Winston Churchill sterf

Winston Churchill sterf



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Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, die Britse leier wat Groot -Brittanje en die Geallieerdes deur die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gelei het, sterf in Londen op 90 -jarige ouderdom.

Churchill, gebore in 1874 in die Blenheim -paleis, het hom by die Britse Vierde Huzaren aangesluit by die dood van sy vader in 1895. Gedurende die volgende vyf jaar het hy 'n roemryke militêre loopbaan geniet, in Indië, die Soedan en Suid -Afrika gedien en hom verskeie kere onderskei in stryd. In 1899 bedank hy sy kommissie om op sy literêre en politieke loopbaan te konsentreer en word in 1900 in die parlement verkies as 'n konserwatiewe parlementslid van Oldham. In 1904 het hy by die liberale aangesluit en in 'n aantal belangrike poste gedien voordat hy in 1911 as die eerste heer van die admiraliteit aangestel is, waar hy gewerk het om die Britse vloot gereed te maak vir die oorlog wat hy voorsien het.

In 1915, in die tweede jaar van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, is Churchill verantwoordelik gehou vir die rampspoedige veldtogte in Dardanelles en Gallipoli, en hy is uitgesluit van die oorlogskoalisie -regering. Hy bedank en bied aan om 'n infanteriebataljon in Frankryk te beveel. In 1917 keer hy egter terug na die politiek as 'n kabinetslid in die Liberale regering van Lloyd George. Van 1919 tot 1921 was hy staatsekretaris vir oorlog en keer in 1924 terug na die Konserwatiewe Party, waar hy twee jaar later 'n leidende rol gespeel het in die nederlaag van die Algemene Staking van 1926. Uit sy amp van 1929 tot 1939 het Churchill waarskuwings sonder waarskuwing oor die bedreiging van Nazi en Japannese aggressie.

Na die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Europa, is Churchill teruggeroep na sy pos as eerste heer van die admiraliteit en agt maande later vervang hy die ondoeltreffende Neville Chamberlain as premier van 'n nuwe koalisieregering. In die eerste jaar van sy administrasie het Brittanje alleen gestaan ​​teen Nazi -Duitsland, maar Churchill het sy land en die wêreld belowe dat die Britse volk 'nooit sal oorgee nie'. Hy het die Britse volk tot 'n vaste weerstand byeengeroep en Franklin D. Roosevelt en Joseph Stalin kundig georkestreer tot 'n alliansie wat die as verpletter het.

In Julie 1945, 10 weke na die nederlaag van Duitsland, ly sy konserwatiewe regering 'n nederlaag teen die Labour Party van Clement Attlee, en Churchill bedank as premier. Hy word leier van die opposisie en word in 1951 weer tot premier verkies. Twee jaar later kry hy die Nobelprys vir letterkunde vir sy historiese studie oor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in ses volumes en vir sy politieke toesprake; hy is ook tot ridder geslaan deur koningin Elizabeth II. In 1955 tree hy af as premier, maar bly in die parlement tot 1964, die jaar voor sy dood.

LEES MEER: 10 dinge wat u nie mag weet oor Winston Churchill nie


Kleinseun van Winston Churchill sterf na stryd met kanker

LONDON - Winston Spencer Churchill, 'n voormalige parlementslid en kleinseun van die Britse leier in die oorlog, is Dinsdag oorlede, het 'n medewerker gesê. Hy was 69.

Churchill het aan kanker gely en is in sy huis in Londen oorlede, het kmdt. John Muxworthy, president van die United Kingdom National Defense Association.

Churchill was lid van die House of Commons van 1970 tot 1997. Vroeër was hy 'n buitelandse korrespondent vir The Times of London, The Daily Telegraph en ander koerante.

Hy was 'n stigter van die Defence Association, wat hom beywer het vir groter steun aan die Britse weermag.

'' 'N Ware patriot, WSC, het gevolg in die stappe van sy grootvader, sir Winston, wat in die dertigerjare onophoudelik 'n veldtog vir hierdie land beywer het ten spyte van die steeds groter wordende bedreiging van Nazi-Duitsland,' het Muxworthy gesê. 'Tagtig jaar later voer ons Winston dieselfde stryd.'

Churchill is in Oktober 1940 gebore in Checkers, die amptelike landhuis van die premier, kort nadat vlieëniers van die Royal Air Force in die Slag van Brittanje die oorhand gekry het. Tydens dit is Hitler se Luftwaffe verhinder om Brittanje se lugverdediging te vernietig of die land te dwing om 'n wapenstilstand te beding.

Hy was die seun van Randolph Churchill en Pamela Digby, wat die Londense samelewing met haar sake geskandeer het en wat later as Pamela Harriman die Amerikaanse ambassadeur in Frankryk geword het. Die ouers is in 1945 geskei.

'Ek het nooit my ouers saam geken nie, so hulle skeiding het niks vir my beteken nie,' het Churchill in 'n onderhoud met The Daily Telegraph in 2008 gesê.

Hy onthou dat hy die oggend in Chartwell, sy oupa se huis, suidoos van Londen, gebly het. Hy het bygevoeg dat die drank baie swak was.

"Elke middag spandeer ons 'n paar uur saam en lê bakstene. As iemand my gevra het wat my oupa gedoen het, sou ek gesê het: Hy is 'n metselaar," onthou Churchill.

In sy outobiografie, "Memories and Adventures", het Churchill gesê dat sy beroemde naam 'n las kan wees, veral toe hy op skool in Eton was. Hy het vertel van boelies wat hom vloek, en toe gesê: "En neem dit omdat hy Winston-bloody-Churchill is!"

Young Winston se loopbaan in joernalistiek het begin met 'n onbetaalde pos as kopielezer by The Wall Street Journal. Nadat hy aan die Universiteit van Oxford gestudeer het, dek hy konflikte in Jemen, die Kongo, Angola, Viëtnam en Biafra. Hy onthou ook dat hy deur die polisiebeamptes in Chicago aangeval is tydens die groot kongres van die Demokratiese Party in 1968.

Hy is verkies as 'n konserwatief om Stretford in 1970 in Lancashire te verteenwoordig, en dien daardie distrik tot 1983. Gedurende daardie tydperk het hy sy kans op bevordering effektief gedood deur premier Margaret Thatcher te trotseer en te stem teen sanksies teen Rhodesië (nou Zimbabwe).

Churchill verteenwoordig Manchester Davyhulme van 1983 tot 1997.

In 1979 was hy in 'n skandaal gewikkel oor sy twee jaar lange verhouding met Soraya Khashoggi, die voormalige vrou van 'n Saoedi-wapenhandelaar.

Die saak het aan die lig gekom tydens 'n opspraakwekkende vervolging van drie polisiebeamptes vir die afpersing van Khashoggi. 'N Verdedigingsadvokaat het beweer die polisie ondersoek Khashoggi omdat sy betrokke was by 'n politikus, wat later as Churchill geïdentifiseer is.

Hy het ook in 1995 kritiek gelewer nadat hy sy oupa se persoonlike vraestelle vir 12,5 miljoen pond ($ 20 miljoen) aan die land verkoop het.

'Hoewel die trustees aansienlik meer op die wêreldmark kon kom, was dit hul en my spesifieke wens dat die papiere nie in die oop mark aangebied moes word nie, maar in hierdie land moes bly,' het Churchill destyds gesê.

Churchill word oorleef deur twee dogters en twee seuns uit sy huwelik met Mary Caroline d'Erlanger, wat in 1997 in 'n egskeiding eindig en deur sy tweede vrou, Luce Danielson.


Jy wou weet

Hoe het Marigold Churchill gesterf?

