Douglas Havoc I (Pandora)/ Havoc III

Douglas Havoc I (Pandora)/ Havoc III



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Douglas Havoc I (Pandora)/ Havoc III

Die Douglas Havoc I (Pandora) was 'n besonder ongewone wapen wat die dringende behoefte aan enige wapen demonstreer wat die bedreiging van Duitse nagbomwerpers tydens die Blitz kan hanteer. Die idee was dat 'n Long Aerial Mine onder die vliegtuig sou hang aan die einde van 'n 2 000 meter lange kabel. Die Havoc sou dan stadig vlieg voor 'n groep Duitse bomwerpers, in die hoop dat een van die plunderaars die kabel sou tref, die myn sou optrek en vernietig sou word.

Die idee is eers getoets met behulp van No.420 Flight met Handley Page Harrows. Die vlug was toe toegerus met twintig omskepte Havocs, eers met die benaming Havoc III, later Havoc I (Pandora). No.420 Flight is aangewys as No.93 Squadron en het met die Havoc begin werk.

Een oorwinning is in Mei 1941 aangeteken, maar dit was die enigste sukses in maande van operasies, wat eers in Oktober 1941 geëindig het. Die eskader is ontbind, terwyl die Havocs in Havoc I (Indringers) verander is.


Crash Site van die VSA AF A20G Havoc

Onderwerpe. Hierdie historiese merker word gelys in hierdie onderwerplys: Oorlog, Tweede Wêreld. 'N Beduidende historiese datum vir hierdie inskrywing is 27 September 1917.

Ligging. 34 & deg 46.547 ′ N, 81 & deg 58.228 ′ W. Marker is naby Woodruff, South Carolina, in Spartanburg County. Marker is op die kruising van Oak View Farms Road (State Highway 42-200) en Old Switzer Road (State Highway 42-199), aan die linkerkant wanneer u suid ry op Oak View Farms Road. Raak vir kaart. Marker is in hierdie poskantoor: Woodruff SC 29388, Verenigde State van Amerika. Raak vir aanwysings.

Ander merkers in die omgewing. Minstens 10 ander merkers is binne 9 myl van hierdie merker, gemeet soos die kraai vlieg. S.J. Workman Highway (ongeveer 2,1 myl weg) Terrein van Fredonia (ongeveer 6,1 myl weg) Veterane van Buitelandse Oorloë (ongeveer 7,4 myl weg) Kate Barry (ongeveer 4 myl weg) Walnut Grove Plantation (ongeveer 4 myl weg) Emmanuel Baptist Church Veterans Monument (ongeveer 6,1 myl weg) Eerste erosiebeheerwerk in die suidooste (ongeveer

7,8 myl ver) Calvary Church / Glenn Springs (ongeveer 8,4 myl weg) Enoree Community Veterans Memorial (ongeveer 8,6 myl weg) Young's School (ongeveer 8,7 myl weg). Raak aan vir 'n lys en kaart van alle merkers in Woodruff.

Sien ook. . .
1. Koerantartikel oor merkertoewyding. Drie mans wat 65 jaar gelede in die Spartanburg County gesterf het, is onthou vir die diens wat hulle Maandag in hul land gedoen het, naby die plek waar hulle omgekom het. (Ingesit op 10 Januarie 2009, deur Michael Sean Nix van Spartanburg, Suid -Carolina.)

2. Douglas A-20 Havoc. Die Douglas A-20/DB-7 Havoc was 'n familie van Amerikaanse aanvalle, ligte bomwerper- en nagvegvliegtuie van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, wat saam met verskeie geallieerde lugmagte diens gedoen het, hoofsaaklik dié van die Sowjetunie, die Verenigde Koninkryk en die Verenigde State. (Voorgelê op 18 April 2011 deur Brian Scott van Anderson, Suid -Carolina.)

3. Vliegtuigongelukke van Spartanburg. Op Maandag 06 Desember 1943 sou 'n formasie van drie vliegtuie van die Florence Army Air Base af op 'n roetine -opleidingsmissie vertrek. (Voorgelê op 18 April 2011 deur Brian Scott van Anderson, Suid -Carolina.)

Bykomende kommentaar.
1. Historici Navorsing Tweede Wêreldoorlog Bomber wat

Gebars naby Switzer
Deur Luke Connell
Spartanburg Herald-Journal

Die oggend van 6 Desember 1943 het 'n A-20-G-aanvalbomaanvaller op 'n roetine-oefenvlug oor die velde en woude van Spartanburg County gegaan.

Maar op 'n dag wat skaam was vir die tweede herdenking van Pearl Harbor, het die land hom bevind in tye wat alles behalwe roetine was.

Die Geallieerdes het genoeg vliegtuie nodig gehad om die lug oor die besette Europa te verstik. Dit het beteken dat jong mans in die kuipe gesit en hulle deur die opleiding gehinder het.

Dikwels, net soos op hierdie dag, het hierdie nut dodelik geword.

Dik wolkbedekking en 'n gebrek aan ondervinding om op instrumente te vlieg, het die vliegtuig naby landbougrond naby Switzer laat toesak. Toe die rook verdwyn, bly daar net 'n hoop gedraaide metaal oor, half ingebed in die aarde.

Vandag werk twee plaaslike mans saam met die Spartanburg County Historical Association om die ongeluk op te grawe en die verhaal agter die dikwels vergete oorlogsgevalle te ontsluit: diegene wat tydens opleiding gesterf het.

Liefhebbers van lugvaartgeskiedenis, Roger Wilkie van Cherokee Springs en Bob Dicey van Simpsonville, het 40 jaar gekombineerde amateur-ongelukjagervaring.

Nou bied hulle hul kundigheid aan om lig te werp op die bomwerperterrein op die 101 hektaar groot Price House-eiendom.

'Opleidingsongelukke word gewoonlik nie so gereeld onthou nie

as 'n gevegsverlies, "het Wilkie (42) gesê.

Wilkie en Dicey help ook met die begin van Broken Wings of the Carolinas, 'n organisasie sonder winsbejag wat toegewy is aan die herdenking van lugvaartongelukke tuis.

Die mans, wat familiebande met militêre lugvaart het, skat dat Suid -Carolina honderde groot en klein ongelukke kan bevat.

'Dit was sleg vir hulle om dood te gaan', het Dicey (49) gesê. 'Maar om te sterf en vergeet te word, is vreeslik.'

Die ongeluk
Op daardie Desemberoggend het drie bomwerpers opgestyg vanaf 'n weermagbasis in Florence op pad na Greenville.

Die vliegtuie-twee A-20-G's en 'n B-25-D-vlieg in dik wolke ongeveer 3000 voet bo Spartanburg County, volgens 'n weermagverslag wat oor die ongeluk uitgereik is.

Beperkte sigbaarheid skei die vliegtuig wat deur 2de Lt. Hampton P. Worrell van Columbia en 'n ander vliegtuig bestuur word, van die formasie.

Op ongeveer 500 voet het Worrell in 'n steil regterbankdraai uit die wolkbed gekom, maar die daling was te hoog.

'Hy sou die laaste paar sekondes spandeer het om sy bemanning uit te haal en te red,' vermoed Wilkie.

Kort voor 10:00 het die vliegtuig in die bome op Clarence Fowler se plaas geklap, volgens 'n artikel wat in die Spartanburg Herald gepubliseer is.

Worrell - saam met sers. Harry G. Barnes van Dodgeville, N.Y. en sers. John Wickham van South Pasadena, Kalifornië - sterf betaalde advertensie

Volgens die weermagverslag het die weer en die onervarenheid van instrumente wat deur vlieënde vliegtuie die ongeluk veroorsaak het, veroorsaak. Die $ 79,055 vliegtuig is by die impak "gesloop".

Dit het nie lank geneem voordat die nuus van die vliegtuigongeluk na die Woodruff High School, waar Joe Walden 'n student was, versprei het nie. Hy het naby die ongelukstoneel gewoon, en sy skoolhoof het hom van die ongeluk vertel.

Vliegtuie wat oor die hoogte styg, het tydens die oorlog 'n algemene gesig geword, onthou Walden. Vlieëniers vlieg gereeld laag en strooi kalk op plase.

Maar die ongeluk was groot nuus op Switzerweg.

Na skool het Walden en ander tieners op die terrein neergedaal in die hoop om die wrak te sien.

"Hulle het wagte daar gehad," het Walden, nou 77, gesê, "en hulle het dit afgesny."

