Model Göbekli Tepe

Model Göbekli Tepe



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Dekodering van Gobekli Tepe

Op 'n hoë rant tussen die droë, rotsagtige heuwels van die suide van Turkye is 'n heuwel, 'n lang, geleidelike hoop klippe en puin wat jy nie eers sal sien nie. In die sestigerjare kom 'n Amerikaanse argeoloog daarop, let op wat hy vir neolitiese grafstene neem en stukkies Bisantynse beeldhouwerke, stuur 'n opname en stap verder. Maar sedertdien het ander van naderby gekyk, spanne wetenskaplikes het neergedaal en gegrawe en ontdek wat baie beskryf het as die mees verstommende en out-of-place vind in die geskiedenis van argeologie, in die geskiedenis van die mensdom. . In Turks heet dit G & oumlbekli Tepe, potbelly hill, 'n skandelike naam vir so 'n wonderlike vonds. Vandag gaan ons ons eie puin omdop, na die wonders kyk en nadink hoe sommige sê dat die webwerf nie met die menslike geskiedenis versoen kan word nie.

Die aangename ding van G & oumlbekli Tepe is dat as u daarheen gaan, of selfs net na foto's daarvan kyk, iets onmiddellik vreemd is wat opval, en u hoef nie eers iets oor argeologie te weet om dit te sien nie. Die grootste deel van die terrein lyk presies soos u sou verwag dat ou ruïnes sou verskyn: die oorblyfsels van lae klipmure wat die buitelyne toon van waar strukture vroeër gestaan ​​het, opgrawingslote waar argeoloë hierdie mure aan houtmure blootgestel het sodat mense kan rondloop sonder om die ruïnes. Maar oral op die terrein is iets wat u nêrens anders gesien het nie: groot wit monoliete van kalksteen, die meeste styg hoër as die gehawende ou mure, baie in 'n uitstekende toestand. Dit lyk wanhopig uit hul plek en heeltemal te presies gesny om met die omringende puin geassosieer te word. Hulle is ongeveer die afmetings van reuse-domino's, maar effens T-vormig, met hoë stompe arms aan die bokant. Hulle word deur argeoloë die T-pilare genoem, en wissel van minder as 2 m tot meer as 5 m hoog en weeg tot 10 ton elk.

Die T-pilare is pragtig versier, alles in reliëf — waar die beeld na buite uitsteek vanaf die plat oppervlak. Die meeste is uitbeeldings van plaaslike diere van elke variëteit. 'N Paar is selfs wonderlik gemaak van driedimensionele beelde van varke wat langs die T-pilaar se kant kruip. Die pilare is in sirkels tot 10 meter in deursnee gerangskik, en binne elke sirkel is die twee hoogste pilare. Vier van hierdie sirkels is tot dusver op die terrein opgegrawe, maar die aanduidings is dat die terrein minstens twintig bevat. Hierdie onsekerheid is te danke aan wat argeologies die mees verrassende ding van G & oumlbekli Tepe is, en dit is nie die pilare nie: dit is dat die hele terrein doelbewus met puin begrawe is, baie gou na voltooiing, en nuwe sirkels pilare is bo -op die puin gebou van die vorige. Toe die plek dus eers ontdek is, was dit 'n reuse lae heuwel van amper 20 hektaar groot en ongeveer 15 m hoog. Slegs ongeveer 5% daarvan is tot dusver opgegrawe.

Die terrein is eers in 1963 ontdek en beskryf, maar min ernstige werk is gedoen tot 1994 toe dit oorgeneem is deur Klaus Schmidt van die Duitse Argeologiese Instituut, wat die hoofondersoeker gebly het tot sy dood in 2014. Die histories belangrikste ontdekking van Schmidt was een van die vroegste: die ouderdom van die terrein, bepaal deur radiokoolstofdatering van hout, houtskool en dierebene, om 11 500 jaar gelede te wees. G & oumlbekli Tepe is effens vroeër as 9500 vC gebou, met 'n foutreeks van 'n paar eeue. Dit was minstens 6500 jaar voor die eerste grondwerke by Stonehenge. Totdat hierdie datum vasgestel is, was die vorige gedagte dat neolitiese bevolkings wat op jag en versameling voortbestaan ​​nie saamkom om groot monumentale werke te bou nie. Tog het die konstruksie van G & oumlbekli Tepe lankal baie werkers vereis, wat 'n verandering in ons begrip van die ontwikkeling van menslike kulture sou vereis.