Marigold Churchill is op 23 Augustus 1921 aan septisemie oorlede. Voor haar dood was Marigold onder die sorg van haar Franse goewerneur in die stad Broadstairs aan die suidoostelike kus van Engeland. Winston Churchill was weg in Skotland en sy vrou, Clementine, het hom vergesel. Goudsbloem het ses maande lank aan hoes en verkoue gely, wat blykbaar eers ontwikkel het tot 'n bakteriese infeksie en daarna septisemie. Winston Churchill was nie tydens haar dood by haar dogter en rsquos nie.

Marigold se ouers ontmoet die eerste keer by 'n bal in 'Crewe House', die tuiste van die graaf van Crewe, in 1904. Dit was 'n toevallige ontmoeting, en hulle het toe nie veel interaksie gehad nie. Hulle ontmoet mekaar egter weer in Maart 1908 tydens 'n ete wat Lady St. Helier aangebied het. Churchill het toevallig langs Clementine by die partytjie gesit, en die twee het dus 'n gesprek begin. Hulle verhouding het die volgende paar maande gefloreer, en in Augustus dieselfde jaar het Churchill sy dame liefde voorgestel in 'n klein somerhuis, bekend as die 'Tempel van Diana'.

Winston Churchill en Clementine trou op 12 September 1908 in 'St. Margaret's, Westminster. ’Die troue is gehou deur die biskop van 'St Asaph.'

Die oudste Churchill -dogter, Diana, is die volgende jaar op 11 Julie gebore. Kort na die geboorte van Diana verhuis Clementine na Sussex om te herstel van haar siekte na die swangerskap, en laat die pasgeborene by 'n oppas. Marigold se tweede oudste broer, Randolph, is gebore op Eccleston Square 33, terwyl haar ander ouer suster, Sarah, op 7 Oktober 1914 in 'Admiralty House' gebore is. Churchill moes, soos deur sy kabinet beveel, na Antwerpen vertrek om die stresvolle politieke situasie in België wat destyds geheers het, te bestuur. Die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het toe reeds begin.

Marigold is gebore as Marigold Frances Churchill, op 15 November 1918. Sy is gebore vier dae nadat die 'Eerste Wêreldoorlog' amptelik geëindig het. Churchill het sy pasgebore baba 'Duckadilly' genoem.

Net soos Churchill, moes Marigold se ma ook baie reis om invloedryke mense te ontmoet. Sy het 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, waarvoor sy in 1918 aangestel is as die 'Commander in the Order of the British Empire' (CBE). sorg. Dit is later vermoed dat dit Marigold se dood veroorsaak het.

Churchill moes na Skotland vertrek, en Clementine besluit om hom te vergesel. Hulle seun en Sarah sou later by hulle aangesluit het. Hulle het Marigold verlaat in 'n gehuurde kothuis met 'n goewerneur in die stad Broadstairs aan die suidoostelike kus van Engeland. Sy het al voorheen aan hoes en verkoue gely en het twee keer siek geword.

In Augustus 1921 word 'n Franse kleuterskoolmeester in Kent, Mlle Rose, vir al vier Churchill -kinders aangestel. Ongeveer dieselfde tyd moes Clementine vertrek na 'Eaton Hall' om saam met Hugh Grosvenor, 2de hertog van Westminster, en sy gesin tennis te speel. Terug in Kent het Marigold aan koue gely. Daar is egter berig dat sy na 'n rukkie herstel het. Ongelukkig het goudsbloem nie eintlik herstel nie, en haar verkoue het herhaal. Haar goewerneur het nie die verslegtende gesondheid van Marigold raakgesien nie, en daarom het Marigold geen effektiewe behandeling daarvoor ontvang nie. Die siekte het uiteindelik tot septisemie verander en die immuunstelsel van die dogtertjie verswak. Die goewerneur van Marigold was aanvanklik bang en het die verslag aan Clementine oor die siekte vertraag. Sy het 'n paar weke later 'n telegraaf na Clementine gestuur, maar dit was toe te laat. Teen die tyd dat Clementine Marigold bereik het, was Marigold reeds naby die dood. Clementine het Churchill dadelik laat weet, wat met die volgende trein aangekom het.


Winston Churchill sterf - GESKIEDENIS

LONDEN, Sondag, 24 Januarie-Sir Winston Churchill is dood.

Die groot figuur wat die mens en aposs vergestalt het, sal die tirannie weerstaan ​​wat vanoggend in die geskiedenis oorgegaan het. Hy was 90 jaar oud.

Sy ou vriend en dokter, Lord Moran, het die nuus aan die wêreld gegee nadat hy koningin Elizabeth en premier Harold Wilson daarvan in kennis gestel het.

Die aankondiging van Lord Moran en aposs het gesê:

Kort na 08:00 sterf sir Winston by sy huis. & quot

Die aankondiging deur Lord Moran is om 08:35 voorgelees aan verslaggewers naby die Churchill -huis. (03:35, New York -tyd).

Ongeveer 30 perspersone het in die reën gestaan ​​by die ingang van Hyde Park Gate, die straatjie suid van Kensington Gardens waar Sir Winston so lank gewoon het. 'N Verslaggewer van die persvereniging het Lord Moran en 'n verklaring vir hulle gelees.

Lord Moran het om 7:18 by die huis gekom. 'N Paar minute vroeër het sir Winston en sy seun, Randolph, gery. Aan die einde was daar ook Lady Churchill en hul dogter, Sarah, en Randolph & aposs seun, Winston.

'N Ander dogter, Mary, mev Christopher Soames, oorleef ook sir Winston. Ander oorlewendes is 10 kleinkinders en drie agterkleinkinders, die laaste wat net twee dae gelede gebore is.

Koningin Elizabeth II het die volgende boodskap aan Lady Churchill gestuur:

Die hele wêreld is die armer deur die verlies van sy veelsydige genie, terwyl die voortbestaan ​​van hierdie land en die susterlande van die Statebond, te midde van die grootste gevaar wat hulle ooit bedreig het, 'n ewige gedenkteken sal wees vir sy leierskap , sy visie en sy ontembare moed. & quot

Eerste minister Wilson het onmiddellik hulde gebring aan sy roemryke voorganger in sy amp.

Sir Winston sal oor die hele wêreld getreur word deur almal wat hom soveel skuld, "het mnr. Wilson gesê. Hy is nou in vrede na 'n lewe waarin hy geskiedenis geskep het en wat onthou sal word solank die geskiedenis gelees word.

Die wêreld het gekyk en gewag sedert 15 Januarie, toe dit bekend gemaak is dat Sir Winston 'n beroerte gehad het. Die laaste outentieke reus van die wêreldpolitiek in die 20ste eeu was aan die ondergaan.

Die stryd het voortgegaan vir nege dae. Mediese kenners het gesê dat slegs fenomenale volharding en lewensgees 'n man van 90 in staat kan stel om die dood in hierdie omstandighede so lank te weerhou.

Maar dan was dit die eienskappe wat Winston Churchill in sy leeftyd 'n historiese figuur gemaak het. Sy voorneme om Brittanje tot 'n oorwinning in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog bymekaar te bring, het nie net hierdie land gered nie, maar, na alle waarskynlikheid, vrye nasies oral.

Sir Winston kry 'n staatsbegrafnis, die eerste gewone wat sedert die dood van William Ewart Gladstone in 1898 vereer kan word.

Die lyk sal 'n paar dae in Westminster Hall in staat wees. Dan, na 'n lang opmars van Westminster, word die dienste gehou in die St. Paul & aposs -katedraal, wie se groot koepel Londen so lank oorheers het.

Herdenking van vader en aposs dood

Vandag was dit die herdenking van die dood van Sir Winston & aposs vader, Lord Randolph Churchill, 'n ietwat eksentrieke Tory -politikus. Hy is in 1894 oorlede.

