Brandskepe val die Spaanse Armada aan

Brandskepe val die Spaanse Armada aan


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Die ware verhaal van die Spaanse Armada

Die son het nooit ondergegaan op die Britse Ryk nie, maar die Ryk het amper geëindig voor sy aanbreek toe die Spaanse koning 'n massiewe vloot bymekaargemaak het om Engeland binne te val en haar koningin af te sit.

Engeland se koningin Elizabeth I staan ​​vandag bekend as een van die belangrikste figure van haar ouderdom. Elizabeth, die dogter van die legendariese Henry VIII, het seksisme teëgekom, uitdagers op die troon en een van die grootste invalsvlote wat Engeland nog ooit teëgekom het. Die koning Filippus II van Spanje was een van die rykste manne in die geskiedenis, wat die grootste oordrag van rykdom tussen nasies vergemaklik het toe Spaanse skatkogelaars uit die nuwe wêreld teruggekeer het.

Die Spaanse Armada is dikwels die verhaal van die Engelse onderdog, wat deur 'n stormagtige voorsienigheid van sekere vernietiging gered is. Die ware verhaal van die Spaanse Armada - soos met enige gebeurtenis uit eeue gelede waar duisende mense sterf - is baie ingewikkelder as wat u dink.


Spaanse Armada verslaan

Aan die kus van Gravelines word Frankryk, Spanje, die sogenaamde “ Onoorwinlike Armada ” verslaan deur 'n Engelse vlootmag onder bevel van lord Charles Howard en sir Francis Drake. Na agt ure se woedende gevegte, het 'n verandering in windrigting die Spanjaarde daartoe gelei om van die geveg af te breek en na die Noordsee terug te trek. Die hoop op inval was verbrysel; die oorblyfsels van die Spaanse Armada het 'n lang en moeilike reis na Spanje begin.

Aan die einde van die 1580's het Engelse aanvalle op die Spaanse handel en die steun van koningin Elizabeth I van die Nederlandse rebelle in die Spaanse Nederland daartoe gelei dat koning Philip II van Spanje die verowering van Engeland beplan het. Pous Sixtus V het sy seën geskenk aan die naam van “ The Enterprise of England, ” wat hy gehoop het die Protestantse eiland weer in die vou van Rome sou bring. 'N Reuse Spaanse invalvloot is teen 1587 voltooi, maar Sir Francis Drake se gewaagde aanval op die Armada -voorraad in die hawe van Cadiz het die vertrek van Armada tot Mei 1588 vertraag.

Op 19 Mei vaar die Invincible Armada uit Lissabon op 'n missie om die beheer van die Engelse kanaal te beveilig en 'n Spaanse leër na die Britse eiland uit Vlaandere te vervoer. Die vloot was onder bevel van die hertog van Medina-Sidonia en het bestaan ​​uit 130 skepe wat 2 500 gewere, 8 000 seelui en byna 20 000 soldate vervoer het. Die Spaanse skepe was stadiger en minder goed bewapen as hul Engelse eweknieë, maar hulle was van plan om aan boordaksies te dwing as die Engelse geveg sou bied, en die superieure Spaanse infanterie sou ongetwyfeld die oorhand kry. As gevolg van storms wat dit tydelik na Spanje teruggedwing het, het die Armada eers op 19 Julie die suidkus van Engeland bereik. Teen daardie tyd was die Britte gereed.

Op 21 Julie het die Engelse vloot op 'n veilige afstand begin om die sewe myl lange lyn van Spaanse skepe te bombardeer en ten volle gebruik te maak van hul langafstand swaar gewere. Die Spaanse Armada het gedurende die volgende paar dae voortgegaan, maar sy geledere is uitgedun deur die Engelse aanval. Op 27 Julie het die Armada in 'n blootgestelde posisie voor Calais, Frankryk, geanker en die Spaanse weermag het gereedgemaak om uit Vlaandere te vertrek. Sonder beheer van die Kanaal sou dit egter onmoontlik wees om na Engeland te gaan.

Net na middernag op 29 Julie het die Engelse agt brandende skepe na die oorvol hawe by Calais gestuur. Die paniekerige Spaanse skepe moes hul ankers sny en see toe vaar om nie aan die brand te raak nie. Die ongeorganiseerde vloot, heeltemal uit die vorming, is teen dagbreek deur die Engelse by Gravelines aangeval. In 'n beslissende stryd het die superieure Engelse gewere die dag gewen, en die verwoeste Armada moes noodgedwonge noordwaarts na Skotland terugtrek. Die Engelse vloot het die Spaanse tot in Skotland agtervolg en toe teruggedraai weens gebrek aan voorraad.

Onder storms en 'n groot gebrek aan voorraad, vaar die Armada op 'n harde reis terug na Spanje om Skotland en Ierland. Sommige van die beskadigde skepe het in die see gestig, terwyl ander op die kus van Ierland gery en verwoes is. Teen die tyd dat die laaste van die oorlewende vloot Spanje in Oktober bereik het, was die helfte van die oorspronklike Armada verlore en het ongeveer 15 000 man omgekom.

Koningin Elizabeth se beslissende nederlaag van die Invincible Armada het van Engeland 'n mag van wêreldgehalte gemaak en vir die eerste keer effektiewe langafstandwapens in vlootoorlog ingebring, wat die era van aan boord en nabygevegte beëindig het.


Geskiedenis van die Spaanse Armada

Die nederlaag van die Spaanse Armada in 1588 word dikwels beskou as 'n bewys van Engeland se meerderwaardigheid tydens die Elizabethaanse tyd, wat 'n hupstoot gee aan die legende van Elizabeth self saam met haar roerende toespraak 'n paar jaar daarna by die Tilbury -dokke en 'n groot hart vir die protestantse sake oor die hele kontinent van Europa. Sir Francis Drake en sy onwilligheid om 'n bakkie by Plymouth Hoe onvoltooid te laat, het die legende vir geslagte skoolkinders gehelp.

Die Spaanse Armada en Engelse skepe in Augustus 1588 – Onbekende kunstenaar

Die werklikheid, soos so dikwels, was egter nie heeltemal so nie; dit is net so fassinerend.

Teen 1587 het die Engelse, met die hulp van, deur Spaanse oë, 'seerowers' soos Sir Francis Drake groot skade aan Spanje se handel in silwer uit die Amerikas veroorsaak, en baie skepe is gesink of gevange geneem. Daarbenewens het die destydse Spaanse Nederland die Spaanse baie probleme veroorsaak, veral met die ontwikkeling van Protestantse onafhanklikheidsoekers, wat die Engelse baie hulp verleen het.

Toe Maria, die Koningin van Skotte, onder die bevel van Elizabeth tereggestel is, het die Spaanse koning Felipe II (Filips II), wat met Maria I van Engeland getroud was en later selfs met Elizabeth wou trou, besluit dat Spanje nie meer kan neem nie en moet aanval en inval.

Die Spaanse Armada is dus verwek. Dit was egter gepla deur probleme nog voordat dit Spanje verlaat het.

In 1587 het Drake byvoorbeeld beroemd 'die koning van Spanje se baard gesing' toe hy in 'n vermetel en briljante aanval tussen 20 en 30 Spaanse skepe in die Cádiz -hawe gesink het. Skepe is nie net vernietig nie, alhoewel baie voorrade wat vir die armada bestem was, verlore gegaan het, insluitend duisende vate. Die vervangingsvate wat daarna vir die armada gebruik is, was gemaak van nuwe hout, wat nog klam was, wat die kos verrot en verwoes het en die water aan boord van die skepe versuur het, met katastrofiese gevolge.

Die hoogs ervare Spaanse admiraal, Álvaro de Bazán Santa Cruz, is in 1586 oorlede om vervang te word deur die hertog van Medina Sidonia, 'n ryk en suksesvolle generaal wat ongelukkig nog nooit op see was nie en aan konstante seesiekte gely het. Dit was hy wat die vloot van 22 Spaanse Royal Navy -oorlogskepe en 108 bekeerde handelsvaartuie gelei het om Engeland aan te val. Van die begin af dwing die slegte weer een galjoen en vier galeie om die armada te laat vaar en terug te keer huis toe.

Die geluk het vir die Spanjaarde vir 'n slag in die verhaal verskyn toe hulle by Plymouth aankom met die Engelse vloot wat in die hawe vasgekeer was - daarom sou Drake dit nutteloos gevind het om sy bakke te verlaat. Medina Sidonia het egter die advies van sy ervare admirale geïgnoreer om die gety in die hawe in te ry en die Engelse vloot daar en dan in te skort. 'N Besluit wat meer as 'n bietjie duur sou wees.