As daar 'n paradigmaskuif soos hierdie in enige wetenskap is, is daar twee basiese maniere waarop u daarop kan reageer. Eerstens kan u doen wat antropoloë en argeoloë gedoen het: hulle het dit peer -reviewed om te verifieer dat die data korrek is, en toe dit bymekaar was, het hulle partytjies gehou en 'n seldsame beduidende verskuiwing in ons begrip gevier en aan die werk gegaan met die opdatering van die handboeke. Die ander basiese tipe reaksie is om te doen wat krake uit die wêreld van die wetenskap gedoen het: om te glo dat nuwe inligting soos hierdie bewys dat die wetenskaplike metode fataal en hopeloos onbetroubaar is, en dat enige alternatiewe modelle geldig is. Dit was die pad wat baie in die alternatiewe wetenskapgemeenskap gekies het, insluitend antieke uitheemse teoretici en ander.

Twee van hierdie alternatiewe teoretici was Graham Hancock en Andrew Collins. In sy 2015 boek Magicians of the Gods: The Forgotten Wisdom of Earth's Lost Civilization, Het Hancock beweer dat die neolitiese mense van die dag nie steenmakery of boerdery ken nie; daarom moes hulle hulp gehad het om G & oumlbekli Tepe te skep. Hy beskryf sy geloof aan die vertoning Londen Real:

Dit is vir my duidelik dat dit nie 'n groep jagter-versamelaars was wat een oggend wakker geword het nie, skielik toegerus met die vaardighede. Waarna ons kyk, is 'n oordrag van tegnologie. Dit was die oorlewendes van 'n verlore beskawing. Hulle het reeds geweet hoe om megaliete te skep. Hulle het reeds geweet hoe om landbou te doen. Hulle vestig hulle onder 'n jagter-versamelaar by wie hulle moontlik voorheen uitgekom het. Hulle het tussen hulle gevestig, en hulle het hierdie projek geskep. En hierdie projek was om hul beskawing weer te begin.

Alhoewel hul onderskeie oortuigings oor G & oumlbekli Tepe so verskillend is dat dit nie versoenbaar is nie, berus Hancock en Collins op 'n enkele gebeurtenis: 'n uiters omstrede idee wat die jonger Dryas -impakhipotese genoem word. Die jonger Dryas-tydperk was 'n 1,200-jaar onderbreking van die geleidelike klimaatverwarming sedert die geleidelike resessie van ys vanaf die mees onlangse ystydperk, ongeveer 20 000 jaar gelede. Die tydperk het ongeveer 12.900 jaar gelede begin en geduur tot 11.700 jaar gelede, teen 'n tydperk van ongeveer 'n paar eeue voor die bou van G & oumlbekli Tepe. 'N Terugkeer na normaal na 'n ystydperk is 'n baie komplekse klimaatgebeurtenis, gevul met ossillasies en oorsake en gevolge, en die jonger Dryas was slegs een van ten minste drie sulke onderbrekings. Daar is vier hoofhypoteses oor die oorsaak daarvan. Die oorweldigende gunsteling is die sluiting van die Noord -Atlantiese Transportband, 'n belangrike stroom wat warmer waters verder noord beweeg. Hierdie verduideliking pas die beste by wat ons van die klimaat weet. Daar is egter ten minste drie mededingende hipoteses, wat almal baie minder akademiese ondersteuning het en almal beduidende probleme het. Dit is 'n stortvloed komeet -impakte, die uitbarsting van die Laacher See -vulkaan in Duitsland en 'n supernova in die sterrebeeld Vela wat moontlik die osoonlaag uitgeput het.