Nadat die weermag die grootste deel van die wrak weggejaag het en die wagte weg is, het hy teruggekeer om aandenkings te gaan haal.

Walden het nog 'n stuk kaart - iewers - en beplan om dit aan die historiese vereniging te gee as hy dit in die hande kan kry.

Ontdek 'n engel
Wilkie en Dicey het sedert 16 Januarie stadig die bomwerper opgegrawe.

Die geringe stukke maak die proses metodies, maar metaalverklikkers wys dit in die regte rigting.

Hulle merk interessante plekke met oranje vlae van die grootte van speelkaarte, gemonteer op draad-dun metaalstawe.

was hoofsaaklik stukke metaal van krummels en aartappelskyfies, ”sê Wilkie, 'n selfoon wat aan die voorkant van sy oorpak vasgemaak is.

Dicey, wat vir Bausch & Lomb in Greenville werk, mik op groter stukke.

"" Ek hou van die groter stukke, iets waarop ek 'n onderdeelnommer kan vind, "het hy gesê." Dit is alles deel van die prentjie. "

Tot dusver het 'n verdraaide stuk romp, 'n handjievol koeëls en 'n instrumentboks tot die grootste vondste van die webwerf gereken. Maar Wilkie en Dicey vermoed dat hulle iets groter sal vind.

Die versameling sal uiteindelik in die Streekmuseum van Spartanburg County vertoon word, tesame met inligting oor die bemanning.

Daar is ook planne om 'n gedenkteken op die terrein te plaas, iets wat Wilkie al op twee ander plekke in die land gedoen het.

Susan Turpin, uitvoerende direkteur van die historiese vereniging, het gesê die missie van haar organisasie gaan hand-aan-hand met dié van die mans.

'Alles wat ons doen, is om die geskiedenis van Spartanburg County te bewaar,' het Turpin gesê, 'en om met hierdie ouens saam te werk, help die missie en hul doel om ook hierdie webwerwe te bevorder.'

Wilkie het dit anders gestel.

'Hierdie ouens verdien ten minste om onthou te word vir hul opoffering.'


Om vegters van bomwerpers te onderskei, het nagvegters hul eie benaming Havoc gekry. Die eerste variant van die vliegtuig, toegerus met 'n lugradar, het die naam Havoc Mk.I.

'N Ander variant van die nagaanvalvliegtuie het die naam Havoc Mk.I Intruder (oorspronklik' Havoc Mk.IV ') gekry. Die hoofdoel daarvan was om Duitse vliegvelde aan die kus van die Engelse Kanaal in die nag aan te val en vyandelike vliegtuie in die lug en op die grond te vernietig.

Daar was min veranderinge aan die prototipe bomwerper. Die kajuit van die navigator en die neusglas bly ongeskonde. Die geweer en bombewapening is ook onveranderd gelaat. Tot 1 100 kg bomme kon onder die vliegtuig opgeskort word. Vlamme is in die enjin se uitlaatpype geïnstalleer.

Havoc Mk.I indringers is snags gebruik om vyandelike vliegvelde te blokkeer. Die vliegtuig sou oor 'n vliegveld vlieg en sy vuur konsentreer op vliegtuie wat opstyg of land, asook op parkeerareas, hangars en vliegtuigtoerusting. Af en toe sal dit bomme laat val, gewoonlik van 'n klein kaliber, fragmentasie tipe. Gewoonlik sluit 'n enkele indringer saam met 'n groep vyandelike bomwerpers wat van 'n gevegsending terugkeer, en hulle sal dit na hul vliegveld lei. Nadat die landingsligte aangeskakel is, sou die indringer se bemanning die vyandelike lugbasis aanval.

Dikwels sou 'n indringer voorgee dat hy 'n Duitse vliegtuig was wat agter sy groep geval het: dit sou seinvlamme oor 'n vyandelike vliegveld afvuur en sy navigasie ligte aanskakel asof dit sou land. As die idee suksesvol was, sou die ligte van die aanloopbaan op die grond aangeskakel word, en soms sou die grondpersoneel selfs die baan met 'n soeklig verlig. Dan sou die indringer onmiddellik die vliegveld aanval wat aan die lig gekom het.

'N Bomaanval tydens vyandvliegtuie se landing was besonder effektief. In die proses het hulle daarin geslaag om nie net vyandelike vliegtuie op die grond te vernietig nie, maar het hulle ook paniek veroorsaak onder die vliegtuie, wat dan op alle masjiene in die lug, insluitend hul eie, losgebrand het. Soms, na verskeie van hierdie strooptogte in 'n ry, sou die Duitsers selfs op hul eie vliegtuie losgebrand het, met die veronderstelling dat dit Britse "blokkeerders" was.


Die Engelse Longbowman: 10 dinge wat jy moet weet

Alhoewel die verlengde wapen van die langboog die Middeleeuse Engelsman met meer as 3500 jaar voorafgaan (met die eerste bekende monster wat uit 2665 vC dateer), was dit die bekende langboog van die Middeleeue wat 'n merk gemaak het in die taktiese aspek van sake wat beroemdheid betref. militêre ontmoetings. En hoewel Sluys (1340), Crécy (1346), Poitiers (1356) en Agincourt (1415) die bekwaamheid van die Engelse langboog bewys het, was daar beslis meer ruimte om 'n toegewyde boogskutter te wees in 'n militêre wêreld wat oorheers word deur swaar gepantserde ridders en wapens. Dus, sonder meer, laat ons kyk na tien interessante feite wat u moet weet oor die Engelse langboogman.

1) Nie alle Engelse langboogmanne was 'Engels' nie -

Die algemene wanopvatting oor die Engelse langboogman het eintlik te doen met sy kategorisering as die enigste 'Engels'. Terwyl die taktiese aanleg van die langboog ná die 14de eeu floreer het, het die oorsprong van boogskietoorlog in Brittanje 'n baie ouer tradisie gehad. Met die oog daarop, tydens die laat 11de-eeuse Anglo-Normandiese invalle van Wallis, het die Walliesers goed rekenskap van hulself gegee in hul boogskiet teen hul goed gepantserde vyande.

Interessant genoeg is die Normandië waarskynlik geïnspireer deur so 'n taktiese insig van die inboorlinge. En vanweë hul voorliefde vir aanpasbaarheid, het die boog na die Normandiese verowering van Engeland 'n gesogte wapen geword. Praktyk speel (natuurlik) sy rol saam met seremoniële aangeleenthede-met die boog wat sy 'prestige' bereik het, uitsluitlik vanweë die blote doeltreffendheid daarvan in die hand van gespesialiseerde boogskutters wat Noord-Engeland verdedig het teen die inbrake van die liggepantserde Skotte.

As gevolg hiervan het die Engelse leërs Walliesers as toegewyde boogskutters in diens geneem. Maar nog meer antitheties het die Engelse ook Fransmanne in hul geledere in diens geneem. Vanuit die historiese perspektief behoort dit nie te veel van 'n verrassing te wees nie. Dit is omdat die Engelse konings van Plantagenet teen die 13de tot 14de eeu steeds groot stukke grond en nedersettings op die vasteland van Frankryk gehou het. Soveel Franse mense uit hierdie dele (soos die Gascons en Frans-Normandiërs) het die Engelse dikwels as hul heersers beskou, en dus in hul leërs (insluitend boogskietafdelings) gedien sonder om te werk.

2) Die 'Indentured' Retainers en die Yeomen -

Illustrasie deur Graham Turner.

Volgens historikus Clive Bartlett bestaan ​​die Engelse leërs uit die 14de eeu, insluitend die langboogmanne, hoofsaaklik uit die heffing en die sogenaamde 'indentured retinue'. Laasgenoemde kategorie het 'n soort kontrak tussen die koning en sy edeles behels wat die monarg in staat gestel het om die adellikes aan te hou vir oorloë (veral in die buiteland).

Hierdie pseudo-feodale reëling het 'n klas semi-professionele soldate aangevuur wat meestal inwoners was uit die landgoedere van die here en die konings. En onder hierdie houers was die vaardigste die langboogmanne van die huishouding. Die boogskutters uit die koning se eie huishouding word die 'Yeomen of the Crown' genoem, en hulle is tereg as die elite beskou, selfs onder die ervare boogskutters.

