning suid van die Po uit te voer, met behulp van elemente van Stadion se V Korps uit die noorde en Urban se IX Korps uit die ooste. Die Oostenrykers verdeel hul mag in drie kolomme en 'n reservaat. Twee brigades van Urban's Korps het die linkerkolomme gemaak, en dit sou hierdie mag wees wat Forey op 20 Mei raakloop (slag van Montebello, 20 Mei 1859). Na 'n paar harde gevegte het die Franse die Oostenrykers uit Montebello gedwing. Oortuigend dat die res van die I -korps naby Forey moes wees, het die Oostenrykers teruggetrek, wat die Franse en Piedmontese hul eerste oorwinning gegee het.

In die nasleep van hierdie geveg het Gyulai sy troepe verder na die suide beweeg. VII Korps word aan die regterkant gehou en kyk na die Sesia en die naderings na Mortara. VIII Korps beweeg na die samevloeiing van die Po en die Sesia. II en III Korps is suid van Mortara verskuif. V Korps is in Pavia op die Po geplaas, met IX Korps by Piacenza, verder oos op dieselfde rivier.

Terwyl die Oostenrykers hulle voorberei op 'n aanval in die suide, berei die Geallieerdes voor vir 'n gewaagde skuif na die noorde. Napoleon III wou die Oostenrykers as moontlik uit hul posisies in Piemonte maneuver, en 'n dramatiese skuif na hul swakker regterflank het die beste hoop gebied om dit te doen.

Die hoofbeweging het op 27-29 Mei plaasgevind. Niel se IV Corps het eerste beweeg, gevolg in volgorde deur Canrobert's III Corps, MacMachon's II Corps en Baraguey d'Hilliers 'I Corps. Die Oostenrykers kon die geraas van stoommasjiene agter die lyne hoor, maar het geglo dat dit 'n neus was. Teen 29 Mei was die meeste van die Franse troepe rondom Casala, terwyl die Piedmontese leër by Vercelli was. Die Oostenrykers reageer eers nadat die Piemonte die Sesia oorgesteek het en hulle oor twee dae se geveg by Palestro (30-31 Mei 1859) verslaan het.

Gyulai besef nou dat hy nie meer in sy huidige posisies kan bly nie. Eers was hy van plan om sy leër by Mortara te konsentreer en noordwaarts in die rigting van Novara aan te val. 'N Soortgelyke stap het tot Oostenrykse oorwinning in 1849 gelei, maar Gyulai was nie so vaardig as leier as maarskalk Radetzky nie, en hy het die verandering gemis. Teen 2 Junie het hy besluit om uit Piemonte terug te trek en Milaan te probeer verdedig by die lyn van die Ticino -rivier. Die terugtog het op 2 Junie begin en is grotendeels op 3 Junie voltooi, ondanks die feit dat die Oostenrykers baie tyd mors om te besluit watter kant van die rivier hulle moet verdedig. Op dieselfde dag verower die Franse twee rivierkruisings, by Turbigo en San Martino. MacMahon se II Korps het die rivier na die noordweste van Magenta oorgesteek en 'n klein Oostenrykse mag verslaan wat hulle probeer keer het (slag van Turbigo, 3 Junie 1859).

Die volgende dag bring die eerste beslissende slag van die oorlog - die slag van Magenta (4 Junie 1859). Daar word van geen van die partye verwag om op 4 Junie 'n groot geveg te voer nie, maar die oprukkende Franse het 'n onverwags sterk Oostenrykse mag om Magenta raakgeloop en 'n groot geveg het ontstaan. Beide die Franse en Oostenrykse hoë bevel het beheer oor die situasie verloor, en troepe is in die geveg gevoer toe hulle aankom. Uiteindelik is die Oostenrykers gedwing om terug te trek in die suidooste nadat hulle swaarder verliese gely het as die Geallieerdes. Die Oostenrykse leër het teruggetrek na die Chiese -rivier, oos van Milaan en dan oor die Mincio in die swaar verdedigde gebied van die Vierhoek. Een van die agterhoede -aksies is op 8 Junie by Melegnano uitgevoer, maar daarna het die twee leërs geskei.

Op 16 Junie bedank Gyulai. Keiser Franz Josef het besluit om persoonlike bevel oor die Oostenrykse leër in Italië te neem. Gyulai se enkele 2de leër is in twee verdeel, albei van vier korps. Die 1ste weermag was onder bevel van Feldzeugmeister graaf Wimpffen terwyl generaal der Kavallerie graaf Schlick die tweede leër beveel het.