Hancock en Collins het albei die impak van die komeet aangeneem, met die veronderstelling dat dit nie -spesifieke wêreldwye rampe veroorsaak het wat eeue lank geduur het. Alhoewel geen van die skrywers 'n oortuigende verduideliking bied vir die gaping van 1400 jaar tussen die tydperk waarin die vermeende spervuur ​​sou plaasgevind het en die bouwerk begin het nie, vertrou beide daarop as die deurslaggewende element wat G & oumlbekli Tepe verduidelik. Hancock glo dat hierdie beweerde rampspoed sy antieke gevorderde beskawing vernietig het, wat G & oumlbekli Tepe 'n poging van 'n paar oorlewendes was om 'te begin' deur die primitiewe plaaslike bevolking op te lei terwyl Collins meen dat die komete die mense so geterroriseer het dat hulle gevoel het dat hulle 'n megalitiese struktuur nodig het, en het hier van die hele vasteland af pelgrimseer. Soos hy aan die program verduidelik het Megalithomania:

My persoonlike oortuiging is dat hulle in 'n tyd was wat gevolg het op 'n groot katastrofe wat groot dele van die aarde geraak het, en hulle was in wese bang dat as hulle nie iets ekstra spesiaals sou doen nie, hierdie slegte dinge wat in die wêreld gebeur het, sou kom weer terug.

Ek dink G & oumlbekli Tepe is waarskynlik gebruik deur diegene wat binne-in die verskillende omhulsels en monumente wat daar is binnekom, ek dink dit was 'n koppelvlak tussen twee wêrelde: die wêreld waarin ons leef en die sogenaamde liminale wêreld, of die geestelike dimensie.

Hancock en Collins, sowel as al die ander alternatiewe teoretici van G & oumlbekli Tepe, wys ook op verskillende astronomiese ooreenkomste met die struktuur, plus inskripsies wat hulle as gevorderde skryftaal interpreteer. Geen eis word deur argeoloë aanvaar nie. Daarbenewens oordryf hulle eenvoudig alles: voeg 'n paar voet by die hoogtes van die T-pilare, voeg 'n paar tot 'n paar tientalle ton by tot hul gewig, en maak altyd die ouderdom van die struktuur 'n duisend jaar of so . Dit is nie die styl van 'n noukeurige navorser wat 'n ontdekking akkuraat wil kenmerk nie, maar die styl van 'n showman wat boeke wil verkoop en opspraakwekkend klink.

Was G & oumlbekli Tepe werklik so onverenigbaar met wat ons gedink het ons weet dat komers en antieke gevorderde beskawings in ons teorieë ingebring moet word om dit te verduidelik? Toe die Stanford -argeoloog Ian Hodder vertel Nuusweek in 2010 verander dit alles. Al ons teorieë was verkeerd, en hy bedoel nie dat ons die deur so wyd oop moet gooi dat ons alle hipoteses kan erken nie, al is dit hoe vreemd. Hy het binne 'n beperkte mate van onsekerheid gepraat oor wanneer en hoe megalitiese strukture wat baie mense bymekaar gebring het, pas in die lewens van neolitiese mense, en niks meer nie.

Klaus Schmidt — G & oumlbekli Tepe se jarelange voorste argeoloog het altyd geglo dat die terrein 'n godsdienstige tempel is. Ander navorsers het nie saamgestem dat die bewyse so 'n identifikasie ondersteun nie. Boonop het ons sedertdien ten minste agt ander webwerwe in die streek gevind met soortgelyke T-pilare wat uit dieselfde tydperk dateer. Hulle doel is, vir ons verwyder, soveel millennia, in wese onkenbaar. Die mense het geen geskrewe taal gehad om ons iets te vertel nie. Ons kan sien aan die spietkoppe en bene wat agtergebly het, dat hulle daar wilde diere geëet het en nie makgemaak het nie. Ons kan sien aan die gebrek aan vullishope dat niemand op die terrein gewoon het nie. Ons sien die gereedskap wat hulle agtergelaat het en die steengroewe om te sien hoe hulle die werk gedoen het. En ons kan sien wat hulle gebou het en wanneer, en nog baie min.

Wat die bespiegelinge deur die alternatiewe teoretici betref dat jagter-versamelaars nie sulke strukture sou gebou het sonder duidelike leiding of opdrag of doel nie, vind argeoloog en skrywer dr. Ken Feder dat dit tog nie nodig was nie. Van syne Ensiklopedie van dubbele argeologie:

Die vraag self is egter gebaseer op 'n wanopvatting oor ou mense: dat hulle vasgevang was in 'n lewenswyse wat hul volledige fokus op utilitaristiese dinge, die alledaagse elemente van bestaansreg vereis, en daarom min of geen tyd gehad het vir kuns of ideologie nie . Dit is eenvoudig vals. Keer op keer sien ons in die argeologiese verslag dat selfs mense wat ons vermoed skaars 'n bestaan ​​kon uitbring deur te jag en te versamel, in werklikheid 'n ryk lewe gelei het met rituele, breë sosiale netwerke, kreatiwiteit, artistieke uitdrukking en monumentaal afgeskaalde bouprojekte.