Die ander bewaarders kom uit die woonbuurte van die groot landgoedere, wat gewoonlik bestaan ​​uit volgelinge (indien nie inwoners nie) van die heer se huishouding. Interessant genoeg het baie van hulle dieselfde doel gedien en soortgelyke voordele ontvang soos huishoudelike houers. Daar was ook 'n derde kategorie van die langbooghouer, en hierdie groep het betrekking op mans wat aangestel is vir spesifieke militêre pligte, waaronder garnisoening en verdediging van 'oorsese' Franse dorpe. Ongelukkig, ten spyte van hul professionele status, het hierdie gehuurde bewaarders hulle dikwels tot banditisie gewend, aangesien amptelike betalings nie altyd betyds afgelewer is nie.

3) Monetêre aangeleenthede en plundering -

Vreemd genoeg, in die vroeë 14de eeu, is beide die hefboogskutters en die houers dieselfde bedrag (van 3 pennies per dag) in Engeland en Frankryk betaal, ondanks hul vermoedelike verskil in vaardigheidsvlakke. Teen die 15de eeu was daar egter baie veranderinge in die militêre wette, met 'n noemenswaardige een wat verband hou met hoe die verhoogde heffings slegs in die 'binnelandse' arena's, soos Engeland en (in sommige gevalle) Skotland, kon dien.

Aan die ander kant het die Engelse langbooggroepe wat aan die hand was, die swaarkry van die gevegte in 'oorsese' Frankryk gedra en hulle 'n professionele karakter gegee. Hul verbeterde betaalskaal weerspieël ook so 'n verandering, met die nuwe syfer 6 pennings per dag-wat ongeveer 9 pond per jaar beloop. In 'n praktiese omvang het die getal eintlik tot ongeveer 5 pond per jaar gedaal en ter vergelyking het 'n Middeleeuse ridder ongeveer 40 pond per jaar nodig gehad om homself en sy panopie te onderhou.

Dit stel natuurlik die vraag: waarom het die langbooghouers ingestem tot hul 'ingekorte kontrakte' ten spyte van sulke lae lone? Net soos in die geval van die Mongole, het die geldelike voordeel nie gekom uit lone nie, maar eerder uit verskillende 'voordele'. Sommige huishouders het byvoorbeeld jaarlikse annuïteite deur hul eienaars betaal, en hierdie bedrae het gereeld in dubbelsyfers beloop. Ander was begaafde huise en geldelike bonusse.

En laastens was daar die eeue oue aantrekkingskrag vir plundering en lospryse. Wat laasgenoemde betref, is hooggeplaaste krygsgevangenes onmiddellik aan die kaptein oorhandig, en gevolglik het die langboog 'n gesonde beloning ontvang. Terwyl die gevangene in gevalle van laaggeplaaste slagoffers regstreeks sy losprys kon eis. Die gevolglike geld (indien betaal) is dan volgens 'n paar vasgestelde reëls uitgedeel. Twee derdes van die som kan deur die gevangene (die langboogman) geneem word, terwyl die oorblywende een derde onder die kaptein, sy hoër bevelvoerder en uiteindelik die koning verdeel is.

4) Opleiding (of gebrek daaraan) -

Illustrasie deur Graham Turner.

Opleiding spesifiek vir oorlogvoering en slagveldtaktieke, of ten minste wat ons verstaan ​​as streng opleiding vir oorlogvoering (oftewel bootkamp), was veral afwesig in die reisplan van 'n Engelse langboogman. Waarom is die langboogman veral in die laaste helfte van die 14de eeu as kragtig beskou? Die antwoord lê in hul vaardigheidsvlak, eerder as die fisiese aanleg vir gevegte.

Eenvoudig gestel, daar was 'n tradisie van boogskiet onder sowel die vashouers as die gehefde mense, met vaardigheidsstelle wat deur generasies oorgedra is. Hoewel die meeste van hulle nie spesifiek vir gevegsscenario's geoefen het nie, het hulle wel hul boogskietvaardighede op ontspannings- en jaguitoefeninge beoefen. Sommige Engelse vorste het trouens gegrond op hierdie 'eksklusiwiteit' van boogskietvaardighede op langboog wat hul leërs 'n voorsprong bo ander hedendaagse Europese magte (gewoonlik uit kruisboogmanne) gegee het-soveel so dat talle statute aangeneem is wat baie bewaarders verplig het om hul boogskiet op Sondae.

Daar was ook gereelde instruksies van die koninklike hof wat mense in alle opsigte aangemoedig het om boogskiet te neem. Soos die verklaring van koning Edward III van 1363 dit duidelik maak (soos in die Engelse Longbowman: 1330 - 1515 deur Clive Bartlett)

Terwyl die mense van ons ryk, ryk sowel as arm, vroeër in hul speletjies gewoond was om boogskiet te beoefen - vanwaar God se hulp bekend is, is dit bekend dat hoë eer en wins in ons koninkryk gekom het en vir ons geen geringe voordeel in ons oorlogsvoering ondernemings ... dat elke man in dieselfde land, as hy gesond is, tydens vakansies in boog en pyltjies gebruik sal maak en boogskiet sal leer en beoefen.

Daar moet egter op gelet word dat teen die middel van die 15de eeu die langboogmanne nie so dodelik beskou is as 'n paar dekades gelede nie. Die hedendaagse kroniekskrywer Philip de Commynes het gepraat oor hoe die Engelse in die leër van Charles the Bold nie werklike maneuvers van die slagveld waardig was nie. As 'n teenstryd teen die dalende standaarde van die langboogmanne, het die hertog van Bourgondië hierdie mense moontlik ook in skietvliegies opgelei in kombinasie met die snoekers, wat 'n aanduiding was van die voorloper van snoek-en-skiet-formasies.

5) Wapenrusting en wapens verskaf deur die 'kontrak' -

In teenstelling met die swak toegeruste Europese boogskutter van die vroeë Middeleeue, was die langboogman toegerus met wapens en wapens wat deur sy werkgewer (die heer of die koning) voorsien is. Volgens 'n huishoudelike boekhouding van 1480 nC, is 'n tipiese Engelse langboog beskerm deur brigandine - 'n soort seildoek (of leer) wat versterk is met klein staalplate wat aan die stof vasgemaak is.

Hy het ook 'n paar spalke vir armverdediging gekry, 'n 'sallet' ('n oorlogshelm of 'n staalversterkte pet), 'n 'standaard' (of 'standaard' wat sy nek beskerm het), 'n 'jaket' (basies sy lewering), 'n 'gusset' (wat óf sintetiese onderklere kon wees, óf 'n klein bordjie wat sy gewrigte beskerm het), en 'n paar pyle. Vermoedelik is baie van hierdie toerusting in voorraad gehou en is dit slegs tydens oorlogstyd deur die senior bevelvoerders uitgereik.

6) Die werklike langboog -

In teenstelling met sommige idees, was die langboog nie die enigste boog wat Engelse boogskutters na die 14de eeu gebruik het nie. Trouens, die meeste boogskutters het hul persoonlike boë gebruik vir jag en af ​​en toe oefen. Maar nadat hulle behou (of gehef) is, het die mans nuwer oorlogsboë deur die voormelde kontrakstelsel (of die staat) voorsien. Hierdie nuwe langboë het min of meer betrekking op 'n standaardkwessie, en daarom is die produksie op groot skaal makliker om te bestuur.

Nou was die langboog eintlik nie die doeltreffendste wapen van sy tyd op projektiel nie. Die ontwerp maak egter voorsiening vir die moeilikheid om dit op ander maniere te gebruik - soos die relatiewe goedkoop en eenvoud in vergelyking met die kruisboog. Verder het die langboog in die hand van 'n ervare langboogman nogal 'n slag gepak met sy vermoë om staalpantser oor 'n aansienlike afstand selfs te prik. Dit is wat Gerald van Wallis, die Kambro-Normandiese aartsdiaken en historikus van die 12de eeu te sê gehad het oor die Walliese langboog (die voorloper van die 'Engelse' variëteit), afkomstig van die Engels Longbowman: 1330 - 1515 (Deur Clive Bartlett)

... [I] in die oorlog teen die Walliesers is een van die wapenmanne getref deur 'n pyl wat 'n Wallieser op hom geskiet het. Dit het reg deur sy bobeen gegaan, hoog, waar dit binne en buite die been beskerm is deur sy yster chausses, en dan deur die rok van sy leer tuniek, dring dit deur tot die deel van die saal wat die alva of sitplek genoem word, en uiteindelik dit het in sy perd gelê en so diep gery dat dit die dier doodgemaak het.