Op 8 Junie 1859 kom Victor Emmanuel II en Napoleon III Milaan triomfantelik binne. Die geallieerde suksesse in Noord -Italië het opstand elders op die skiereiland aangemoedig. Toskane, Parma, Modena en sommige van die pouslike state het hul bestaande heersers omvergewerp. Om te verhoed dat meer radikale elemente beheer oor hierdie opstand neem, het die Geallieerdes op 23-25 ​​Mei die Franse V-korps by Livorno laat beland. Hierdie korps het Florence net voor Magenta bereik, en in die nasleep van die oorwinning het ook troepe na Parma en Modena gestuur. Al hierdie gebiede sou binnekort deur Piemonte opgeneem word en dan deel word van die nuwe Koninkryk Italië, hoewel dit alles van die res van die veldtog afhang.

Teen 22 Junie was die twee leërs op verskillende rivierlyne. Die Franse en Piemonte was op die Chiese, terwyl die Oostenrykers op die Mincio was. Ondanks hul vroeëre nederlae het die Oostenrykers nie geglo dat hulle geslaan is nie, en Franz Josef het besluit om sy leërs weswaarts te skuif in 'n poging om te veg en 'n oorwinning te behaal wat sy beheer oor Lombardy sou herstel. Terselfdertyd het die Geallieerdes voorberei om oos te trek. Die geallieerde opmars het op 22 Junie begin, terwyl die Oostenrykers op 23 Junie verhuis het. Die resultaat was nog 'n onverwagte stryd. Die slag van Solferino (24 Junie 1859) was die grootste geveg waarby die Europese moondhede betrokke was sedert die einde van die Napoleontiese oorloë, met ongeveer 'n kwartmiljoen man wat betrokke was. Net soos by Magenta het die kwaliteit van die Franse soldate, hierdie keer bygestaan ​​deur 'n paar uitstekende korpsbevelvoerders, gelei tot 'n geallieerde oorwinning, terwyl nóg Napoleon III nóg Franz Josef 'n groot invloed op die geveg gehad het. Die Oostenrykers is gered van 'n ernstiger nederlaag deur hul agterhoede, en kon terugtrek in hul vestings.

Die slag van Solferino was nie 'n beslissende oorwinning nie. As die politieke wil bestaan, sou die geveg 'n geruime tyd kon voortduur. Die Geallieerdes was bereid om Mantua te beleer, terwyl die Oostenrykers goed genoeg gevaar het om aan te dui dat 'n aanval op die vierhoekige vestings in Mantua, Peschiera, Verona en Lagnago baie duur sou wees. Die geveg het deels geëindig omdat Napoleon III besef het dat elke poging om Venetië te verower, die oorlog sou verleng tot die punt dat ander moondhede, en veral die Duitsers, kon ingryp en deels omdat hy geskok was oor die groot lewensverlies by Solferino. Franz Josef was ook bereid om 'n einde aan die oorlog te oorweeg, bewus daarvan dat sy posisie as die aktiewe opperbevelhebber van die weermag beteken dat sy eie aansien op die spel was.

Die eerste voorlopige voorstelle van vrede is in die eerste dae van Julie gemaak, en op 6 Julie het Napoelon se assistent -generaal Fleury na Verona gereis waar hy Franz Josef ontmoet en 'n versoek om 'n wapenstilstand deurgee. 'N Skietstilstand is op 8 Julie ooreengekom en op 11 Julie het Franz Josef en Napoleon III op Villafranca vergader. Die twee mans het tot 'n algemene ooreenkoms gekom waarin Lombardy aan Frankryk afgestaan ​​is, wat dit dan aan Piemonte kon deurgee. Die Oostenrykers het ook die verlies van Parma aanvaar, maar wou hê dat die regerende huise van Modena en Toskane herstel word. Die Oostenrykers sou Venetië behou, ten spyte van Napoleon III se vroeëre ooreenkoms om die oorlog nie te beëindig nie totdat die gebied in Piemonte se hande was.

Die leiers van die Piemonte het nogal anders gereageer op die wapenstilstand van Villafranca. Victor Emmanuel II het besef dat die breër Europese situasie teen die bondgenote begin draai, en die voorwaardes wat aangebied word, was beter as niks. Cavour was meer emosioneel en beweer dat dit 'n verraad was. Hy bedank as premier, hoewel hy belangrik agter die skerms was en was gou weer aan bewind.