Dus, kortliks, gee ons voorouers krediet. Krediteer hulle vir wat hulle gedoen het en wat hulle ons nagelaat het. As iemand vir jou sê dat mense nie slim genoeg of ambisieus genoeg was nie, het hulle iets gedoen, en daarom moes hulle hulp van vreemdelinge of Atlantiërs gehad het, of wie ook al eerder na die bewyse kyk. U sal waarskynlik vind dat die mensdom, of die van u voorouers of selfs u eie, inderdaad 'n kragtige krag is.


Deur Brian Dunning
Volg @BrianDunning

Haal hierdie artikel aan:
Dunning, B. & quotDecoding Gobekli Tepe. & Quot Skeptoid podcast. Skeptoid Media, 21 April 2020. Web. 16 Junie 2021. & lttttps: //skeptoid.com/episodes/4724>


Moses het hom egiptiseer

“Met betrekking tot die onderwerp van evolusie in die algemeen I is van mening dat

die sterk neiging na die aantrek van groot klippe by Göbekli Tepe

gehad het sy oorsprong in die Acheulese tradisie van die Mousteriaanse kultuur ”.

Pietro Gaietto

"Geskiedenis is verkeerd" verklaar een webwerf oor "The Mystery of Gobekli Tepe" (2018): https://coolinterestingstuff.com/the-mystery-of-gobekli-tepe

…. baie het voorgestel dat Gobekli Tepe selfs 'n tempel in die Bybelse Eden van Genesis kan wees. Is dit moontlik dat wat ons weet van die 'onbeskaafde en primitiewe' prehistoriese mans glad nie waar is nie? Is dit moontlik dat gevorderde beskawings voor 6000 vC bestaan ​​het en dat hul spore net betyds verlore gaan? Of is dit moontlik dat buitelanders ingemeng en mense gehelp het om monumente te bou deur die geskiedenis van die mensdom? Die vrae is beslis oortuigend.

Die mens was veronderstel om 'n primitiewe jagter-versamelaar te gewees het tydens die bou van die terreine. Die teenwoordigheid van Gobekli Tepe is tans voorafgegaan deur wat die wetenskap geleer het, noodsaaklik sou wees om iets op die skaal soos hierdie strukture te bou. Die webwerf verskyn byvoorbeeld voor die ooreengekome datums vir die uitvindings van kuns en gravures, selfs voor die mens wat met metale en erdewerk werk, maar bevat bewyse hiervan. ….

watter webwerf vind dit alles so onbegryplik dat ons hierdie uiterste voorstel moet gebruik:

Antieke vreemdelinge

As ou vreemdelinge die aarde besoek het, kan bewyse van hul bestaan ​​gevind word in die geheimsinnige strukture wat nog steeds regoor die wêreld bestaan? Onverklaarbaar is megalitiese strukture wat op verskillende kontinente voorkom, opvallend dieselfde, en die sny en verskuiwing van die massiewe klippe wat gebruik word om hierdie wonderlike prestasies te bou, sal 'n stryd wees vir moderne masjinerie, laat staan ​​nog die ou mens. Ou ruimtevaarders stel voor dat die staande klippe in Carnac, Frankryk, as 'n ou GPS -stelsel vir antieke vlieënde masjiene gebruik is. Die onlangs ontdekte Gobekli Tepe in Turkye, wat 12 000 jaar terug dateer, het fyn beitel pilare wat kenners beskryf as 'n Noag se ark in klip. Is dit moontlik dat buitenaardse diere die primitiewe mens gehelp het om hierdie onverklaarbare strukture te bou? Indien wel, wat was die doel van hierdie groot projekte?

Die waarheid is dat die paleolitiese mens nog nie so primitief was as voorstanders van evolusionêre ontwikkeling nie. Sien bv. my reeks uit meer dele:

Die sogenaamde paleolitiese man was nie dom nie

maar oorweeg veral hierdie een wat moontlik Australiese Aborigines verbind Göbekli Tepe:

Die sogenaamde paleolitiese man was nie dom nie. Deel vier: Australiese inboorlingskakel na Göbekli Tepe?