Die Engelse vloot was onder bevel van lord Howard van Effingham, 'n man wat slim genoeg was om te besef dat ervare matrose soos Drake, Sir John Hawkins en Martin Frobisher toegelaat moes word om die belangrikste besluite te neem en, nadat hulle die span van die wind in 'n sterk wind opgedaag het, 'n beduidende wins moes kry. As gevolg van 'n taktiese voordeel kon die Engelse in 'n reeks klein skermutselings voortdurend na die Spanjaardes sluip. Twee Spaanse skepe is op hierdie manier gevang, wat die Engelse in staat gestel het om enorme voorraad kruit na hul eie vloot te neem.

Die mees beslissende ontmoeting het plaasgevind by die klein Vlaamse hawe Gravelines, waar Medina Sidonia probeer het om sy vloot te hervorm. Die superieure manoeuvreerbaarheid van die Engelse skepe en die gebruik van 'Hell Burners' - agt ou skepe wat as drywende bomme gebruik is om die Spaanse vloot in te dryf, het paniek veroorsaak veel verder as die impak wat slegs verkry is deur 'n enkele vaartuig te vernietig - en beteken dat vyf skepe het heeltemal verlore gegaan en nog baie baie erg beskadig. Die Spaanse plan om by die landmagte van die hertog van Parma aan te sluit en dan Suidoos -Engeland binne te val, is laat vaar en die skepe is langs die kus van die Noordsee gedwing.

Die Armada -portret van koningin Elizabeth I, c.1588. Toegeskryf aan George Gower (c.1546-1596).

Dit was nou dat die natuur besluit het om werklik wreed te wees teenoor die Spanjaarde. Die skepe, baie ernstig beskadig en deur kabels bymekaar gehou, het om Skotland en Ierland tot in die Noord -Atlantiese Oseaan gehink. Kos en water was bitter kort en die kavallerieperde is lankal oorboord gegooi. Ongekende Atlantiese storms het die beskadigde skepe geteister, en omdat so baie van hulle hul ankerlyne afgesny het om aan die vuurskepe te ontsnap, kon hulle nie skuiling in baaie beveilig nie en is hulle op die rotse gery. Baie meer matrose en skepe het verlore gegaan as in die vorige geveg na raming 5 000 man. Die Engelse oortuiging dat God aan hulle kant was in hierdie Protestantse sukses, word beliggaam deur die bewoording oor die herdenkingsmedaljes wat spesiaal geslaan is: Hy blaas Sy winde, en hulle is verstrooi.

Wat oorgebly het van die Grande y Felicísima Armada- die Groot en Gelukkigste Vloot- 67 skepe en 'n kwart van die manne, keer terug na Lissabon, maar baie van die oorlewendes sou later in Spanje of op hospitaalskepe in Spaanse hawens sterf siektes wat hulle op hul reis gekontak het.

Felipe het die volgende jaar nog 'n kleiner armada gestuur, maar dit het hewige storms suid van Cornwall teëgekom en na Spanje teruggewaai. Die vloot het daarna aansienlike hervormings ondergaan, wat beteken het dat dit weer in die Europese seë kon oorheers, selfs na die oënskynlik onomkeerbare skade wat in 1588 aangerig is.


Die Engelse vloot

Die Engelse vloot was onder bevel van Charles Howard, 2de Baron Howard van Effingham, hy was nie meer 'n ervare admiraal as Medina-Sidonia nie, maar was 'n meer effektiewe leier. Sy tweede bevelvoerder was sir Francis Drake. Die Engelse vloot het een of ander tyd bykans 200 skepe ingesluit, maar tydens die meeste van die daaropvolgende gevegte in die Engelse kanaal het dit minder as 100 skepe getel, en op sy grootste was dit ongeveer dieselfde grootte as die Spaanse vloot. Nie meer as veertig of meer was oorlogskepe van die eerste rang nie, maar die Engelse skepe was sonder vragte, en selfs hul kleinste vaartuie was vinnig en goed gewapen vir hul grootte. Die Engelse het groot vertroue op artillerie gemaak, hul skepe het min soldate gehad, maar hulle het baie meer en swaarder gewere as die Spaanse skepe. Met hierdie gewere, gemonteer in vinniger en handiger skepe, was hulle van plan om op te staan ​​en die Spaanse skepe op lang afstand te bombardeer.


Veldtog

Eerste aksies

In Julie 1588 het die Engelse admiraals Lord Howard van Effingham en Francis Drake beplan om die massiewe Armada in die Engelse Kanaal aan te val, maar hulle het binnelandse winde in die gesig gestaar en moes noodgedwonge wag terwyl hulle boul terwyl hulle op beter weer wag. Die Spanjaarde het die geleentheid gehad om die Engelse vloot by die Plymouth -hawe aan te val, maar koning Philip het die Spaanse vloot beveel om nie die Engelse te betrek nie, tensy dit absoluut noodsaaklik was dat die Armada in plaas daarvan na Calais sou vaar soos beplan. Op 20 Julie vaar die Engelse uit Plymouth Sound om die Spaanse vloot aan te val en hul magte te verdeel. Die twee eskaders van die Engelse vloot van 55 mans het met die wind gesig om die Spaanse vloot van 120 man (met 350 soldate op elke skip) aan te val, wat 'n vooraf gereëlde halfmaanvormige gevegsvorming gevorm het. Die Engelse het 'n hewige tweeledige aanval op die Armada geloods, met Drake onder bevel van 'n 11-eskader van  Wraak en Howard lei die grootste deel van die vloot uit  Ark Royal. Omdat die Spanjaarde die voordeel in gevegte in die naderende kwartaal sou hê, het die meer manoeuvreerbare Engelse skepe buite grypafstand gehou en die Spaanse skepe van ver af gebombardeer. Die Spaanse skepe  Rosario en  San Salvador160 moes verlaat word ná 'n botsing, en teen die nag het Drake die skepe laat plunder en buskruit en goud gesteel.

Op 23 Julie ontmoet die twee vloote weer buite Portland, en die Armada besluit om terug te trek na Calais toe Martin Frobisher en Drake hulle aanval. Op 27 Julie het die Armada by Calais geanker, waar Parma se leër, wat deur siektes tot 16 000 verminder is, na verwagting sou wag. Parma moes egter ses dae wag terwyl hy sy leër voorberei om weer te beweeg, en die vloot van Medina Sidonia word geblokkeer deur 'n vloot van 30 Nederlandse vliegbote onder Justinus van Nassau. Die Spanjaarde het geen diepwaterpoort gehad waar hulle skuiling kon vind nie, en hulle het nie een van hul lewensbelangrike skepe afgelei om die Nederlandse blokkade te beveg nie, wat hulself kwesbaar gelaat het. Om middernag op 28 Julie het die Engelse agt vuurskepe aan die brand gesteek en hulle na die Spaanse vloot gestuur. Die Spaanse het twee van hulle vernietig, maar die res het die Spaanse vloot binnegedring en hulle gedwing om hul kabels af te sny en hul sekelvorming te breek. Geen Spaanse skepe is verbrand nie, maar die vorming daarvan is gebreek en een skip is gegrond, wat hulle in 'n toestand van verwarring gelaat het.

Slag van Gravelines

Die brandaanval by Gravelines

Op 7 Augustus het Drake en Howard hul hoofaanval op die Spaanse Armada by Gravelines beplan. Die volgende oggend, na 'n vuuraanval die vorige aand, plunder Howard en sy skepe die Spaanse skip wat gestrand het, wat hulle kosbare tyd gekos het. Drake het besluit om die res van die vloot te lei om die Spaanse vloot aan te val, en Medina Sidonia het die Engelse vloot 'n uur lank teruggehou en die res van die Armada tyd gegee om te hervorm. Howard keer egter terug met sy vloot en sluit aan by die aanval. 50 Spaanse skepe het hul eie verdedigende halfmaan gevorm, en Drake vaar verder om dit aan te val. Drake laat sy skepe in die Spaanse formasie vaar, en die skepe was so naby dat die muskieters van beide kante op mekaar kon skiet. Die Engelse kon die Armada met verskeie skote tref, wat hul skepe en bemannings aangerig het. Die Spanjaarde het groot slagoffers gely op kort afstand wat hulle van plan was om aan boord van die Engelse skepe te gaan eerder as om op hulle te vuur, en hulle het baie min van hul ammunisie gebruik terwyl die Engelse skepe hulle gestamp het. Na agt ure se intense gevegte het die Engelse vloot om 16:00 ammunisie opgehef, die Engelse het teruggetrek. Die Spanjaarde het 600 matrose en nog honderde swaar gewondes verloor, en 1 Spaanse skip is gesink, 2 aan wal gedryf en die res ernstig beskadig. Die wind waai toe die Spanjaarde na die verraderlike klankoewers van Vlaandere, waar  San Lorenzo160 rand gestrand in Calais en is deur die Engelse geneem nadat hy teen Don Hugo de Moncada se bemanning geveg het.San Mateo en  San Felipe'N Dag later gestrand op Walcheren en is deur die Nederlanders geplunder.