Oor die volgende paar maande het die vredesvoorwaardes geleidelik meer aanvaarbaar geword vir Piemonte. Teen die tyd dat die Franse en Oostenrykers weer in September in Zürich vergader het, was dit duidelik dat Toskane, Modena, die Romagna en die pouslike legasies nie weerhou kon word van vereniging met Piemonte nie. Die Vrede van Zürich van November 1859 het dit effektief erken, en die eerste fase van die oorlog eindig met die feit dat Piemonte aansienlik versterk is. In March 1860 plebiscites were held in Parma, Tuscany, Modena, the Romagna and the Papal Legations and all five areas voted to be annexed to Piedmont.

At the start of 1860 Franz Josef saw the Peace of Zurich as a temporary pause in the conflict. He hoped to form an alliance with the Kingdom of Naples and the Pope and restore the pre-war situation. The events of 1860 would shatter those plans, as Garibaldi's remarkable expedition to the south toppled the Kingdom of Naples and gave Cavour a chance to intervene in the Papal States. Although the major battles ended with Solferino, in many ways the most dramatic part of the war was yet to come.

Garibaldi&rsquos Alpine Campaign, 1859

Although his main successes came in 1860 Garibaldi was also involved in the campaign of 1859. Late in 1858 he met with Cavour and was offered command of a force of volunteers. Cavour hoped to use this force to help trigger the war, at first by using it to trigger a revolution, but by early in 1859 his plans had evolved. Large numbers of volunteers had crossed into Piedmont from Austrian Lombardy, and Garibaldi was given command of 3,000 of these volunteers. Their presence in the Piedmont army offended the Austrians, and helped raise tension.

The main weakness in Cavour&rsquos plans was that at the start of the war Piedmont would have to stand alone against the Austrians until the French army arrived. As a result Garibaldi&rsquos men spent the first three weeks of the war serving with the main army on the Po, guarding against a possible Austrian attack. Once the French had arrived in force Garibaldi was sent north. His task was to advance along the Alps, threatening the Austrian right flank.

Garibaldi&rsquos first task was to cross the Ticino River, which marked the boundary between Piedmont and Austrian Lombardy. He achieved this on 22-23 May, using barges to cross the river after convincing the Austrians that he intended to march north. Garibaldi&rsquos men reached Varese late on 23 May and prepared to defend that city against the Austrian army of General Karl von Urban.

Urban attacked on 26 May (battle of Varese). Part of his slightly larger army failed to reach the battlefield, and an initial Austrian attack was repulsed. Garibaldi then launched a counterattack and forced the Austrians into a retreat. Urban retired to Como, and reported that he had been defeated by 7,000 men. Reinforcements were rushed to him by rail, and by the early afternoon of 27 May he had over 6,000 infantry at Como.

On the same day Garibaldi marched east from Varese towards Como. He convinced the Austrians that he was planning to attack around the southern flank of the mountains west of Como, but instead turned north and captured a lightly defended pass (battle of San Fermo, 27 May 1859). The Austrians were unable to dislodge Garibaldi, and instead of defending Como they decided to retreat. Garibaldi occupied the town, where he captured a large amount of supplies.

He then turned back west and attempted to capture the Austrian stronghold at Laveno on Lake Maggiore (combat of Laveno, 30 May 1859). This attack failed, and at the same time Urban recaptured Varese. Garibaldi was in real danger of being trapped against the high mountains, but he was saved by events elsewhere. On 30 May the Austrians were defeated at Palestro, and Urban was ordered to move closer to the main army. On 1 June Garibaldi had moved back to Como, where the news reached him of the French victory at Magenta on 4 June 1859.

It was soon clear that the Austrians were retreating east towards the Quadrilateral, their stronghold in the north-east of Italy. Garibaldi decided to use his position on Lake Como to pressure the Austrian right flank. He sailed around the lake to Lecco, and advanced east to Bergamo and Brescia, always somewhat ahead of the main Franco-Piedmontese army. This placed him in a potentially dangerous position just to the north of the main Austrian army, but he managed to avoid danger, reaching Brescia after a night march on 12-13 June.

At Brescia Garibaldi came back under the control of the Italian high command. On the night of 14-15 June he was ordered to advance towards Lonato. During this advance Garibaldi&rsquos rearguard was attacked (battle of Tre Pont, 15 June 1859). Both sides had some successes during this battle, but it ended as something of a draw.