7) Ontwerp en omvang van die langboog -

Anders as saamgestelde boë, is die langboog wat vir oorloë gebruik word, gewoonlik uit 'n enkele stuk hout gemaak, wat verwys na die eenvoud van die ontwerp. In hierdie opsig was die voorkeurhout altyd van die taxus, alhoewel seisoenale veranderinge en beskikbaarheid ook die gebruik van ander houtsoort - soos as en iep - bepaal het. Vir hierdie doel is die massaproduksie van langboë redelik gereguleer deur die staat (en die here), met spesiale boomplantasies wat spesifiek baie van die vereiste stokke voorsien het.

Daar was ook tye dat Engeland takboogstawe van kontinentale Europese gebiede moes invoer, naamlik Venesië en ander Italiaanse state. Die meeste boogstawe is in elk geval gereeld deur spesiaal aangestelde amptenare gereeld op kwaliteit beoordeel en uitgesorteer, terwyl 'n langboog op sigself in minder as twee uur deur die kundige bouers ingerig kon word, wat 'n indrukwekkende produksietempo kon veroorsaak. .

Historikus Clive Bartlett het gepraat oor hoe die afgewerkte langboog (dikwels geverf en soms 'wit') meer as 6 voet (of 6 voet 2 duim) was, alhoewel selfs langer monsters (tot 6 voet 11 duim) ontdek is uit die wrak van die beroemde 16de eeuse Royal Navy oorlogskip Mary Rose. Wat die geoptimaliseerde vorm betref, moet die lede (ledemate) van die boog van toepassing wees op die ronde 'D' -vorm. Hierdie fisiese omvang vertaal na ongeveer 80-120 lbs trekgewig, hoewel hoër trekgewigte tot 185 lbs in gevegte gebruik is-wat die treklengtes meer as 30 duim laat oorskry het.

En ten slotte, wat die reeks betref, is daar geen spesifieke eietydse bronne wat die figure tydens die Middeleeue akkuraat uitbeeld nie. Moderne rekonstruksies (van selfs die Mary Rose monsters) het voldoende bewys dat langboë 'n afstand van 250-330 m (273 tot 361 meter) kan bereik. Al hierdie faktore van krag en reikwydte, in kombinasie, was genoeg om die poswapenrusting van Damaskus binne te dring, hoewel plaatwapens nog relatief onbeskadig was. Maar daar moet ook op gelet word dat die 'bodkin' pyle wat deur die langboog geskiet is, moontlik stomp trauma op swaar gepantserde ruiters (soos ridders) kan veroorsaak, aangesien hierdie ruiters reeds die ekstra momentum van hul galopende oorlogsperde gehad het.

8) Bracers vir veiligheid -

Die uitgebreide omvang van die langboog saam met die strak aard van die tou (gewoonlik gemaak van hennep) het die vaartuig sekerlik omskep in 'n gevaarlike wapen om te hanteer. Die grootste gevaar vir die gebruiker was as gevolg van die tou wat die onderarm in sy 'terugslag' tref. Dit kan vermy word deur die elmboog te buig of die afstand tussen die tou en die boog aan te pas wanneer dit gespan word - maar albei hierdie maatreëls belemmer die intrinsieke skietbaan en tegniek van die langboog.

As 'n oplossing het die langboogman dus gekies vir armbande (wapenrusting onderarm) wat van leer en horing gemaak is (en selfs van walrus tand 'ivoor' by seldsame geleenthede). Vertoon gewoonlik 'n band-en-gespe-stelsel, soos blyk uit die bestaande monsters wat uit Mary Rose, het die bracers ook 'n vorm van kentekens gedra. Hierdie heraldiese toestelle toon waarskynlik die stad se oorsprong van die boogskutter of die kenteken van die heer onder wie se bevel die langboog gedien het.

9) Die 'Harbingers' -

Die 'Harbinger' het per definisie betrekking op 'n voorloper of herald wat die benadering van 'n ander aankondig of sein. In praktiese terme het die Engelse 'Harbingers' van die Middeleeue egter 'n bietjie ander doel gedien. Hulle was verbonde aan die logistieke korps van die weermag en het die taak gehad om die bokke van die gewone soldate en langboogmanne op te spoor voor die aankoms van die hoofgroep troepe.

Hierdie billets was redelik goed op Engelse bodem gerangskik, en die kwartale is toegewys volgens die rang en invloed van die soldaat, hoewel die metode soms in Frankryk plek maak vir waansin-met chaotiese aangeleenthede en sterk bewapening wat die goeie woonomvang bepaal. Interessant genoeg het die Harbingers (soms met langboogafdelings in hul geledere) ook as verkenners gedien wat op soek was na die droë plekke wat bevorderlik was vir kampeerplekke met toegang tot noodsaaklike vereistes soos hout en water.

10) Slag van Agincourt - 'n oorwinning teen oorweldigende kans

Op baie maniere het hierdie bekende verlowing uit die Honderdjarige Oorlog die superioriteit van taktiek, topografie en gedissiplineerde boogskutters gedemonstreer bo net swaar pantser - faktore wat duidelik skaars was gedurende die eerste dekades van die 15de eeu.

Wat die geveg self betref, het dit ongeveer 6 000 tot 9 000 Engelse soldate (met 5/6de van hulle langboogmanne) teen 20 000 tot 30 000 Franse troepe, wat ongeveer 10 000 swaar gepantserde ridders en wapenskut gehad het. Die hoogmoedige ingesteldheid van die Franse adel wat aan die geveg deelneem, kan ietwat verkry word uit die verklaring van kroniekskrywer Edmond de Dyntner - "tien Franse adellike teen een Engelse", wat die 'militêre waarde' van 'n langboog uit die Engelse weermag heeltemal verdiskonteer het.

Wat die taktiese plasing betref, het die Engelse leër onder bevel van Henry V, die koning van Engeland, homself aan die einde van 'n onlangs geploegde land geplaas, met hul flanke bedek met digte bosveld (wat byna onmogelike kavaleriekoste moontlik gemaak het). Die voorste gedeeltes van die boogskutters is ook beskerm deur spits houtflanke en palings wat die frontale kavallerietladings sou ontmoedig het.

Maar in al hierdie dinge was die terrein die grootste struikelblok vir die gepantserde Franse leër, aangesien die veld reeds modderig was met onlangse reën. In 'n ironiese draai het die wapengewig van die Franse ridders (vir ten minste sommige) hul grootste nadeel geword, met die massa stampvol soldate wat vroetel en struikel oor die deurdrenkte landskap-wat dit maklik maak vir die goed opgeleide langboogmanne .

En toe die ridders uiteindelik by die Engelse lyn kom, was hulle heeltemal uitgeput, terwyl hulle ook nie ruimte gehad het om hul swaar wapens effektief te gebruik nie. Die Engelse langboogmanne en wapenmanne was nog steeds flinkvoetig, het oorgeskakel na mallets en hamers en 'n verpletterende slag in hand-tot-hand-gevegte op die verswakte Fransmanne gelewer. Uiteindelik word geraam dat ongeveer 7 000 tot 10 000 Franse soldate dood is (onder hulle was daar ongeveer duisend senior edeles). En nog meer is gevange geneem, terwyl die Engelse verliese ongeveer die geringe syfer van 400 was.

Eervolle vermelding - Die uitroep van 'verwoesting'

Terwyl die van William Shakespeare Julius Caesar die frase beroemd gemaak het, was die kreet van 'verwoesting' eintlik 'n oproep wat die Engelse (en Anglo-Franse) leërs in die Middeleeue gebruik het om die begin van plundering aan te dui. In wese is 'verwoesting' (of verwoesting, afgelei van Ou Frans het niebedoel die plundering) het die einde van 'n oorwinnende geveg aangekondig, en die oorlogskreet is dus redelik ernstig deur die bevelvoerders geneem. Dit is trouens so ernstig opgeneem dat selfs 'n voortydige oproep van 'verwoesting' tydens die geveg dikwels die doodstraf (deur onthoofding) tot gevolg gehad het vir diegene wat met die kreet begin het.

Alhoewel dit streng lyk, was sulke strawwe strawwe deel van die militêre regulasies van die laat 14de eeu. Baie van hulle is geformuleer vir die 'praktiese' praktyk om dissipline by die weermag in te boesem - 'n eienskap wat dikwels die uitslag van 'n geveg bepaal het, veral in verband met die Slag van Agincourt. In teenstelling met die luidrugtige Franse edeles van die tyd, het die Engelse ook gesamentlike voorsorgmaatreëls getref vir hul relatief kleiner leërs, en sodoende die beginsels van veiligheid gehandhaaf. Dus, in wese, het die voortydige 'verwoesting' bellers moontlik sulke beginsels in die wiele gery, wat die hele leër in gevaar kon stel as hulle in hul onbewaakte 'modus' geplunder het.

