Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana: 'n skatkis van antieke manuskripte

Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana: 'n skatkis van antieke manuskripte



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Die belangrikste openbare plein van die Italiaanse stad Venesië is die Piazza San Marco (St. en sy ikoniese klokkentoring, die Campanile di San Marco (Markuskampaniel). Omdat Markus die beskermheilige van die stad is, is dit geen wonder dat baie van die openbare geboue in Venesië na hom vernoem is nie. 'n Ander gebou op die Piazza San Marco vernoem na die beskermheilige van die stad is die Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana (die National Library of St. Mark's). Die Biblioteca Marciana is aan die einde van die Piazza San Marco geleë en geskei van die Palazzo Ducale (Dogepaleis) deur Die Piazzetta San Marco Hierdie gebou, wat die rykdom en tradisie van die stad simboliseer vir openbare investering in intellektuele en artistieke aktiwiteite, is ontwerp deur die Italiaanse argitek, Jacopo Sansovino.

  • Die Vatikaan stel 'n buitengewone verhaal bekend van 'n pous, 'n seerower en 'n dooie biskop se skat
  • Vyf da Vinci -uitvindings wat 'n rewolusie in die geskiedenis van tegnologie kon veroorsaak het
  • Vatikaan sê dat getuienis van vroulike priesterskap in die vroeë Christendom 'n sprokie is

Portret van Jacopo Sansovino, argitek van die beroemde Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana in Venesië. Kunstenaar: Tintoretto 1560-1570. Tans te sien in die Uffizi -galery. ( Wikimedia Commons )

Die verhaal van die Biblioteca Marciana begin met kardinaal Bessarion, 'n kardinaal biskop van die Rooms -Katolieke Kerk, en die titulêre Latynse patriarg van Konstantinopel. In 1468 skenk die kardinaal aan die Republiek van Venesië ongeveer 750 kodeks in Grieks en Latyn asook 250 manuskripte, kort daarna 'n aantal gedrukte werke, almal uit sy persoonlike versameling. Daar word gesê dat kardinaal Bessarion van plan was om hierdie werke vir die publiek toeganklik te maak. Terloops, so 'n projek is eers 'n eeu vroeër deur die Renaissance -geleerde, Francesco Petrarch, voorgestel. Net soos kardinaal Bessarion, was Petrarch ook van plan om sy persoonlike biblioteek aan die Republiek van Venesië te skenk, hoewel die inhoud dit nooit aan die stad gehaal het nie.

Portret van kardinaal Bessarion, 1473-75 deur kunstenaars: Justus van Gent en Pedro Berruguete. Tans by die Louvre Museum, Parys. ( Wikimedia Commons )

In die versameling van kardinaal Bessarion was 'n afskrif van Pseudo-Apollodorus ' Bibliotheca. Dit was 'n samevatting van Griekse mites wat vermoedelik tydens die 2 nd eeu nC, maar het amper verlore gegaan in die 13 ste eeu nC. Slegs een onvolledige manuskrip het oorleef en word nou slegs gedeeltelik in Parys bewaar. Aangesien die afskrif van kardinaal Bessarion gemaak is toe die bogenoemde manuskrip nog ongeskonde was, is dit baie waardevol, maar ander latere manuskripte word daaruit afgelei.

Alhoewel kardinaal Bessarion se geskenk aan die Republiek van Venesië in 1468 gemaak is, het die doge, Andrea Gritti, eers baie later besluit om 'n gebou te bou om hierdie kosbare werke permanent te huisves. Die bou is ontwerp deur die Italiaanse argitek, Jacopo Sansovino, in 1537 en is eers in 1588 voltooi. Ongelukkig sou Sansovino nie sy meesterstuk kon sien voltooi nie, want hy sterf in 1570.

Voor sy dood het Sansovino egter 16 van die 21 fasade -baaie van die fasade voltooi en aan die fresco's en ander versierings begin werk. Na die dood van Sansovino het die taak om die gebou te voltooi op die skouers van Vincenzo Scamozzi geval.

Die foto's wat binne -in die Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana geneem is, lyk soos die sierlike plafonne, mure en gemarmerde vloere soos die grootsheid van die tyd toe dit gebou is; die kunswerke en ingewikkelde besonderhede is verstommend. Foto deur Wga. Hu ( Wikimedia Commons ).

  • Die konstruksie van Venesië, die drywende stad
  • Vatikaan se aangekondigde bene van St Peter word vir die eerste keer in die openbaar vertoon

Portret van argitek Vincenzo Scamozzi deur Paolo Veronese, gedateer middel 1500's. Hy het die argitektuur van die Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana oorgeneem na die dood van Sansovino. ( Wikimedia Commons )

Deur die eeue is die versameling van die Biblioteca Marciana geleidelik vergroot deur persoonlike skenkings sowel as deur die verkryging van 'n paar manuskripte uit die biblioteke van kloosters. In 1603 word 'n wet in Venesië ingestel wat vereis dat drukkers 'n eksemplaar van elke boek wat aan die biblioteek gepubliseer is, moet skenk. Daar word gesê dat dit die eerste wet in sy soort in Italië was. Gedurende die Napoleontiese era is sommige godsdienstige instellings onderdruk en 'n deel van hul biblioteekversamelings is aan die Biblioteca Marciana gegee.

Uitsig vanaf die strandmeer, Venesië, van Sansovino's Libreria, wat die Biblioteca Marciana bevat, en die twee kolomme in die Piazzetta. Foto deur: Peter J.StB.Green. Geneem in 2000. ( Wikimedia Commons )

In 1811 is die Biblioteca Marciana oorgeplaas na die Palazzo Ducale, waarna dit weer in 1904 na die Zecca (Munt) verskuif is; dit was terloops nog 'n gebou wat deur Sansovino ontwerp is. In 1924 het die Biblioteca Marciana, tesame met die Zecca, die oorspronklike gebou sowel as 'n deel van die Procuratie Nuove in besit geneem. Vandag huisves die Biblioteca Marciana ongeveer 'n miljoen volumes, waaronder ongeveer 13,000 manuskripte, 2,883 incunabola (gedrukte Europese werke voor 150 nC) en 24,055 cinquecintene (Europese boeke gedruk in die 16 ste eeu). Boonop is die versierings van die Biblioteca Marciana net so indrukwekkend as die versameling daarvan. Een van die hoogtepunte van hierdie gebou is Titian's La Sapienza , geleë op die plafon, en was die fokuspunt van 'n bewaringsprojek van die World Monuments Fund.