After this battle the Austrians continued to retreat east. Garibaldi advanced to Lake Garda, but on 20 June he was ordered to move to the Valtelline (at the northern tip of Lake Como), to deal with a possible Austrian threat. He was thus no longer in the main theatre of the war when the Allies won the decisive victory at Solferino (24 June 1859). Although this Alpine Campaign had little impact on the outcome of the war, it did demonstrate that Garibaldi was capable of beating high quality Austrian troops.

Sicilië and Naples

The end of the war in the north of Italy left Garibaldi and his supporters temporarily unemployed. Amongst many plans put forward to use his talents, one of the most popular was that he should lead an expedition to Sicily, and liberate that island from the Bourbon dynasty at Naples. This idea had been suggested to Garibaldi in 1854 and 1859, and on both occasions he had refused to go to Sicily unless a revolt was already under way. Early in 1860 the idea was suggested yet again, and on 24 January Garibaldi made the same reply.

A small scale revolt finally broke out in Palermo in April 1860. A plumber named Riso, with seventeen supporters, planned to rise on 4 April. Their plot was discovered, and put down after only four hours, but it triggered a low level revolt in the countryside, where the squadre (bands of peasants from the interior of the island) skirmished with Bourbon troops.

News of this revolt reached Turin just in time to stop Garibaldi permanently falling out with Cavour. On 24 March 1860 Cavour signed the treaty that handed Nice and Savoy over to France in return for Napoleon III's approval of the Piedmontese take-over of Tuscany and Emilia. Garibaldi's own home city, for which he was an elected MP, was thus going to be excluded from the new Italy. If he hadn't been distracted by the question of Sicily, Garibaldi might have gone too far in his attempts to prevent the handover and the expedition to Sicily might never have happened (or have lacked the essential covert support from Piedmont).

The news of the revolt was brought to Garibaldi late on 7 April. When it was confirmed by the British Minister at Turin (8 April) Garibaldi agreed to lead an expedition to the island. He had already begun to gather arms (through an organisation rather optimistically called the Million Rifles Fund), and just needed men. The obvious source of recruits was the 3,000 or so men he had led in the Alps. Some were available, and signed up, but others had joined the Piedmontese army, and after some debate King Victor Emmanuel refused to give these men permission to join the expedition. Piedmont would support Garibaldi's expedition, but not publically, at least not until it was well under way.

In mid April Garibaldi moved to Genoa, where he prepared for the expedition. One steam ship, the Piemonte, had already been promised by the Rubattino Company, and at first Garibaldi hoped to sail in this ship, with 200 volunteers and 200 Enfield Rifles from his fund, but the rifles were stuck in Milan. These were eventually replaced by 1,000 obsolete smooth-bore muskets, while a second steamer, the Lombardo, was found. By late April 500 volunteers had arrived, and that rose to 1,089 by the time the expedition left on 5 May.

The attitude of Piedmont to the expedition was somewhat mixed. Garibaldi had met with Victor Emmanual, who thus knew of the plan and generally approved of it. Cavour also supported the expedition, although by the time it set off he was worried that it would fail. He also saw it as a method of distracting Garibaldi from his plans to interfere in the Papal States, something that might have threatened the alliance with France.

The expedition left Genoa in conditions of entirely fake secrecy. In order to protect the Piedmontese government from accusations that they had supported an expedition against an officially friendly state the two steamers were 'stolen' from Genoa harbour and sailed along the coast. The volunteers would row out to the ships close to Genoa and the supplies would be brought out from Bogliasco. The local authorities set a guard on a different part of the harbour, and just before midnight on 5 May the two steamers were seized and the expedition got under way. The contrived nature of the departure was rather well illustrated by the hours it took to prepare the steamers for departure once they had been seized - a period in which nothing was done to stop them. The over-complicated departure nearly caused disaster when the gunpowder was left behind, but supplies were taken from the fortress at Talamone, the expedition's first stop (as were 100 Enfield rifles and five elderly cannon). A tiny diversionary force was sent into the Papal States and after a two day stop (7-8 May) the expedition continued on its way.

While Garibaldi was at sea Cavour had to deal with the diplomatic response to his expedition. Prussia and Russia both blustered, claiming that if they had any ships in the area then they would have stopped him. Austria protested, but less violently, and provided no assistance for the Bourbons. The British tended to side with Garibaldi, especially after Cavour reassured the British government that France wouldn't be gaining any further territory in Italy. The French protested, and decided not to withdraw their garrison from Rome, but didn't make any other moves. At least in part to guard against the international reaction Cavour ordered the Governor of Cagliari to arrest Garibaldi, but only if he entered a port on Sardinia. Garibaldi didn&rsquot make that mistake, and on 11 May 1860 Garibaldi and the Thousand landed at Marsala at the western tip of Sicily.