Boekverwysings: Engels Longbowman: 1330 - 1515 (Deur Clive Bartlett) / Longbowmen, Tactics, and Terrain: Three Battle Narratives from the Hundred Years War (Deur Molly Helen Donohue)


1/48 A20g verwoesting

Ek kan nie langer wag om die deelnaam te bevestig aan hierdie groepsbou wanneer ek weet dat ek niks kan doen nie, maar hierdie dapper dame word dus:

Ek kan hierdie Erma, Erwin, deur hierdie nogmaals bedank vir ons geduld

en is ook van harswiele, Eduard PE -stel vir die algemeen aangeslote pakke, ekstra etikette (ook vir D -dag te gebruik) en 'n vervanging vir die afdak en die toring (weggemaakte duidelike dele).

Volledige weergawe van die foto's volg later op die batterylewe.

Ontwerp en ontwikkeling
In Maart 1937 het 'n ontwerpspan onder leiding van Donald Douglas, Jack Northrop en Ed Heinemann 'n voorstel gemaak vir 'n ligte bomwerper aangedryf deur 'n paar 450 pk (340 kW) Pratt & amp; Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior-enjins gemonteer op 'n hooggemonteerde vlerk. Daar word beraam dat dit 'n bomlading van 450 kg teen 400 km/h kon dra. Verslae oor die prestasie van vliegtuie uit die Spaanse burgeroorlog het aangedui dat hierdie ontwerp ernstig te min sou wees en dat dit daarna gekanselleer is.

In die herfs van dieselfde jaar het die United States Army Air Corps sy eie spesifikasie vir 'n aanvalsvliegtuig uitgereik. Die Douglas-span, nou onder leiding van Heinemann, het die Model 7A-ontwerp geneem, opgegradeer na 1100 pk (820 kW) Pratt & amp; Whitney R-1830 S3C3-G Twin Wasp-enjins, en het die ontwerp voorgelê as die Model 7B. Dit het mededinging ondergaan van die Noord-Amerikaanse NA-40, die Stearman X-100 en die Martin 167F. Die Model 7B was wendbaar en vinnig, maar het geen Amerikaanse bevele gelok nie.

Die model het egter die aandag getrek van 'n Franse aankoopkommissie wat die VSA besoek het. Die Franse het diskreet deelgeneem aan die vlugproewe, om nie kritiek van Amerikaanse isolationiste te lok nie, maar die geheim is geblaas toe die 7B op 23 Januarie 1939 neerstort, terwyl die prestasie van 'n enkelmotor bewys is. The French were still impressed enough to order 100 production aircraft, with the order increased to 270 when the war began. Sixteen of those had been ordered by Belgium for its Aviation Militaire.

Although not the fastest or longest-legged in its class, the Douglas DB-7 series distinguished itself as a tough, dependable combat aircraft with an excellent reputation due to its speed and manoeuvrability. In a report to the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment (AAEE) at RAF Boscombe Down, test pilots summed it up as "has no vices and is very easy to takeoff and land. The aeroplane represents a definite advantage in the design of flying controls. extremely pleasant to fly and manoeuvre."[1] Ex-pilots often consider it their favorite aircraft of the war due to the ability to toss it around like a fighter.[2] Its true impact was that the Douglas bomber/night fighter was extremely adaptable and found a role in every combat theater of the war and excelled as a true "pilot's aeroplane."[3]

When DB-7 series production finally ended on 20 September 1944, a total of 7,098 had been built by Douglas and a further 380 by Boeing

A-20G Havoc USAACThe French order called for substantial modifications, and the new designation DB-7 (for Douglas Bomber 7) was introduced. It had a narrower, deeper fuselage, 1000 hp (750 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830-SC3-G radials, French-built guns, and metric instruments. Midway through the delivery phase, engines were switched to 1100 hp (820 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830-S3C4-G. The French designation was DB-7 B-3 (the B-3 signifying "three-seat bomber").

The DB-7s were shipped in sections to Casablanca for assembly and service in France and French North Africa. When the Germans attacked France and the Low Countries on 10 May 1940, the 64 available DB-7s were deployed against the advancing Panzers. Before the armistice they were evacuated to North Africa to avoid capture by German forces. Here, they fell under control of the Vichy government, but saw practically no action against the Allies except briefly during Operation Torch. After French forces in North Africa had sided with the Allies, DB-7 were used as trainers and were replaced in frontline units by B-26 Marauders. In early 1945, a few DB-7s were sent back to France where they saw action against the remaining isolated German pockets on the Western coast.

Variante
Boston I & II
The Royal Air Force agreed to take up the balance of the now-frustrated French order which was diverted to Britain, and the aircraft were given the service name Boston with the further designation of "Mark I" or "Mark II" according to the earlier or later engine type.
Havoc I
The aircraft was not really suitable for RAF use as its range was too limited for daylight raids on Germany. Many of the Boston Mk II, plus some re-engined Mk Is, were converted for night time duties - either as intruders with 2,400 lb (1,100 kg) bombs, or as night-fighters with AI Mk IV radar. These were known collectively as Havoc Mk I. A total of 181 Bostons were converted to Havocs. In interdiction raids, Havoc intruders caused considerable damage to German targets.
Havoc-Pandora
Twenty Havocs were converted into intruder aircraft, utilizing the Long Aerial Mine (LAM), an explosive charge trailed on a long cable in the path of enemy aircraft in the hope of scoring a hit. Trials conducted with lone Handley Page Harrows dropping LAMs into the stream of German bombers were not successful, consequently, the Havocs were converted back to Mk I intruders.
Havoc I Turbinlite
A further 31 Havocs were fitted with a 2,700 million candela (2.7 Gcd) searchlight in the nose. They were unarmed and were supposed to illuminate targets for accompanying Hurricane fighters, but in practice they just made nice bright targets for German gunners.
DB-7A / Havoc II
The French Purchasing Commission ordered a further 200 bombers, to be fitted with 1600 hp (1195 kW) Wright R-2600-A5B Double Cyclone engines. This variant was designated DB-7A by Douglas. None had been delivered before the fall of France, and they served instead as night-fighters with the RAF under the name of Havoc Mk II. They had an impressive top speed of 344 mph (550 km/h) at altitude. 39 of them were used briefly in Turbinlite roles.
DB-7B / Boston III
The DB-7B was the first batch of the series to actually be ordered by Britain, in February 1940. Powered by the same engines as the DB-7A, with better armor and, crucially, larger fuel tanks, these were at last suitable for British use in the light bomber role. This was the batch for which the name "Boston" was first reserved, but since the commandeered DB-7s entered service first, this batch became known as the Boston Mk III. Amongst other operations, they took part in the attacks on the Scharnhorst, Gneisenau and Prinz Eugen during their dash through the English Channel (Operation Cerberus) and the infamous raid on Dieppe (Operation Jubilee). Three hundred were delivered and some were converted for use in intruder and night fighter roles.
DB-73
A French variant very similar to BD-7B, which again were diverted to England as Boston Mk IIIs. Many of these were built under licence by Boeing. Events further overtook this shipment after the German attack on the Soviet Union and the Attack on Pearl Harbor, when many Bostons were sent to the USSR and many more retained by the USAAF for its own use. Twenty-two were also sent to the RAAF by the British.
DB-7C
A Netherlands variant intended for service in the Netherlands East Indies, but the Japanese invasion was complete before they were delivered. The order was sent instead to the Soviet Union under Lend-Lease which would receive 3,125 examples of different variants of the Douglas DB-7 series.[2]

T30 triple launcher for 4.5 in (114 mm) rocketsWhen shipments to the UK finally resumed, they were delivered under the terms of Lend-Lease. These aircraft were actually refitted A-20Cs known as the Boston IIIA.
A-20
The original American indifference to the Model 7B was overcome by the improvements made for the French and British, and the Army Air Corps ordered two models, the A-20 for high-altitude bombing and the A-20A for lower-altitude work. Both were similar to the DB-7B, the A-20 was to be fitted with turbosupercharged Wright R-2600-7 engines, but these were bulky and the prototype suffered cooling problems, so the remainder were completed with the un-supercharged R-2600-11, 59 as P-70 fighters and 3 as F-3 reconnaissance planes (described below).
One A-20 was evaluated by the US Navy as the BD-1, while the US Marine Corps operated eight examples as the BD-2.