Noordsee ramp

Die Spaanse vloot is in die Noordsee weggewaai en dit van vernietiging gered, maar het dit van die troepe in Vlaandere afgelei. Drake en Howard het hul oorwinning gevier, terwyl koningin Elizabeth I van Engeland die troepe in Tilbury toegespreek het en belowe het om dood te veg as die Spanjaarde op Engelse grond sou kom. Dit sou egter nie gebeur nie, aangesien die Spaanse vloot langs die Engelse kus gevaar het, onderweg deur Engelse skepe gehaas. Aangesien die kanaal afgesper is, het die Armada besluit om Skotland en Ierland om te draai en terug te trek na Spanje. Teen die tyd dat die vloot in Ierland aankom, het baie soldate gesterf van dors en honger, omdat hulle nie meer voorraad gehad het nie. Baie van die oorlewende skepe is deur hewige storms aan die westkus van Ierland beland, en tientalle Spaanse skepe is verwoes en 5 000 het verdrink of beroof en geslag deur Ierse inwoners of Engelse soldate toe hulle die kus bereik het. Slegs die Spaanse adellikes is gespaar, gevange gehou vir losprys. Medina Sidonia sterf amper aan dysenterie, terwyl sy tweede-in-bevel slegs enkele dae nadat hy by die huis gekom het, aan skande gesterf het. Die Armada het met slegs 67 skepe en 10 000 soldate teruggekeer in 'n nasionale tragedie vir die Spanjaarde. Die Engelse soldate het egter nie veel beter gevaar nie, aangesien tifus vinnig aan boord van die Engelse vaartuie versprei het, is baie Engelse troepe op hul skepe gelaat sodat hulle nie betaal moes word nie. Groot getalle Engelse matrose sterf aan siektes of honger, en van die min wat oorleef het, het sommige gesterf selfs nadat hulle by Margate geland het. Lord Howard het sy soldate so goed as moontlik met sy silwer betaal, maar teen 1589 het slegs die helfte van die Royal Navy -matrose oorleef. Die nederlaag van die Armada het 'n keerpunt in die Anglo-Spaanse Oorlog geword, 'n vlootlegende geword. Engeland het eeue lank 'n Protestantse staat gebly, en Engeland sou uiteindelik Spanje as een van Europa se belangrikste moondhede oortref.


Brandskepe val die Spaanse Armada aan - Geskiedenis


Wat u op die punt staan ​​om te lees, is deur die koningin 'n geheim bepaal
en vreemd is dit geheim gehou! Gebeurtenisse was aansienlik
anders as wat u in die geskiedenisklas gesê is. Genie is wat sir Francis Drake
gebruik om die Spaanse Armada te breek. As óf 'n hedendaagse kaptein (óf 'n kreatiewe skrywer)
met hierdie soort planne, sou dit die mensdom ontsag.
Ek kan egter nie verantwoordelikheid neem vir sy briljante idees nie. Jy sal nie vind nie
baie van hierdie inligting op enige ander plek.

Die Fire Ships was nie vuurskepe nie, dit was IED's.

Sommige van hulle was ten minste IED's. Daar word egter in die geskiedenis opgeteken dat geen Engelse en geen Spaanse matrose in die Spaanse Armada dood is nie.

Die naam 'vuurskip' is 'n verkeerde benaming. 'N Paar van hulle was gevul met ongeveer 500 pond buskruit elk, sodat dit IED's of geïmproviseerde ploftoestelle was. Dit was bootbomme.

Let op hoe die skip in die middel van die ets ontplof en nie brand nie. Let op dat mans in die lug gewaai word. Hierdie ets word hier gevind, maar uit die rekords blyk dat niemand aan weerskante dood is nie. Hierdie skildery is u bewys dat iets nie was soos u geleer is nie. Dit was ook snags en maanloos.

Die hele bedoeling was om dit te laat lyk asof die Spanjaarde van niks weghardloop nie, sodat die bestaan ​​van kruit geheim gehou is (tot vandag toe). Hulle het amper van niks weggehardloop nie, want nooit een van die skepe vol plofstof is ooit gebruik nie. Drake gaan dit eers gebruik nadat ongeveer 12 Engelse skepe teen die Spanjaarde gestuur is, maar hulle het almal weggehardloop nadat slegs die 8ste Engelse skip aan die brand gesteek is. Hy het 'n soort eensydige 'Russian Roulette' uitgevind met vuurskepe in plaas van 'n rewolwer.

U kan 'n 'vuurskip' sien ontplof in hierdie gravure.

Meer as 1000 Spanjaarde is verskeie jare tevore doodgemaak deur 'n 'ontploffende' vuurskip toe dit naby Antwerpen opgeblaas het.* Dit was dus glad nie 'n nuwe vorm van oorlogvoering nie en vuurskepe was nie bloot 'n skip wat aan die brand gesteek is nie.

Dit is wat die Spaanse verwag het dat elkeen van die Engelse vuurskepe sou doen.


Slegs twee van die Engelse skepe was met kruit gelaai. Die Spanjaarde het egter nie geweet wie hulle was nie. Die y kon nie weet watter een in hul gesig sou ontplof nie en watter sou net brand as hulle hulle net met roeispane afstoot. Die Spanjaarde wou nie een van die brandende skepe naby hulle hê nie. **

As daar nie 'n dreigement was dat 'n IED die helfte van die Spaanse skepe sou doen wat Al -Qaeda aan die kant van die USS Cole gedoen het nie, sou die Engelse nooit die Spanjaarde kon verstrooi nie.

Letterlik kan twee dosyn manne met roeispane 'n brandende skip van ongeveer 50 ton afweer. Die Spanjaarde was egter bang dat die Engelse skepe sou ontplof en wou nie naby hulle kom nie.

Daar was verskeie Engelse op elk van die vuurskepe om verskeie redes, onder meer om hulle te loods en om Spaanse losies in roeibote weg te hou.

Wat het met die Engelse gebeur?

Aanvanklik is gedink dat hulle in die brand dood is of op see verlore gegaan het, want slegs een Engelsman is gevang en niemand het teruggekeer na Engeland nie. Daarom toon verskeie van die skilderye (en die gravure hierbo) dat baie Engelse mense vermoor word.

Wat het dan gebeur met die Engelse wat op die vuurskepe was?

Hulle het almal eenvoudig aan die kus geswem, behalwe die een man wat gevange geneem is, waar hulle 400 Franse vroue ontmoet het wat skaars geklee was toe hulle die Engelse hul klere gegee het, sodat hulle nie koud sou word nie. Daarna het hulle gestry oor wie die Engelsmanne vir die Spaanse moes wegsteek en watter vroue hulle waardering moes toon omdat hulle hulle van die Spaanse gered het.

Om eerlik te wees, het hulle uiteindelik besluit om die mans te deel, en die mans het gekies watter een van die 400 skaars geklede Franse vroue hulle eers wou wegsteek en bedank. Hierdie vroue is verkrag en hul besittings is geplunder vir voorraad deur die Spaanse wat daar geanker was, sodat hulle waardering baie werklik was.

Hierdie mans was almal weggesteek in beddens in Frankryk en word bedank deur wonderlike Franse vroue vir weke, en hulle wou absoluut nie teruggaan na Engeland nie. Sommige van hulle was arm mense en hulle het almal as vrywilligers gewerk omdat hulle nie veel in Engeland wou doen nie. Die Engelse gee nie om vir hulle as mense nie, anders sou hulle hulle nie laat sterf nie. Daar was nie 'n enkele aristokraat onder hulle nie. Hulle het hul werk gedoen en daar word aangeneem dat hulle dood is, en hulle het net in die beddens van enkellopende Franse vroue weggesteek terwyl die heerlike etse gemaak is waarin hulle in ontploffende skepe gedood word.

Die Franse vroue wou ook nie hê dat hulle moes vertrek nie. My laaste vriendin was 'n Franse model en vir twee en 'n half jaar lank was dit teoreties vir my moontlik om te vertrek, maar dit was onmoontlik, want as 'n Franse vrou wil hê jy moet bly, sal jy bly. Dit was net 'n lang plesiervaart, so kyk of sy wil hê dat u moet bly, want u sal waarskynlik nie die wilskrag hê of meer wil vertrek as ek nie.