Vir feitlik almal in Groot -Brittanje sal die dood van Sir Winston en aposs 'n ernstige persoonlike verlies en 'n simboliese breuk wees met 'n verlede waarvan die glorie reeds vervaag is.

Ook vir die wêreld is dit die einde van 'n era.

Sir Winston sal altyd onthou word as die groot oorlogsleier wat Hitler uitgedaag het. Maar hy was meer as dit, 'n persoonlikheid groter as die lewe, 'n buitengewone man in taal en karakter sowel as oorlog en politiek.

Oorlog was sy beste uur

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was een van die grootste manne van sy tyd. Hy was die sleutelrol van die Grand Alliance van 26 nasies wat die asmagte in 1945 na byna ses jaar se oorlog oorwin het.

Vir hom en sy landgenote kom sy beste uur in 1940 toe Brittanje alleen staan, beleërd op see en in die lug. Hy het al sy vaardighede as redenaar gebruik om Britse trots en moed bymekaar te bring en al sy vermoë as staatsman om wapens en voedsel uit die buiteland te kry.

Met byna die hele Europa onder of op die punt om onder die Nazi -jackboot te val, was dit Sir Winston wat hierdie uitdaging op die vyand gewerp het:

& quot Ons sal nie vlag of misluk nie. Ons gaan aan tot die einde, ons sal veg in Frankryk, ons sal veg op die see en oseane, ons sal veg met groeiende selfvertroue en groeiende krag in die lug, ons sal ons eiland verdedig, wat die koste ook al mag wees, ons sal veg op die strande, ons sal veg op die landingsplekke, ons sal veg in die veld en in die strate, ons sal veg in die heuwels wat ons nooit sal oorgee nie, en selfs al sou ek hierdie oomblik nie glo nie, hierdie eiland of 'n groot deel daarvan was onderwerp en honger, dan sou ons ryk buite die see, gewapen en bewaak deur die Britse vloot, die stryd voortsit totdat die nuwe wêreld in alle tye in alle tye met al sy krag en mag, tree tot die redding en die bevryding van die oue. & quot

Soos wyle president John F. Kennedy in 1963 gesê het, toe hy 'n ereburgerskap van die Verenigde State aan hom toegeken het, "het hy die Engelse taal gemobiliseer en dit in die stryd gestuur."

Die Nobelprys in 1953

Afgesien van sy roem as wêreldstaatsman en wêreldstrateeg, het hy onderskeiding as kunstenaar en bekendheid as historikus en skrywer verower. Hy word in 1953 met die Nobelprys vir letterkunde bekroon. 'N Spesiale aanhaling bring hulde aan sy redenaar.

In 1953 verleen koningin Elizabeth II, die laaste van die ses Britse soewereine wat hy gedien het, aan hom die hoogste ridderorde wat 'n gewone man kan bereik toe sy hom 'n riddergenoot in die orde van die kousband maak.

Net soos sy bydrae tot die oorwinningsstrategie in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, is Sir Winston en die belangrikste plek in die geskiedenis die man wat hoofsaaklik verantwoordelik is vir die verskaffing van die leiding en die samehorigheid van die drie groot bondgenote in die oorlog-Brittanje, die Sowjetunie en die Verenigde State. Hy was 'n hartlike vriend van Franklin D. Roosevelt en 'n taktvol, eerlike medewerker met Josef Stalin.

Hiertoe was sir Winston, wat in sy 66ste jaar was toe hy in Mei 1940 premier geword het, onvermoeid. Hy was voortdurend onderweg-na Washington, na Moskou, na die verskillende fronte en na die konferensies van die Groot Drie in Teheran, Jalta en uiteindelik in Potsdam.

Dit was in die middel van hierdie naoorlogse konferensie in 1945 dat hy verneem het dat die Britse volk sy regering by die stembus gedraai het. As leier van die opposisie vir die volgende ses jaar het hy tuis sosialisme en kommunisme in die buiteland beveg. Eers in 1951 word hy 'n tweede keer premier.

Hy was een van die eerste stemme wat gewaarsku het oor die gevare van die Sowjet -ekspansionistiese uitbuiting van die vrede, aangesien dit een van die eerstes was wat uitgeroep het teen die verborge gevaar van Hitlerisme.

Waarskuwing vir & apos Ystergordyn & apos

Op 5 Maart 1946 lewer hy sy beroemde toespraak in Fulton, Mo.

Voorgestel deur president Harry S. Truman, het hy gesê:

Van Stettin aan die Oossee tot Trieste in die Adriatiese See het 'n ystergordyn oor die vasteland neergedaal. Agter daardie lyn lê al die hoofstede van die ou state van Sentraal- en Oos-Europa-Warskou, Berlyn, Praag, Wene, Boedapest, Belgrado, Boekarest en Sofia-al hierdie beroemde stede en die bevolkings rondom hulle lê in wat ek moet noem die Sowjet -sfeer en is almal in die een of ander vorm nie net onderworpe aan Sowjet -invloed nie, maar ook aan 'n baie hoë, en in baie gevalle toenemende mate van beheer uit Moskou.

In sy 81ste jaar, op 5 April 1955, tree sir Winston af as premier, maar behou sy setel in die Laerhuis, tot net voor die vorige verkiesing in Oktober en by die algemene verkiesing in Oktober, toe hy aankondig dat dit naby 90 sou wees.

Nadat hy sedert 1924 onafgebroke verkies is, het hy die "vader van die Laerhuis" geword. "

Sir Winston, wie se ma die voormalige Jennie Jerome van New York was, het nooit opgehou om die solidariteit van die Engelssprekende mense oral te bevorder nie. Slegs deur die naaste samewerking van Brittanje kon die Verenigde State en die Britse Gemenebest vrede en die beskawing verseker, het hy geglo.

Sir Winston is gebore op 30 November 1874 in die Blenheim -paleis, gebou vir sy roemryke voorouer, die eerste hertog van Marlborough. Sy vader, Lord Randolph Churchill, wat 'n uitstekende politieke loopbaan gehad het, was die derde seun van die sewende hertog van Marlborough.

Winston was 'n klein, emosionele kind, soms skaam, soms te selfgeldend. Hy het sy briljante pa aanbid, wat egter deur sy seun en skoolmislukkings oortuig was dat die seun vertraag was. Die kind het min van sy ma gesien en het baie geheg geraak aan sy verpleegster, mev. Everest. Toe hy een van die grootste figure van sy ouderdom word, was mev. Everest & aposs se prentjie oor sy lessenaar.

Na die bywoning van 'n klein privaat skool, waar hy wreed behandel is, is Winston na Harrow gestuur. Hy het twee keer sy toelatingseksamens aan die Royal Military College in Sandhurst gedruip en is uiteindelik toegelaat tot die & quotcavalry -klas, & quot; 'n soort skolastiese agterdeur vir jong here ryk genoeg om hul eie perde te voorsien.

Young Churchill studeer in 1894 aan Sandhurst en word luitenant in die vierde (Queen & aposs Own) Huzars. Omdat daar tans geen aktiewe diens was nie, is hy as 'n oorlogskorrespondent na Kuba, sonder om sy opdrag op te gee.

In die herfs van 1897 het hy as grenskorrespondent-offisier in grensekspedisies in Indië geveg, 'n dubbele rol wat toe toegelaat is. In 1898 het hy dieselfde status in gevegte in die Soedan gehad.

Voordat die jaar verby was, was die jong Churchill terug in Engeland. Hy wou Oxford toe gaan, maar hy het niks soos die Latyn of Grieks wat nodig was vir matrikulasie nie, en daarom het hy besluit om dadelik die politiek te betree. In sy eerste probeerslag is hy erg verslaan in 'n hopelose wedloop om 'n setel in die Laerhuis.