'Ons begin met 'n vergelyking tussen die enigste vroulike figuur wat by Göbekli Tepe ontdek is, en 'n rotskildery wat 'n bekende skepper uit Arnhem, Yingarna, uitbeeld. Die ooreenkoms tussen hierdie twee beelde is onmiddellik opvallend; ons herken 'n soortgelyke postuur met dieselfde posisie van die bene en borste, tekenprentige oordrywing van die vroulike geslagsdele en duidelik onmenslike koppe.

Pietro Gaietto (Intelligente selle en hul uitvindings, bl. 42) oorweeg Göbekli Tepe behoort tot “die Acheulese tradisie van die Mousteriaanse kultuur ” van wat die skrywer 'moderne post-paleolitiese' noem:

Aan my kennis, die oudste beskawing wat ons as moderne post-paleolitiese kan definieer, is ontdek by 'n argeologiese terrein genaamd Göbekli Tepe, 'n gebied wat die suidoostelike streek van hedendaagse Turkye. Die Göbekli Tepe -webwerf is 'n eienaardige kultiese omgewing, sonder woonplekke, al bestaan ​​hulle net 'n paar kilometer ver. A groot getal van meetkundige stelestandbeelde in kalksteen gevind, versier met basreliëfs en gravures van diere ...

Antropometriese losstaande lang vierkantige klippe, en pilaster in 'n T.vorm, vertoë dra, in hoog of laag verligting van diere soos jakkalse, leeus en skerpioene en aasvoëls vlieënde of nie takbokke, beeste, spinnekoppe, slange, kraanvoëls, eende, volstruise, krokodille, reiers, luiperds en wilde katte. Met betrekking tot die onderwerp van evolusie in die algemeen I Ek is van mening dat die sterk neiging na die aantrek van groot klippe by Göbekli Tepe gehad het sy oorsprong in die Acheulese tradisie van die Mousteriaanse kultuur. Ek glo dat die Göbekli Tepe beskawing was moontlik die eindresultaat van 'n vermenging van twee verskillende kulture, alhoewel ons op die oomblik niks weet nie met betrekking tot die vermenging van verskillende bevolkings in die argaïese tydperke.

Dr John Osgood het in sy baie meer bevredigende verwerking van die Steentydperk aansienlik verlaag op die tydskaal van die Acheulese (en Mousteriaanse) fase ('' 'n beter model vir die steentydperk ''): https://creation.com/a -beter-model-vir-die-steentydperk

Die model: 'n voorlopige hipotese

Uit die verstrooiing van Babel in die maagdelike beboste lande van Palestina kom die gesinne van Kanaän Genesis 10: 15-19. Die aanvanklike aantal gesinne is onbekend, maar hulle word kultureel verteenwoordig deur die Palestynse Acheulese artefakte.

Hulle kultuur is bewustelik aangepas by hul nuwe omgewing van 'n swaar beboste land en 'n nat klimaat met groot mere in landbekkens, 'n groot deel van die water bly oor van die groot vloed. Die nat klimaat sou 'n groot sedimentasie van die oop grond en bros toestande in baie grotte veroorsaak het, wat nietemin 'n goeie beskerming teen die klimaat was.

Vanuit die Acheuliaanse agtergrond het twee verskillende ontwikkelings gekom: die Mousterian en Aurignacian van Palestina. By Karmel het die Mousteriaanse skuilings in duie gestort, moontlik as gevolg van 'n aardbewing, 15: 176 wat die bewoning van Mousteria daarin beëindig het. Geografies lyk dit asof die Aurignacian tot die Kebaran -kultuur aanleiding gegee het.

Die Natufiaan blyk indringend te wees, waarskynlik uit die noorde, maar het moontlik 'n herinnering aan 'n rivier agtergrond:

'Op die oomblik kan net gesê word dat die Natufiese setlaars uit 'n Alluviale omgewing gekom het en 'n tradisie saamgebring het om in klei of pis te bou.' 18

Moore bevestig dat Natufian aan PPNA en toe PPNB een kulturele kontinuïteit gevorm het.

'N Nuwe inval uit die noorde het gekom met die PNA -kultuur, deurlopend met PNB. Maar teen die Bybelse model moes dit ook 'n Kanaänitiese kultuur gewees het, 5:23, soos voorheen.