Elkeen van die dertig mans het 'n reeks vroue wat hulle wou bedank en hulle oortuig om te bly (en hopelik met hulle te trou). Die enkellopende vroue was nie die enigste nie. Jong of oud, man of vrou, die inwoners van Calias wou almal hê dat hierdie jong mans, wat hulle van die Spaanse gered het, in Calias moes bly. Fransmanne is mal daaroor as Engelsmanne bereid is om vir hulle te sterf. Hulle skryf liedjies oor hulle. Trouens, die Fransmanne wou hulle so graag hê dat hulle twee burgemeesters (of wethouers) gemaak het, en hulle het aan elkeen van die baie mans 'n gratis taverne aangebied as hulle sou bly. (Engelse tavernes was geldmakers en natuurlik moes jy Engelse mans en diegene met 'n sterk morele houding hê.) Ongeveer 'n dosyn het langs die kus aan die Franse kant van die kanaal oopgemaak.

Die Engelse owerhede het gedink dat tientalle van hierdie jong mans beslis dood of gevange was, en het hulle die wonderlikste postuum -toekenningsgeleentheid aan die kus gegee. Dit was baie lekker, ek het daarheen gegaan. Ek onthou dat hulle selfs 'n paar mooi gravures en skilderye opgedra het om hul offers te eer. Een ets is natuurlik die een waarna ek aan die bokant van hierdie bladsy verwys.

Dan was daar die individuele begrafnisdienste waarvan ek drie bygewoon het. Dit was duur vir hul ouers, so gereeld het 'n vriend na Calais gegaan en probeer om hulle terug te bring. (Die matrose het geweet die mans was in Calias, maar hulle het nooit daarvan vertel nie.)

Die voorkoms van een man tydens sy eie begrafnis was nie 'n viering nie. Soos soveel ander wou sy familielede die man in die eerste plek nie hê nie (daarom het hy hom as vrywilliger aangebied). Nou gaan die man hul familielede se dramatiese begrafnis verwoes en dit was onvergeeflik. So het almal hom ontstel. Hulle het gesê dat hulle ontsteld was oor hom omdat hy hulle so ontstel het. Dit was BS, so die man draai om en gaan terug Frankryk toe. Hierdie keer het hy gebly.

Baie van hierdie mans het in Frankryk gebly. (Hierdie deel kon ek nie agterkom hoe ek in 'n toneelstuk sou beland nie. Ek wou so graag, want dit spreek so duidelik van iets wat min aangespreek word, en dit is die algemene mishandeling en ouerlike verraad van hierdie dapper manne.)

Toe die Britte agterkom dat hul mans saam met Franse vroue in die bed was, was hulle ook ontsteld. Die koningin was eers geskok en toe ontsteld. Aanvanklik wou sy hê dat hulle almal in ysters teruggebring moet word. Die een wyse admiraal of generaal het groot geskrik oor die voorstel en gevra 'Waarvoor?' maar sy het self geen idee of selfs 'n idee gehad van hoe haar jaloesie haar lewe begin oorneem en selfs die ryk self begin vernietig het nie. Na 'n uur lag sy en dink die hele ding is snaaks.

Die Admiraliteit kon min doen, aangesien die manne hul bevele gevolg het en nou in Frankryk was. Die mans is aangesê om net te wag totdat hulle op die Spaanse skepe vasgery het om die vure of plofstof aan te steek en dan oorboord te duik en na die strand te swem (as hulle kon). Daar is net aangeneem dat hulle almal sou sterf in die ontploffing, deur sluipskutter of marteling toe hulle gevange geneem word, sodat hulle nooit gesê is wat hulle daarna moet doen nie.

Tegnies het hulle nog steeds bevele gevolg, aangesien 'n matroosplig was om in noodgevalle by sy skip te bly, en die meeste van die skepe was nog steeds in die baai, al was hulle afgebrand tot by die waterlyn en gesink.

Baie van die Engelse het besluit om by 'n Franse vrou te bly en nie terug te gaan na Engelse vroue nie, en dit was die eintlike rede waarom dit 'n skandaal was en niemand het geweet hoe om dit te hanteer nie. Die koningin het uiteindelik gesê 'daar was nooit mans op die skepe nie'.

Die besliste 'waarheid' het die grootste Engelse skandaal in meer as 100 jaar verberg, en dit is waaroor u in u geskiedenisboeke gelees het.

Dit blyk dat die koningin daarin geslaag het om al die skilderye in Engeland verander te kry, aangesien ek niks kan vind met skepe wat ontplof nie. Die skilderye was eenvoudig om te verander, maar gravures was onmoontlik om te verander en doen nog steeds 'n goeie taak, sodat hulle die een swart en wit gravure (bo -aan hierdie bladsy) vir my as bewys gelaat het. Nou weet u waarom ek 'n goeie gravure waardeer.

As dit nie vir hierdie gravure was nie, sou u waarskynlik dink dat ek dit alles bedink het, nie waar nie? Sonder hierdie gravering klink dit immers onmoontlik of asof dit die uiteindelike manlike fantasie was. Dit klink wel so, nie waar nie? Die mens red Engeland en word eindeloos bed toe geneem deur pragtige dankbare vroue.

*Sedert ek hierdie bladsy geskryf het, het ek talle kort verwysings gevind na die vuurskepe wat met kruit gelaai is, waaronder hierdie ::.. die groot vloot was nou gedwing om by Calais te anker. Die Spaanse het geweet dat die Italiaanse ingenieur, Giambelli, vuurskepe vol plofstof vir die Engelse gemaak het. Hierdie "helbranders" was die mees vreesaanjaende wapens vir 'n vloot wat op anker lê. Die Spanjaarde het begin voorberei..Hier. Dit is 'n bewys dat die Engelse nie net skepe met kruit gevul het nie, maar die naam van die Italiaanse ingenieur wat die ontploffende skepe vir die Engelse gemaak het! Wel, jy weet dat hulle die skepe nie ten minste 'n deel van die pad sonder vlieëniers ingestuur het nie, en ek sien dat hulle name nêrens genoem word nie. Hulle was sonder twyfel die helde van die nederlaag van die Spaanse Armada. 100% verheerlikte verpersoonlikings van die tipe mens wat die kroon altyd lewendig of postuum eer. tensy die mans in Calais geboei word met die plaaslike Franse vroue wat bedank word. Sien meer oor 'Giambelli' hieronder. Hy was die man wat die IED gemaak het wat meer as 1000 Spaanse mense in Antwerpen doodgemaak het.

Die Spanjaarde was bang vir vuurskappe uit ondervindinge wat hulle ondervind het met die Nederlandse rebelle wat die Seegebergers genoem word. Ek het daarin geslaag om hierdie tekening te vind wat wys wat die Seebedters vuurskepe van die Bibloteque National Paris genoem het. 'N Paar jaar voordat die Spaanse Armada teen Engeland gevaar het, is een van hierdie skepe in Antwerpen vertrek en 'n brug op die Scheldtrivier vernietig, asook meer as 1000 Spaanse soldate. Engeland was hul vriende, sodat die inligting beslis teruggekeer het na die Engelse Admiraliteit en miskien was dit die Engelse wat geïnspireer het om Giambelli aan te stel.

GIAMBELLI (of GIANIBELLI), FEDERIGO, Italiaanse militêre ingenieur, is in die middel van die I6de eeu in Mantua gebore. Nadat hy 'n bietjie ervaring as militêre ingenieur in Italië gehad het, het hy na Spanje gegaan om sy dienste aan Philip II te bied. Sy voorstelle is egter louwarm ontvang, en omdat hy by die koning geen onmiddellike werk kon kry nie, het hy sy intrek geneem in Antwerpen, waar hy gou aansienlike reputasie gekry het vir sy kennis in verskillende departemente van wetenskap. Daar word gesê dat hy beloof het om wraak te neem vir sy afkeuring by die Spaanse hof en toe Antwerpen in 1584 deur die hertog van Parma beleër word, het hy homself in kontak gebring met koningin Elizabeth, wat, nadat hy haar van sy vermoëns tevrede gestel het, hom verbind het tot hulp deur sy raadgewers ter verdediging. Sy planne vir die voorsiening van die stad is deur die senaat verwerp, maar hulle stem in tot 'n aanpassing van sy plan om die beroemde brug te vernietig wat die ingang van die stad aan die kant van die see gesluit het, deur die omskakeling van twee skepe van 60 en 70 ton in infernale masjiene. Een hiervan het ontplof, en, behalwe om meer as 1000 soldate te vernietig, het 'n breuk in die struktuur van meer as 200 voet in breedte ontstaan, waardeur die stad, ter wille van die huiwering van admiraal Jacobzoon, dadelik verlig kon word. Na die oorgawe van Antwerpen het Giambelli na Engeland gegaan, waar hy 'n geruime tyd besig was met die versterking van die rivier die Teems en toe die Spaanse Armada deur vuurskepe in die Calais -paaie aangeval is, was die paniek wat ontstaan ​​het, grootliks te wyte aan die skuldigbevinding onder die Spanjaarde dat die vuurskepe infernale masjiene was wat deur Giambelli gebou is. Daar word gesê dat hy in Londen gesterf het, maar die jaar van sy dood is onbekend.