Voorgestelde foto: Gentile Bellini: Optog op die Markusplein (1496). Gallerie dell’Accademia - Venesië. ( ecreahistoryvenice2015.wordpress.com)

Deur Ḏḥwty

Verwysings

Diller, A., 1935. The Text History of the Bibliotheca van Pseudo-Apollodorus. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Volume 66, pp. 296-313.

venice.arounder.com, 2014. Die Marciana -biblioteek. [Aanlyn]
Beskikbaar by: http://venice.arounder.com/en/historic-building/the-marciana-library

Wêreldmonumentfonds, 2015. Biblioteca Marciana. [Aanlyn]
Beskikbaar by: http://www.wmf.org/project/biblioteca-marciana

www.venetoinside.com, 2015. Monumentale kamers van die National Library of St. Mark's in Venesië. [Aanlyn]
Hier beskikbaar.

www.venice-tourism.com, 2008. Die Marciana National Library. [Aanlyn]
Hier beskikbaar.


10 van die mooiste biblioteke regoor die wêreld is oop vir die publiek

Daar is niks waarvan 'n boekwurm meer hou as 'n leesvakansie nie, en wat kan nou beter wees as 'n vakansie om te lees? Sekerlik net 'n vakansiebiblioteek. Baie van die mooiste ter wêreld is vir die publiek oop vir besoeke. Om Libraries Week, wat tot 14 Oktober duur, te vier, het ons ons gunstelinge van regoor die wêreld gekies.


2019

Katherine Freeeman-Croft: “Rosalba Carriera, 1673-1757: Miniaturen en pastelle”

Ambrus Gero: "Tintoretto se tegnieke"

Evelyn Golden: 'Vergelyking van antieke tekste Die Architectura en Le Minere della Pittura

Kosuke Kawahara: "Giotto's Fresco -tegnieke in Padua en Assisi"

Yi Luo: "Palladio by die kerk van S. Giorgio Maggiore"

Jesse Sullivan: 'Opsporingsgeskiedenisse: The Morosini altaarstuk

Huier (Judy) Zhao: "Tegnieke van Bellini en sy tydgenote"

Meirav Zaks-Zilberman: "Artemisia Gentileschi, Vision and Artistry: The Story of Esther"


Donderdag, 25 Februarie 2010

2010.02.76

Mithridates VI Eupator (120-63 v.C.) was 'n beroemde koning van Pontus-'n gebied aan die Swart See-wat in die laaste eeu van die republiek die mag van Rome lank uitgedaag het. In 'n reeks van drie oorloë, wat tussen die 80's en die 60's vC gevoer is, het hy met sulke groot soldate van die dag soos Sulla, Lucullus en Pompeius gewerk. In die moderne tyd was hierdie vindingryke en energieke monarg die onderwerp van 'n klassieke studie deur Th & eacuteodore Reinach, wat eers in Frans verskyn (1890) en daarna in Duits (1895) en later belangrike werke van B. McGing (1986) en J. Ballesteros Pastor (1996). Nou gee Adrienne Mayor ons hierdie gedetailleerde biografie hier onder bespreking. Alhoewel hierdie werk meestal gebaseer is op die antieke bronne en moderne wetenskaplike literatuur, verskil dit werk van sy voorgangers in sy gewaagde epiese sweep. Dit is 'n sterk gekleurde portret en 'n baie leesbare weergawe van 'n komplekse individu met wie burgemeester duidelik empatie het. Die boek behoort dus 'n wye gehoor te vind en dien as 'n aantreklike inleiding tot die onderwerp. Die titel Poison King dit wil voorkom asof burgemeester, wat 'n bekende gesag op die gebied van antieke gifstowwe is, die eerste keer na Mithridates getrek is, omdat hy ook 'n baie goeie deskundige in sulke aangeleenthede was. Burgemeester gaan egter veel verder as sulke gespesialiseerde belange en bied 'n ryk gedetailleerde vertelling van die koning en sy doen en late aan waarin sy voortdurend daarna streef om die siening van Mithridates oor gebeure aan ons voor te lê.

Daar is natuurlik leemtes in ons kennis van Mithridates as gevolg van die toestand van ons bronne en pogings van die burgemeester om dit deur verbeeldingryke rekonstruksies te vul. Nie net 'n geval van hoe dinge werklik was nie, soos hoe dit kon gewees het. Dit is nie 'n kursus wat almal sal aanbeveel nie. Byvoorbeeld, hoe pragtig die oproep van die landskap in pp. 73-95 ook is, ons kan dit regmatig navraag doen as Mithridates se 'ballingskap' uit die hof was soos burgemeester dit beskryf het. Weereens kan ons wonder of daar 'n wins is in die beskrywing van hoe Sulla se vingers kan lyk (p.212). Boonop dink ek dat ons die empatie wat ons vroeër opgemerk het, aan die empatie wat ons vroeër opgemerk het, kan toeskryf om aan te dui wat aan die einde van die Derde Mithridatiese Oorlog kon gebeur het as die koning, in plaas van selfmoord te pleeg, eenvoudig sou wegry die sonsondergang in. Inderdaad, ek wil byvoeg dat die paar bladsye (pp. 373-376) wat die burgemeester baie meer boeiend vind as hierdie bespiegeling, oorweeg het of Mithridates 'n persoonlikheidsversteuring het.

Afgesien van die probleme wat deur verbeeldingryke rekonstruksie meegebring word, moet op gelet word dat daar enkele gevalle van foute is, of ten minste twyfelagtige stellings. Herodotus sê nie dat die Perse by die Grieke geleer het om homoseksualiteit te aanvaar nie, maar eerder van pederastie by hulle geleer het (p.89). Sulla en sy leër was in die 90's v.C. nie in Rome nie toe Marius Mithridates ontmoet (p.132). Marius was nie 'n konsul in 88 v.C. (p.165). Ek twyfel of die Asiatiese Vespers gesien kan word as 'n gebaar van solidariteit met die rebelle uit die Sosiale Oorlog (p.174). Sulla het Athene nie vernietig nie (p.203). Dit is ten minste twyfelagtig of die beleg van Cyzicus in 73 v.C. (p.270). In beide die oorspronklike (1992) en die hersiene weergawe (komende) van my biografie van Lucullus het ek uitvoerig aangevoer vir 74 v.C. Die skrywer was Sidonius, nie Sidonis Apollonaris nie (p.262).