Proto-Urban het moontlik gevolg, eietyds met die Ghassuliaanse kultuur (North8) en het moontlik 'n verhouding gehad met die Esdraelon-kultuur in die Noord-Palestina. Maar daarmee saam kom rotgraf begrawe, wat dui op 'n moontlike verband met die Hetiete van Genesis 23: 9.

Dit lyk asof ons op 'n veiliger terrein is as ons Ghassul met die Amoriete identifiseer (sien 'The Times of Abraham', hierdie bundel), 'n golf Kanaäniete wat deur die suide van Sirië afgekom het. Hulle hou moontlik verband met die ontbinde Hassuna-kultuur wat gedryf is deur die uitbreiding van Halafia, wat Hassuna en Sirië, en meer spesifiek Aram-Naharaim, omhul het. ….


The Skeptics Society & amp Skeptic magazine

Figuur 1: G öbekli Tepe opgrawing. Foto deur Nico Becker, Duitse argeologiese instituut.

Die raaisel van Göbekli Tepe 'N Nuwe hoofstuk in die geskiedenis

G öbekli Tepe in die suidooste van Turkye is een van die belangrikste megalitiese terreine ter wêreld en miskien die grootste argeologiese raaisel wat nog ooit ontdek is. Argeoloë het eens gedink dat die bou van megalitiese monumente ver bo die vermoë van jagter-versamelaars was. Hulle het geglo dat mense die boerdery moet uitvind voordat hulle in gemeenskappe vestig. Slegs met voldoende voedselhulpbronne kon mense hulself vestig en die sosiale hiërargie ontwikkel wat nodig is om megalitiese argitektuur te bou. Göbekli Tepe het gehelp om sulke gedagtes om te keer.

Dit is in elk geval wat argeoloë dink. Alternatiewe argeoloë (soms deur argeoloë as pseudo -argeoloë bestempel) beskou Göbekli Tepe as bewys dat 'n geheimsinnige verlore beskawing of ou vreemdelinge verantwoordelik was vir die bou daarvan. Hulle glo dat ortodokse argeoloë, tesame met beweerde bewyse van 'n ouer Sfinx en ander monumente regoor die wêreld, uiteindelik gedwing word om toe te gee dat hulle mislei is oor die oudheid van die mensdom.

Göbekli Tepe, wat minstens 12 000 jaar gelede dateer, is verreweg die oudste en een van die grootste megalitiese strukture op aarde. Dit alleen maak dit een van die belangrikste argeologiese terreine wat ooit ontdek is. Dit is die eerste keer deur Peter Benedict beskryf as deel van 'n gesamentlike projek tussen die universiteite van Istanbul en Chicago (1963–1972). Op grond van die gebrek aan water is vasgestel dat dit nie 'n permanente nedersetting kon wees nie. In 1995 begin die Duitse argeoloog Klaus Schmidt, in samewerking met die Duitse argeologiese instituut, met die eerste wetenskaplike studie van Göbekli Tepe. Toe Schmidt begin opgrawe, was hy verstom, nie deur die beroemde T-pilare wat hy al by Nevali Çori (27 myl daarvandaan) gesien het nie, maar deur die ongekende omvang van wat die beste beskryf kan word as 'n megalitiese bergreservaat. Göbekli Tepe is nie binne 'n dag gebou nie. Bewyse dui daarop dat die webwerf duisende jare lank gebruik is.

Vir argeoloë was dit byna onmoontlik. Die nodige beplanning en koördinasie het die tradisionele teorieë oor die vermoëns van dwalende bande van jagter-versamelaars uitgedaag. Per definisie beskik hulle nie oor voldoende hulpbronne of sosiale hiërargie om so iets soos Göbekli Tepe te bou nie. Dit is duidelik dat hul beskawing ingewikkelder was as wat iemand voorheen gedink het.

Omhulsels

Die omvang van Göbekli Tepe is enorm. Dit is ongeveer 1000 voet breed, met 'n maksimum hoogte van 50 voet bo die plato (Figuur 1). Daar is verskeie aangrensende kliphokke waar elkeen op 'n growwe wyse as 'n Turkse Stonehenge beskryf kan word. Die analogie van Stonehenge slaag egter nie in die majesteit en betekenis van die webwerf nie. Omhulselsdiameters wissel van 30 tot 100 voet en elke omhulsel bevat twee monolitiese T-vormige pilare van tot 18 voet lank. Na raming weeg die grootste pilaar meer as 50 ton. By nadere ondersoek blyk dit dat sommige van die middelste T-pilare gestileerde menslike liggame is met arms en hande, maar sonder gesigte. Die kalksteenpilare is nie ver van die perseel af nie. Dit alles uit slegs 'n klein fraksie van die terrein wat opgegrawe is. Daar kom waarskynlik nog baie meer.