Garibaldi faced a daunting task. The Bourbons had 21,000 men on Sicily, split between Siracusa and Messina. This force was raised to 40,000 while Garibaldi was at sea. The Bourbons also had a large navy, and attempted to intercept the expedition before it could land. Garibaldi's original plan had been to sail around the western tip of the island and land at Sciacca, from where he could march north to Palermo. The decision to land at Marsala, at the western tip of the island, was made on the morning of 11 May, and was confirmed when two Neapolitan warships were sighted some way to the south. They turned back towards Marsala and attempted to prevent the expedition from landing.

Two British warships (HMS Argus en HMS Onversetlik) were already anchored off Marsala, having arrived earlier on 11 May. They were there to protect a British colony of winemakers, who had been disarmed by the Neapolitans a few days before. Garibaldi's larger ship ran aground outside the harbour, and his men had to be brought ashore on a flotilla of small boats. The first of the Neapolitan warships reached the port while most of Garibaldi's men were still on the Lombardo, but worried by the presence of two British warships her captain missed his chance. He wasted time arranging a meeting with the captains of the British ships, and by the time he finally opened fire most of Garibaldi's men and their equipment had been unloaded. The Neapolitan gunfire caused one minor shoulder injury.

On 12 May Garibaldi began to march towards Palermo. He spent two days at Salemi, before advancing to attack a Neapolitan force at Calatafimi on 15 May. This force, under General Landi, had been sent from Palermo on 6 May but had made slow progress. When it became clear that Garibaldi had already landed, Landi paused at Calatafimi, a key position on the road to Palermo. He outnumbered Garibaldi, and his men were better equipped, but despite all of their advantages the Neapolitans were defeated at the battle of Calatafimi (15 May 1860). Garibaldi's men fought their way slowly up a terraced hillside, relying on their bayonets to push back the Neapolitans.

The victory at Calatafimi cost Garibaldi 30 dead and 100 severely wounded, but it was essential for his success. The victory encouraged the Sicilians to join his cause, and demoralised the Neapolitans, who wouldn't fight as well again, at least not on Sicily.

In Naples the defeat hastened the replacement of Castelcicala as governor of Sicily by the incompetent Ferdinando Lanza. He arrived at Palermo on 16 May, the day before Landi's column returned to the city. Lanza had some 21,000 men at his disposal, but although he prepared to defend Palermo he really wanted to retreat east to Messina. By the time Garibaldi attacked Palermo he had just over 3,000 men at his disposal, so was outnumbered massively.

Garibaldi decided to try and overcome his numerical disadvantage by slipping into the mountains, moving around Palermo and attacking from an unexpected direction. Once he was inside the walls he expected the people of Palermo to join the uprising, increasing the strength of his force. A minor setback at Monreale on 21 May forced Garibaldi to move further east, and eventually he would approach Palermo from the south-east.

On the morning of 27 May Garibaldi's men attacked Palermo, and broke into the city through the Porto Termini. Three days of street fighting followed, with the main effort taking place in the west of the city, where Lanza concentrated his men. By the end of 29 May both sides were in trouble - Garibaldi was running out of ammunition, and Lanza was running out of nerve. Lanza was also worried about the attitude of the Royal Navy, and may have misinterpreted an offer to provide a safe haven for negotiations as a veiled threat that the British might intervene to protect their own citizens.

On the afternoon on 30 May Garibaldi and two Neapolitan generals met on HMS Hannibal. A 24 hour armistice was agreed. The Neapolitans planned to resume the battle on the 31st, but lost their nerve and the armistice was extended until on 6 June they agreed to surrender. Over the next few weeks the Neapolitan garrison sailed away from Palermo, leaving Garibaldi in control of western Sicily. He also began to receive reinforcements from the north, beginning with 3,500 fresh volunteers with 8,000 rifled carbines and large stocks of ammunition.

As the size of his army increased Garibaldi reorganised and renamed it. The Thousand became the Southern Army, part of the armed forces of Piedmont. The army was split into three divisions - the Hungarian Stefan Türr commanded the 15th Division, Enrico Cosenz commanded the 16th Division and Nino Bixio commanded the 17th Division. By the end of July Garibaldi had 17,000 regular soldiers and a larger but uncertain number of Sicilian volunteers.