Op 11 Oktober 1899 begin die Suid-Afrikaanse Oorlog en begin die jong Churchill die stryd aansê, nogmaals met die gerieflike vae status van korrespondent-offisier. Dit was sy vyfde veldtog en hy was nog nie 25 nie.

Op 15 November, terwyl hy aan 'n gepantserde treinverkenning deelgeneem het, is die trein deur 'n hinderlaag deur die Boere in 'n hinderlaag gebring. Die jong korrespondent het sy pistool op die trein gelos toe hy probeer ontsnap in die opgewondenheid en is gevange geneem toe hy teen die spoorlyn afgehardloop het.

Vir die duur van die oorlog het hy 'n ontsnapping beraam, wat hy uiteindelik in 'n kenmerkende uitbarsting van vaardigheid en sterkte gebring het. Die Boere het 'n beloning vir sy gevangenskap aangebied. Hulle beskrywing van hom het gesê dat hy 'n klein hoeveelheid het, amper merkbare snor, deur sy neus praat en nie die letter S behoorlik kan uitspreek nie. & Quot

Sir Winston het weer in Engeland gestaan ​​vir die parlement uit Oldham en hierdie keer het hy gewen en op 23 Januarie 1901 vir die eerste keer in die Laerhuis gaan sit.

Die jong lid van Oldham handhaaf sy pa en die tradisie dat hy moeilik was in die partytjie. In 1904 het hy die vloer oorgesteek en by die Liberale aangesluit. In 1908 word hy beloon met die volle kabinetspos van president van die Raad van Handel. Hy was toe 33.

Toe die liberale party sy mag tydens die verkiesings in 1910 konsolideer, word Churchill aangewys as minister van binnelandse sake. Hy het 'n ietwat militêre siening van hierdie kantoor gehad, wat die instandhouding van binnelandse orde insluit. Dit was 'n tyd van groot arbeidsstryd in Brittanje, en die minister van binnelandse sake was vir sommige oormatig gereed om troepe te gebruik om arbeidsversteurings te onderdruk, veral in die steenkoolmyngebiede van Wallis.

Op 21 Oktober 1911 word Churchill gevorder na die destyds belangriker pos van Eerste Heer van die Admiraliteit.

In hierdie posisie het Churchill 'n voortdurend volwasse talent vir organisasie gebring, sowel as 'n kennis van globale strategie wat verder gaan as Sandhurst of sy Indiese en Afrikaanse gevegservaring.

Op 4 Augustus 1914 word 'n oorlogstoestand tussen Brittanje en Duitsland verklaar. Sterkte en Churchill & aposs se voorkoms en vinnige optrede het gelei tot die vinnige en probleemlose konsentrasie van die Britse vloot by sy gevegstasies.

Dit het egter nie lank geduur nie, totdat Winston Churchill en sy afwykende gedagtes hom in botsing gebring het met die meer verwarrende persoonlikhede wat met hom verband hou in Brittanje en 'n poging tot oorlog. Dit was slegs die oorlog in Frankryk.

Brittanje en Frankryk was spoedig verbind tot 'n bloedige, doodgeslote stryd met die Duitse leërs in Frankryk. Eerste minister Herbert Asquith en lord Kitchener, die minister van buitelandse sake vir die oorlog, het geglo dat die oorwinning sou gaan na hom wat die swaarste in Vlaandere en Lorraine geslaan het-en die gestamp sou wees soos die wêreld nog nooit tevore gesien het nie.

Die Gallipoli -veldtog

Winston Churchill het besef dat die bestaan ​​van 'n Britse vloot wat op sy hoede was by Scapa Flow, sy land en apos -hoofbeskermer was. Alhoewel hy verskrik was oor die geweldige bloedverlating in Frankryk en vermoed het dat dit nie heeltemal nodig sou wees nie, het hy geweet dat Brittanje onherroeplik verbind was tot hierdie front.

Maar as student van Mahan het hy geglo in die strategiese gebruik van die Britse seekragreserwe om die druk op die hooffront te verlig en die flanke van die konflik te vind en te ontgin.

Die moontlikheid van aksie in die Middellandse See, wat so stimulerend is vir strategiese genieë soos Nelson en Napoleon, het die behendige verbeelding van Churchill in die Eerste en Tweede Wêreldoorlog gefassineer. In 1915 het hy met sy regering gestry vir mans en skepe vir 'n ekspedisie na Dardanelle, wat volgens hom die Balkan in die agterkant van Duitsland sou kwoteer en 'n pad na Rusland deur die Swart See sou oopmaak.

Grootliks as gevolg van Churchill & aposs-entoesiasme, is 'n gesamentlike Brits-Franse vloot- en militêre ekspedisiemag gestuur om die Dardanelle te probeer oopmaak. Die ekspedisie het die ondersteuning van veldmaarskalk lord Kitchener, Brittanje en die mees gerespekteerde soldaat. Dit het die lomp en halfhartige steun van die effens eksentrieke First Sea Lord of the Admiralty, admiraal John (Jackie) Fisher, die gewilde vlootfiguur.

Na 'n ernstige vlootomkeer, veg die eerste infanterie -eenhede op 25 April 1915 hul weg na die Gallipoli -skiereiland. In maande van wanhopige gevegte het die Britse en keiserlike troepe en hul Franse bondgenote verskeie kere binne 'n haarbreedte van oorwinning gestaan. Maar hulle kon die ruwe Turke nie van die rotsagtige heuwels verdryf nie. Meer as 55,000 Britse en keiserlike troepe is daar in aksie dood en die totale Britse ongevalle was meer as 251,000. Die ekspedisie is laat vaar en die laaste troepe is op 6 Januarie 1916 teruggetrek.

Churchill & aposs se politieke loopbaan het 'n rukkie voor die ontruiming van Gallipoli skielik tot stilstand gekom.

In die Lloyd George -kabinet

Na 'n paar maande in 'n kabinet, as kanselier van die hertogdom Lancaster, bedank Churchill vroeg in November 1915 uit die regering. Hy versoek 'n infanteriebevel aan die front in Frankryk, en na diens as majoor by die Grenadier Guards, in 'n kort herhalingskursus word hy luitenant -kolonel en word hy in bevel van die Sesde Bataljon van die Royal Scots Fusiliers geplaas. Hy het ses maande as infanterie -offisier in Frankryk gedien.

Ontevredenheid oor die verloop van die oorlog het gelei tot die bedanking van Asquith op 5 Desember 1916. David Lloyd George het premier geword. Hy sou Churchill in sy oorspronklike kabinet opgeneem het, maar vyf politieke leiers wat vir sy regering nodig was, het gesê dat hulle nie sou dien as Churchill ingesluit is nie. Lloyd George moes tot 15 Julie 1917 wag om Churchill, minister van ammunisie, te noem.

Op 15 Januarie 1919 word Churchill minister van buitelandse sake vir oorlog en staan ​​voor die polities ongewenste taak om Groot -Brittanje te demobiliseer en groot oorlogsleërs in besit te neem.

In Januarie 1921 verlaat Churchill die oorlogskantoor om die pos van koloniale sekretaris te beklee en word hy voorsitter van die kabinetskomitee oor Ierse aangeleenthede. In Ierland het 'n burgeroorlog op dreef gekom en die onderhandelinge met die Ierse leiers het groot vaardigheid en geduld geverg.

Churchill keer in 1924 terug na die konserwatiewe party en op 4 November noem premier Stanley Baldwin hom kanselier van die skatkis. Dit was 'n pos wat sy pa beklee het en dit was die hoogste pos in die regering ná premier.

Belangrike meningsverskille het ontstaan ​​tussen die flou, pyprokerende premier Baldwin en sy kanselier van die skatkis. Die destydse gees van die land was grotendeels pasifisties, en Baldwin was van mening dat die Britse volk byna elke prys vrede wou hê. Churchill het geglo dat die nasie opgewek moet word vir die gevare van 'n tweede wêreldoorlog.