Sien Motleys History of the United Netherlands, vols. ek. en ii. Encyclopedia Briticannica 1911

** Besonderhede van die aanval. Die Armada -skepe was soet in rye. Elkeen van die vuurskepe het 'n groot brandende lamp in die tuig gehad. Daar moes streng reëls gewees het teen die neem van olielampe in die Spaanse vloot, want al die Spaanse het regtig daarop gereageer asof dit 'n oortreding is wat strafbaar is. Drake het dus lampe aan die toue aan drie voet toue gehang sodat die lampe mal sou ronddraai en om seker te maak dat hy dit gedoen het, het hy toue daaraan vasgemaak sodat die manne daaronder kon trek. Dit het die lampe laat lyk 'asof hulle op 'n sekonde sou val' en die bom afgeskiet wat dan almal sou opblaas.

Drake stuur die vuurskepe een vir een en 'n hele paar meter van mekaar af langs die beste skepe van die Spaanse lyn (en dit was die langste van die lyne). Hy vertraag elke skip geleidelik, so dit neem 'n bietjie meer tyd met elke vuurskip en dit maak dat dit die mooiste marteling word. (Dit was ook die idee van Sir Francis Drakes. Hy was mal daaroor om die Spanjaarde te pynig. In 'The Tempest' het ek hom Ariel gemaak wat graag die monster Caliban (die Spaanse koning) wou pynig om vuurmaakhout vir Prospero (koningin Elizabeth) te lewer.)

Every time a fire ship went down that line it was like a panther walking near a herd of cornered antelope, walking along trying to decide which one to make his victim. The fire ships passed as close as 15 feet from the line of Spanish ships. The Spanish could not even fire on them because they did not know which ones were loaded with gunpowder. At 15 feet it might explode and kill them too.

The English fire ships would go by at least 20 Spanish ships and up to 40 Spanish ships before they turned and tried to ram the ships. Then the Englishmen lit their ships on fire and dove into the water so they could swim to shore which was not far away. That way the Spanish could only push the fire ships back and forth in the hopes they would blow up on their 'neighbors property'. Drake was a genius.

With each fire ship that passed down the Spanish line the Spaniards optimism fell a bit until after only four ships it was completely gone. The English had another 38 fire ships and they were all lined up with a lamp high on each one. The ships in the back had two lamps up high and far apart so it looked liked there were at least 40-50 fire ships! Need I say more. The Spanish broke and ran. Only 8 English ships were ever set a fire. And yes some of the ships were loaded with gunpowder but none of them got set afire. Drake thought the Spanish would never leave after only about 8 ships were set afire so he was holding back those with the explosives. Drake was a genius and so was most of the admiralty.

It was a order of the Queen to 'get those Spanish out of Calais immediately'.


Spain rented a lot of those ships from other countries. That was very important to our winning. They had to take 'a half crew' with them when they rented the ships. The rented ships were supposed to just transport Spanish troops across the channel afterthe beach was secured by men from Spanish war ships that were to have gone earlier.

It was a cheap rental since the Spanish told them it was completely safe for their ships and the brave Spanish Armada would protect them at all cost from the English pirates even if one got past the Spanish defense. So can you guess what Drake did?


Ever loan your car to a friend and have this happen?

The rentals became the number one targets of the English and the Spanish actually put them in front of their own ships. And the Spanish didn't have any insurance on those rentals. Hundreds of claims were filed against the Spanish.

For years afterwards the rented ships that got away were considered fair game for the English. Whenever the English saw one of them on the open sea they would board it and take whatever they wanted. Often everything.

This all happened very close to the shore at Calais and all except one person got to shore safely.

Before they had sailed the English Captains were told by the Admiralty to ask for volunteers to sail the fire ships into the Spanish command ships and then light the fires and/or gunpowder at the last seconds. There were two to seven men on each of the fire ships. The only requirement was that they could swim a good distance.

It was considered a suicide mission and only single men with nothing to live for were accepted. So about 35 men who were willing to give their lives piloted those ships to what was considered almost certain death. However, no Englishmen died. Also, there were no Spanish ships even sunk during that attack so you know that those men in the engraving that are being blown into the air were never killed.

What happened was that the Spanish were so frightened because of the prospect that the English ships might blow up that they completely forgot about the Englishmen and only one English sailor got caught.


The Mega-Bomb That Nearly Vaporized the Spanish Navy

This bomb likely produced the loudest man-made sound in human history, at the time.

Here's What You Need To Remember: To begin with, think of a hellburner as a really big and exceptionally dangerous fire ship.

Some of the largest non-nuclear explosions on record — in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1917, Port Chicago, California in 1944 and Texas City, Texas in 1947 — involved huge accidental blasts at harbors and aboard ships.

But what if a similar explosion occurred by intent rather than accident? A really powerful bomb, as big as a ship, could change history.

A bomb disguised as a shipping container — mixed in with the great volume of traffic and cargo passing through a major seaport — makes for a scenario that keeps U.S. Homeland Security officials awake at night. An entire ship converted into a floating bomb makes for nightmare fuel.

The really scary part? It wouldn’t be unprecedented.

Hundreds of years before the Manhattan Project, an Italian weapons expert in the pay of the English government created the 16th century equivalent of a tactical nuclear weapon. After Federigo Giambelli’s offer of services to the Spanish court received a lukewarm reception, he moved to Antwerp and settled down.

In 1584, Dutch separatists began a bloody 80-year-long war of independence from the Spanish Empire that England was only too happy to encourage. The Duke of Parma besieged the rebel city Antwerp with all the might of a superpower. Imperial troops lashed together ships to make an 800-foot-long wooden bridge barricading the Scheldt river.

Antwerp would have starved, but Giambelli determined otherwise. As he prepared the city’s defenses, he offered his talents to Queen Elizabeth I and came to the attention of her spymaster and private secretary, Sir Francis Walsingham.

To break the siege of Antwerp, Giambelli needed to destroy Spain’s wooden ship-barrier. His genius combined two newer technologies — clockwork and gunpowder — with a vessel into a terrifying new weapon.

Huge Bomb, High Tech:

To begin with, think of a hellburner as a really big and exceptionally dangerous fire ship. Since ancient times, combustible wooden vessels feared the fire ship like no other weapon. Fire ships — worked by skeleton crews, set aflame like giant torches and set adrift upon wind and tide — could burn entire fleets and waterfronts.

But the hellburners were more than that.

The city fathers of Antwerp gave Giambelli some 32 vessels to work with. Thirty of them became conventional fire ships. The final two became the biggest bombs Europe had ever seen to that point.

Within the holds of the ships Fortyn (“Fortune”) and Hoop (“Hope”) Giambelli built giant, massive bunkers — forty feet long with brick floors and walls one to five feet thick. After filling them with two and a half tons of the finest gunpowder Holland could make, Giambelli’s workers roofed the structures with rows of recycled tombstones.

On top of that, they packed millstones and scrap around around the bunkers, decked over the giant bomb and disguised the vessels as “regular” fire ships.

Die Fortyn used a conventional chemical trigger and timer — a slow-match which burned at a steady rate. The other hellburner, the Hoop, introduced a quantum leap in technology. An Antwerp clockmaker named Bory created a mechanical timer which triggered a wheelock firing mechanism. Die Hoopbecame the first known pre-programmed and remotely-triggered weapon of mass destruction.

On the night of April 4, 1584, the Antwerp separatists released their fire ships into the Scheldt’s current. The Spanish troops showed little concern for the vessels approaching their positions. As the burning ships drifted onto the riverbanks and bumped into the great barricade, soldiers fended them away with pikes.

Die Fortyn ran aground short of the barricade and failed to explode completely. Mistaking it for merely a noisy, unsuccessful fire ship, the Spanish forces jeered the Dutch attack. Maar die Hoop collided with the barrier near where it connected to the shore. Soldiers, not knowing the danger inside, boarded the vessel to put out its fires.

Then the clockwork reached its set time … and triggered the wheelock firing device. Boom.

The gigantic explosion instantly vaporized a quarter of the barricade and nearly 1,000 Spanish troops. Timber, shrapnel, rocks and body parts rained down for miles, the river surged out of its banks and the noise woke people 50 miles away. It was likely the loudest man-made bang in history up to that time.

