Oklahoma City Union Depot Last Train November 1967 - Geskiedenis

Oklahoma City Union Depot Last Train November 1967 - Geskiedenis



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Waarom die Kerner -verslag van 1967 oor stedelike onluste sy eie deskundige bevindings onderdruk het

In onlangse jare, veral na die versteurings wat in Ferguson, Missouri en Baltimore ontstaan ​​het, het Maryland na die dood van Michael Brown en Freddie Gray by die polisie betrokke, het kenners en redaksionele skrywers baie verskillende verduidelikings gegee oor wat onluste veroorsaak. Konserwatiewes en die meeste algemene media beskou hierdie versteurings dikwels as “riots ” — beheerde en irrasionele spasmas van roekelose geweld wat gewoonlik veroorsaak word deur 'n handjievol waninhoud wat nie verteenwoordigend is nie en altyd die gevolg is van 'n afbreking van respek vir gesag. Liberale, daarenteen, is geneig om 'n meer simpatieke beskouing van die onluste en die oproeriges te hê, en blameer die onrus op diepgaande rassisme en die ekonomiese nadeel wat dit meebring.

Die werklikheid is egter baie ingewikkelder en stel die grense van die konvensionele wysheid aan beide kante van die ideologiese spektrum bloot. Trouens, die laaste keer dat die federale regering in die laat 1960's die oorsake van stedelike onrus deeglik ondersoek het, was die mees komplekse bevindings te omstrede om polities smaaklik te wees. Hulle is dus uit die finale verslag gesny en fisies vernietig.

Die jaar was 1967, en die land het pas 'n reeks lang warm somers van oproer beleef wat uitgeloop het op die verbrandings in Newark en Detroit. Terwyl die vure nog in laasgenoemde stad brand, het president Lyndon Johnson die National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, in die volksmond bekend as die Kerner -kommissie, gestig om die oorsake van die steurnisse te identifiseer en oplossings voor te stel om te voorkom dat dit weer gebeur. Op 1 Maart 1968 het die kommissie sy finale verslag uitgereik. In duidelike taal het die verslag tot die gevolgtrekking gekom: 'Ons volk beweeg na twee samelewings, een swart en 'n wit' apart 'en' ongelyk '. lui die verslag, ȁ Wit instellings hou dit vol, en die blanke samelewing kondoneer dit. ”


Oklahoma City Union Depot Last Train November 1967 - Geskiedenis

Omstreeks 1890-1891
ST JOSEPH UNIE DEPOT MAATSKAPPY
oftewel UNION STATION
1221 Suid 6de

Op 10 Februarie 1895 het die oorspronklike depot afgebrand

In 1896 is 'n nuwe depot gebou om die oorspronklike te vervang - sien foto #1

November 1934 het die "Silver Streak Zephyr" sy eerste loopbaan gemaak
K.C., St.Joseph, Omaha en Lincoln

Spoorlyne word hier bedien: Santa Fe - Burlington Route - Chicago Great Western
Rock Island - Missouri Pacific - Union Pacific

Gedurende die laat 1950's en vroeë 1960's het die Burlington -roete, Chicago Great Western en Rock Island uit die Union Depot verhuis na hul eie stasies

Kort daarna is alle passasierstreine gestaak, dus was die depot nie nodig nie

Hierdie eens pragtige struktuur was geleë in South 6th Street, net noord van Mitchell


Seaboard Coast Line Railroad: "Trek vir jou!"

Die Seaboard Coast Line was 'n kortstondige konglomeraat wat in die somer van 1967 gevorm is deur mededingers Atlantic Coast Line en Seaboard Air Line.  

Hierdie noodlottige huwelik is bewerkstellig deur die spoorweë in New York Sentraal en Pennsylvania. Dit was 'n onmiddellike mislukking.  

Seaboard Coast Line is baie meer suksesvol beplan en geïmplementeer, aangesien die twee paaie meer as 'n dekade lank gesprekke begin het voordat hulle hul plan werklik uitgevoer het. Dit het die onmiddellike chaos wat Penn Central beleef het uitgeskakel.    

Die twee paaie was ook gesond in die samesmelting, anders as die Central en Pennsy. Opvallend was die Atlantiese kuslyn, waarskynlik so ryk soos die welvarende Southern Railway.

Dit was ook die eienaar van twee ander winsgewende vragmotors, die Louisville & Nashville en Clinchfield.   Die SCL het slegs vyftien jaar oorleef voordat dit amptelik in die 1980's in Seaboard System, en daarna CSX Transportation, verdwyn het.

Seaboard Coast Line E7A's in Raleigh, Noord -Carolina, in 'n toneel wat waarskynlik uit die laat 1960's dateer. Foto Warren Calloway.

Die idee wat Seaboard Coast Line geword het, het amptelik begin op 29 September 1958. Op die datum, volgens die artikel "ACL + SAL = SCL"Vanaf die Oktober 1964 -uitgawe van Trains Magazine het die twee maatskappye amptelik hul voorneme om saam te smelt aangekondig.  

Byna twee jaar later, in Julie 1960, versoek hulle die Interstate Commerce Commission om die Seaboard Coast Line Railroad Company te stig.   'n Konsultasiefirma het gesê dat die nuwe konglomeraat jaarliks ​​'n netto besparing van $ 24,2 miljoen kan oplewer.  

Dit het 'n reeks verhore deur die ICC veroorsaak, 'n tydperk waarin dit berug was dat vakbonde baie gereeld gekontroleer is (so traag dat die tydsduur van die goedkeuring van 'n moontlike Rock Island - Union Pacific -unie daardie dekade gesien het hoe die voormalige pad versleg het. 'n punt UP stel nie meer belang nie).  

Op 13 Desember 1963 het die agentskap sy goedkeuring verleen en nog vier jaar het verloop voordat die nuwe spoorlyn amptelik op 1 Julie 1967 van stapel gestuur is. Hieronder is 'n kort geskiedenis van die twee primêre spoorweë wat SCL geskep het.

Verwante leesstof.

Die eerste komponent van SCL was die Atlantic Coast Line, wat punte van Virginia na Florida bedien het en tot in die weste gestrek het tot Birmingham, Alabama.

Die spoorlyn was 'n geldmaker, wat 'n dubbelspoorlyn, noord-suid-hooflyn langs die ooskus bedryf het. Dit bevat ook een van die mees unieke verfskemas van enige klas I van opvallende Royal Purple met silwer en geel afwerking (uitgeskakel vir 'n eenvoudiger lewering in die laat 1950's).    