While Garibaldi was consolidating his control over most of Sicily, Francis II was reorganised his armies. Marshal Clary was sent to Sicily to command the army, which was withdrawn to garrison Messina and Siracusa. Clary was a more able commander than his predecessors, and he decided to post a garrison at Milazzo, a coastal fortress to the west of Messina and five miles from the main road.

After the fall of Palermo Garibaldi split his army into three columns. Medici was sent along the north coast towards Messina. Cosenz was sent along the inland road towards Catania and Bixio was sent along the south coast towards Siracusa. As Medici advanced towards Messina he had to leave troops to watch Milazzo. Colonol Bosco, the commander at Milazzo, used his 4,500 infantry effectively, raiding Medici's outposts. Garibaldi was forced to move Cosenz north to support Medici. The combined divisions then attacked Bosco, winning the costly battle of Milazzo (20 July 1860). Bosco was forced to retreat into the fortress. By now the threat of the Neapolitan fleet had been reduced, and Garibaldi was able to bring a warship, the Türkory, to Milazzo. When a Piedmontese naval squadron appeared as well Bosco realised that he had been defeated, and on 1 August he surrendered with full honours of war. His men were shipped to Messina, where they joined Clary in the Citadel. This was then besieged by Garibaldi's men, but held out until March 1861.

Garibaldi's next aim was to cross the Straits of the Messina and invade the mainland of Naples. Once again the Neapolitan fleet failed to intercept him and in the third week of August his army crossed to the mainland. He then began a careful advance towards Naples, but Francis II chose not to defend his capital. On 6 September he fled to the fortress city of Gaeta, and on 7 September Garibaldi's men captured Naples. Francis II still had a powerful army. He had strong garrisons at Gaeta, Capua and Messina and a field army 25,000 strong on the Volturno River close to Capua. Garibaldi had 22,000 men, mostly veterans of the fighting on Sicily. Both sided decided to go onto the offensive on 1 October (battle of the Volturno, 1 October 1860). Garibaldi handled his army better than the Neapolitan commanders, and won a narrow victory.

The situation changed dramatically on 2 October, when the Savoia Brigade of the regular Piedmontese army landed north of Capua. Garibaldi was no longer the sole commander against Naples, and he soon decided to hand command of his Second Army to the Piedmontese. More Piedmontese troops arrived across the newly conquered Papal States. Garibaldi's men besieged Capua (before being replaced by the Royal army), while the regular Piedmontese army moved to besiege Gaeta (12 November 1860-14 February 1861). The city finally fell after a French fleet withdrew, exposing the city to a naval bombardment. Francis II went into exile, and his kingdom joined the soon to be formed Kingdom of Italy.

Papal States

Earlier in the war Victor Emmanuel had convinced Napoleon III to allow Piedmont to annex those parts of the Papal States that bordered the Adriatic - the Romagna in the north and the Legations in the centre. These areas had risen against Papal rule early in the conflict and at the end of 1859 the Austrians were unwilling to risk another war just to restore Papal rule. Pope Pius IV would be allowed to keep the Marche, the southern most part of his Adriatic lands, Umbria in the centre of the Peninsula and a large area around Rome on the western coast. The shrunken Papal States would thus still run from coast to coast and split Piedmont from Naples in the south.

Now, with Garibaldi in the south of Italy and issuing proclamations suggesting he would march on Rome after dealing with Naples, Cavour and Victor Emmanuel were able to convince Napoleon III that the only way to save Rome itself was to allow the Piedmontese to invade and occupy the Marche and Umbria. Piedmont already had an army in the former Papal Legations. This force contained 40,000 men and 78 guns, under the overall command of General Manfredo Fanti. It contained two corps - IV Corps under General Cialdini and V Corps under General Enrico Della Rocca.

The Papal army was around 20,000 strong, and was commanded by General Lamoricière, a former French general. His field army was much smaller, around 13,000 strong, with the rest of the men scattered in garrisons. Lamoricière knew that he couldn't defeat Piedmont without external help, and he was expected to receive aid from France and Austria, the two powers that had helped preserve the Papal States in previous crisis. He was entirely unaware of Napoleon III's decision to allow Piedmont to take the Marche and Umbria. The Austrians had not yet recovered from their defeat in Lombardy in 1859 and were also unwilling to intervene.