Tactically, the hellburners had limited effect. The Dutch were so stunned by the explosion they failed to capitalize on the Spaniards’ disarray. Within months the Spanish Empire rebuilt the great wooden barricade and stepped up its siege. Antwerp fell the following year in 1585.

Incinerated in One Blow:

Strategically, though, the hellburners changed history. Giambelli escaped to Britain, likely with the help of English forces fighting with the Dutch. In a letter to Sir Francis Walsingham, English army Col. Henry Norreys extolled Giambelli and his art:

As I know you esteem men of rare gifts, I pray you to afford him your favour and to despatch him hither again if you so think good, as we may have occasion to use his service in these parts.

It’s unknown whether Walsingham and Giambelli ever met. Three years later in 1588, as Giambelli worked on a wooden barricade to defend the Thames, Walsingham received reports of a second Dutch floating bomb that destroyed ships at dock in Dunkirk. The knowledge that Europe’s master weaponeer now worked for Elizabeth unsettled the Spanish military.

The year 1588 saw Spain mount the greatest naval assault against England in history. An armada of galleons under the Duke of Medina-Sidonia, with 20,000 troops and cavalry aboard, sailed up the English Channel to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s armies in the Low Countries. The armada would escort the imperial troops across the Channel and reinforce the invasion of England.

On the night of Aug. 7, 1588, as the armada sheltered at Calais, the English launched eight fire ships into the anchorage. This time the Spanish were anything but blasé. Ships and crews swiftly cut anchor cables and hoisted sail to avoid the incoming pyres.

The vast fleet scattered and never really regrouped. The rattled armada, now shorn of anchors and tackle, failed to bring its might to bear on the English attackers. The fleet never connected with the Duke of Parma’s invasion force and wound up returning home the long way around the British Isles. Spain’s invasion of Britain never happened, with all the failure’s consequences for history.

Why did a mere eight burning ships disrupt a huge invasion? Simple — a hellburner might have incinerated Spain’s naval might in one blow. Though Giambelli apparently never built another hellburner for the British or anyone else, the knowledge that he could, and was in England, bent the arc of history.

Although the hellburner captivated 16th century military imagination, it never saw widespread use. One hellburner used as much gunpowder as an entire army or a fleet, all in order to strike one hellacious blow. Few opportunities justified such tremendous costs.

This piece first appeared in WarIsBoing here several years ago.


Fire Ships Attack the Spanish Armada - History

Jordan Clark Brereton

In the late 1500’s the Spanish empire was starting to become the world’s largest super power. They began to dominate every land around the Caribbean, all the way down to North and South America. They even had the largest concentration of naval power ever assembled. Many European countries were very afraid of Spain’s constant growth and wealth. With this growth and power many countries were intimidated by Spain and even claimed that Spain was cruel to other European natives, especially those from England. Spain during the 16 th century was a dominating new world power expanding territories all over the globe. They conquered territories in Africa, North and South America, the Caribbean, and even into the Philippines. With this large expansion of empire King Philip II had his eyes set on Europe, and especially England. Spain was Catholic and wanted a Catholic World. Philip was a man driven by religious obsession, he was trying to extend the Catholic Church and standing in his way was Protestant England.

In the early 1500’s Spain and England had a very good relationship from the beginning, which begs the question, what were the reasons for the Spanish Armada? “Why did Spain want to over throw Queen Elizabeth of England? Also, if Spain was such a strong and vast empire, “Why did the Spanish Armada fail so miserably? The reasons to be proven in this paper are that the Spanish were overly confident and under prepared. There were also many bad discussions made on King Philip II’s part when it came to preparing an attack on England.

In the beginning Spain and England had there quarrels but for the most part they were very cordial and friendly with each other on a political level. They also had a common enemy, France. With this common enemy they remained natural allies. [1] However this would soon change when the English started seeing the Anglo-Spanish as an “undesirable” race, and sought out for the best interests of their sovereigns, in this cause Queen Elizabeth I. [2]

Philip II was married to Mary I, Elizabeth’s half-sister, and during that time England was Catholic. This gave Philip II control of all of England, and easy access for his Spanish ships to travel to the Spanish Netherlands. With the control of the English channels now, Philip could station and supply his troops when he wanted. [3] However in 1558 Mary I Queen of England died, and Queen Elizabeth I took the throne. Philip II still wanted ties to England, so he proposed to Elizabeth I. However, things didn’t go how Philip had imagined them. Elizabeth I was the daughter of Henry VIII, and their family was from a strictly Protestant family. Elizabeth I didn’t respond to Philips proposal. This upset Philip greatly because he believed that Elizabeth was not even a legitimate heir to the throne, and that Mary Queen of Scots, the great catholic granddaughter of Henry VII should have been Queen. [4]

The fact that Philip II had no direct connection to the throne of England now made him worried for his potential control of England. To make matters worse, King Philip II of Spain had defeated Dom Antonio, the King of Portugal for the throne. Antonio fled to England, and when he arrived, Queen Elizabeth received him with open arms, giving him all the supplies, military and financial support that he needed. Philip was furious over this decision of hers. This had now jeopardized the friendship between both countries. This also made Philip mad because now there is a potential threat of Spain’s security and impedance of Spanish domination of Europe. [5]

Then just a year after Antonio finding refuge with Queen Elizabeth, there was another man that was a thorn in Philips side, namely Sir Frances Drake. Drake was a sea Captain and privateer in the Elizabethan period. Drake went about attacking Spanish shipping off of the West Indies. Spain had lost many ships to these attacks which were carrying large amounts of silver by Drakes pirates. To the English Drake was considered to be a valiant hero, but to the Spanish he was nothing but a pirate. These raids were also done under the awareness of Queen Elizabeth I. Not only did she condone the raids, but she had Knighted Sir Francis Drake for his loyalty and bravery on behalf of England. The Spanish could not accept this, which made them even more enraged. [6] These raids continued to persist on, even to the harassment of the ships aiding Spain’s Dutch rebels in the Spanish Netherlands by boarding and raiding their ships as well. [7] Sir Frances Drake began to be a real problem for Spain as his personal vendetta against the Spanish empire grew to be an ongoing course of aggression.

In July 1581, Philip ran into even more problems. There began to be more tension rising in the Low Countries (The Dutch). The States General of the Dutch Low countries had enough of the control and taxation that Philip was imposing on them and decided to declare a declaration of independence called the Act of Abjuration. As an added insult, Queen Elizabeth I started courting The Duke of Anjou, who was offered sovereignty by the Dutch, and who also was conspiring against Spanish troops in Flanders. [8]

This was a major problem for Philip now because not only did Elizabeth I start courting Anjou, but she supported him financially by giving him “thirty thousand pounds,” in which he decided to besiege and capture the City of Cambrai, which he successfully did. [9] If there had not been enough problems already for Philip II, what would follow next would throw Philip over the edge. In 1587, Mary, Queen of Scots, who was supposedly to be the true heir to the throne of England, was accused of threatening the life of Queen Elizabeth, so Elizabeth had her executed for it. [10]

To top it all off, Philip II had got news that Queen Elizabeth signed a treaty with the Dutch, and that Sir Frances Drake would sailed to the Indies attacking Spanish territories such as Vigo and Bayona on his way. He also robbed places such as San Cristobal and capturing Santo Domingo in the Caribbean. His rampage didn’t stop there either. He also took Cartagena and burned down St. Augustine for fun. This was the breaking point of King Philip II he could not handle the fact of losing his vast Catholic empire or seeing more Catholics be killed, so he decided to take matters into his own hands.