Waarsku vir Hitler Rise

Die ampstermyn van Churchill en aposs as kanselier van die staat het geëindig met die val van die konserwatiewe regering in 1929. Vir 'n geruime tyd het daar verskille ontstaan ​​tussen Baldwin en Churchill oor Indië. Churchill was van mening dat Baldwin 'n fout gemaak het om so uitgebreid met Mohandas K. Gandhi, leier van die Indiese onafhanklikheidsbeweging, om te gaan.

Gevolglik het Churchill bedank uit die konserwatiewe party en 'n regiegroep.

Eerste minister Ramsay MacDonald, wat in 1929 aan bewind gekom het, word in 1935 deur Baldwin opgevolg.

Baie het geglo dat Churchill & aposs se politieke mag so groot was dat Baldwin dit nie sou waag om hom van die regering uit te sluit nie. Toe die kabinet saamgestel is, was Churchill egter nie ingesluit nie.

In die Churchill van die vroeë negentien-dertigs, portly, middeljarig en soms ietwat stoutmoedig, het waardigheid saam met jeugdige geeste gekom om die figuur te maak wat die wêreld in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog sou ken.

Sir Winston het goed gelewe in die internasionale wêreld van mode en politiek. Hy rook duur sigare en drink die beste brandewyn. Hy het baie van die wêreld geken en die interessantste mense gehad.

Die verdienste van Churchill & aposs was groot as skrywer en joernalis, maar sy lewenskwaliteit vereis ook sy ywer as dosent en belegger.

Churchill het 'n groot deel van sy tyd tussen 1931 en 1935 by sy huis, Chartwell, in Kent, deurgebring. Hy was 'n entoesiastiese amateurmesselaar en het tuinmure en 'n swembad gebou.

In 1932 besoek Churchill Duitsland en word 'n afspraak gemaak om Hitler te ontmoet. Die Nazi -leier het die afspraak nie nagekom nie, en Churchill het later geskryf:

"So het Hitler sy enigste kans verloor om my te ontmoet."

Die drif na die oorlog het op 7 Maart 1936 versnel toe Hitler skielik die gedemilitariseerde Rynland -gebied beset het. Op 28 Mei 1937 het die eerste koalisieregering van Neville Chamberlain aan bewind gekom, maar die pasifistiese sentiment was sterk en Churchill is nie gevra om by die regering aan te sluit nie.

Eerste Heer van Admiraliteit

Om 18:00 3 September 1939, sewe uur en 45 minute nadat Brittanje oorlog teen Duitsland verklaar het, het 'n draadlose flits aan die Britse oorlogsmanne in alle wêrelddele gesê:

Churchill is in 1914 by die uitbreek van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog die eerste heer van die admiraliteit gemaak, sy pos in 1914

Op 9 April 1940 val Duitsland Noorweë binne, en die teenwoordigheid van 'n Britse ekspedisiemag in Noorweë word aangekondig.

Op 10 Mei val Duitsland Nederland en België binne en die ontstelde Neville Chamberlain bedank as premier. Koning George VI het Churchill genooi om 'n nuwe regering te vorm.

In sy memoires skryf Churchill:

Maar ek kan nie vir die leser van hierdie waarheidsgetroue verslag verberg dat ek omstreeks 03:00 gaan slaap het nie. Ek was bewus van 'n diepe gevoel van verligting. Uiteindelik het ek die reg gehad om leiding te gee oor die hele toneel. & Quot

Churchill was 65 toe hy die eerste keer premier geword het. Hy was 'n beproefde staatsman, politikus en militêre strateeg, en hy beskik oor 'n werkvermoë wat selde deur een in sy posisie geëwenaar word.

Hy dryf sy medewerkers met memorandums wat knetter. Dit was gewoonlik: & quotBid laat my weet teen 16:00 vandag op een vel papier. . . . & quot Onlangse gebeure het sy wysheid in internasionale aangeleenthede bewys en sy aansien was enorm.

Op 11 Mei is die vorming van sy nasionale koalisieregering aangekondig en op 13 Mei het hy die parlement grimmig gesê dat: "Ek het niks om te bied nie, behalwe bloed, moeite, trane en sweet."

Binne 'n paar dae het dit duidelik geword dat 'n ramp die Franse, Britse en Belgiese leërs in Vlaandere oorweldig het en op 28 Mei het koning Leopold van die Belge sy magte oorgegee. On May 29 the perimeter of Dunkirk was forming and the last contingent of Allied troops was evacuated on the night of June 3-4.

Britain had not been in such peril since the Spanish Armada. A French military leader predicted that Britain was going to have her "neck wrung like a chicken." Later, Churchill remarked: "Some neck. Some chicken!"

On June 4 Churchill spoke plainly in telling Parliament of the Dunkirk evacuation and, although he asserted that it had been a disaster of the first magnitude, as he described it, it took on a heroic quality of victory.

On May 15 Churchill learned from France that disaster was in the making, and he flew to Paris the next day. Churchill loved and admired the French and spoke their language with vehemence, but with a high disregard for verb form. During this and four subsequent visits he pleaded with France&aposs leaders to keep their country in the war.

Also, he wanted to establish the facts of the situation to the end that history would not distort his or Britain&aposs part in the disaster. As discreetly as possible he cultivated Brig. Gen. Charles de Gaulle, then Assistant Defense Minister of France, as a rallying point for French resistance.

A few French leaders would have tried to fight on. Others were skeptical of the results. Albert Lebrun, President of France, wrung his hands and wept, and the aged Marshal Henri- Philippe Petain and the conspiratorial Pierre Laval joined with their associates to carry France out of the war on June 22, 1940.

Britain now faced the foe alone. On June 18, when it had become apparent that France was capitulating, Churchill broadcast a message of courage and defiance. His concluding sentence will be long remembered:

"Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, &aposThis was their finest hour.&apos"

After the Dunkirk evacuation Churchill directed Britain&aposs prodigious efforts to prepare home defenses against the German invasion that was expected daily.

It was not long before the Germans launched the long-expected air attack against Britain, much of it from airfields established conveniently in France and Belgium. The first heavy attack occurred on July 10 and the culminating date was Sept. 15, when it was anyone&aposs bet whether Britain&aposs air force could stave off defeat from the air.

As World War II progressed Churchill&aposs obvious diplomatic tactic was to seek to convince the United States that its interests demanded that it join Britain in the war. Toward this end Churchill was greatly aided by the presence in the White House of President Roosevelt, a cultivated, European-minded statesman and a strong Anglophile.

Early in August, 1941, Churchill and President Roosevelt met for the first time as they conferred on warships of their respective countries in Placentia Bay, Nfld.

It was at this conference that swiftly and informally, they drew up the famous Atlantic Charter, in which they stated that they "deem it right to make known certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they base their hopes for a better future for the world."

The war was rapidly becoming global. The ebb and flow of Britain&aposs fortunes in the battles of Libya, the British failure in Greece and her victory in Ethiopia, together with the many problems of the home front, engaged Churchill&aposs attention in 1941. When the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, insured the entrance of the United States on Britain&aposs side, Churchill&aposs relief was great. Of his feelings at that moment he wrote at a later date:

"Being saturated and satiated with emotion and sensation, I went to bed and slept the sleep of the saved and thankful."

Christmas, 1941, found Churchill in Washington for the first of several American wartime conferences.

Returning home, Churchill found a brisk political storm brewing. British reverses in the Western Desert, the loss of the battleship Prince of Wales and the battle cruiser Repulse, the other war events had stirred some parliamentary opposition to the Prime Minister. On Jan. 27, 1942, a three-day secret debate began in the House of Commons. The House finally voted confidence in the Government by 461 to 1.

President Roosevelt sent Churchill his congratulations. "It is fun to be in the same decade with you," the President cabled.