Die Seaboard Coast Line Railroad -logo. Skrywer se werk.

Die Atlantiese kuslyn

Onthou dat die ACL 'n hoogs gerespekteerde operasie was, geseën met uitstekende bestuur wat finansiële probleme vermy het. Die Coast Line het sy lewe begin soos baie klassieke paaie, saamgevoeg deur 'n reeks samesmeltings. Sy vroegste voorganger was die Richmond en Petersburg wat in 1836 gehuur is.    

Nadat hulle met die Petersburg -spoorweg verbind was, het die twee 'n deurverbinding van Richmond na Noord -Carolina gelewer. Gedurende die 19de eeu het baie ekstra klein lyne saamgevoeg om die moderne ACL te vorm, waaronder die Wilmington & Weldon, Wilmington & Raleigh en Noordoos.  

Seaboard Coast Line Roosters (1968)

In totaal was die ACL 'n reuse -spoorlyn wat byna elke groot suidoostelike mark bedien, van Kentucky en Virginia tot Alabama en Florida. Die maksimum kilometers van die roete was meer as 5 000 (insluitend filiale was dit meer as 12 000).

Toe die markte in die herfs van 1929 in duie stort, het ACL die storm die hoof gebied deur uitstekende bestuur en spaarsaam finansiële praktyke, ondanks dat vragverkeer met meer as 50% en passasiersverkeer met 60% gedaal het.  

Bekende Seaboard Coast Line Passasierstreine (1969)

Florida Spesiaal: (New York - Washington - Miami)

Silwer Meteor: (New York - Washington - Miami)

Silwer ster: (New York - Washington - Miami/Tampa/St. Petersburg)

Kampioen: (New York - Washington - Tampa/St. Petersburg/Napels)

Palmland: (New York - Washington - Raleigh/Hamlet/Columbia)

Gulf Coast Special: (New York - Washington - Savannah - Jacksonville)

Everglades: (Washington - Charleston - Savannah - Jacksonville)

Stad van Miami: (Chicago - St. Louis - Birmingham - Miami/St. Petersburg)

Suidwind: (Chicago - Louisville - Montgomery - Jacksonville - Miami/St. Petersburg)

Golfwind: (Jacksonville - Tallahasee - Pensacola - New Orleans)

Na hierdie skraal jare het hy gefokus op die opgradering van sy netwerk en die verbetering van sake.  

Teen 1955 was die spoorweg volledig diesel, met die aankoop van lokomotiewe van Electro-Motive, General Electric en Alco. Met sy winste het dit die hooflyn tussen Florida en Virginia heeltemal opgespoor.  

Boonop het gesentraliseerde verkeersbeheer en outomatiese blokkeer die meeste van sy netwerk beskerm. Teen die tyd van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die kuslyn tot 'n ware snelweg opgebou met vragmotors van gemiddeld 50 km / h en passasierstreine wat teen 100 km / h sny.  

Laasgenoemde het jare lank floreer danksy die goed geposisioneerde roete wat die noordooste met die sonnige strande van Florida verbind.  

Sake het wel afgeneem ná die oorlog, maar was sterk genoeg om die beste treine te behou en in die 1960's steeds wins te behaal, teen daardie tyd 'n seldsaamheid. As gevolg hiervan is dit interessant om te wonder wat die toekoms vir die onderneming sou inhou as die spoorweg nie saamgesmelt het nie.

Helaas, dit was die lot van die ACL soos soveel ander gedurende dieselfde tydperk. Samesmeltings kan, as dit korrek beplan en uitgevoer word, 'n spoorweg miljoene dollars bespaar, die rede vir die huwelik met die Seaboard. Sulke pogings sou vrugte afwerp soos die nuwe Seaboard Coast Line, wat amptelik op 1 Julie 1967 begin diens het.  

'N Seaboard Coast Line E7A wag gedurende die sewentigerjare in Raleigh, Noord -Carolina. Foto Warren Calloway.

Seaboard Air Line

Die Seaboard Air Line word miskien die beste onthou as 'n ietwat kleiner weergawe van die Atlantic Coast Line, oral waar die ACL oënskynlik ook so gegaan het.

Die Seaboard het sy sterk stand gehou met sy vurigste mededinger, en nadat hy daarin geslaag het om deur moeilike waters te trek, het hy gedurende die laaste jare goeie vragvervoer deur die hele Suidoos gebied. Na meer as 'n eeu se diens en voortgesette mededinging, het die twee uiteindelik in die laat 1960's saamgesmelt en die Seaboard Coast Line gevorm.  

Na 'n paar ander korporatiewe veranderings het die voormalige Seaboard Air Line -eiendom deel geword van die massiewe CSX Transportation -stelsel van vandag. Vandag word sy oorblywende netwerk bedryf deur die klas I en verskillende kortlynvervoerders.  

Soos soveel klassieke spoorweë, is die SAL verkry deur verskeie kleiner lyne wat oor die jare saamgesmelt het.   Die oorsprong daarvan begin met die Portsmouth & Roanoke Rail Road, wat in 1832 gehuur is om Portsmouth, Virginia, te verbind met Weldon, Noord -Carolina.  

Saam vorm dit die ruggraat van die latere SAL. Hulle het almal saamgekom onder John Robinson, wat die trio bekom en saamgesmelt het tot die nuwe Seaboard Air Line.

Gedurende die res van die 19de en begin van die 20ste eeu het die Seaboard noord en suid uitgebrei en bereik stede soos Richmond, Norfolk, Wilmington, Charleston, Atlanta, Savannah en punte wes in Alabama.

Dit het ook een van die laaste groot hooflyne gebou toe dit in 1927 'n uitbreiding na Miami voltooi het.  

Die oorgang van die Seaboard na 'n groot suidoostelike mededinger het begin nadat dit in ontvangs geneem is na die Groot Depressie, wat na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog na vore gekom het as die Seaboard Air Line.

Die spoorlyn het sy stelsel aggressief begin opgradeer en uitgawes verminder deur nuwe diesels, rollend materieel aan te skaf en gesentraliseerde verkeersbeheer (CTC) langs sy enkelsnit-hooflyn te implementeer.  

Seaboard Coast Line GP40 #1564 lei 'n vrag deur die besige Boylan Junction in Raleigh, Noord -Carolina, terwyl dit op die punt staan ​​om die Norfolk Southern oor te steek terwyl 'n Suid -plaaslike in die agtergrond wag. Foto Warren Calloway.

Teen die laat jare het die Seaboard 'n baie uiteenlopende vragverkeerbasis gehad, wat alles van landbou en aggregate tot sement, bederfbare produkte en ystererts insluit.