The first time that anything was said about a possible retaliation against England was in December of 1581. There began to be talk amongst friends and allies to raise an army to fight against England, but nothing was official. At this time though Philip had done nothing to prepare such an armada against England, but after all that had conspired against him it was definitely something that he was considering. [11] King Philip II’s intension was to keep any potential talk about attacking England quiet, however the King had a big mouth when it came to gossip, this was his first mistake. There were already others that were conspiring against England such as the Scottish Catholics. Word of hostility towards England spread fast, and by 1583 talk about a possible invasion by a “Spanish Armada” on England was airborne. [12] The problem with talk about a possible invasion gave the English a red flag and was made aware of Spain’s potential invasion. Talk went on for years about the possible threat of invasion, but nothing had happened. However in 1586, England started to take the treat of an invasion more seriously. Queen Elizabeth began to send out many secret agents or spy’s to investigate whether or not the Spanish were making these preparations to invade. Elizabeth had a hunch that this invasion was to happen to Scotland and not necessarily on England. Either way the Queen was not at all worried yet that the Spanish were to invade either country. [13] While King Philip II at first rejected his naval officer, Santa Cruz’s idea to move against England for catholic liberation, however in the end he thought it be better that “the war be fought than avoided.” [14] In the eyes of King Philip II, Spain was God’s country, and it was by God’s design that they conquer England. With this great religious mission that Philip was bound for, he needed a strong military commander to lead his forces into battle against England. This man was Santa Cruz. [15]

Santa Cruz was a very intelligent commander, and had great ideas and plans on how to orchestrate this vast armada that the Spanish was planning. It was Santa Cruz’s idea to gather one hundred and fifty ships together including all their battleships that were available, heavily armed merchantmen, forty large freight-liners, and an additional three hundred and twenty auxiliary craft. This was a total of five hundred and ten ships, with and estimated thirty thousand mariners, and sixty four thousand soldiers. This is what Santa Cruz estimated it would take if Philip wanted to take England. However, with King Philips bad track record of debt and bankruptcies, this was nearly impossible for him to afford. So because of the Kings inability to control politics and his finances, this had cause delays in the planning of the armada, and gave Santa Cruz no time to act. [16] On top of these financial problems Philip had, it made matters worse when Sir Francis Drake attacked the harbor of Cadiz in 1587, which destroyed and damaged a number of ships that were being prepared for the armada. [17]

Now Santa Cruz was a very independent man and had experience in military matters. He knew what needed to be done to accomplish a successful naval mission. However Philip would get offended by Santa Cruz at times, then Philip would blame Santa Cruz for the delays and failures, when in reality it was just bad judgment calls from Philip. In the end though, Santa Cruz was about sixty two years old and was not in the best of health. He died in Lisbon in 1588, some say it was because of old age, others that it may have been by the order of the King. [18] To replace him, Philip already had someone in mind, a rich nobleman by the name of Medina Sedonia. This Medina character was chosen mainly because of his wealth and statues. He was a most unlikely candidate for the job. Medina Sidonia was a landsman, “with no previous experience of war afloat.” This means that Medina had no naval war experience, and had no idea on how to command a naval force of thousands of men on how to fight on the sea. This was a bad decision on Philip’s part. [19] It has been said that maybe it was an “Omen” that from the beginning the Spanish Armada faced problems, and Santa Cruz dying was one thing, and Making someone else in charge that was less suited for the job, Duke of Medina Sidonia was another. [20] This General Medina Sidonia not only had never been aboard a ship, it was said that he would also get seasick. Why King Philip would ever select a man like this to lead the largest naval fleet of all time is unfathomable. [21] The only reason the Medina Sidonia even got the position of being commander was that he outranked everyone in nobility and he a highly elevated social status that no one could compete with. This social status was a very important thing to Spaniard, however this decision may have cost them Spanish lives in the end. [22]

With this so called bureaucratic commander now in charge, there was still much to be learned and prepared for before embarking on this naval voyage. This had caused many delays and the Spanish Armada took longer to set sail. This gave England an even better advantage and time to prepare to defend against an attack. Even though nothing had taken place yet for several months, the English spy’s still had no word as to when a Spanish Armada may embark. [23] This didn’t stop the English however from keeping a constant eye on the English Channel.

It seemed as though King Philip II had a very hard time making decisions, and good ones at that. He was also unwilling to have anyone make a decision for him. The King in his earlier years seemed to be a man of cautiousness, tentative, and slow to act. But then leading up to the Armada he became very impulsive, stubborn, and irrational. Philip had been so focused on his religious endeavors of creating a Catholic world that he started to place his war preparations on faith in God. He believed that God would prepare a way for him to accomplish his work. [24]

The Armada at this point had delayed long enough. Regardless of all the mayor setbacks, Philip II was compelled to set sail to the English Channel and flex to England Spanish muscle. With the Spanish Armadas one hundred and thirty ships, the armada’s plan was to sail Flanders to meet up with the Duke of Parma, who was Philip’s nephew. Then they would sail together to England, which they believed England would be overwhelmed by their forces, and eventually capture heretical Queen. [25] What the Spanish failed to understand was that, first, there was no secret that the English had no idea about the Spanish Armada, which they did. Second England not only had Spy’s round about, but watchman on the cliffs of England and wales. Thirdly, how did they expect to sail one-hundred and thirty ships passed England, travel through the narrow pass of England and France to Flanders and not be seen by anyone?

As the Spanish Armada set sail through the English Channel, the sailed in a crescent formation, almost a half moon shape, and were traveling very close together.

With the English constantly watching their coasts, the second the Spanish Armada came barreling through the English channel they were spotted and beacons were lit all along the coast sending a message throughout the country. [26] This had caused Drake and his forces to prepare to set sail against the armada. However, that day the tide from the river Tamar was blowing northeast towards them in Plymouth, so they were unable to get their ships out of Davenport. So they decided to wait the tide out and finish a game of bowls. [27] This would have been the most opportune moment to strike at the English ships while they were venerable and stuck in Plymouth harbor, it might have even won them a victory, but Philip II told his forces to not attempt to strike unless absolutely necessary. Plus Philip more focused on meeting up with his other forces in Flanders that he didn’t seize the opportunity. Yet another crucial decision that Philip made, that may have cost him the war, if he would have taken that opportunity.

The tide eventually had turned, and the English ships headed out of Plymouth to face the enemy. Since the tide was still against them, the English had to tack into the wind and sail against it, they had a technique to split up, drakes groups went along the coast while the other part of the group sailed out to sea. Their technique was to sail around the Spanish ships and get behind them. They had smaller ships and fewer men, so they would sail swiftly around the Spanish enemy and beat them into submission with their guns. [28]

These two forces traveled in different formations and had different fighting techniques. The Spanish used a crescent formation that was tight together which made it hard to maneuver. The English however used a technique called line stern formation, which meant they followed each other one after the other allowing the commander to lead the way. Spain would use grappling hooks to latch onto the other ships and draw the ships together to board them. The English would keep a distance from the Spanish and try to attack them with their guns. The English seemed to have better formation, but neither of the fighting techniques worked from either side. The Spanish were too far away from the English for them to use their grappling hooks. The English were too far from the Spanish to hit them with their guns. The English ships were more advanced, smaller, and more maneuverable. While the Spanish ships were built very top heavy, out of the water, and very cumbersome. However, the Spanish Armada was still unscathed, intact, and more vast than ever.

More bad news came for the Spanish though, they had still not heard anything from their troops in Flanders, and whether or not they were ready to help fight against England. After the first failed attempt to attach the armada, the English regrouped and got the wind to pick up in their favor behind the armada. Drake ordered his forces to break off into four groups to give his forces maximum freedom to fight independently. Drake took his group south and the other from the North, and the other two groups remaining aimed for the center to attack. Drake had distracted the Spanish commander at a critical moment in the battle, and instead of turning into the sheltered waters of the Solent, now the Spanish looked to be heading toward the most fearsome waters of the English Channel and English sand banks which forced the Spanish to turn back towards the open sea. However the Spanish still headed toward flounders to meet up with Parma’s Army without the knowledge of their help or readiness. [29]

The Spanish Armada then found itself in a predicament. There was no place in the Low Countries were the ships could find shelter, so they were in open waters and the night fell. Then at midnight of July 28, with the Spanish formation still strong and numerous, Drake decided to attack the armada with a weapon that struck fear into every Spanish sailor on a wooden ship, “FIRE.” English sailors put together eight full-sized ships for sacrifice they loaded these ships with barrels of tar, gunpowder, and loaded two cannon balls in each canon so that when the flames reached the powder they would explode at random. That night there was a full moon which meant the tide would run strong. That night the English pushing these fire-breathing ships right in the middle of the closely-anchored Spanish Armada’s fleet. [30]

The Spanish started to sound the alarm. The Spanish were so fearful that they started turning into each other crashing ships together, sailors abandoning their ships. Even though only one Spanish ship even caught fire, that was all it took, and it was enough fear to scatter the Spanish formation by morning putting the armada into complete disarray. Eventually the English ships were amongst the armada firing back and forth this was the Battle of Gravelines. It was a complete massacre of the Spanish Armada. The English with their faster ships and extreme fire power caused extreme damage to many Spanish ships and caused many casualties.

In Conclusion, we can see that the Spanish Armada was more of an attempt to prove that Spain was a powerful country and that it was going to attempt to rule England, but the Spanish Rule Philip II got to impatient and greedy with his power to conquer, thus being overly confident with his ability to conquer, the unpreparedness, and the lack of naval preparation and coordination. Not to mention his lack in the ability to choose the right commander for the job. The Spanish not only underestimated England’s naval power, but also overestimated Spanish naval abilities to fight.


In 1588, King Philip II of Spain sent an armada (a fleet of ships) to collect his army from the Netherlands, where they were fighting, and take them to invade England. This was done in the name of religion, because England had become Protestant and no longer accepted the Pope as the head of the Church Spain was Catholic and the Pope had encouraged Philip to try to make England become Catholic again. He also had a political reason to go to war with England because Spain ruled the Netherlands, but the people there were rebelling against Spanish control and England had been helping them.