Die sentrale T-pilare is meer onseker as wat dit lyk. Vandag, as dit nie sorgvuldig geplaasde stutte was nie, sou baie van die pilare val. Sommige argeoloë glo dat elke omhulsel oorspronklik met 'n dak bedek was. Die dak sal die sentrale pilare ondersteun, terwyl dit beskerming bied teen die elemente. Vir sommige omhulsels was die ingang waarskynlik deur 'n opening in die dak.

Baie van die T-pilare is bedek met uitbeeldings van diere en 'n paar met mense. Slange is die algemeenste, gevolg deur jakkalse en dan aasvoëls. Die vernaamste dier wat uitgebeeld word, wissel van omhulsel tot omhulsel. Slange oorheers in omhulsel A, jakkalse in omhulsel B, varke in C, en meestal voëls in D. 2 Die meeste menslike voorstellings is van onthoofde koppe of koplose liggame. Waar dit waarneembaar is, is dierlike en menslike uitbeeldings van mans. Die enigste menslike uitsondering is waarskynlik graffiti wat later bygevoeg is. Sommige van die menslike liggame het 'n regop penis.

Die twee sentrale T-pilare word omring deur 'n klipmuur wat verskeie kleiner T-pilare bevat. Die aantal muurpilare wissel van omhulsel tot omhulsel. Die banke lê aan die binnekant van die mure. Tot dusver is daar geen bewyse van huishoudelike gebruik nie - daar is geen kaggels, oonde of ander spore van huishoudelike lewe nie. In plaas daarvan blyk dit dat Göbekli Tepe gebruik is vir rituele of gemeenskaplike funksies - 'n plaaslike sosiale byeenkoms vir vergaderings en feeste. Sommige glo dat Göbekli Tepe self verband hou met begrafnisrituele. Argeologiese bewyse dui aan dat die gereedskap gelyktydig was met jagter-versamelaar tegnologie. Daar is geen bewyse van boerdery of makmaak nie - slegs wilde plant- en diersoorte is gevind. 3

Om iets so kompleks soos Göbekli Tepe te bou, verg 'n groot belegging in tyd en hulpbronne. Om sulke pilare op te grawe, te vervoer, te kerf en op te rig, het gedetailleerde beplanning vereis. Afhangende van die aantal betrokke persone, word beraam dat dit dae tot 'n paar weke sal neem om 'n enkele omhulsel te voltooi. 4 Die raaisel is hoe hulle dit moontlik sou kon bou. Die arbeidsmag alleen was waarskynlik meer as die lede van 'n enkele groep jagters-versamelaars. Die basiese probleem is kos. Dit is vir jagter-versamelaars beskou as genoeg kos om so 'n groot groep mense te voed.

Figuur 2: Die vrugbare halfmaan ca. 7500 v.C., met die huidige verspreiding van persele met T-vormige pilare, en met eenvoudige kalksteenstene. Gewysig na Schmidt 2006: Kopiereg DAI.

Göbekli Tepe bestaan ​​nie in isolasie nie (Figuur 2). Soos opgemerk, is soortgelyke T-pilare by Nevali Çori opgegrawe. Bykomende T-pilare is by Karahan Tepe, Harbetsuvan Tepe, Sefer Tepe en Hamzan Tepe geïdentifiseer. By Karahan Tepe is minstens 266 T-pilare geïdentifiseer. Ons weet baie min van hierdie terreine, aangesien dit nog nie opgegrawe is nie. 5 Daar is egter onlangs begin met opgrawings by Karahan Tepe en Harbetsuvan Tepe.

Opsetlike begrafnis?

Göbekli is Turks vir 'potbelly' en verwys na die profiel van die heuwel wat lyk soos 'n menslike naeltjieholte op 'n potbuik. Vir 'n opgeleide oog, selfs van ver, is Göbekli Tepe onmiddellik herkenbaar as 'n kunsmatige heuwel. 'N' Tepe 'in Turks of 'n' tell 'in Engels is 'n kunsmatige heuwel, een van die bekendste is die ou stad Jerigo. Tepes soos Jerigo vorm deur die stadige opeenhoping van puin van menslike nedersetting op dieselfde plek oor honderde jare. Dit bevat 'n argeologiese skatkis van menslike besetting.