Maar sulke voorbehoude as wat ek mag gehad het, moet nie beskou word as wat die burgemeester ongetwyfeld bereik het nie. Sy self (p.11) sê: 'Die ongelooflike saga van Mithridates is 'n rollende goeie verhaal' en sy het dit met verweer, panache en geleerdheid vertel.

2010.02.75

Nell 'Inleiding, P. Ducrey sottolinea l'importanza di riunire sofa studiosi apprezzati intorno a temi di loro specifica competenza per creare uno degli Entretiens sur l'antiquit & eacute classique per i quali la Fondation Hardt & egrave giustamente famosa. In besonder, is die tema della sicurezza e dell'ordine pubblico & egrave stato prescelto anche grazie all'interesse attuale che esso riveste.

Il primo saggio & egrave di H. van Wees, Stasis, vernietiger van mans. Massa, elite, politieke geweld en veiligheid in die Argaïese Griekeland (bl. 1-39). L'autore descrive la societ & agrave greca arcaica ed i gewelddadige konflikte politiek ed economi che coinvolgevano non solo le & eacutelites ma larghi strati delle comunit & agrave, mettendo in rilievo come tali conflitti non erano molto dissimili dalle staseis della Grecia classica. Nelle loro opere i poeti mostrano come le lotte intestine, pi & ugrave che gli attacchi dei nemici, abbiano effetti distruttivi sulle citt & agrave, in una visione comune anche agli storici. Van Wees analize le varie forme di violenza delle & eacutelites, in particolare il colpo di stato, spesso realizzato con poco spargimento di sangue, ma a volte attraverso la violenza armata. Le rivalit & agrave tra le & eacutelites per gli onori e il peso politico creava grande insicurezza nella citt & agrave arcaica il principale tentativo di contenere questa violenza fu costituito dalle riforme di Clistene che, secondo lo studioso, diedero grande protezione ai poveri conti gli L'ostracismo, poi, offr & igrave un mezzo perfetto per convogliare in canali non violi sia le rivalit & agrave nelle & eacutelites sia lo scontento popolare. Bespreek alle pp. 40-48.

W. Riess, Privaat geweld en staatsbeheer. Die vervolging van moord en die simboliese betekenisse daarvan in Athene in die vierde eeu vC (bl. 49-92). Lo studioso si chiede dapprima come riusc & igrave lo stato ateniese a contenere la violenza non essendo dotato di una regolare forza di polizia e, quindi, quanta autotutela sia accettabile in uno stato che ufficialmente proclama il razionale governo della legge. Nella persecuzione dell'omicidio la spanninge tra autotutela privata e controllo statale rimane evidente anche in et & agrave classica. La normale procedura con la quale la famiglia della vittima cominciava a perseguire l'omicidio era la dike phonou, ma l'autotutela aveva un ruolo di primo piano nella seconda tra le procedure pi & ugrave importanti, l 'apagoge. Ons ontleed 'n analise en 'n agrave procedurale del diritto ateniese da una prospettiva simbolica. Per lo studioso, infatti, la scelta della procedura invia messaggi simbolici all varie corti sottolineando differenti concetti di diritto e coinvolgendo la comunit & agrave politica a vari livelli: scegliendo una dike phonou, per esempio, kan ons 'n wettige en wettige en wettige inskrywing geeapagoge, invece, si enfatizzava il fatto che il crimine aveva delle amplissime dimensioni politiche. Dopo un esame minuzioso di tutti i casi di omicidio e della relativa procedura di repressione attestati dalle fonti, Riess perviene alla conclusie che il diritto ateniese in questa materia era fondamentalmente orientato su base privata, con la dike phonou che era la procedura primaria. Riguardo alla spanninge tra autotutela e controllo statale il diritto ateniese era un ibrido: da una parte, effettivamente, il controllo statale non poteva far nulla senza iniziativa privata e autotutela dall'altra, Draconte aveva intrapreso passi decisivi per sangur la laida nei casi di omicidio involontario. Almal goed Bylaag (pp. 93-94), nella quale sono elencati gli omicidi attestati ad Atene tra il 422 e il 350 a.C. e la forma della loro repressione, e la Discussione (bl. 95-101).

A. Chaniotis, Polisiëring van die Hellenistiese platteland. Realiteite en ideologieë (pp.103-145). In molti decreti del mondo ellenistico ricorrono espressioni formulari che esprimono una delle necessit & agrave fondamentali delle comunit & agrave greche di questo periodo: la tutela della chora. Anche quando tali iscrizioni non sono specificamente rivolte ad esigenze protezionistiche del territorio, ma ineriscono alla materia fiscale o finanziaria, la preoccupazione relativa alla phylake tes choras risulta essere un date costante. Chaniotis in sei paragrafi ricostruisce l'ideologia sottostante alla salvaguardia degli interessi territoriali delle comunit & agrave interessate, vagliando le singole realt & agrave esaminate attraverso il puntuale richiamo epigrafico. Lo studioso introduce l'argomento presentando un decreto ateniese del 325 a.C. (IG. II 2 1629) sono poi illustreer die verskillende potensiële sulla sicurezza dei luoghi en sui pericoli cui la popolazione pu & ograve essere esposta. Si occupa, quindi, dettagliatamente della variet & agrave di pericoli per il territorio: invasioni nemiche attacchi di briganti perpetrati ai danni di viaggiatori, commercecianti, pellegrini e pastori incursioni di gruppi di etnia barbara comportamenti illeciti di soggetti che sfrano chora assalti di pirati o di altre comunit & agrave conflitti civili rivolte di guarnigioni nei forti e occupazione dei forti stessi da parte di esuli. La fuga di schiavi invece sembra rappresentare un pericolo solo in situazioni eccezionali tuttavia, specifiche norme regolavano la loro permanenza nei santuari come supplici e la loro cattura. Sono poi analizzate le misure di difesa impiegate, quali la costruzione di postazioni fortificate vigilate da guarnigioni, o l'istituzione di truppe regolarmente addette alla sorveglianza, ma anche inviate da sovrani stranieri, o, infine, presidii di milizie cittadine, efebi. Nelle citt & agrave di consistenti dimensioni le iscrizioni testimoniano la presenza di ufficiali preposti esclusivamente alla salvaguardia del territorio. Le funzioni di controllo degli (h) orofilke sono trattate da Chaniotis in un apposito paragrafo (il 5, erroneamente indicato come 4), in cui & egrave evidenziata la variabilit & agrave delle loro prerogative in base al contesto geografico considerato. In chiusura sono esaminate epigrafi aventi ad oggetto le dedicazioni religiose compiute dalle guardie territoriali in cave e santuari: tra le attivit & agrave di questi corpi esse sono quelle meglio attestate dalle fonti. Bespreek alle pp. 146-153.