A-20A
The U.S. Army ordered 123 A-20As with R-2600-3 engines, and a further 20 with more powerful R-2600-11. They entered service in spring 1941. The Army liked the A-20A because of its excellent performance and because it had no adverse handling characteristics. Nine of them were transferred to Australia in 1943. The British name "Havoc" was adopted for the A-20A.
A-20B
The A-20B received the first really large order — 999 — from the US Army. They resembled the DB-7A rather than the DB-7B, with light armor and stepped rather than slanted glazing in the nose. In fact, 665 were exported to the Soviets, so relatively few actually served with the USAAC.
A-20C

A-20C being serviced at Langley Field, Virginia, 1942.The A-20C was an attempt to standardize a common British and American version, produced from 1941. It reverted to the slanting nose-glass and had RF-2600-23 engines, self-sealing fuel tanks and additional armor. They were equipped to carry an external 2000 lb (900 kg) naval torpedo. A total of 948 were built for Britain and the Soviet Union, but many were retained by the USAAF after Pearl Harbor. The Soviet A-20s were often fitted out with turrets of indigenous design.[4]
A-20G
The A-20G, delivered from February 1943, would be the most produced of all the series - 2850 were built. The glazed nose was replaced by a solid nose containing four 20 mm cannon and two 0.50 in (12.7 mm) Colt-Browning machine guns, making the aircraft slightly longer than previous versions. After the first batch of 250 the unreliable cannon were replaced by more machine guns. Some had a wider fuselage to accommodate a power driven gun turret. Many A-20Gs were delivered to the Soviet Union. The powerplant was the 1,600 hp (1,200 kW) R-2600-23. US A-20Gs were used on low-level sorties in the New Guinea theatre.
A-20H
The A-20H was the same as A-20G, continued with the 1,700 hp (1,270 kW) R-2600-29. 412 of these were built. The takeoff weight was raised to 24,170 lb (10,960 kg).
A-20J / Boston IV
The A-20J carried an additional bombardier in an extended acrylic glass nose section. These were intended to lead bombing formations, with the following standard A-20s dropping their bombs when signaled by the leader. A total of 450 were built, 169 for the RAF which designated them Boston Mk IV from summer 1944.
A-20K / Boston V
The A-20K (Boston Mk V in RAF parlance) was the final production version of the A-20 series, the same as the A-20J except for R-2600-29s instead of -23s.
P-70
In October 1940 the USAAC felt a need for long-range fighters more than attack bombers, so some of the production run of A-20s were converted to P-70 and P-70A night-fighters. They were equipped with SCR-540 radar (a copy of British AI Mk IV), the glazed nose often painted black to reduce glare and hide the details of the radar set, and had four 20 mm forward-firing cannon in a ventral bomb bay tray. Further P-70 variants were produced from A-20C, G and J variants. The singular airframe P-70B-1 (converted from an A-20G) and subsequent P-70B-2s (converted from A-20Gs and Js) had American centimetric radar (SCR-720 or SCR-729) fitted. The P-70s and P-70As saw combat ONLY in the Pacific during World War II and only with the USAAF. The P-70B-1 and P-70B-2 aircraft never saw combat but served as night fighter aircrew trainers in the US in Florida and later in California. All P-70s were retired from service by 1945.
F-3A
The F-3A was a conversion of 46 A-20J and K models for night-time photographic reconnaissance (F-3 were a few conversions of the original A-20). This variant was employed in the European Theatre by the 155th Night Photo Squadron which began its deployment as the 423rd Night Fighter Squadron. The 423rd was converted to its photo mission in part because of knowledge of night fighter tactics which could be used to defend against German aircraft. Although armament was removed, the crew of three was retained consisting of, pilot, observer, and navigator. The first Allied aircraft to land at Itazuke, Japan after the August 1945 surrender was an F-3A.
DB-1
One A-20A was bought in 1940 by the United States Navy for evaluation for use by the United States Marine Corps. The Navy/Marine Corps did not have any priority on the production lines, so the DB was not put into service.
DB-2
In 1942, eight former Army A-20Bs were diverted to the United States Navy for use as high-speed target tugs. Despite the addition of the target-towing equipment and the removal of all armament and the provision to carry bombs the aircraft were still designated DB in the Bomber sequence. They were withdrawn from service in 1946.
O-53
An observation/reconnaissance version of the A-20B powered by two 1700hp R-2600-7 engines, order for 1489 aircraft was cancelled and none were built


1920s Edit

The company was founded by Donald Wills Douglas Sr. on July 22, 1921 in Santa Monica, California, following dissolution of the Davis-Douglas Company. [1] An early claim to fame was the first circumnavigation of the world by air in Douglas airplanes in 1924. In 1923, the U.S. Army Air Service was interested in carrying out a mission to circumnavigate the Earth for the first time by aircraft, a program called "World Flight". [2] Donald Douglas proposed a modified Douglas DT to meet the Army's needs. [3] The two-place, open cockpit DT biplane torpedo bomber had previously been produced for the U.S. Navy. [4] The DTs were taken from the assembly lines at the company's manufacturing plants in Rock Island, Illinois, and Dayton, Ohio, to be modified. [5]

The modified aircraft known as the Douglas World Cruiser (DWC), also was the first major project for Jack Northrop who designed the fuel system for the series. [6] After the prototype was delivered in November 1923, upon the successful completion of tests on 19 November, the Army commissioned Douglas to build four production series aircraft. [7] Due to the demanding expedition ahead, spare parts, including 15 extra Liberty L-12 engines, 14 extra sets of pontoons, and enough replacement airframe parts for two more aircraft were chosen. These were sent to airports along the route. The last of these aircraft was delivered to the U.S. Army on 11 March 1924. [4]

The four aircraft left Seattle, Washington, on 6 April 1924, flying west, and returned there on 28 September to great acclaim, although one plane was forced down over the Atlantic and sank. After the success of this flight, the Army Air Service ordered six similar aircraft as observation aircraft. [8] [9] The success of the DWC established the Douglas Aircraft Company among the major aircraft companies of the world and led it to adopt the motto "First Around the World – First the World Around". [10]

Douglas initially used a logo that combined two letter Ds and wings, and two Ds joined as a heart as a reference to the Clan Douglas. After the success of the DWC, the company adopted a logo that showed three airplanes circling a globe. The logo eventually evolved into an aircraft, a missile, and a globe. This logo was later adopted by McDonnell Douglas in 1967, and became the basis of Boeing's current logo after their merger in 1997. [11] [12]

Pre-war Edit

Douglas Aircraft designed and built a wide variety of aircraft for the U.S. military, including the Navy, Army Air Forces, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard.

The company initially built torpedo bombers for the U.S. Navy, but it developed a number of different versions of these aircraft, including reconnaissance planes and airmail aircraft. Within five years, the company was building about 100 aircraft annually. Among the early employees at Douglas were Ed Heinemann, "Dutch" Kindelberger, Carl Cover, and Jack Northrop, who later founded the Northrop Corporation. [13]

The company retained its military market and expanded into amphibian airplanes in the late 1920s, also moving its facilities to Clover Field at Santa Monica, California. The Santa Monica complex was so large, the mail girls used roller skates to deliver the intracompany mail. By the end of World War II, Douglas had facilities at Santa Monica, El Segundo, Long Beach, and Torrance, California, Tulsa and Midwest City, Oklahoma, and Chicago, Illinois. [14]

In 1934, Douglas produced a commercial twin-engined transport plane, the Douglas DC-2, followed by the famous DC-3 in 1936. The wide range of aircraft produced by Douglas included airliners, light and medium bombers, fighter aircraft, transports, reconnaissance aircraft, and experimental aircraft.

The company is most famous for the "DC" (Douglas Commercial) series of commercial aircraft, including what is often regarded as the most significant transport aircraft ever made: the Douglas DC-3, which was also produced as a military transport known as the C-47 Skytrain or "Dakota" in British service. Many Douglas aircraft had long service lives.