Die spoorlyn was in 1950 ook een van die eerstes wat die konsep van die sleepwa-op-plat-motor (TOFC) gekamp het.  

Die SAL het 'n uitgebreide en gewilde passasierstreinvloot bedryf, waaronder bekende treine soos die  Orange Blossom Special,  Silwer Meteor, en  Silwer ster  (die SAL het ook 'n aantal seisoenale treine gehad).

Die spoorlyn bied uitstekende diens en was een van die min wat dit tot die einde toe aanhou doen het toe Amtrak in 1971 die bedrywighede oorgeneem het.

As gevolg hiervan het die markte vandag 'n aantal treinsoldate bedien, waaronder die  Silwer Meteor  en#xa0Silwer ster. Teen die vyftigerjare het die SAL en ACL begin verstaan ​​dat, omdat hulle op feitlik elke mark werk, 'n samesmelting voordelig sou wees om dubbele fasiliteite en spoorsny te verminder. Die vakbond is in 1967 voltooi.

'N Vrag van Seaboard Coast Line kruis gedurende die sewentigerjare die kortlyn Durham & Southern in Apex, Noord -Carolina. Foto Warren Calloway.

Die laaste jare van SCL

Passasiersdienste het onder die Seaboard Coast Line voortgegaan tot by Amtrak in 1971. Die nuwe spoorlyn het egter die kleurryke modelle van die SAL en ACL prysgegee vir 'n meer gedempte standaard swart en geel skema soortgelyk aan dié wat in die afgelope jare gebruik is. & #xa0

Op sigself het die SCL hierdie skema slegs 'n paar jaar gehou, voordat die grys, geel en rooi "Family Lines" -skema in 1972 aanvaar is.

Die beheermaatskappy, CSX Corporation, is op 1 November 1980 gestig om uiteindelik die Seaboard -paaie en Chessie System -lyne saam te voeg tot 'n nuwe maatskappy. Die spoorlyn is op 1 Julie 1986 gevorm toe CSX Transportation (CSXT) gebore is.  


INTERURBANS.

Interurbans, wat 'n gewilde vervoermiddel in die Verenigde State was tussen die 1900's en die veertigerjare, het omstreeks 1900 hul eerste verskyning in Oklahoma gemaak. Hulle het 'n integrale deel geword van die stedelike ontwikkeling van die staat. Tipiese promotors van interurbans was plaaslike inwoners soos Anton Classen en John Shartel in Oklahoma City en Charles Page in Sand Springs. Die motorwaens se klein motors was soortgelyk aan spoorwegmotors, maar was baie skoner omdat hulle elektriese krag van luglyne gebruik het. Benewens passasiersdienste het interurbans vrag vervoer en, soos vandag se stadsbusse, 'n aangrypende advertensie vir gemeenskapsondernemings verskaf. Die spore het langs die hoofpaaie van die stad geloop en met plaaslike dorpe verbind. In ooreenstemming met die staatswette is interurbans geskei. Die motors het voor- en agterdeure. Afro -Amerikaanse passasiers betaal hul geld en klim aan die agterkant van die motor.

Begin in 1903 bedien een van die eerste interurbans in Oklahoma, in besit van die Choctaw Railway and Lighting Company, die steenkoolmyngemeenskappe rondom McAlester. Die Oklahoma Railway Company bedryf 'n lyn wat in Oklahoma City gesentreer is en bereik Norman, Guthrie en El Reno. Die stadswyke van Norman-tot-Oklahoma het voortgegaan tot 1947. Tulsa het drie elektriese spoorwegondernemings waarmee passasiers kon ry: die Tulsa Street Railway wat in die stad bedryf is, het die Sand Springs Railway tot 1955 tussen die stad en Tulsa vervoer en die Tulsa-Sapulpa Union Spoorweg het sy elektriese enjins eers in 1960 gestop. Die Northeast Oklahoma Traction Company bedien die hoof- en sinkmyndorpe noord van Miami. Die Lawton Railway and Light Company het soldate van Fort Sill na Lawton en Medicine Park pendel. Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was 'n seën vir die spoorwegmaatskappye wat militêre personeellede bedien het wat by basisse in Norman, Edmond, Tulsa en by ander geriewe in die staat opgelei het. Clinton, Shawnee, Tecumseh, Okmulgee, Bartlesville, Nowata, Chickasha, Ardmore, Enid en Muskogee het almal op 'n stadium in die vroeë tot middel van die negentiende eeu 'n voorstedelike aanspraak gemaak.

Die ondergang van die interurbane het gekom met die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en die einde van die rantsoenering. Baie Oklahomans het nou geld gehad en kon persoonlike voertuie koop. Boonop bied verbeterde paaie en uitgebreide buslyne reisigers meer vervoeropsies.

Mignon Sims en Larry O'Dell

Bibliografie

Kim Bender, "Oklahoma City se eerste massavervoerstelsel: wie het die trams vir mense laat ry?" Die Kronieke van Oklahoma 72 (Somer 1994).

Allison Chandler en Stephen D. Maguire, Toe Oklahoma die trollie geneem het (Glendale, Kalifornië: Interurbans, 1980).

H. Roger Grant, "Electric Traction Promotion in Oklahoma," in Spoorweë in Oklahoma, red. Donovan L. Hofsommer (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1977).

William D. Middleton, The Interurban Era (Milwaukee, Wis .: Kalmbach Publishing Co., 1961).

Roger Yepsen, Stadstreine: Deur die stede van Amerika per spoor (New York: Macmillan, 1993).

Geen deel van hierdie webwerf mag as 'n openbare domein beskou word nie.

Kopiereg op alle artikels en ander inhoud in die aanlyn- en gedrukte weergawes van Die ensiklopedie van die geskiedenis van Oklahoma word gehou deur die Oklahoma Historical Society (OHS). Dit bevat individuele artikels (outeursreg op OHS volgens outeuropdrag) en korporatief (as 'n volledige werk), insluitend webontwerp, grafika, soekfunksies en lys-/blaai -metodes. Kopiereg op al hierdie materiaal word beskerm onder die Amerikaanse en internasionale wetgewing.

Gebruikers stem in om nie hierdie materiaal af te laai, te kopieer, aan te pas, te verkoop, te verhuur, te huur, te herdruk of andersins te versprei nie, of om na hierdie materiaal op 'n ander webwerf te skakel, sonder toestemming van die Oklahoma Historical Society. Individuele gebruikers moet bepaal of hul gebruik van die materiaal onder die Amerikaanse kopieregwetgewing se "quotair gebruik" -riglyne val en nie inbreuk maak op die eiendomsreg van die Oklahoma Historical Society as die wettige kopiereghouer van Die ensiklopedie van die geskiedenis van Oklahoma en gedeeltelik of geheel.