C. Br & eacutelaz, L'adieu aux armes: La d & eacutefense de la cit & eacute grecque dans l'empire romain pacifi & eacute (pp. 155-196). In questo contributo, dal titolo suggestivo, lo studioso illustra come le citt & agrave greche durante il principato romano abbiano accettato di abdicare ai loro diritti di fare guerra e come la smilitarizzazione abbia pesato nella storia della mentalit & agrave. Br & eacutelaz ritiene interessante studiare le ragioni per le quali si mantennero uno spirito militare e le manifestazioni relative in zone pacificate quali le comunit & agrave greche nell'et & agrave imperiale romana. U kan ook 'n diskutibiele paragone tra en cite en agrave oggetto, appunto, del suo studio, e la Svizzera, uno stato dove pur non essendoci guerre da pi & ugrave di 100 anni continuano a mantenersi vivi simboli ed istituzioni militari. 1 Compie quindi un'ampia panoramica dei problemi di smilitarizzazione delle citt & agrave greche, della pax Romana dal punto di vista dei Greci, della conservazione della cultura militare, dell'immagine del soldato e sull 'efebie kom ons het 'n tradisionele tipiese militêre stelsel wat 'n groter probleem as 'guerra fantasma', 'n e -pos en 'n ander kompetisie vir 'n groter aantal e -posse kan gebruik. Mette in rilievo come i conflitti interni sfociarono spesso in rivolte, assimilate dagli autori contemporanei ad atti di guerra, e come lo spirito militare delle citt & agrave risorgesse in caso di saccheggio da parte di briganti o incursioni di barbari. In die eerste plek is 'Conclusions' sottolinea l'attualit & agrave della tradizione militare en del tema della guerra nella vita pubblica di queste comunit & agrave, bench & eacute fossero state private del loro apparato militare, attraverso la conservazione di simboli militari. Queste citt & agrave cercavano in vari modi di gestire la materia militare: attraverso l'idealizzazione del passato militare, nelle forme di espressione artistica, nell'esaltazione dei valori militari nella vita politica interna ed esterna e con l'esaltazione di ogni dimostrazione di forza. La tradizione militare, per quanto profondamente attenuata, sopravvive durante il principato e la guerra rimane una potenzialit & agrave, ragion per cui Br & eacutelaz pu & ograve individualuare caratteri di continuit & agrave dell'identit & agrave civica greca dall'a. Bespreek alle pp. 197-204.

A. W. Lintott, Hoe hoog was die openbare orde en openbare veiligheid onder die Republiek (bl. 205-220). Nella prima parte dell'indagine evidenzia come durante la repubblica i Romani probabilmente consideravano la sicurezza sociale come il risultato di un conflitto piuttosto che della repressione. Tuttavia nel lungo periodo appare chiaro che la pace sociale poteva essere minata dai disordini prodotti mediante l'uso della violenza privata anche se finalizzata alla sicurezza e all'ordine pubblico. Lintott ritiene che la violenza "non produttiva" sia stata progressivamente eliminata dall'ordinamento romano. Le norme delle XII Tavole in materia di procedura civile ed esecuzione e quelle relative agli illeciti privistici utilizzavano il principio di "giustizia popolare" nell'interesse dell'ordine giuridico con la formalizzazione della in ius vocatio e l'introduzione del vadimonium queste procedure furono modificate. Fondamentale per cogliere la relazione tra diritto e violenza & egrave la tutela interdittale della possessio: nella valutazione pretoria la vis diventa il parametro per discriminare la legittimit & agrave del possesso attuale e della pretesa restitutoria dello spoliatus solo in ipotesi particolari il pretore poteva concedere eccezioni. A partire dall'et & agrave dei Gracchi la legisllazione repubblicana comincia a reprimere in maniera sistematica la vis. Nella seconda parte del contributo lo studioso si sofferma sul ruolo dei tribuni della plebe nella storia della violenza politica. Dopo aver ricordato l'origine di questa magistratura, ed aver sottolineato l'importanza politica dell 'intercessio tribunicia, Lintott esprime la convinzione che le prerogative dei tribuni potessero essere impiegate anche in chiave riconciliativa, allo scopo di evitare i disordini, come chiarito in alcuni episodi riferiti dalle fonti (Gell. N.A. 4. 14. 1-6 Liv. 42. 32. 7 Livii Per. 48 55). Con la lex Sempronia de capite civium furono aperte le porte al sistema delle quaestiones perpetuae le quali, oltre che oggetto di continua contesa tra senato e ceto equestre, costituirono anche una valvola di sicurezza per il risentimento e l'agitazione popolare: il corretto funzionamento di questi tribunali costitu & igrave per i Romani un'alternativa allo scontro gewelddadig. Bespreek alle pp. 221-226.