In March of 1942 Churchill flew to Moscow for the first of several conferences with Stalin.

In January, 1943, the President and the Prime Minister met near Casablanca, French Morocco, where Roosevelt enunciated a policy of "unconditional" surrender for Germany. Churchill&aposs enthusiasm for this policy was somewhat less than that of Roosevelt, but he adhered rigidly to that policy.

In August of the same year, aid to China was a major topic discussed by the two statesmen at Quebec. In Cairo, in November, the two met with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of China to clarify Allied war aims in the Pacific. Later in the same month, Prime Minister Churchill and President Roosevelt met at Teheran, Iran, with Premier Stalin.

Of all the wartime meetings of the Allied leaders, none became so controversial as the meeting of Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin at Yalta, in the Crimea, in February, 1945.

The Prime Minister, whose principal concern was to obtain Polish frontiers satisfactory to Britain, cannily avoided involving himself in anything more than the most perfunctory assent to the agreements made between President Roosevelt and Stalin regarding the Soviet position in the Far East after Japan&aposs defeat. These agreements were to plague Roosevelt&aposs Democratic party after the war.

Defeated in 1945 Election

During the remainder of the war in Europe, Churchill was tenacious, but not always successful, in having his strategic conceptions followed. But on the frequent occasions when the counsels of General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Allied commander, prevailed. Prime Minister Churchill supported the general&aposs plans with all his strength.

On May 7, 1945, the Prime Minister proclaimed the end of European hostilities in a broadcast to the British people. A few week later his coalition Government broke up. In the election the Tories were defeated.

In an election in February of 1950, the Labor Government skinned through with a majority of only six. Then Churchill forced an election and he and his Conservative party were returned to power in October, 1951, but with a Commons majority of only sixteen.

On April 24, 1953, the Knighthood of the Order of the Garter was conferred on the British statesman by Queen Elizabeth II and on June 2 Sir Winston had the satisfaction of occupying the Prime Minister&aposs place in Westminster Abbey when the young Queen was crowned.

Long sick of war and its horrors, Sir Winston would have liked to crown his career with the creation of a structure for durable and lasting world peace. On March 5, 1953, he told the Commons that the time was ripe for a conference of the major powers, including the Soviet Union, to seek pacific solutions for their problems.

On June 27 the Prime Minister, then in his seventy-ninth year, suffered a slight paralytic stroke and was absent from his desk until Aug. 19.

For some time he had wanted a conference with the United States and France on ways and means of negotiating a peaceful settlement between the Soviet Union and the West. On Dec. 2, 1953, Sir Winston flew to Bermuda and conferred with General Eisenhower, by then President of the United States, and Joseph Laniel, Premier of France. The results of the meetings fell considerably short of Sir Winston&aposs hopes.

On April 27, 1954, a conference of the big powers, including Communist China, opened at Geneva. Hoping to draw the United States into a common front with Britain, Sir Winston and Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden flew to Washington on June 24 to confer with President Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles concerning the problems coming up at Geneva.

On April 1, 1955, Queen Elizabeth and a group of the most distinguished persons of the realm were the guests of Sir Winston at 10 Downing Street. The following day Sir Winston called upon the Queen at Buckingham Palace and received her permission to submit his resignation as Prime Minister. He did so.

In retirement, Sir Winston frequently visited the French Riviera and Monte-Carlo. On one visit to the Riviera, in 1958, he was stricken with pneumonia and pleurisy. On his recovery he returned to England.

In 1962, he fell while getting out of bed in Monte Carlo and fractured his left thigh. Although hospitalized in England for almost two months, the 87-year-old statesman flashed the V-for-victory sign as he returned to his home in late August.

In the opinion of the most competent critics, no statesman or military figure of the first half of the 20th century wrote better prose than did Winston Churchill. The 1953 Nobel Prize for Literature was awarded to him. He was the sixth Briton to be thus honored.

When Churchill&aposs historical narrative style was at its best, it was not surpassed by writing of its kind anywhere.

Sir Winston wrote about 20 books and his speeches and other papers were collected into other volumes. His first book, "The Story of the Malakand Field Force," was published in 1898 and recounted his Army adventures in India. Other books, published in the early Nineteen Hundreds, told of his experiences in war in Egypt and South Africa.

"The River War," an account of the 1898 reconquest of the Egyptian Sudan, marked Churchill as a writer of promise. His two-volume biography of his father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was published in 1906 and won critical praise.

In 1923 Mr. Churchill began a four-volume series, "The World Crisis," in which he told the story of Europe during and immediately after World War I. One of these books, "The Unknown War," tells the story of the vast, bloody and complicated battles on the Eastern Front.

Critics have said this book shows the author at his best as a student of military strategy and a writer of vivid and compelling prose.

The first volume of Churchill&aposs study of his distinguished ancestor, the first Duke of Marlborough, was published in 1933. In these books Churchill defended Marlborough against charges of political treachery and peculation, and showed the great commander against the background of the morality of his time.

Churchill wrote one novel, "Savrola, a Tale of the Revolution in Laurania," published in 1900. It was a fevered affair in which a democratic young hero with a marked resemblance to the Winston Churchill of that day grappled with the forces of reaction in a mythical European kingdom. In later years Churchill earnestly urged his friends not to read it.

"Savrola" was reprinted in 1956 and in New York was made into a television drama in which Sara Churchill, Sir Winston&aposs actress-daughter, played a part.

For many years Sir Winston had found time to work on an extensive study of the British and other English-speaking peoples. The first volume of this study appeared in 1956 and was followed by three other volumes.

Before Sir Winston&aposs World War II recollections appeared in book form in six volumes, Life magazine and The New York Times published selections from these books. The first of these articles appeared in The Times for April 16, 1948, and the last in the issue for Nov. 26, 1953.

Churchill was widely known as an enthusiastic amateur painter. A need for distraction after he was dropped from the British Cabinet in 1915 and before he went to the French front as an infantry officer caused him to take up water colors. He soon switched to oils.

Because of his world fame, many of Churchill&aposs paintings brought good prices. Sometimes he gave one to be sold for some charitable purpose. By 1950, 300 of his paintings were in his home at Chartwell.

Sir Winston&aposs touch on canvas was softer than that of Hitler, who also had sought relaxation at the easel. Hitler, who had once striven to be an architect, tended to hold to a hard drawn line. Sir Winston liked the soft touch of the French impressionists. For several years Sir Winston&aposs paintings were reproduced as Christmas cards.


You can read more article this month

GEORGE W BUSH installed a bust of Winston Churchill in the Oval Office at the White House. When Barack Obama came to power he had the bust returned to Britain.

Obama’s Kenyan grandfather, Hussein Onyango Obama, was imprisoned in one of the concentration camps Churchill and his imperialists had invented.

Churchill was born in 1874 into a Britain that was painting huge areas of the world map bloody red.

Just three years later Victoria crowned herself Empress of India, and the rape and pillage that would mark Britain’s advance across Africa and much more of the globe moved up a gear.

At Harrow School and then Sandhurst the young Winston learnt the simple message: the superior white man was conquering the primitive, dark-skinned natives, and bringing them the benefits of Christian civilisation.

Kenyan leader Jomo Kenyatta and later Archbishop Desmond Tutu would sum it up in a beautiful single paragraph.

“When the British missionaries arrived, we Africans had the land and the minerals and the missionaries had the Bible. They taught us how to pray with our eyes closed. When we opened them, they had the land and we had the Bible.”

As soon as he could, Churchill charged off to take his part in these various barbarous and criminal adventures. He described them as “a lot of jolly little wars against barbarous peoples.”

First came the Swat Valley, now part of Pakistan. Here he judged his enemy were merely “deranged jihadists” whose violence was explained by a “strong aboriginal propensity to kill.”