Fotokrediete: Alle foto's word in die gepubliseerde en aanlyn weergawes van Die ensiklopedie van die geskiedenis en kultuur van Oklahoma is die eiendom van die Oklahoma Historical Society (tensy anders vermeld).

Aanhaling

Die volgende (volgens Die Chicago Manual of Style, 17de uitgawe) is die voorkeuraanhaling vir artikels:
Mignon Sims en Larry O'Dell, & ldquoInterurbans, & rdquo Die ensiklopedie van die geskiedenis en kultuur van Oklahoma, https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=IN035.

© Oklahoma Historical Society.

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Webwerfindeks | Kontak ons ​​| Privaatheid | Perskamer | Webwerf Navrae


'N Kort geskiedenis van die spoorweë in Oklahoma

'N Toneel in die Missouri, Kansas, en Texas Railroad Depot in McAlester, OK

'N Laat begin

Spoorweë kom laat na die deel van die land wat nou bekend staan ​​as die staat Oklahoma. Selfs voordat die eerste relings aangebring is, was die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog verby, die transkontinentale spoorlyn was voltooi en die omliggende state (Texas, Arkansas, Missouri en Kansas) het spoorstelsels ingestel.

Dit wil nie sê dat daar geen belangstelling was om rails oor die oostelike deel van wat uiteindelik Oklahoma sou word, neer te sit nie. 'N Noord-suidlyn bied aan noordelike state 'n meer direkte roete na die suidelike hawens van die Golf. Boonop blyk dit dat die relatiewe plat terrein van Oklahoma 'n moontlike suidelike roete na die Stille Oseaan uitnooi. Reeds in 1853 het die federale regering 'n oos-wes-roete deur die Indiese gebied ondersoek. Twee spoorweë het planne gemaak vir so 'n roete, maar die uitbreek van die burgeroorlog het enige werklike konstruksie uitgestel.

Aan die einde van die burgeroorlog is idees weer voorgehou. Die grootste belemmering blyk te gewees het dat die gewenste roetes deur die Indiese gebied gegaan het, wat volgens verdrag deur die inheemse Amerikaanse stamme besit is. Hier moet op gelet word dat tydens die Burgeroorlog sommige van die stamme in die gebied die kant van die Konfederale State gehad het. Dit blyk toe dat vorige begeerte van federale bedrywighede, ongeag die hebsug, 'n begeerte is om spoorverbindings te ontwikkel en moontlik die stamme te straf. Die stamme moes noodgedwonge 'n nuwe verdrag aanvaar wat op 16 Julie 1866 opgestel is, wat die inheemse Amerikaners vereis het om twee spoorroetes oor hul lande te bou: een noord-suid roete en een oos-wes roete. Die stamme, nadat hulle gekyk het hoe inheemse Amerikaners in Kansas hul land aan spoorweë verloor het, was nie angstig om hul gebied prys te gee nie. Baie is bekommerd oor die uitwerking op hul kultuur en lewenswyse. Ander wat hulle voor die onvermydelike buig, beskou die koms van spoorweë egter as 'n moontlike ekonomiese hupstoot.

Verskeie spoorwegondernemings het spoedig die stryd aangesê om die reg om in die Indiese gebied in te bou. Die kongres het besluit dat toestemming verleen sal word aan die eerste wat op 'n sekere punt op die grens van die Indiese gebied gebou het. Alhoewel dit onduidelik is wie hierdie wedloop eintlik gewen het, is die Missouri, Kansas en Texas Railroad (die “MKT ” of “Katy ”) in die lente van 1870 toegelaat om na die Indiese gebied te gaan. Die eerste piek is op 6 Junie 1870 gery. Die spoorlyn het van noordoos na suidwes oorgesteek en die Rooi Rivier na Texas oorgesteek en Denison bereik op 25 Desember 1872. [Let op redakteur: dit was die lyn van Parsons, KS na Denison , TX, wat deur Muskogee gegaan het, OK.]

'N Tweede lyn, die Atlantic & amp, Pacific, wat op 1 September 1871 met die MKT in Vinita, OK verbind is, vorm die begin van 'n oos-wes roete.

Uitbreiding en staatskaping

Vir die volgende vyftien jaar is geen nuwe spoorwegondernemings in die Indiese gebied toegelaat nie. Die MKT het hul lyn gebruik om steenkool- en Texas -beeste noord en graan na die suide te stuur. Intussen het die Atlantic & amp Pacific hul lyn weswaarts van Vinita na Tulsa en verder uitgebrei. In 1876 word die A & ampP deel van die spoorwegstelsel St. Louis & San Francisco (Frisco).

Teen die 1880's is die gebrek aan spoorweë deur die toekomstige staat Oklahoma beskou as 'n belemmering vir uitgebreide handel tussen die omliggende state. Dus, in 1885-1886, het die federale regering begin om meer spoorweë in die gebied te laat bou en te bou. In 1886-1887 bou die Frisco 'n lyn van Arkansas na Texas. Die Atchison, Topeka, en Santa Fe (ATSF) het in 1887 'n lyn gebou wat van Kansas suidwaarts deur die lande sonder toewysing na Guthrie en die toekomstige Oklahoma City gelei het. Tydens die beroemde Land Run van 1889 het baie van die nuwe intrekkers met ATSF -treine aangekom. [Redakteur se opmerking: hierdie reël word vandag nog gebruik.]

Teen 1892 het die Chicago, Rock Island & amp Pacific (die “CRI & ampP ”, “Rock Island ”, of “ The Rock ”) sy eie noord-suidlyn voltooi van Kansas na Texas na die Chisholm Trail. [Opmerking van die redakteur: hierdie lyn het van Wichita, KS na Fort Worth, TX gegaan, deur Enid en El Reno, OK.]

Die Kansas City, Pittsburg, en Gulf (later die Kansas City Southern) en die Kansas & Arkansas Valley Railroad het ook nuwe lyne op die gebied gebou.