R. MacMullen, Die probleem van die fanatisme (pp. 227-260). In die soektog van die ateljee, kan MacMullen die fanatismo, sconosciuto alle religioni politeistiche ontdek, kom ons vir 'n enkele religieuse per la quale si en egrave disposti anche a morire e le sue caratteristiche: il sentimento monoteistico per un solo dio l'irrazionalit & agrave dellez di controllo e il fatto che costituiva effettivamente un problema politico interno durante l'impero. Dopo aver illustrato il fenomeno attraverso le pagine di Flavio Giuseppe, in relazione alle tre rivolte ebraiche, descrive l'ostilit & agrave fra Ebrei e non Ebrei, e si sofferma sulle violenze contro la comunit & agrave cristiana e la persecuzione dei Cristiani da presentano caratteristiche analoghe a quelle degli Ebrei, soprattutto baars & eacute "hulle het die wonderlikste pyn met 'n glimlag verduur" (p. 237). Il punto fondamentale, per lo studioso, & egrave che il fanatismo & egrave "'n ding nie van berekeninge nie, maar van gevoelens" (p. 235). Anche nel tardo impero i contrasti dovuti al fanatismo non furono sopiti: si diffusero quelli originati dalle diverse correnti religiose (Donatisti, Cecilianisti, Meliziani, ecc.): Un dialogo tra and differenti gruppi basato sulla ragione era quasi impossibile. Il fanatismo era basato essenzialmente sulle emozioni, e non pu & ograve essere spiegato se non entrando "in die affektiewe sones van hul (scil. van die fanatici) verstand, nie die kognitiewe nie". 2 Bespreek alle pp. 252-260.

Y. Rivi & egravere, L'Italie, les & icircles et le continent. Recherches sur l'exil et l'administration du territoire imp & eacuterial (Ier-IIIe si & egravecles) (bl. 261-310). In die soektog kan ons die tema van 'n punt van 'n vrolike kronologie, 'n deel van 'n goedkeuring vir 'n deel van die beginsels van die oostelike aspekte van 'n tweede tydperk van die tydperk in 'n bepaling van die groep bepaal tirreniche sotto il primo dei beginsels, da Tiberio in poi le Cicladi), e differenze anche nelle conseguenze patrimoniali per l'esiliato: sotto Augusto quest'ultimo poteva conservare il patrimonio ed avere anche un certo numero di companagnatori in seguito viene a trovarsi in condizioni molto pi & ugrave misere. In epoca alto imperiale i condannati sono esiliati anche nelle isole del Mediterraneo occidentale, che essendo molto pi & ugrave grandi offrivano in genere condizioni di vita migliori nel tardo impero invece in quelle dell'Adriatico. Scopo dell'esilio era principalmente l'allontanamento da Roma del condannato ed il suo isolamento: costituisce di certo una manifestazione della potenza dell'imperatore, che poteva far mutare la condizione dell'esiliato con un atto di toegeeflikheid. Dopo le riforme di Augusto e Tiberio l'istituto vive per tre secoli: vi sono la relegatio in insulam, che lasciava la cittadinanza al relegatus, volhard laqua et igni interdictio (tipica dell'et & agrave repubblicana) e nell'epoca dei Severi viene introdotta la deportatio, che implicava la perdita della cittadinanza le condizioni del relegatus sono ampiamente illustreer dai Digesta giustinianei, che danno altres & igrave notizie sul ruolo subordinato al princeps del governatore della provincia nella gestione della condanna. Negli archivi imperiali, tuttavia, non vi sono notizie sui relegati, ma solo sui deportati, perch & eacute le sentenze ad essi relative dovevano essere vistate dal principe. Queste notizie sull'esilio testimoniano per Rivi & egravere soprattutto lo sforzo di razionalizzazione dei Romani.

& Eacutepiloog di C. Br & eacutelaz et P. Ducrey (311-316): gli studiosi fanno un bilancio dell'incontro di studio, notando come gli autori abbiano cercato di chiarire fino a che punto in problemi della sicurezza e dell'ordine pubblico siano stati presente nelle varie epoche e come, di volta in volta, siano stati affrontati, con attenzione alle forme espressive utilizzate dalle fonti ed ai mezzi attuati per contrastare le minacce, e come le questioni dell'ordine pubblico abbiano costituito una preoccupazione costante dei regimi dell'antichit Chiudono il volume un Indeks Locorum (pp. 317-334), che & egrave per & ograve anche un indice dei nomi antichi, e l 'Index auctorum recentiorum (pp. 335-340).

Vraestel volume koste vir u interesseer u, ons kan 'n spesialis gebruik. Ons kan meer as een letter in die tradisionele vorm sien, maar ook vir 'n permanente en nie -spesiale publikasie. Een elemento da sottolineare & egrave il ricco dibattito che segue ogni saggio, che contribuisce a chiarire aspetti particolari delle singole relazioni, ed a volte contiene importanti approfondimenti dei vari temi discussi. Nel complesso il libro presenta una visione molto sfaccettata e direi quasi esaustiva di come il problema dell'ordine pubblico, della violenza in chiave antigiuridica e degli oppositori del regime sia stato posto nell'antichit & agrave greca e romana e come di volta in volta, a dei mezzi a disposizione e delle diverse situazioni politiche, l'ordinamento abbia cercato di creare dei rimedi.


1. Il paragone non mi sembra particolarmente calzante (per tacere delle epoche e, quindi, dei contesti cos & igrave enormemente diversi), per l'evidente differenza della condizione politica: la Svizzera & egrave uno stato sovrano, le citt & agrave greche erano sottoposte.
2. Il ruolo delle emozioni anche nel campo del diritto & egrave oggetto di dibattito non solo negli Stati Uniti a partire dagli anni 90 del XX secolo: importante su questo theme il lavoro di Martha C. Nussbaum, Opheffings van denke. Die intelligensie van emosies, Cambridge University Press, 2001 trad. Dit. L'intelligenza delle emozioni, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2004.


Joodse museum

Venesië het 'n ryk Joodse geskiedenis, al is dit nie 'n baie trotse geskiedenis nie, wat dateer uit die 1500's. Gedurende hierdie tyd het Europa as geheel die Jode nie baie verwelkom nie, en gevolglik moes hulle ver reis om werk en skuiling te vind. 'N Meerderheid van die Jode beland in Venesië, want dit was een van die min stede waar hulle werk kon kry. Maar ook hier is daar teen hulle gediskrimineer en moes hulle in 'n aparte buurt bly, weg van almal. En dus is die eerste Joodse getto ooit gebore.