He gladly took part in raids that laid waste to whole valleys, destroying houses and burning crops.

Next he popped up in Sudan, where he boasted that he personally shot at least three “savages.”

The young Churchill played his part enthusiastically in all kinds of imperial atrocities. When concentration camps were built in South Africa, for white Boers, he said they produced “the minimum of suffering.” The Boer death toll was in fact almost 28,000.

At least 115,000 black Africans were swept into British camps, where 14,000 died. Churchill wrote of his “irritation that kaffirs should be allowed to fire on white men.” By now he was an MP and demanding a rolling programme of more imperialist conquests.

“The Aryan stock is bound to triumph,” was his battle cry.

As home secretary in 1911 he brought the artillery on to the streets of east London in a heavy-handed battle to flush out Latvian anarchists in the siege of Sydney Street. Welsh miners have never forgotten his outrages against the Tonypandy miners.

As colonial secretary in the 1920s, he unleashed the notorious Black and Tan thugs on Ireland’s Catholic civilians. The Irish have never forgotten this cruelty.

When the Iraqis rebelled against British rule, Churchill said: “I am strongly in favour of using poisoned gas against uncivilised tribes.”
Churchill, as we can see, was happy to be spokesman for brutal and brutish British imperialism. It seems Churchill was driven by a deep loathing of democracy for anyone other than God’s chosen race — the British.

This was clearest in his attitude to India. When Mahatma Gandhi launched his campaign of peaceful resistance, Churchill raged that he “ought to be lain bound hand and foot at the gates of Delhi, and then trampled on by an enormous elephant with the new viceroy seated on its back.”

Churchill further announced: “I hate Indians. They are a beastly people with a beastly religion.”

In 1943, a famine broke out in Bengal and up to three million people starved to death. He bluntly refused any aid, raging that it was the Indians’ own fault for “breeding like rabbits.”

In Kenya Churchill believed that the fertile highlands should be the exclusive preserve of the white settlers and approved the clearing out of the local “blackamoors.”

He saw the local Kikuyu as “brutish children.” When they rebelled under Churchill’s post-war premiership, some 150,000 of them were forced at gunpoint into detention camps.

He approved various kinds of torture, including electric shocks. whipping and shootings. Mau Mau suspects were burned and mutilated. Hussein Onyango Obama was just one who never truly recovered from the torture he endured.

As colonial secretary Churchill offered what he called the Holy Land to both the Jews and the Arabs — although he had racist contempt for both.

He jeered at the Palestinians as “barbaric hordes who ate little but camel dung,” while he was appalled that the Israelis “take it for granted that the local population will be cleared out to suit their convenience.”

After the war he was quick to invent the iron curtain as he started the cold war against his hated Bolsheviks despite the fact that they had been his greatest ally in defeating Hitler and his nazis.

When he was re-elected prime minister in the 1951 election he rapidly restarted various imperialist adventures. There was the so-called Malayan Emergency, Kenya and of course the Korean war.

Churchill hated communism at home and abroad. He was always a supporter of British intervention in the young Soviet state, declaring that Bolshevism must be “strangled in its cradle.”

He convinced his divided and loosely organised Cabinet to intervene despite strong opposition from Labour.

In the 1926 General Strike Churchill edited the government’s newspaper, the British Gazette, and used it to put forward his anti-union, anti-Labour, anti-socialist rantings.

He even recommended that the food convoys from the docks should be guarded by tanks, armoured cars and hidden machine guns.

There are far too many other reasons why this champion of all things reactionary simply doesn’t deserve the paeans of praise being heaped on him at the moment.

I’m sure our letters page would welcome your own particular favourites, but let me finish with one that really makes me smile.

Even his reputation as an outstanding orator was, it seems, based on a lie. We now know that many of Churchill’s most famous radio speeches of the war were delivered by an actor, Norman Shelley.

Shelley went on to be a big star on BBC Children’s Radio and as Colonel Danby in the Archers.


History: On This Day in History in 1965 – Winston Churchill Died

Ontbreek u die regte Britse kos? Bestel dan by die British Corner Shop – Duisende Britse kwaliteitprodukte, insluitend Waitrose, wêreldwyd gestuur. Klik om nou te shop.

On this day in history in 1965, Winston Churchill died. Here’s a very moving film about his funeral that brings a tear to my eye every time (I dare you not be be moved by the cranes lowering in honor of his funeral boat passing).

Deel dit:

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Jonathan is a consummate Anglophile with an obsession for Britain that borders on psychosis. Anglotopia is his passionate side-gig and he's always dreaming of his next trip to England, wishing he lived there - specifically Dorset.


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The death of Sir Winston Churchill and the top-secret plans for his funeral

The state funeral of Britain’s former prime minister and wartime hero Sir Winston Churchill in 1965 was a brilliant spectacle watched by more than 350 million people around the world. Here, author Piers Brendon explores the top-secret plans in place for the funeral and reveals the true nature of Churchill’s relationship with Queen Elizabeth II…

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Published: January 24, 2020 at 3:05 am

How and when did Winston Churchill die?

Sir Winston Churchill died on 24 January 1965 – 70 years to the day after the death of his father. He was 90 years old and had suffered a series of strokes, and it had been apparent for some time that his life was drawing to a close. Reporters besieged his London house at Hyde Park Gate and the state of his health filled the newspapers. With characteristic good taste, the new satirical magazine Private Eye referred to him as “the greatest dying Englishman”.

Actually, Churchill’s health had been in decline at least since the major stroke which felled him in June 1953. Then, the prime minister’s incapacitation was kept hidden from the public while he made a very slow recovery. This was a remarkable example of British official secrecy at work and a stark contrast to what happened in America after Dwight Eisenhower’s heart attack two years later, when the White House press secretary issued regular bulletins about the president’s condition, right down to the nature and rate of his bowel movements.

Plans for Churchill’s funeral were initiated after his stroke and they too were a closely guarded secret. His funeral took place on 30 January 1965.

Operation Hope Not: what plans were in place for Churchill’s funeral?

Queen Elizabeth II instructed the Duke of Norfolk, who as hereditary Earl Marshal of England was in charge of important ceremonial occasions, to ensure that the wartime leader’s obsequies were “on a scale befitting his position in history”. A Whitehall committee was therefore established, on which Churchill’s private secretary Anthony Montague Browne sat, to work out a programme for a state funeral. Asked by Churchill’s son, Randolph, what a state funeral was, the Earl Marshal replied succinctly: “One for which the state pays.” (Churchill’s funeral cost £55,000, not counting the military expenditure.)

Drawing on precedents set during the last offices accorded to national figures such as Nelson, Wellington and Gladstone, the committee devised an astonishingly detailed programme for a gigantic funereal pageant – the last great imperial pageant – full of pomp and circumstance. The functions of all the participants were laid out with minute precision their movements were orchestrated to the second and choreographed to the inch. The arrangements were embodied in a so-called ‘war book’, as though for another D-Day, and the entire procedure was code-named Operation Hope Not.

Did Churchill help plan his own funeral?

Contrary to myth, Churchill himself was not much involved in the planning. But he did express the hope that his send-off would be accompanied by plenty of bands (he got nine) and that the hymns should be lively – they were characteristically pugnacious: ‘Fight the Good Fight’ ‘He Who Would Valiant Be’ and ‘The Battle Hymn of the Republic’. However, Churchill did manage to interfere with the arrangements by sheer longevity. According to the joke which Lord Mountbatten liked to repeat: “Winston kept living and the pallbearers kept dying.”

Churchill had also changed his mind in one significant respect: he originally wanted to be cremated and to have his ashes interred alongside the bodies of his beloved pets at Chartwell (you can read more about Churchill’s pets in my book Churchill’s Bestiary: His Life Through Animals) instead he decided that his corpse should be buried in Bladon churchyard, close to his parents’ graves and to his birthplace, Blenheim Palace.