Die tydperk tussen 1897 en 1907 word beskou as die oplewing van spoorwegbou in Oklahoma. Streeksmaatskappye het met baie nuwe takke begin, en teen die tyd van Statehood in 1907 was die gebied bedek deur 'n digte netwerk spoorlyne, wat gelei het tot baie bouwerk. (Let daarop dat 75% van die spoorweg kilometers wat voor 1940 gestaak is, gedurende hierdie tydperk gebou is.) Die einde van grootskaalse konstruksie het in 1907 plaasgevind as gevolg van 'n finansiële paniek en 'n bepaling in die nuwe staatsgrondwet wat tussenstateondernemings verhinder het om intrastate spoorweë aan te skaf.

Die agteruitgang van die spoorweë van Oklahoma

Die grondwetlike verbod op verkrygings duur nie lank nie, en spoornetwerke het ten minste 'n kort rukkie steeds gegroei. Die Kansas City, Mexiko, en Orient Railroad en die Wichita Falls en Northwestern Railroad het albei vorentoe gestoot. 'N Spoorwegkaart van 1911 uit Oklahoma toon die roetes van vyftien regs-in-die-ry-ritte in die staat. Drie hooffaktore het tot hierdie groei bygedra: ontdekking van olie, die uitbreiding van die landbou (hoofsaaklik koring) en bevolkingsaanwas. Gedurende hierdie tyd gebruik produkte en mense van Oklahoma almal die spoorweë vir vervoer. Teen 1920 het spoornetwerke gegroei tot 6,572 myl, 'n redelike toename van die skamele 289 myl van 1880. Maar olie, petrol en die ontwikkeling van vragmotors, busse en motors sou binnekort lei tot die verlating of samesmelting van baie spoorweë in Oklahoma . Pypleidings het olie begin vervoer, terwyl die uitbreidende padstelsel goedere en passasiers vervoer het.

Nie verrassend nie, het die Groot Depressie van die 1930's gelei tot 'n verdere verswakking van die spoorweë in Oklahoma. Terwyl spoorwegondernemings probeer het om te moderniseer met diesellokomotiewe en spoorwaens, was die afname onvermydelik: lyne is verlaat en passasiersdienste is aansienlik beperk. Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het 'n kort herstel opgelewer met 'n groot toename in spoorverkeer. Na die einde van die vyandelikhede het Amerikaners egter hul liefdesverhouding met die motor ontdek. Passasiersdiens is gestaak en meer lyne is laat vaar.

Teen 1965 was daar nog net 5 570 myl in die Oklahoma -spoorstelsel ingesluit. Die spoorwegkaart van Oklahoma uit 1974 bevat sewentien spoorwegondernemings wat in die staat werk, waarvan die meeste kort lyne was. In 1978 publiseer die Oklahoma Department of Transportation egter 'n lys van agt bladsye van spoorweë (of gedeeltes daarvan) wat laat vaar is.

Die landwye konsolidasie van groot interstaatlike spoorwegondernemings het daartoe gelei dat baie lyne as oorbodig beskou word. Die magtige Rock Island het insolvent geraak en dit is in 1980 gelikwideer. In dieselfde jaar is die Frisco gekoop deur die Burlington Northern Railroad, wat in 1987 saamgesmelt het met die AT & ampSF om die Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) te word. En in 1989 is die Katy opgeneem in die Union Pacific/Missouri Pacific -stelsel. Oklahoma -rails, in 1995, het slegs 3,434 myl afgelê.

Spoorweë is egter nie weg van Oklahoma nie. In 1999 begin Amtrak met passasierspoorvervoer tussen Oklahoma City en Fort Worth, TX. Die 2018 – 2020 State Railroad Map toon drie klas I -lyne wat in Oklahoma werk: BNSF, Union Pacific en Kansas City Southern. Agtien klas III -spoorweë, insluitend die Stillwater Central, Farmrail en die Kiamichi, is ook ingesluit. Spoorwaaiers het baie geleenthede om die spoorweë in die Sooner State te sien en selfs te ry.

Geredigeer deur Andrew Reynolds

Hierdie kort geskiedenis van Oklahoma Railroads is saamgestel uit verskeie bronne (hieronder gelys) sowel as insette van spoorweghistorici.

1974 Spoorwegkaart van Oklahoma

Bibliografie

Franks, Kenny A., Treine, vliegtuie en rivierbootkaart van Oklahoma, Oklahoma Hall of Fame, 1990

George, Preston en Sylvan R. Wood, Die spoorweë van Oklahoma, Bulletin No. 80, The Railway & amp Locomotive Historical Society, 1943

Hofsommer, Donovan L., red., Spoorweë in Oklahoma, Oklahoma Historical Society, 1977

Hoagland, Bruce W. en Danny Goble, “Hoofstuk 55, Railroads, 1870-1907, ” Historical Atlas of Oklahoma, Universiteit van Oklahoma Press, 2006

Veendendall, Augustus J., Jr., “Railroads, ” The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Oklahoma Historical Society

Vroeë kaart van die Indiese gebied, Oklahoma Historical Society, 1876

Kaart van Oklahoma en Indiese gebiede, 1901

Spoorwegkaart van Oklahoma, Korporasiekommissie van Oklahoma, 1911

Spoorwegkaart van Oklahoma, Oklahoma Departement van Vervoer, 1974

Oklahoma 2018-2020 State Railroad Map, Oklahoma Departement van Vervoer


Soek aanlyn

1889 Oklahoma County databasis en platkaart

Hierdie databasis bevat name van Amerikaanse grondpatentopstalle vir Oklahoma County, Indian Territory, 1889.
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1901 Grondlootery

Lotery van El Reno Land - name getrek Hierdie indeks bevat meer as 8 000 individue wie se name in die 1901 -lotery getrek is. Die name word onttrek uit Name van die El Reno Land District Homesteaders -lêers, 1902 uitgegee deur H. H. Edwards in Guthrie, Oklahoma.
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El Reno Lotery Kaartjies

Wichita en Kiowa, en Apache Ceded Lands Homestead -toepassings


Cimarron -roete

By sy terugkeer na Santa Fe het Becknell gehoop om 'n vinniger roete te vind. Sy presiese koers daar word egter betwis; die roete wat hy huis toe geneem het, het bekend geword as die Cimarron -roete en was die gewildste baan op die Santa Fe -roete.

Die Cimarron -roete het die Arkansasrivier gevolg na Cimarron, Kansas, naby wat later Dodge City sou word. Van daar af het dit deur die suidweste van Kansas en die westelike panhandle van Oklahoma getrek voordat dit in Round Mound en Point of Rocks, New Mexico en San Miguel ingevaar het.

Nadat u deur die Glorieta -bergpas navigeer het, eindig dit in Santa Fe. Die Cimarron -roete was ongeveer 100 myl korter as die bergroete en minder gevaarlik, hoewel dit nie sonder sy uitdagings was nie. Water kan skaars wees op hierdie dorre, woestynpad en Indiese aanvalle was algemeen.