Geleë tussen twee van die oudste sinagoges van die stad, die Joodse museum in Venesië, bied 'n insig in die lewens en tradisies van Venesiese Jode, en verlig dit ook kykers oor die situasie en die toestand van die gemeenskap in die 16de eeu. Sommige van die voorwerpe wat vertoon word, sluit in antieke krone, torings, sleutels, manuskripte, boeke en ander liturgiese materiaal wat van groot nut was vir die daaglikse Joodse lewe.


Abstract

Hierdie artikel toon hoe Islamitiese sterrekunde 'n belangrike rol gespeel het in die opvoeding van een van die belangrikste Christelike figure in die kultuurgeskiedenis tussen Oos- en Wes -Europa, die promotor van 'n kruistog teen die Ottomaanse Turke, naamlik kardinaal Bessarion (1400/1408–72) ). Alhoewel die Bisantynse polimaat in die algemeen as 'n puris van Ptolemaïese sterrekunde beskou is, kan sy belangstelling in Islamitiese sterrekunde teruggevoer word na sy jeug en sy lewe lank voortduur, soos getuig deur verskeie bronne uit sy versameling manuskripte. Dit is daarom misleidend om hom as 'n 'puris' van Ptolemeus te beskou. Die koerant bied 'n oorsig van die tekste van Islamitiese sterrekunde onder die manuskripte van die landgoed van Bessarion. Dit word vergelyk met Ptolemaïese sterrekunde om die belangrikheid van Islamitiese sterrekunde binne die raamwerk van die versameling van Bessarion te bepaal. Die resultate werp nie net nuwe lig op die astronomiese belange van Bessarion nie, maar ook op die ontvangs van Islamitiese sterrekunde in nie-Islamitiese kontekste in die vyftiende eeu, soos die laat Bisantynse Ryk, Rhodes, Kreta, Venesië en Europese humanisme.


Grammatikale Studies

Leto se humanisme was sterk afhanklik van die bemeestering en waardering van die Latynse taal, wat grammatika 'n belangrike deel van sy geleerdheid en onderrig gemaak het. Ruysschaert 1954 en Ruysschaert 1961 bied 'n oorsig van Leto se grammatikale studies, terwyl Accame Lanzillotta 1998, Accame Lanzillotta 1990 en Moscadi 1992 fokus op sy werk saam met Marcus Terentius Varro (b. 116 - d. 27 v.G.J.), 'n invloedryke Romeinse grammatikus.

Gee Lanzillotta, Maria. "Die kommentaar van Pomponio Leto." Miscellanea greca e romana 15 (1990): 309–345.

'N Volledige oorsig, met plate, van Leto se studie van Varro se grammatikale verhandeling, die ontleding van die verskillende tekstuele getuies en bespreking van watter punte in die teks Leto interesseer en wat hy daaroor te sê het.

Gee Lanzillotta, Maria. “Le annotazioni di Pomponio Leto ai libri VIII – X del De lingua Latina di Varrone.” Giornale italiano di filologia 51 (1998): 41–57.

Examines an autograph manuscript of Leto’s that contains his commentary to Varro, a key source for the grammatical teaching that occupied much of his attention while he was teaching in Rome.

Moscadi, Alessandro. “Festo nel corso di Pomponio Leto sul De lingua latina di Varrone.” Prometheus 18 (1992): 75–89.

Analyzes Leto’s grammatical studies, identifying his citations of the Roman grammarian Festus in his annotations to Varro’s De lingua latina.

Ruysschaert, José. “Les manuels de grammaire latine composés par Pomponio Leto.” Scriptorium 8.1 (1954): 98–107.

Brings to bear new evidence to fill out and correct the account in Zabughin 1909–1910 (cited under Modern Studies of Leto’s Life and Works) of the grammar treatises written by Leto over the course of his lifetime. Also contains texts of two brief documents relevant to the discussion.

Ruysschaert, José. “À propos des trois premières grammaires latines de Pomponio Leto.” Scriptorium 15.1 (1961): 68–75.

An overview of three newly identified manuscripts that allow the step-by-step reconstruction of Leto’s work in the field of Latin grammar.


Strapper Jimmy Kean, Royal Gem, and a love story…

In a recent post, I traced Jim Kean all the way to January 1949, as he headed off to America accompanying top-performing racehorse Royal Gem to a new home in America. Royal Gem had just been bought for 150,000 USD (a very significant sum at the time) by Mr. Warner L. Jones Jr., owner of Hermitage Stud Farm in Kentucky, most likely on behalf of a syndicate. (The Adelaide News reported that the planned stud fee would be £312.)


Forthcoming in this series

Guillaume de Machaut, The Complete Poetry and Music, Vol 12: The Ballades

Edited by Yolanda Plumley, Anne Stone, Tamsyn Mahoney-Steel and R. Barton Palmer

Guillaume de Machaut, the most important poet and composer of late medieval France, was a pioneer of a new school of lyric composition. The forty-two ballades that Machaut set to music reflect his most adventurous musical thinking all but one of them are polyphonic settings and they are the earliest extant examples of a new order of chanson in the intricate Ars nova style associated with the period. This fresh edition of Machaut's ballades is designed to meet the needs of advanced scholars and musicians as well as students and performers new to Machaut's work. The lyrics, with full English translation, are presented at the end of each work. Supporting materials include: an introduction discussing the life of the author and his artistic achievement, providing insights into the poetry and music of the ballades notes for performance and pronunciation an art-historical commentary on the accompanying manuscript illuminations and detailed commentaries, including collation of manuscript variants, for each work.

Guillaume de Machaut, The Complete Poetry and Music, Vol 11: The Rondeaux and Virelais

Edited by Yolanda Plumley, Uri Smilansky, Tamsyn Mahoney-Steel, Anne Stone and R. Barton Palmer

Guillaume de Machaut, the most important poet and composer of late medieval France, was a pioneer of a new school of lyric composition in his day. His works influenced musicians and poets in France and across Europe in his own time and in the generations that followed. Machaut was instrumental in the development of the so-called 'fixed forms' that dominated secular song composition from ca. 1350 onward. He played a significant role in developing the rondeau and the virelai forms. This fresh edition is designed to meet the needs both of advanced scholars and musicians as well as students and performers new to Machaut's work. The lyrics are presented with full English translation at the end of each work, and supporting materials include: an introduction that discusses the life of the author and his artistic achievement and provides fresh insights into the poetry and music of these songs notes for performance and pronunciation an art-historical commentary on the accompanying manuscript illuminations and detailed commentaries, including collation of manuscript variants, for each work.