The invasion began on 11 September. The garrisons of Pesaro and Citta di Castello put up some resistance, but were quickly overwhelmed, and by 13 September the Piedmontese were already threatening the vital port of Ancona, the only possible base for any Austrian expeditionary force. Lamoricière responded by dashing towards Ancona, but Cialdini's IV Corps had moved too quickly. The two armies clashed at Castelfidardo (18 September 1860), and most of the Papal army was forced to retreat away from Ancona. Lamoricière managed to reach the city with a fragment of his forces, and a short siege began (siege of Ancona, to 29 September 1860). The newly conquered areas were soon integrated into Piedmont, leaving Pope Pius IX with the modern province of Lazio (the area around Rome and a significant area along the coast on either side).

Garibaldi wasn't happy to leave Rome out of the new united Italy. In 1862 he led his First March on Rome. Napoleon III made it clear that he wouldn't accept a Piedmontese annexation of Rome, and Victor Emmanuel was forced to send his army to intercept Garibaldi. The resulting battle of Aspromonte (29 August 1862) saw the Piedmontese open fire on the national hero, who was wounded in the fighting. He was soon pardoned, although Rome remained independent, and the government of Prime Minister Ratazzi fell as a result. Garibaldi made a second March on Rome in 1867, with similar results. This time he was defeated by a combined Franco-Papal Army at Mentana (3 November 1867) and captured for a second time. Once again he was soon released, and only had to wait three years for the final unification of Italy.

By the end of the Second War of Italian Independence all of Italy apart from Rome and Venetia had joined to form a new Kingdom of Italy, under Victor Emmanuel (II of Piedmont and I of Italy). This had not been a smooth process. After the end of the Franco-Austrian phase of the war Piedmont had gained Lombardy. Over the winter of 1859-60 Cavour managed to manipulate events and on 15 April 1860 the people of Parma, Modena, Tuscany, the Romagna and the Papal Legations voted to join Piedmont.

Naples and Sicily wouldn't have joined the new kingdom without Garibaldi's remarkable conquest of Sicily and Naples. This gave Cavour the chance to annex Umbria and the Marche, and to move his armies into Naples. On 26 October 1860 Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II shook hands at Teano, east of Caserta (north of Naples). A plebiscite was held in Naples on 7 November, and the Neapolitans voted for the union of northern and southern Italy. Afterwards Garibaldi returned to private life (only to return for his unsuccessful first March of Rome of 1862).

The official founding of the Kingdom of Italy came early in 1861. In February 1861 an emergency government was formed, and an all-Italian parliament met in Turin. On 17 March 1861 this parliament proclaimed the formation of the united Kingdom of Italy, with Victor Emmanuel I as its first king. Cavour did not survive long to enjoy his triumph, dying unexpectedly on 17 March 1861. His guiding hand was thus missing during the efforts to annex Rome and Venetia, although both areas would join Italy within a decade. In both cases the Italians were able to take advantage of wider European conflicts. The Third War of Italian Independence (1866) was part of the Austro-Prussia War. The Austrians defeated their Italian opponents but were defeated by the Prussians and were forced to abandon Venetia. The Fourth War of Italian Independence (1870) was a shorter affair. As Napoleon III's French tumbled to defeat during the Franco-Prussian War, Rome was left without her protector, and the Italians were finally able to take control. After yet another plebiscite Rome was formally annexed by Italy, and became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.

The Second War of Italian Unification 1859-61, Frederick C. Schneid. Focuses on the three separate conflicts that made up the Second War of Italian Unification (the Franco-Austrian War, Garibaldi's invasion of the kingdom of Naples and the invasion of the Papal State), the conflict that saw the creation of the Kingdom of Italy. [lees die volledige resensie]

Solferino 1859: The Battle for Italy's Freedom, Richard Brooks. The battle of Solferino was the main event in the Franco-Austrian War of 1859, a key moment in the unification of Italy, and the first battle to be decided at least partly by the extensive use of the railway and steamships and rifled artillery. It also led directly to the foundation of the Red Cross, but despite these claims to fame it has since been overshadowed by the American Civil War and Franco-Prussian War. Brooks' volume is an excellent single-volume account of the entire campaign, and will be of value to anyone with an interest in nineteenth century warfare [see more].

The death of Sacconi and the triumvirate of Koch, Manfredi and Piacentini

Sacconi died on 30 September 1905, leaving the Vittoriano still largely incomplete. The artistic direction for the project was entrusted to the architects Gaetano Koch (Rome 1849 -1910), Manfredo Manfredi (Piacenza 1859 - Rome 1927) and Pio Piacentini (Rome 1846 - 1928): the three men designed and oversaw the fourth and final project of the Vittoriano.