The English were worried about the threat of invasion and they attacked the Spanish ships as they sailed along the Channel, but the Armada was so strong that most of the ships reached Calais safely.

The Armada was difficult to attack because it sailed in a ‘crescent’ shape. While the Armada tried to get in touch with the Spanish army, the English ships attacked fiercely. However, an important reason why the English were able to defeat the Armada was that the wind blew the Spanish ships northwards. To many English people this proved that God wanted them to win and there were pictures and medals made to celebrate this fact.

Tasks

1. This is an extract from a letter to the English government which gives details about the progress of the Armada.

  • How useful do you think this information would be to the English government?
  • Why were there more soldiers than sailors?

2. This is a report from Lord Howard of Effingham, the Admiral of the English fleet.

  • How do you think the news that the Spanish Armada had been sighted was able to reach Lord Howard so quickly when he was at Plymouth, over a hundred miles away?
  • Why do you think Howard complained to Walsingham about the wind?
  • Howard says that the Spanish fleet was ‘soe strong’. What made it strong?

3. The dates mentioned in this account are based on an old calendar which is slightly different from the one we use now. These events took place at the end of July and first week of August according to our calendar.

  • According to Hawkins, what was the main problem for the English fleet in the battle near Portland?
  • Why was the ‘fyring of ships’ a turning point in the fighting?
  • Does Hawkins think that the English have a chance to beat the Spanish Armada?
  • What is causing the biggest problem to the Spanish ships?
  • Does Hawkins seem confident that the Spanish have been defeated?
  • Why did the English chase the Spanish as they sailed towards Scotland?

4. An extract from a Spanish captain’s account of the events. He had survived after being shipwrecked on the Irish coast and was then interrogated by the English, but eventually returned home to Spain.

  • The Spanish Armada fought the English fleet for two days without losing any ships. What happened next that changed this?
  • Why was it a good thing that the Spanish plans were stopped?
  • If you could change one thing to give the Spanish a better chance of winning what would it be and why?
  • The English celebrated their victory with a medal saying ‘God Blew and they were Scattered’ – how would the Spanish have explained their defeat?

5. As this was an invasion in the name of religion, it was felt that any unexpected event was a sign from God study the points below and decide which ones show God helped the English and which ones show other reasons for English success.

  • Santa Cruz, the Spanish admiral who was to lead the Armada, died and the man who took over, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, had very little experience
  • The Armada set sail on 28 May but bad weather forced the ships to go back into port for repairs
  • The Armada kept a very strong crescent shaped formation which protected the smaller ships as they sailed up the Channel and the English were unable to make a proper attack
  • The Armada was supposed to sail up the channel to the Netherlands and collect the Duke of Parma with an army to invade England. However, the Spanish army was attacked and could not get to the ships in time
  • The weather was very bad during the Battle of Gravelines and the storms got worse as the Spanish sailed towards the North Sea
  • The English were constantly complaining that they were short of gunpowder, cannon balls, food etc.
  • Bad weather continued as the Spanish ships sailed up around the coast of Scotland and down the coast of Ireland on their way home, so that only half the Armada actually got back to Spain

6. Explain in a short paragraph why many people thought that God had helped the English defeat the Spanish Armada.

Agtergrond

When Mary I died in 1558, England and Spain were allies in a war against France. As the war ended, Philip II of Spain wanted to stay on good terms with the new queen, Elizabeth I, and even suggested that they marry but Elizabeth politely refused. However, Elizabeth also wanted to stay friends with Spain because there was an alliance between Scotland and France – a situation which was very dangerous for her. Until Elizabeth married and had children, the next in line for the throne was her relative, Mary Stuart, the Queen of Scotland. Many Catholics believed Henry VIII’s marriage to Anne Boleyn had not been not lawful, which meant Elizabeth should not be queen at all and Mary, Queen of Scots, should take over immediately. To make matters worse, Mary was going to marry the French prince, so it was possible that French and Scottish armies would invade England to make Mary queen. Luckily for Elizabeth, Philip did not want to see France becoming so powerful and he was willing to protect her, even though she made England Protestant again.

When Philip had to deal with a rebellion in the Netherlands, it was even more important to him to be on good terms with England because his ships had to sail along the English Channel. However, England felt some sympathy with the people in the Netherlands because one of the reasons they were rebelling against Spain was that some of them wanted to be Protestant. On top of this, there was a lot of anger among English sailors and traders because Philip would not let other countries share in the wealth that had been found in the areas Spain controlled in Central and South America. Meanwhile, England was less threatened because Mary, Queen of Scots’ husband had died, which ended the link with France and she had returned to Scotland. Also, two groups in France were fighting for control, which meant there was far less danger to England.

By the 1580s, the two countries were clearly enemies and Spain was supporting attempts to make England Catholic again. Plans for an invasion began in 1585 but had to be delayed when Francis Drake burned some ships and destroyed lots of water barrels. Drake called this ‘singeing the King of Spain’s beard’ (burning the edges), but it wasn’t enough to prevent the Armada which was ready to sail in 1588.

Teachers' notes

It is hoped that some of this work will be accessible for key stage 2 work and ‘The Terrible Tudors’ in the Horrible History series has some good additional details that most children will appreciate. Some of the suggested activities have obvious links with art and craft work while the use of maps to study the route of the Armada could lead into geography, map coordinates, mathematics. An interactive, problem solving approach is needed for the ‘Council Discussions’ and there are also lots of opportunities for different styles of writing – stories based on English/Spanish sailors, formal reports, ‘newspaper’ accounts, diaries and letters, ‘televised’ news and interviews.

At key stage 3 this work would could be used as a straight account of events, illustrating English foreign relations but it could also be used to explore the role of propaganda in Elizabeth’s reign, linking with work on portraits and another lesson on the Great Seal.

This lesson may also prove useful to teachers of the AQA GCSE Historic Environment 1568-1603 course for which the named site in 2020 is the ‘Spanish Armada.’ These eyewitness accounts of the invasion provide details of the environmental factors faced by the Armada as well as some context for both sides.

Bronne

Illustration: Drawing of a Spanish frigate showing measurements and armament SP 9/205/1

Source 1: Extract from a letter to the English government (SP94/3 f.227r)

Source 2: Report from Admiral of the English fleet (SP12/212 f.167)

Source 3: Letter from John Hawkins to Sir Francis Walsingham (SP12/213 ff.164-5)

Source 4: A Spanish captain’s account of events (SP63/137 f.5)

Extension Activities

1. Hold a Privy Council meeting to give Elizabeth advice on:

  • how to get sufficient supplies to the ships
  • where the army should meet
  • how to arrange sufficient food etc. to keep the army supplied
  • how to get news of the invasion from the coast to London
  • what to do about English Catholics

2. Draw or list items which could be included in a painting of Elizabeth intended to commemorate the English victory and explain the symbolism of each item. This could then be compared with the Armada portrait by George Gower.

3. Draw a strip cartoon showing at least four key events, e.g:

  • the first sighting of the Armada
  • the English sailing behind the Armada in its strong crescent formation
  • the use of fireships
  • the battle at Gravelines
  • the Spanish sailing towards Scotland
  • Spanish ships being shipwrecked on the coast of Ireland

4. After such a clear failure, when fewer than half the ships managed to get back to Spain, why did Philip send other armadas against England?

5. As the English troops waited at Tilbury to fight against an invasion, Elizabeth made a famous speech in which she said that even if she was a weak and feeble woman, the fact that she was the ruler of England made her strong. Do you think a female ruler would have been at a disadvantage if the invasion had taken place?

6. Find the text of Elizabeth’s speech at Tilbury and write it out in modern English.

7. Write a newspaper report on the invasion of the Spanish Armada explaining the reasons for the Spanish defeat.

See a timeline of the Armada’s key events below.

Eksterne skakels

Elizabeth I and the Spanish Armada
In this resource, you can explore the question: ‘why did the English fleet defeat the Spanish Armada’? Consider the different historical interpretations and look at some contemporary images and documents from the British Library and other sources.


Kyk die video: Merel spontaan in Spanje


Kommentaar:

  1. Napona

    Het u vandag 'n hoofpyn gehad?

  2. Shak

    Ek stem saam, jou gedagte is net uitstekend

  3. Putnam

    Ek is jammer, maar na my mening is jy verkeerd. Ek kan dit bewys.Skryf vir my in PM, dit praat met u.

  4. Nisien

    Oor hierdie vraag kan mens oneindig sê.

  5. Nar

    In beginsel weet ek nie veel van hierdie pos nie, maar ek sal probeer om dieselfde te verstaan.



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