Guillaume de Machaut, The Complete Poetry and Music, Vol 10: The Lays

Translated by R. Barton Palmer and edited by Uri Smilansky, Yolanda Plumley and Tamsyn Mahoney-Steel

Guillaume de Machaut, the most important poet and composer of late medieval France, was a pioneer of a new school of lyric composition. Machaut was the last composer to produce a corpus of lays set to music the lay was considered the most challenging of the so-called 'fixed forms' that dominated song composition in this period and Machaut played a leading role in perfecting the form. This fresh edition of Machaut's lays is designed to meet the needs of advanced scholars and musicians as well as students and performers new to Machaut's work. The lyrics, with full English translation, are presented at the end of each work, and supporting materials include: an introduction discussing the life of the author and his artistic achievement, providing fresh insights into the poetry and music of the lays notes for performance and pronunciation an art-historical commentary on the accompanying manuscript illumination and detailed commentaries, including collation of manuscript variants, for each work.

Le Roman de Saladin: Middle French with Modern English Translation

Edited by Tara Foster, Rebecca A. Wilcox and Marie Lindsay Turner

Available for the first time in modern English translation, the fifteenth-century Roman de Saladin gives a highly romanticized account of the famed sultan and provides a unique perspective on medieval European attitudes toward the Crusades and the “Islamic enemy” that continue to influence Western perceptions to this day. With its engaging story and energetic characters, the romance evokes enough common medieval literary tropes to put it in conversation with other medieval (or modern) texts, but it offers material that is also strikingly different from many of the texts most frequently taught in courses dealing with the Middle Ages. It will prove useful to scholars and instructors in a broad range of disciplines.

Middle English Poems on the Childhood of Jesus

While it is well known that devotion to Christ's humanity and to his merciful mother Mary flourished in the later Middle Ages, the circulation of vernacular legends about Jesus' childhood, about which Scripture says very little, has not been adequately studied. To better understand affective piety, conceptualizations of children, and the various aspects of anti-Judaism in late-medieval England, this volume explores the legends that describe how the young Jesus interacted with those around him in his childhood, specifically, how a playful and vengeful God caused much unrest within his community. This contextual examination of these legends also reveals how devotional narratives overlapped with secular romances, how literature, art, and theology interacted with each other, and how Christ remained a figure of awe and reverence, even as medieval English Christians frequently meditated on a passive Jesus who endured brutal tortures and a shameful death.

John Gower, Vox Clamantis, Vol 1, Books II-IV

Edited and translated by Stephanie Batkie and Matthew W. Irvin

John Gower's Vox Clamantis, a complaint and analysis of medieval English society written in the shadow of the 1381 Peasant Rising, is a major work of Anglo-Latin poetry by one of medieval England's best-known poets. This new facing-page edition and verse translation pays close attention to Gower's poetic forms and wordplay, bringing its lively criticism and rhetorical power to modern audiences. It also provides extensive explanatory notes, exploring Gower's relationship to classical, Biblical, liturgical, and contemporary sources, as well as a critical introduction, which examines Gower's poetic methodology, and the relationship of the Vox to his major poems in English and French.

The Destruction of Jerusalem, or Titus and Vespasian

Edited by Kara L. McShane and Mark J.B. Wright

Within the English fall of Jerusalem tradition, nearly all scholarly attention has gone to Siege of Jerusalem, which has enjoyed critical and pedagogical attention of late. Michael Livingston’s 2004 edition with the Middle English Texts Series/MIP drew attention to the text, and Adrienne Williams Boyarin has recently published a new translation with Broadview Press that appears in the Broadview Anthology of British Literature’s medieval volume (and as a stand-alone volume). With this edition of the Destruction of Jerusalem, we hope to bring the poem (which is extant in more copies than Siege) into the conversation. METS/MIP is precisely the right series and press to publish Destruction. The work would complement METS volumes such as The King of Tars, Richard Coer de Lion, and Crusades romances such as Three Middle English Charlemagne Romances. Indeed, given METS’s broad offerings in Middle English romance, the series is a natural home for Destruction. Destruction would be of tremendous value particularly in courses focused on Crusades traditions, traditions of medieval anti-Semitism, vernacular theology, or late medieval depictions of difference more broadly, matters of considerable scholarly and pedagogical interest to medievalists of late.


The world's most extraordinary libraries

I t is a measure of how important books are to us that some of the most beautiful buildings and interiors in the world are libraries. For the centuries before the invention of the printing press, when every book had to be copied by hand, they were our most valuable possessions, and even now, when digitisation and cheap printing make them readily available to everyone, we still treasure the places where we read and study. This collection of libraries takes in everything from spectacular Baroque monasteries to the airy, serene reading rooms of the present day, embracing the best of all spaces to get lost in a book.

Prague's Strahov Monastery was founded in 1143 by the Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré. It underwent major rebuilding throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, which included the creation of this library, the Theological Hall, in the 1780s. The ceiling fresco by Anton Maulbertsch is a depiction of "The Intellectual Progress of Mankind", from Adam and Eve to the classical philosophers, along with saints and historical figures associated with the abbey. The hall holds more than 42,000 volumes.

In 2011, the Stuttgart municipal library moved from its previous home in a former royal palace to this new building designed by Korean architect Young Yi in Mailänder Platz. The building is a grey cube on the outside, but glows blue in the evening. Its openness to people of all nations is symbolised by the inscriptions on the outer walls: the word "Library" in silver letters is in English on the west wall, in German on the north, in Korean on the East and in Arabic on the south.

The library of the University of Coimbra dates to the 18th century and the reign of Portugal's King John V, for whom the building is named. It houses around 200,000 volumes within its Baroque interiors, including treasures from the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. The library is also famous for its colony of bats, who consume insects that might otherwise damage the rare texts.

Part of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, this library was originally the royal library, moved to these premises by Louis XIV when the Louvre ran out of storage capacity in the 1660s. The building was once the palace of Cardinal Mazarin, the Chief Minister of France under Louis XIV and an insatiable book collector. He bequeathed his collection to the state upon his death in 1661, and the library later expanded into the neighbouring buildings. The famous Labrouste Reading Room was designed in the 1860s by Pierre-François-Henri Labrouste, using 16 iron pillars inspired by Parisian markets and railway stations.

The Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library is one of the biggest rare book libraries in the world, housed within a Modernist cube on the Yale campus. The cube shape is echoed on the inside by a central glass stack tower which holds around 100,000 of the library's volumes. A public exhibition hall surrounds it, displaying among other treasured texts one of the 48 extant copies of the Gutenberg Bible.

The Black Diamond was built in 1999 as an extension to the old building of the Royal Danish Library in central Copenhagen. Designed by Danish architects Schmidt Hammer Lassen, the building is clad in polished black granite, with a striking central ‘crevasse’ in glass which floods the central atrium with natural light.

The Bodleian is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, founded in 1602 as a continuation of an Oxford library which had existed since the early 1300s. A major donation of manuscripts by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester in the 1430s cemented the library’s reputation, but the extensive support of Thomas Bodley at the beginning of the 17th century gave the library its name and impressive Gothic buildings. The Bodleian contains one of the most extensive and valuable book collections in the world, including a Gutenberg Bible and the First Folio of Shakespeare.

What started in the seventh century as a hermitage for an Irish monk near the shores of Lake Constance eventually became one of the richest of all medieval monasteries. The library at St Gall has survived fires, invading Magyars, the Reformation, and even the abbey's secularization at the end of the 18th century. It is still one of the most important collections of medieval manuscripts in the world, and houses around 160,000 books in its sumptuous Rococo building.

The library of ancient Alexandria, built in the 3rd century BC by the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt, was the most significant centre of learning of its time in the world, gathering together a vast collection of Greek texts along with the scholars who flocked to read them. Major advances in geography, astronomy, and medicine were made at Alexandria until the library declined in importance after the Roman conquest. The current Alexandrian library is a tribute to its ancient predecessor's achievements, as well as an important repository for Arabic and French texts. It celebrates the ideal of global learning in its very architecture: the granite exterior is carved with characters from 120 different languages.

The Library of Congress stretches back to the earliest days of American independence originally established by James Madison, the library was burned during the British invasion in 1814, and Thomas Jefferson offered up his own personal library to replace its fledgling collection. Now it is said to be the largest library in the world–around 15,000 volumes arrive at its doors every day, since everything published in the US is required to be deposited there. The buildings on Capitol Hill are open to anyone, as long as they sign up for a reader's card.

As its name suggests, the library at Trinity College, Cambridge was a creation of the great architect Sir Christopher Wren. Large windows flood the space with light, while marble busts (mostly carved by) Louis-François Roubiliac of eminent Trinity men keep watch on the scholars as they work. Wren designed the bookcases, each of which features a Grinling Gibbons carving at its end. The library has many important possessions, including the manuscript of Milton's poems and Isaac Newton's notebook.

The city of Baltimore in the nineteenth century was a bustling industrial seaport and a place where fortunes were made. One of these fortunes, that of wealthy merchant George Peabody, went towards the founding of this library, which originally belonged to the Peabody Institute, but was incorporated into Johns Hopkins University in 1982. The building was designed by Edmund George Lind, and features a spectacular central reading room with six storeys of wrought-iron galleries.

Prague's Clementinum complex has had quite a varied history, beginning life in the 11th century as a chapel to St Clement, transforming into a Dominican monastery, a Jesuit college, and part of the national university. The library here has existed since at least the seventeenth century, and is now the national library of the Czech Republic. The baroque interior houses many relics of its Jesuit past, including portraits of the order's saints and globes created by its members.

The New York Public Library actually has more than ninety buildings around the vast city, but its main branch, the Beaux-Arts building in Bryant Park, Manhattan, is of course the most famous, and makes regular appearances in film and TV. The library owes its existence to some of America's wealthiest philanthropists: a legacy from John Jacob Astor created the first of the libraries that would be merged in 1895 to form the NYPL, and a later donation by Andrew Carnegie ensured its expansion and survival.

Named for Venice's patron saint, St Mark, the Jacopo-Sansovino-designed Bibliotheca Marziana dates all the way back to the sixteenth century, when the Italian Renaissance was in full bloom and classical texts were frequently being rediscovered and rescued from obscurity. The heart of its original collection was the library of Cardinal Bessarion, a Greek Orthodox abbot who had become a Catholic cardinal, and one of the most important humanists and book-collectors of his age.

The Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, founded in 1558 as the court library of Duke Albrecht V, is one of the most important research libraries in the world, with a collection of more than 10 million books. Its collection was founded on that of Johann Jakob Fugger, who had assembled a treasure trove of medieval manuscripts which still yields new discoveries: a scholar came across an 11th-century codex of homilies by the Alexandrian theologian Origen as recently as 2012.

In the village of Huairou on the outskirts of Beijing, this serene library with its timber frame blends seamlessly into its countryside surroundings. Designed by architect Li Xiaodong, the frame is filled in by the wooden sticks which the village's inhabitants gather to fuel their cooking stoves. Its very understatedness makes it an important foil to the imposing libraries of urban environments.

Trinity College Library in Dublin is the recipient of many more tourists than most of the places on this list, since it houses one of Ireland's most significant national treasures - the 9th-century illuminated gospel book known as the Book of Kells. Its extravagant, complex illumination has influenced the development of Irish art, and visitors stream in to see it every day. Like its Cambridge counterpart, this Trinity reading room is also punctuated by the marble busts of great writers and patrons of the college, also created by Roubiliac and Scheemakers.

The new building of Warsaw's university library eschews the grand columns and elaborate decoration of many important libraries, focusing instead on environmental credentials. Designed in the 1990s, it includes a botanical garden covering the roof of the main building, filled with bridges, streams, pathways, sculptures and plants.

The Vatican's library is surely one of the most impressive in the world, and comprises around 75,000 manuscripts and 1.1 million printed books, both theological and secular. Among its most important possessions is Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209, the oldest known nearly complete manuscript of the Bible, which sits in state-of-the-art climate-controlled surroundings, among 26 miles of shelving for the library's immense collection.


Kyk die video: Bibliotheque Bessières. Marciana by Guialmi