The three architects of the Vittoriano: Coch, Piacentini, Manfredi, courtesy of the Central Institute for Cataloguing and Documentation

The three architects of the Vittoriano: Coch, Piacentini, Manfredi, courtesy of the Central Institute for Cataloguing and Documentation

Aerial view of the Vittoriano before the inauguration of 1911, courtesy of the Central Institute for Cataloguing and Documentation

Aerial view of the Vittoriano before the inauguration of 1911, courtesy of the Central Institute for Cataloguing and Documentation

The three architects of the Vittoriano: Coch, Piacentini, Manfredi, courtesy of the Central Institute for Cataloguing and Documentation

The three architects of the Vittoriano: Coch, Piacentini, Manfredi, courtesy of the Central Institute for Cataloguing and Documentation

Aerial view of the Vittoriano before the inauguration of 1911, courtesy of the Central Institute for Cataloguing and Documentation

Aerial view of the Vittoriano before the inauguration of 1911, courtesy of the Central Institute for Cataloguing and Documentation


Victor Emmanuel II

V ICTOR E MMANUEL II TAKING THE O ATH OF O FFICE
Victor Emmanuel was the first king of unified Italy. He reigned as King of Sardinia from 1849 to 1861, and was proclaimed King of Italy after the Second War of Italian Independence .

Born the eldest son of Charles Albert of Sardinia and Maria Theresa of Tuscany, Victor fought in the First Italian War of Independence before being made King of Piedmont-Sardinia following his father's abdication. He appointed Camillo di Cavour , a political mastermind, as his Prime Minister, and after the success of the Crimean War Cavour arranged an agreement with the French Emperor : the kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia in exchange for French acquisistion of Nice and Savoy. Napoleon III , however, chose to initate an additional treaty with Austrian leader Franz Joseph I , and as a result France was stripped of its Italian territories and Victor Emmanuel was unable to acquire Venetia. Meanwhile, the Italian king had driven the pope into the Vatican City and was thereafter excommunicated from the Catholic Church, but he managed to save face when Giuseppe Garibaldi obtained for him the territories of Sicily and Naples. The Kingdom of Italy was officially established in 1861, and Victor Emmanuel II was chosen as its king.

Victor obtained additional land during the Third Italian War of Independence , this time allying himself with Prussia. He managed to capture Rome after the French withdrew, and he established the city as the capital of Italy. The remainder of his reign was spent quietly, as he dealt with little more than economic and cultural issues. He passed away in Rome shortly following the reversal of his excommunication by Pope Pius IX and was buried in the Pantheon.


Victor Emmanuel was born on 11 November 1869 in Naples to King Umberto I of Italy and Queen Margherita of Savoy, and in 1896 he was arranged to marry Elena of Montenegro. He became king when Umberto was assassinated by an anarchist on 29 July 1900, being 31 years old at the time. Victor Emmanuel, who was only 5 feet tall, was nicknamed "Sciaboletta" ("little saber") due to his shortness. He was a part of the Triple Alliance with the German Empire and Austria-Hungary, but in 1914 he decided not to assist them when World War I began, arguing that he had a defensive alliance with them and the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand did not count as aggression. Meanwhile, he secretly made treaties to defect to the Entente Powers, and in 1915 he declared war on the Central Powers in hopes of annexing Tyrol and Slovenia to Italy. The war was supported by many, but the astonishing loss of life at the Battle of Caporetto and the recession following the war turned the opinion of the public against him, with 400 threatening letters being sent to him. 

After the war, Victor Emmanuel made even more poor choices, such as denying Pietro Badoglio the ability to rout the 10,000 Blackshirts in the March on Rome with the Royal Italian Army and denying Prime Minister Luigi Facta the ability to declare martial law. Fascist leader Benito Mussolini almost considered leaving the country, but the king sent him a letter inviting him to Rome, and Mussolini formed a new fascist dictatorship. By 1926, it had become obvious that Mussolini had given all the power to himself, but the king was silent. In 1936, he became Emperor of Abyssinia after the Second Italo-Ethiopian War and King of Albania in 1939 after the Italian invasion of Albania, but he had little power during World War II as Mussolini was the dictator. In September 1943, after Italy signed an armistice with the Allies and ousted Mussolini from power, the King returned to power, maintaining it until his abdication in 1946. His son Umberto II of Italy succeeded him, and he died in 1947.


Kyk die video: King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy visits Russia - 1902