Bladon also gave him an opportunity. Churchill was averse to the attendance at his funeral service of his infuriating wartime ally General Charles de Gaulle, who was engaged during the 1960s in frustrating Britain’s efforts to join the European Economic Community (EEC). However, Churchill agreed to the general’s presence on condition that the train taking his body to its final resting-place did not leave from Paddington but from Waterloo – a wicked posthumous putdown.

What was Churchill’s relationship with Queen Elizabeth II?

On Churchill’s death the Queen wrote to his widow, Clementine:

“The whole world is poorer for the loss of this many-sided genius, while the survival of this country and the sister nations of the Commonwealth, in the face of the greatest danger that has ever threatened them, will be a perpetual memorial to his leadership, his vision and indomitable courage.”

No doubt these were sincere sentiments, even if formulated by her private secretary. Certainly, Churchill deserved the sovereign’s gratitude. Apart from his wartime achievements he was a fervent monarchist – the last true believer, according to Clementine, in the divine right of kings. Moreover, as Elizabeth II’s first prime minister he laid his vast experience at her feet, much in the manner of Lord Melbourne vis-à-vis the young Queen Victoria. Arriving at Buckingham Palace in top hat and frock coat for his weekly audience with Elizabeth, Churchill glowed with romantic loyalty. When asked what they talked about, he replied airily – and perhaps accurately in view of their common love of horses – “Oh, mostly racing.”

On the other hand, there was a vast gulf of years between monarch and minister. Churchill had been elected to parliament in the lifetime of Queen Elizabeth’s great-great grandmother, Queen Victoria (he was first elected to parliament in 1900, the year before Victoria died). He regarded Elizabeth as a child (an uneducated one at that) and she could hardly avoid seeing him as the doughty champion of her uncle Edward VIII during the abdication crisis and the charismatic leader who had eclipsed her father during the war. George VI, indeed, had been a staunch opponent of Churchill over the appeasement of Nazi Germany and wanted Lord Halifax, another appeaser, to succeed Neville Chamberlain as prime minister in May 1940.

Furthermore, Churchill plainly disliked the Queen’s husband, Prince Philip. In his final term as prime minister he kept him out of the political loop and made him “live over the shop” in Buckingham Palace. In addition Churchill would not permit the royal offspring to be called Mountbatten because the dynasty’s name was Windsor, thus turning the consort into what Philip referred to as “a bloody amoeba” – by which he perhaps meant sperm-donor. There are strong suggestions, too, that the Queen found Churchill stubborn, anachronistic, unwilling to listen and apt to mistake monologue for conversation.

These tensions occurred behind the scenes, and no scenes are more opaque than those which conceal the monarch from the sovereign people. So, to all appearances, propriety reigned.

How many people attended Churchill’s funeral? Did the Queen attend?

By royal decree Winston Churchill’s body lay in state for three days in Westminster Hall – he was the first commoner to do so since William Gladstone in 1898. The Queen and her family paid their respects to him there, as did some 320,000 of her subjects (about the same number as had thus bidden farewell to George VI).

Underground trains ran all night Westminster Hall stayed open for 23 hours a day and in bitterly cold weather people waited for three hours in mile-long queues before passing the catafalque on which rested Churchill’s coffin, Union flag-draped, lead-lined and made of Blenheim oak.

Churchill himself had always been easily moved to tears and, belying the British stiff upper lip, many of the mourners wept. Watching them shuffle past, Richard Dimbleby, the BBC’s original ‘Gold Microphone in Waiting’, concluded that “this is simply the nation, with its bare heads, and its scarves, and its plastic hoods, and its shopping bags, and its puzzled little children”.

The funeral itself took place at St Paul’s Cathedral on 30 January 1965. Dimbleby, despite being mortally ill with cancer, presented the television coverage of the funeral with mellifluous dignity. Twenty-five million Britons and more than 350 million people around the world watched the ceremony. The American TV audience was higher than that for John F Kennedy’s funeral two years earlier.

No doubt part of the attraction was the attendance of Queen Elizabeth II and other members of the royal family. Normally the monarch does not go to commoners’ funerals, for the obvious reason that it would be invidious to choose whom thus to honour. But Churchill was, in the historian AJP Taylor’s celebrated summation, “the saviour of his country”. So she made an exception for him. (US President Lyndon Johnson was widely blamed for not coming on the grounds that he had a cold.) The Queen, who invariably appears last at any ceremony, also broke with convention by yielding pride of place to Churchill’s family, who were permitted to enter the cathedral after her.

Today the moving pictures of Churchill’s funeral are marvellously evocative: Big Ben striking at 9.45am on 30 January and then silent for the rest of the day the gun carriage which had borne Queen Victoria’s body drawn by sailors to St Paul’s (an invented tradition resulting from the fact that the horses’ traces broke at Victoria’s funeral) the magnificent procession, uniforms gleaming, boots marching, gloved hands saluting, bands playing, minute guns firing, muffled bells ringing.

Then there was the arrival of dignitaries from 200 countries the Grenadier Guardsmen struggling up the cathedral steps under the weight of the coffin the rousing melodies and solemn threnodies under the dome the trumpet call from the Whispering Gallery and afterwards the skirl of bagpipes the screaming flypast of RAF Lightnings the embarkation on the Port of London launch Havengore the hissing locomotive, watched by huge crowds at specially opened stations along its route.

All told, it was a brilliant spectacle, impeccably executed. Yet its most poignant element was unplanned and apparently spontaneous. Soos die Havengore made its way down the Thames, dockside cranes dipped their jibs in homage to the saviour of the nation, bowing their long necks like metal plesiosauruses and, incidentally, facing extinction as London (still scarred by the war) ceased to be what it had been, the trading hub of the workshop of the world and the entrepot of the British empire. Later that evening an exhausted Clementine said to her youngest daughter: “You know, Mary, it wasn’t a funeral, it was a Triumph.”

Maar was dit? Churchill’s death coincided with the end of the empire, something he had feared and resisted all his life. De Gaulle therefore had some reason to declare (with relish) upon Churchill’s death: “Now Britain is no longer a great power.” Actually, Britain’s power had been waning for years. However, Churchill’s passing dramatised the country’s relative decline and even perhaps presaged its fall. The Labour politician Richard Crossman wrote: “It felt like the end of an epoch, possibly even the end of a nation.”

At Churchill’s funeral the British people were not just mourning a national hero. They were grieving over a potent symbol of their lost greatness and their finest hour.

Piers Brendon is the author of 16 books, three of them about the British monarchy. Formerly Keeper of the Churchill Archives Centre, he is a Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge, and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.


Churchill Movies and Books

Churchill has been the subject of numerous portrayals on the big and small screen over the years, with actors from Richard Burton to Christian Slater taking a crack at capturing his essence. John Lithgow delivered an acclaimed performance as Churchill in the Netflix series The Crown, winning an Emmy for his work in 2017.

That year also brought the release of two biopics: In June, Brian Cox starred in the titular role of Churchill, about the events leading up to the World War II invasion of Normandy. Gary Oldman took his turn by undergoing an eye-popping physical transformation to become the iconic statesman in Darkest Hour.

Churchill&aposs standing as a towering figure of the 20th century is such that his two major biographies required multiple authors and decades of research between volumes. William Manchester published volume 1 of Die Laaste Leeu in 1983 and volume 2 in 1986, but died while working on part 3 it was finally completed by Paul Reid in 2012.

The official biography, Winston S. Churchill, was begun by the former prime minister&aposs son Randolph in the early 1960s it passed on to Martin Gilbert in 1968, and then into the hands of an American institution, Hillsdale College, some three decades later. In 2015, Hillsdale published volume 18 of the series.


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