World War II Edit

During World War II, Douglas joined the BVD (Boeing-Vega-Douglas) consortium to produce the B-17 Flying Fortress. After the war, Douglas built another Boeing design under license, the B-47 Stratojet turbojet-powered bomber, using a government-owned factory in Marietta, Georgia. [14]

World War II was a major boost for Douglas. Douglas ranked fifth among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. [16] The company produced almost 30,000 aircraft from 1942 to 1945, and its workforce swelled to 160,000. The company produced a number of aircraft including the C-47 Skytrain, the DB-7 (known as the A-20, Havoc or Boston), the SBD Dauntless dive bomber, and the A-26 Invader. [17] [18] [19]

Post-war Edit

Douglas Aircraft suffered cutbacks at the end of the war, with an end to government aircraft orders and a surplus of aircraft. It was necessary to cut heavily into its workforce, letting go of nearly 100,000 workers.

The United States Army Air Forces established 'Project RAND' (Research ANd Development) [20] with the objective of looking into long-range planning of future weapons. [21] In March 1946, Douglas Aircraft Company was granted the contract to research on intercontinental warfare. [21] Project RAND later become the RAND Corporation.

Douglas continued to develop new aircraft, including the successful four-engined Douglas DC-6 (1946) and its last propeller-driven commercial aircraft, the Douglas DC-7 (1953). The company had moved into jet propulsion, producing its first for the U.S. Navy — the straight-winged F3D Skyknight in 1948 and then the more "jet age" style F4D Skyray in 1951. Douglas also made commercial jets, producing the Douglas DC-8 in 1958 to compete with the new Boeing 707.

Douglas was a pioneer in related fields, such as ejection seats, air-to-air missiles, surface-to-air missiles, and air-to-surface missiles, launch rockets, bombs, and bomb racks.

The company was ready to enter the new missile business during the 1950s. Douglas moved from producing air-to-air rockets and missiles to entire missile systems under the 1956 Nike missile program and became the main contractor for the Skybolt air-launched ballistic missile program and the Thor ballistic missile program. Douglas also earned contracts from NASA, most notably for designing the S-IVB stage of the Saturn IB and Saturn V rockets.

Mergers Edit

In 1967, the company was struggling to expand production to meet demand for DC-8 and DC-9 airliners and the A-4 Skyhawk military attack aircraft. The company was also struggling with quality and cash flow problems and DC-10 development costs, as well as shortages due to the Vietnam War. Under the circumstances, Douglas was very receptive to an offer from McDonnell Aircraft Corporation. On April 28, 1967, after almost four years of merger talks, the two companies merged as McDonnell Douglas Corporation.

The two companies seemed to be a good match for each other. McDonnell was a major defense contractor, but had almost no civilian business. Douglas' commercial contracts would allow McDonnell to withstand any downturns in procurement. [22] Conversely, McDonnell had enough revenue to help solve Douglas' financial problems soon after the merger was announced, McDonnell bought 1.5 million shares of Douglas stock to help Douglas meet "immediate financial requirements." [23]

The merged company was based at McDonnell's facility in St. Louis, Missouri. It adopted a modified version of Douglas' logo. Donald Douglas became honorary chairman of the merged company, a post he would hold until his death in 1981. Douglas Aircraft continued as a wholly owned subsidiary of McDonnell Douglas, with Douglas' son, Donald Jr., as president. [22] Later, former McDonnell president David Lewis became chairman of Douglas Aircraft. His successful turnaround of the division allowed him to become president of McDonnell Douglas in 1969. Meanwhile, Douglas' space and missiles division became part of a new subsidiary called McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company.

McDonnell Douglas later merged with its rival Boeing in 1997. [24] Boeing merged Douglas Aircraft into the Boeing Commercial Airplanes division, and the Douglas Aircraft name was retired after 76 years. The last Long Beach-built commercial aircraft, the Boeing 717 (third generation version of the Douglas DC-9), ceased production in May 2006. By 2011, the Boeing C-17 Globemaster III was the last aircraft being assembled at the Long Beach facility the final C-17 was assembled in late 2015. [25] However, the Douglas' former logo is preserved on the facility though no longer used by Boeing. [26] [27]


Current advances in the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is now a global pandemic that has wreaked havoc globally, which has put a heavy toll on public health, lives, and the world economy. Vaccination is considered as one of the greatest successes in medical history. Based on prior experience with the development of SARS-CoV vaccines, all COVID-19 vaccines must be subjected to the tests for protective effects and harmful risks derived from antibody-dependent enhancement that may contribute to augmented infectivity and/or eosinophilic infiltration. The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is now being developed urgently in several different ways. China is regarded as one of the world's leading countries in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development, up to date the last inactivated vaccine international clinical (Phase III) trial was launched in the United Arab Emirates by Sinopharm China National Biotec Group (CNBG). In this review, we outline the current status of vaccine development against clinically relevant SARS-CoV-2 strains, anticipating that such attempts would help create efficacious and sage SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

Keywords: COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 clinical trial coronavirus vaccines.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.


Examples Edit

Various codes and their results.

Cry "Havoc," and let slip the dogs of war.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Cry "Havoc," and let slip the dogs of war.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Cry "Havoc," and let slip the dogs of war.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Cry "Havoc," and let slip the dogs of war.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.


The Missing Photos – I: A Panorama of Havoc – Two A-20 Attack-Bombers Over France

In an earlier post – The Missing Photos: Photographic Images in Missing Air Crew Reports – I described the 58 Missing Air Crew Reports (MACRs) which include photographs.

This post – covering two such MACRs – brings you an example of one of these images. (One image for two MACRs? I’ll explain…)

The MACRs in question are numbers “5033” and “5032”, covering two 416th Bomb Group A-20G Havoc light bombers. Respectively, the Reports cover A-20G 43-10203 (5H * R), piloted by First Lieutenant Lucian J. Siracusa, and, 43-10206 (2A * F), piloted by First Lieutenant Allen W. Gullion, of the 668th and 669th Bomb Squadrons. Both planes were lost during a mission to Amiens, France, on May 27, 1944.

Fortunately, all six crewmen aboard the two planes parachuted safely, to spend the remainder of the war as POWs.

The circumstances under which the two planes were lost were identical. Both Havocs were shot down by flak which struck their right engines – at an altitude between 11,300 and 11,500 feet – shortly after 1800 hours (local time), during the 416th’s bomb run.

The witnesses to the planes’ loss – 1 Lt. Gustave Ebenstein, S/Sgt. Holley Perkins, and Sgt. S.P. Newell – the crew of A-20G 43-9907 of the 668th BS – were the same for both MACRs.

The maps filed with the two MACRs show the last location of the Havocs as having been north of the Somme River.

Specifically, Lt. Gullion’s aircraft was north-northeast of Amiens / west-northwest of Albert, as seen in the map from MACR 5032:

Lt. Siracusa’s plane was last seen between Amiens and Albert. In his postwar Casualty Questionnaire (the only such document in either MACR), he mentions that his plane crashed “10 miles west of Amiens”. The last position of his bomber is depicted in the map below, from MACR 5033:

On the “contemporary” side of things, Google maps of this region are shown below. The first map shows northern France, specifically the locations of Amiens and Albert…

…while the map below shows the area between Amiens and Albert in more detail.

But, what about the airmen themselves? They were:

A-20G 43-10203 (MACR 5033 / KU 809A)

Pilot: 1 Lt. Lucian J. Siracusa POW (camp location unknown)
Mrs. Philomena Siracusa (mother), 325 13th St., Palisades Park, N.J.

Gunner: S/Sgt. James N. Hume POW at Stalag Luft 4 (Gross-Tychow)
Mrs. Edith R. Hume (mother), South Side Road, York Village, Me.

Gunner: S/Sgt. Floyd E. Brown POW at Stalag Luft 4 (Gross-Tychow)
Mrs. Evelyn G. Brown (wife), 9 Linden Ave., Moundsville, W.V.

A-20G 43-10206 (MACR 5032 / KU 807A)

Pilot: 1 Lt. Allen W. Gullion, Jr. POW at Stalag Luft III (Sagan)
Mrs. Allen W. Gullion (wife), 3333 Rittenhouse St., Northwest, Washington, D.C.
c/o Mrs. Thomas Moorman

Gunner: S/Sgt. Gerald L. Coffey POW at Stalag Luft III (Sagan)
Mr. George L. Coffey (father), Route Number Two, Dardanelle, Ak.

Gunner: S/Sgt. Grady F. Cope POW at Stalag Luft 4 (Gross-Tychow)
Mrs. Myrtle V. Cope (mother), Route Number Two, Gould, Ok.