LET WEL: Die volgende Shawnee -geskiedenis word tans as 'n syprojek aanlyn geplaas. Inligting moet steeds op die bladsy gevoeg word soos die tyd van die personeel dit toelaat.

Voorwoord
Hierdie publikasie is nie bedoel om 'n volledige lys van al die historiese eiendomme in Shawnee, Oklahoma, te wees nie. Die doel is om 'n oorsig van die geskiedenis van die stad te gee en om 'n paar van die belangrikste historiese bronne, die kenmerkende argitektoniese kenmerke, te identifiseer, asook om die belangrikste redes waarom hierdie buurte ontwikkel het, te verduidelik.

Die invloed van die belangrikste nywerheid van Shawnee, die spoorwegwinkels, word beoordeel, tesame met die impak van die olie -oplewing in Oklahoma in die 1920's op residensiële konstruksie. Die belangrikheid van die tramstelsel word ook geanaliseer as 'n faktor in die ruimtelike ontwikkeling van Shawnee.

Die boekie waaruit hierdie webwerf geskep is, was die gevolg van 'n beplannings- en opname -toekenning van die Historic Preservation Office van Oklahoma en die stad Shawnee. Die direkteur van die opname was dr. Dale Soden, professor in geskiedenis aan die Oklahoma Baptist University. Hy is bygestaan ​​deur dr. Gary Farley en Steve Hicks. Bykomende dank is verskuldig aan Margaret Soden, Dan Fields, Amy Madison, Kathy Palen, Steve Mosley en studente aan die Oklahoma Baptist University. Baie van die foto's is met vergunning van die Shawnee News-Star.

Die opname van die historiese bronne van Shawnee is uitgevoer tussen Februarie 1984 en Mei 1985. Onder toesig van dr. Soden en dr Farley het verskeie studente van die Oklahoma Baptist University uitgebreide fotografiese dekking gegee van Shawnee se residensiële konstruksie, sowel as baie ure se mondelinge onderhoude met jarelange onderhoude. Shawnee inwoners.

Die kern van die middestad is intensief bestudeer en die staatsbewaringskantoor het opname -inligting oor elk van die strukture ontvang. Bykomende produkte van die opname was die benoeming van verskeie strukture tot die National Historic Register en die toevoeging van 'n aantal strukture tot die Oklahoma Landmarks Inventory. Die stad Shawnee is voorsien van fotografiese bewyse van ongeveer 3500 strukture wat meer as 50 jaar oud is in die stad.

Die boek was 'n addisionele produk van die opname en is bedoel om 'n samevattende oorsig te wees van die hulpbronne in die middestad en die woongebiede.

Vroeë geskiedenis/ontwikkeling

Die gebied rondom Shawnee is na die burgeroorlog gevestig deur 'n aantal stamme wat die federale regering na die Indiese gebied verwyder het. Die Sac en Fox was oorspronklik aktegrond in die onmiddellike omgewing, maar is gou gevolg deur die Kickapoo, Shawnee en Potawatomi Indiane. Lede van die stamme bly vandag in en om Shawnee.

In die loop van die 1870's het veebestuurders in Texas hul kuddes oor die Indiese gebied gestoot; daar was vier groot roetes, met die West Shawnee-roete wat naby die huidige Kickapoo- en Hoofstraat kruis. With the cattle drives came railroads as a result, pressure began to build to allow permanent white settlements in a region that previously had been reserved by treaty to Native Americans. The one other event that foreshadowed the coming of white civilization was the establishment in 1871 of the Quaker mission near the current Mission Hill Hospital, where an old building still marks the spot. That first missionary, Joseph Newsom, opened a school in 1872, and by 1876 a post office and trading post had been established a quarter mile west of the mission at what became known as Shawnee Town.

Beginning in April 1889, the United States government succumbed to the pressure that had built to open Indian lands to white settlement. Land runs were initiated after tribal property was seized and then allotted individually to tribal members. At high noon on September 22, 1891, Etta B. Ray, John and Lola Beard, J. T. Farrall, and Elijah Ally set off for the site of present-day Shawnee. By Christmas 1891, John Beard had decided that railroads would be the key to Shawnee's success. With the aid of other settlers, he made overtures to various railroads. The task was considerable since Tecumseh already had been named the county seat. Nevertheless, by the fall of 1894, the Choctaw Railroad was committed to come through Shawnee. Tracks were completed from Oklahoma City to Shawnee by July 4, 1895. In February 1896, terminal facilities for the Choctaw Railroad were built in Shawnee, but it was the decision of the Choctaw to relocate its main repair shops, which formerly had been McAlester, that served to promote significant growth. The shops provided a strong employment base for the city as the work force reached nearly 1,000.

For the first few years of the new century, Shawnee was in the midst of a boom that came close to keeping pace with Oklahoma City's growth. Located in the heart of cotton, potato, and peach country, Shawnee quickly became an agricultural center. Reportedly, Shawnee had the largest cotton-seed oil mill in the Southwest. By 1902, there were seven cotton gins in the immediate area and two cotton compresses. Between March 1901 and March 1902, 375 railroad cars of cotton product were shipped out of Shawnee, along with 150,000 bales of cotton. Feed stores, wagon yards, an overall factory, and an assortment of other businesses were designed to serve the farmer as he brought his crop to market in Shawnee.

Shawnee's growth was fueled by the railroad industry. By 1902, the Choctaw had been absorbed by the Rock Island, and a station was built at the foot of Union Street. Shortly thereafter, the Santa Fe built one of the more striking stations in the entire country. The Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Railroad, better known as the Katy, also built a station. By 1907, according to the Chamber of Commerce, there was an average of 42 passenger trains and 65 freight trains arriving in the city each day.

Virtually cupped on three sides by railroad tracks, Shawnee developed its commercial activity around Main Street. With no central square around which to build, retail businesses, garment factories, hotels, cotton gins, convention halls, opera houses, and banking institutions jockeyed for the best position on Main Street and its intersecting arterials. By 1903, the streetcar system was being constructed by a private developer. Tracks stretched from St. Benedict's on Kickapoo up to Broadway at Main. Tracks also ran down the middle of Broadway and turned left on Georgia to make a stop near Oklahoma Baptist University. Another line went east on Main to Pesotum and on to turn around at the country club.