The Germans filed Luftgaukommando Reports for both crews, which – at least as Luftgaukommando Reports go! – contain only nominal information about the planes and crewmen. Report KU 807A indicates that the crew of 43-10206 was captured at Vignacourt, while Report KU 809A, for 43-10203, mentions that Siracusa and Hume were captured at Bertangles, and Brown at Amiens.

The somme-aviation-39-45 website reveals that 43-10206 crashed 1 kilometer west of Vignacourt, at Boise de Parisiens. The website includes a remarkable series of images of the recovery of the plane’s wreckage (in 2006) with added commentary, which is quoted below:

L’excavation de Vignacourt a eu lieu le samedi 28 octobre 2006. Les prévisions météorologiques laissaient craindre des averses mais finalement le travail pourra s’effectuer convenablement. L’agriculteur a eu la gentillesse de différer ses semis à l’emplacement du crash afin de nous permettre d’effectuer les recherches.
“Le Boston IV A20 G du 416ème Bomber Group de la 9ème Air Force des USA a ainsi été retrouvé.

“Les deux moteurs, de type radial WRIGHT R-2600, ont été retrouvés à un peu plus de 2 mètres de profondeur, ce qui laisse à penser que le bimoteur, s’il n’est pas arrivé en vol rasant, a tout de même heurté le sol avec un angle faible. Ces moteurs ont tous deux été brûlés et l’un des deux est d’un volume moindre car il a certainement été atteint par un obus de la DCA [Défense Contre Avions]. Nous avons également retrouvé quelques cylindres, également brûlés, dont nous pourrons extraire quelques soupapes qui semblent en bon état.

“Eu égard à l’emplacement des deux moteurs dans la terre, cet avion arrivait probablement du Sud / Sud-Est (trajectoire courbe à partir d’Amiens s’orientant vers Vignacourt se trouvant au Nord-Ouest d’Amiens).

“D’autres pièces ont également été retrouvées : les deux moyeux d’hélice tripale, 3 pales plus ou moins endommagées et très corrodées, des douilles de 12,7 mm brûlées.

“Quasiment toutes les pièces ont été brûlées et sont corrodées à cause de l’incendie de l’appareil.

“The excavation of Vignacourt took place on Saturday, October 28, 2006. The weather forecasts threatened showers but eventually the work could be done properly. The farmer was kind enough to postpone his seeding at the crash site to allow us to do research.

“Boston IV A-20G of the 416th Bomb Group of the 9th Air Force of the United States has been recovered.

“The two engines, Wright R-2600 radials, were found at a depth of a little more than 2 meters, which suggests that the twin-engined [aircraft], if it has not [landed] in flight, nevertheless struck the ground at a low angle. These engines were both burned and one of the two is of lesser volume as it was certainly hit by an anti-aircraft defense shell. We also found some cylinders, also burnt, from which we could extract some valves that seemed in good condition.

“In view of the location of the two engines in the ground, this aircraft probably came from the South / South-East (curved trajectory from Amiens to Vignacourt, northwest of Amiens).

“Other parts have also been found: the two three-bladed propeller hubs, 3 blades more or less damaged and very corroded, burned 12.7 mm shells.

“Almost all the parts had been burned and are corroded because of the fire.”

All well and good, and genuinely good: All six men returned.

Other 9th Air Force A-20 losses that day, with relevant MACR and Luftgaukommando Report numbers, comprise the following:

409th Bomb Group

43-9694, 640th BS, piloted by 2 Lt. Raymond L. Gregg (3 crew no survivors) – MACR 5086 KU 1997
43-9446, 640th BS, piloted by Capt. Leland F. Norton (4 crew 2 survivors) – MACR 5087 KU 1992

410th Bomb Group

43-9665, 646th BS, piloted by 1 Lt. Richard K. Robinson (3 crew 2 survivors) – MACR 5046 KU 1993
43-10218, 647th BS, piloted by 2 Lt. Warren A. Thompson (3 crew all survived) – MACR 5037 KU 1996

416th Bomb Group

43-9983, “2A * J”, 669th BS, piloted by 2 Lt. Harry E. Hewes (3 crew all survived) – MACR 5035 KU 1977

But, what about the photos…?

That’s where things become interesting.

Both MACRs include a photograph of the two damaged planes falling below and behind the 416th’s formation. A comparison of both pictures (not possible via Fold3) shows that the images are actually identical, having been printed from the same negative. The only difference is that the photographic print in MACR 5032 – notably darker than that in MACR 5033 – was presumably developed (by the 416th BG photo lab?*) longer. The notations at the bottom of the image in MACR 5033, such as focal length of 6 3/8”, probably argue for this being the “original” print.

But, what about the photos…?

That’s where things remain interesting.

For a photograph taken under combat conditions – very likely by an automatic camera, at that – it’s actually a very good photo. By sheer luck, the “focus” of interest – the two mortally damaged A-20s – are situated within the center of the image. From the towns, forests, and farms on the earth below, to the 23 (ugh!) flak bursts in the upper left, to the four A-20s in flight, the resolution and clarity are excellent.

Beyond this, the picture imparts an impression of depth (well, there was over 11,000 feet of “depth” beneath the planes), as if the viewer is not only looking at the four A-20s, but looking through and beyond them, as well.

And ultimately, in this year of 2017, we are not only looking through space, but into the past.

And with that discussion – oh, yes! – here are the pictures….

The MACR for Lt. Siracusa’s bomber, first…

Here’s how the image looks in the actual MACR. Both the photographic print and the original documents comprising the MACR are in excellent condition.

Here’s the photograph itself, scanned at 1200 dpi. Notice information at the bottom of the image covering date of mission, focal length of camera, and target.

The image once more, scanned at 2400 dpi, and cropped. The arrow is pointing to Lt. Siracusa’s plane. The fire enveloping his starboard nacelle is striking, even from a distance.

And now, the MACR for Lt. Gullion’s plane…

As before, here’s the print as it appears in the MACR.

And, the image itself, at 1200 dpi. Notice the obvious differences from the image in the previous MACR. No information has been recorded on the print. The photographic developing process brought out background details richly and deeply.

Zooming in at 2400 dpi. The arrow points to Lt. Gullion’s Havoc This cropped view shows both their smoking (and burning!) starboard engines quite clearly, with the canopy and dorsal turret of Lt. Gullion’s plane being readily visible.

I hope to bring you more MACR photos in the future.

Acknowledgements and References

Further information about the 416th Bomb Group can be found at the extraordinarily comprehensive 416th Bomb Group website, which covers the Group’s history and activities in a depth and breadth rarely found among most other websites covering Army Air Force Combat Groups. (Examples: The 416th BG website includes detailed information about men wounded or injured. Similarly, it includes combat mission loading lists. Such details are unusual, and moreso, unusually valuable.)


Integrity Toys Reference Site

Hello! Thanks for checking out my Integrity Toys Reference Site (all copyrights to Integrity Toys) . I have had to move hosting provider and the new website domain is integritydolls.info … the Jonkel.ca domain will forward here until September 2020. Please let me know if anything doesn’t work properly! The new website should be faster, especially if you’ve visited a page previously.

If you find anything incorrect on this site or if I have inadvertently used a photo of yours and you would like credit for it (or to have it removed) please contact me at [email protected] Please also contact me if you have any photos for dolls that are rare or did not receive official Integrity Toys promo shots.

I must give credit where it is due. So much information for this site has come from wonderful W Club members and other Integrity Toys reference sites. My goal was to make a site where pictures of the dolls are very easy to review by line and collection.

    whose Excel database provided tons of information on this site as well as photos. I’m not sure who knows more about IT dolls than her!
  • Tara aka. ScaryDollPerson for photos and info and fun conversations!
  • Alison Rasmussen at Fashion Doll Review for photos and info and a great doll blog! – The most exhaustive site I have found on Integrity Toys’ collections. – An amazing site for skin tone and head sculpt information. – A fantastic site for all IT dolls released, complete with Item Numbers. – A great doll blog beyond Integrity Toys that gave me lots of information on Convention Dolls. – Another great doll blog that helped me confirm and clarify a lot of information. – Another exhaustive reference site I’ve enjoyed a lot.

I am still adding data to the website but currently most lines are complete but Fashion Royalty and NuFace are complete from 2008-2017 (work will now continue on these pages!) The Poppy Parker section is now fully up to date!

Hover over the picture to see all the info pertaining to that doll and click the name of the doll for more pictures. You can filter dolls on the left using the checkboxes.


Kyk die video: Lived Experiences