While Shawnee did not possess a town square to focus public activity, the city did have Woodland Park, just two blocks north of Main Street. Constructed with fountains and formal gardens, the park was the building location in 1905 of the Carnegie Library, as well as the site of frequent Chautauqua meetings led by such people as William Jennings Bryan. But it was Benson Park, located approximately midway between Shawnee and Tecumseh, that served the recreational needs of Shawnee residents for most of 30 years. What made the park something special was the interurban streetcar that ran between the two towns to the park. Opened in 1907, the park had a swimming pool, skating rink, roller coaster, and large picnic areas.

By 1910, however, it was increasingly clear that while Shawnee would continue to prosper , the city could no longer vie with Oklahoma City for predominance in the region. Shawnee was unsuccessful in attracting the Armour meatpacking company and the Frisco Railroad, and the city came in a distant third in the statewide election to determine the permanent site of the state capital. The city, however, was successful in securing both the Baptist university and a Catholic college, St.Gregory's. Between 1910 and 1920, the population increased at a slowed pace from 12,500 to 15,400.

Shawnee's next growth spurt occurred in the 1920s with the onset of the Oklahoma oil boom. Shawnee was located close enough to Earlsboro and Seminole to benefit substantially from the new wealth, but because there was little oil in the immediate vicinity, the city did not suffer from an uncontrollable growth. At the peak of production, Pottawatomie County wells were producing more than 120,000 barrels a day. The Chamber of Commerce advertised itself as "The Hub of the World's Largest Oil Fields." This oil boom stimulated residential construction, oil-related businesses, and the entertainment industry.

However, there was a number of negative economic factors in the 1920s that ultimately meant Shawnee would suffer significantly during the Depression. In 1922, the Rock Island experienced a nation-wide strike that resulted in increased tension between strikers and strike breakers. While the economic effect of the strike is difficult to evaluate, the shops ceased to grow as an employer in the city. Perhaps more serious was the decline in agricultural production due in large part to the impact of the boll weevil on the cotton crop.

Ultimately, however, it was the stock market crash and the resulting depression that took a great toll on Shawnee residents, as with the rest of the nation. Shawnee's survival depended upon many factors, but clearly one of the more important was the assistance provided by the New Deal. Funding from the federal government helped construct the new county courthouse, the municipal auditorium, the municipal swimming pool, the high school football stadium, the Deer Creek reservoir, and a number of elementary schools. These programs helped soften the blow in 1937 of the loss of the Rock Island repair shops to El Reno.

The Second World War, and in particular the construction of Tinker Air Field east of Oklahoma City, benefited Shawnee's economy. At various times, Tinker has employed as many as 3,000 Shawnee residents. After the war, three major manufacturing concerns were important for Shawnee's economic health. Jonco, Inc., manufactured aviation products and employed nearly 1,000 in 1958. The Sylvania Corporation produced tubes and electrical parts in its Shawnee plant and employed another 1,000. The Shawnee Milling Company, which had rebuilt after a fire in the 1930s, employed nearly 300 workers.

Fairly stagnant until the 1970s, Shawnee's economic climate improved with the addition of a number of industrial plants north of the city which added approximately 1,000 jobs to the community base.

Down Town

West Main Street is an excellent example of many Main-Street communities that emerged in the late 19th century as part of the westward movement. Choosing not to organize its activity around a central square, as did many towns in New England, the South, and upper-Midwest, Shawnee represents a distinctly western model of urban development. Depending on railroad lines for its economic health, Shawnee's Main Street became the focal point for commercial, manufacturing, and entertainment activity beginning in 1895, four years after the region was opened for white settlement in a land run. Competing with Oklahoma City in order to be the hub of central Oklahoma, Shawnee developed a fairly broad base of economic activity. As late as 1910, city leaders hoped that one more rail line, a meat- packing plant, and the state capital might be just enough to surge ahead of its rival 40 miles to the west. Such was not the case, however, as Shawnee came in a distant third in the state- wide election to determine the capital, and lost both the rail line and the meatpacking plant to Oklahoma City. The setbacks perhaps insured, however, that Shawnee would be primarily a small city built around the activity of Main Street.

East Main Street. Shawnee's early economic success was developed around the railroad industry. The Santa Fe Train Depot (still extant), with its unique architecture, serves as a visible reminder of the city's dependence on the train. During the early 20th century, the Rock Island Railroad and the Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Railroad both had depots in the city. Shawnee's major employer was the Rock Island Railroad, which had located its main southwestern repair shops in the city in 1896 the shops were removed to El Reno in 1937, but two major buildings remain. The Santa Fe Railroad also had repair shops just south of the city only a large concrete tower remained until 2000 when it was removed.

Serving as the region's agricultural hub during much of the first quarter of the 20th century, Shawnee provided the markets for significant numbers of farmers to sell their crops. Cotton was a major crop and Main Street was often lined with bales mule sellers, peanut vendors, and peach growers all came to Shawnee. The building which was reputed to be the largest cotton-seed oil mill in the Southwest is still extant this same building later was turned into a peanut factory. Seven cotton gins could be found in the city, including the first electric gin in the state, which is still extant. The Shawnee Flouring Mill has been a major part of the city's economic history and still dominates the skyline of the downtown core. The existing building was rebuilt after a fire in 1934. Near Main Street are a coal gasification plant that dates to 1907 and a grain elevator that dates to the 1920s.

City Hall. As of 1980, Main Street was dominated by small retail establishments of which approximately 80 percent were housed in buildings that were built prior to statehood in 1907. The large majority of these buildings have had their facades significantly altered in order to adjust to the changing tastes in the 20th century. Yet there is one block that remains substantially unaltered from the turn of the century. This block serves as a living reminder of how life on Main Street functioned prior to statehood the buildings still house a hardware store, a western wear store, and a furniture store. On another block further west stands, in virtually unaltered condition, Shawnee's most famous department store, which was constructed in 1907. Acknowledged throughout the region as the finest of its kind, the Mammoth (currently Neal's Home Furnishings) continues to remind residents of the high level of retail activity of early Shawnee residents. Before World War II, Main Street had numerous drugstores with soda fountains that served as the social gathering places for young people. Today, the Owl Drug, which is in a building that has been a drugstore since 1895, retains the old fixtures and reminds one of a former way of socializing on Main Street.

The variety of resources on and adjacent to Main Street is reflected in two hotels the first, the Norwood, was built in 1903 and remains substantially unaltered. People through the 1930s would take the train to Shawnee, stay in the Norwood, and shop in the stores on Main Street. The second hotel, the Aldridge, built in 1928, was a result of the wealth and growth generated by the oil boom of the 1920s, as was the four-story Masonic Temple Office Building, which was constructed in 1929. The one other building that was constructed during the height of the oil boom in Shawnee was the State National Bank on Main Street. The bank fell victim to the Depression in the 1930s, but the building currently houses a number of retail businesses and is known as the Mini-Mall.

Main Street always has had a number of entertainment facilities. A convention hall attracted the likes of Sara Bernhardt, and an opera house on Market and Main was the site of many memorable events. The best example still extant is the Ritz Theater, which was the oldest continuously operating theater in Oklahoma in 1980. The city has the Carnegie Library building, which was rebuilt after a fire in the 1920s.

Downtown Shawnee has lost a great many buildings of historical value, but still retains a significant number of resources that continue to provide a living reminder of how Main Street functioned for a great many Americans in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

The quarter section of land on which the original city was built, was entered by Henry G. Beard, in 1892. In the early spring of 1885, Mr. Beard entered into an agreement with the promoters of the Choctaw, Oklahoma & Gulf Railroad Company, then extending its line from Memphis, Tennessee, to Amarillo, Texas, to build through his farm, and in consideration he gave the railway company one-half his claim of one hundred and sixty acres. The road was accordingly built through his farm, and the City of Shawnee began on July 4, 1895, its existence as a thriving, growing and expanding commercial centered on when the first train arrived.

1895 Oklahoma Map - Shawnee Area. The city was located in Central Oklahoma, on the north side of the North Canadian River, and was known as the Central City of the State. It was also built in the midst of a dense forest, and for that reason was known in the Southwest as the "Forest City".

The quote "In the heart of Oklahoma" dates back to at least 1908 when the Chamber of Commerce published a document relating to the birth and tremendous growth of Shawnee during it's first thirteen years.


Last passenger trains

When the Minneapolis-St. Louis Rock Island Rocket No. 190 pulled out of the Rock Island Depot shortly after 10 p.m. on April 8, 1967, passenger rail service ended in Cedar Rapids.

The Rock Island had been operating passenger service for Cedar Rapids since 1903 when it purchased the Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Northern line.

The first completed railway into Iowa was the Mississippi and Missouri River Road from Davenport to Iowa´s then-capital, Iowa City, on Jan. 1, 1856.

Construction also was underway on several other lines: the Burlington and Missouri River Road, the Iowa Central Air Line (to Marion) and the Dubuque and Pacific.

In 1856, a group of New England investors joined with local businessmen, including Judge George Greene and Dr. John F. Ely, to make Cedar Rapids a railroad hub. The Chicago, Iowa & Nebraska, a rival line to the Iowa Central, was begun at Clinton. Connected with the Dixon Air Line at Fulton, it made rapid progress.

The first Chicago, Iowa & Nebraska locomotive steamed into Cedar Rapids on June 15, 1859. The station was on a site that later would be the Sinclair Packing House, but by November, foundations were being laid for a new Chicago, Iowa & Nebraska round house and turntable.

By 1862, the Burlington and Missouri River went as far west as Mount Pleasant the Dubuque and Pacific as far as Dyersville and the Chicago, Iowa & Nebraska got no farther than Cedar Rapids. That´s when John Blair and associates organized a company to build from Cedar Rapids to Council Bluffs.

The Chicago, Iowa & Nebraska was reorganized in 1862 into the Chicago & Northwestern, the same year President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railway Act. Two years later, a Dubuque and Southwestern passenger train was the first to pull into Marion. That railroad later became the Milwaukee Road, which laid track to Omaha in 1882.

Greene and Ely were instrumental in organizing a north-south route, the Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Minnesota Railroad, in 1868. It reorganized into the Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Northern in 1876 with Greene as president. Its signature building on First Avenue, now the Skogman building, still has the initials of the railroad on its side. The Rock Island purchased a majority of stock in 1885 and took over the railroad in 1903.

Rise, fall of Union Station

At the turn of the 20th century, more than 40 passenger trains moved through Cedar Rapids and Marion. Names such as the Midwest Hiawatha, the Rocket, Arrow and Challenger were familiar.

Cedar Rapids dedicated its Union Station on Jan. 27, 1897. It ran for two city blocks along Fourth Street, closing off Fourth Avenue. The dedication festivities included a dance, orators and refreshments, all as a fundraiser to help those who were hungry and cold.

The station was constructed of St. Louis hydraulic brick, trimmed in blue Bedford, Ind., stone. The roof was covered in German clay tiling with copper metal work. At the corners of the cut stone trimming and at the tops of arches were cleverly designed gargoyles. The tower supported a 102-foot finial and had an illuminated clock with a 6-foot dial. The inside was paneled in oak with marble flooring. At each end of the huge waiting room were immense fireplaces of red Portage Entry stone set in carved oak mantels. At the height of the railroad era in the 1920s, the station constantly was busy with passenger and interurban trains, including presidential trains and trains carrying soldiers from three wars. Union Station was demolished in 1961 when the convenience of automobiles for short trips and airlines for long ones severely curtailed use of passenger trains.

The Hiawatha was discontinued in 1955 and the Union Pacific, which was operating on Northwestern tracks, moved to the Milwaukee Road. Union Pacific operated the Cities of San Francisco, Los Angeles, Denver and Portland streamliners. They were moved from Union Station to Marion´s depot. Within 15 years, only one remained: the City of Los Angeles.

The two-story brick Marion Railroad depot was built in 1888 for $15,000 at 11th Street and Sixth Avenue, replacing the 1873 depot. The lower level had passenger waiting rooms, ticket sales and baggage and mail areas. On the second floor were offices. The trainmaster´s desk sat in a bay window to allow a clear view of rail traffic.

Around the same time, the freight yards and round house were built east of town. The Milwaukee Road offered passenger service out of Marion until the last train to actually board passengers pulled into Marion´s depot April 30, 1971.

The riders who boarded the City of Los Angeles streamliner included a pair of Marion mothers who wanted their youngsters to have the experience of riding a train and a Marion lawyer who was taking his family to Chicago. The train returned to Marion that night, bringing home a group of Harding students.

The Union Pacific-Milwaukee Road Cities train, nicknamed 'The City of Everywhere” by locals, made runs May 1 and 2 to disembark passengers, finally pulling into Marion at 8:15 p.m. May 2 before continuing to its last stop, Chicago.

The depot partially was used as offices until 1988, when a new downtown mall was proposed. A Depot Pride committee was formed to salvage the historic building. They succeeded in using bricks and the roof from the depot to build a pavilion in Marion Square Park.


Kyk die video: Tom Kiefer of Cinderella last train Oklahoma City November 5th 2017 at the railway station