Maar die omhulsels by Göbekli Tepe is nie begrawe deur die stadige ophoping van puin soos in Jerigo nie. In plaas daarvan is hulle doelbewus begrawe (hoewel individuele omhulsels in sommige gevalle deur 'n katastrofiese gebeurtenis begrawe is). Dat die omhulsels begrawe sou word, blyk van die begin af deel van die plan te wees. In sommige gevalle, voor die begrafnis, is beeldhouwerke, gereedskap of ander voorwerpe aan die voet van die T-pilare aangebring. Dit is nie bekend hoe lank elke omhulsel gebruik is voor die begrafnis of waarom die omhulsels begrawe is nie. Daar is voorgestel dat elke T-pilaar 'n spesifieke gemeenskapsleier of miskien 'n groep verteenwoordig. 6, 7

Die vulmateriaal bestaan ​​uit kalksteenpuin van vuis tot kop, beenfragmente (dier en mens) en stukke vuursteenwerktuie. Baie van die bene, meestal gazelle, wildebeeste en ander wilde diere wat op die T-pilare uitgebeeld word, is oopgebars om die murg te eet. Die groot hoeveelheid bene dui op grootskaalse maaltye. 8

Skedelkultus?

Die vulmateriaal bevat 'n paar menslike beenfragmente. Op grond van voorkoms, is die menslike bene op dieselfde manier as die dierbene behandel. Hulle is in klein stukkies gesny en sommige bevat snymerke. 9 Daar is talle fragmente van menslike skedels in die vulmateriaal gevind. Sommige van hierdie fragmente vertoon verwerkingsmerke wat verband hou met defleshing. Die skerpheid van die snymerke dui aan dat die bene in 'n vroeë stadium van verval verander is. Na -doodse skedelaanpassings blyk deel van hul begrafnisritueel te wees. Afdelings van drie menslike skedels is gevind. 'N Boorgat bo -aan een van die skedels dui daarop dat dit aan 'n tou gehang is. 10 Daar word vermoed dat die skedels voorvaderaanbidding kan verteenwoordig, of miskien trofeevertonings van gestuurde vyande.

Die obsessie met menslike skedels in hierdie tyd is goed gedokumenteer, en dit is dus nie verbasend dat Göbekli Tepe deel kan wees van die wydverspreide Neolithic Skull Cult nie. Onthoofding was nie beperk tot menslike liggame nie. In sommige gevalle is menslike beelde uitgekap, dan opsetlik onthoof en die koppe langs die sentrale T-pilare geplaas voordat die omhulsel begrawe is.

Afname

Om watter rede ook al, in plaas van om toenemend in omvang en kompleksiteit toe te neem, het die omhulsel mettertyd gekrimp. Die grootste blootgestelde omhulsels (30–100 voet breed) dateer uit die 12de millennium BP, terwyl die kleiner reghoekige omhulsels (10 × 13 voet) dateer uit die 11de millennium BP. Die hoogte van die sentrale T-pilare krimp van 18 voet tot 6,5 voet. 11 In sommige van die klein omhulsels is die ring van muur-T-pilare afwesig. In ander gevalle ontbreek selfs die twee sentrale T-pilare. Gronddeurdringende radar het addisionele omhulsels van verskillende groottes en vorms geïdentifiseer. Sommige blyk aansienlik groter te wees as enigiets wat tans opgegrawe is. 2 Na aanleiding van die afname -neiging, is hierdie groter omhulsels waarskynlik ouer. 2

Die oudste koolstof-14 datum dui die vulsel van die omhulsels begin met 11,700–11,300 BP. 12 Dit is die datum waarop die omhulsel gevul is, nie die oorspronklike konstruksiedatum nie. Bykomende koolstof-14 datums wat uit muurgips verkry is, dui aan die laaste keer dat die mure herstel is, nie toe die omhulsel die eerste keer gebou is nie. Wat argeoloë tot dusver ontdek het, is slegs 'n fraksie van die terrein, tot 90 persent bly begrawe. Terwyl die meeste van Göbekli Tepe begrawe bly, kan niemand nog sê hoe oud dit is nie. Schmidt glo dat die vroegste nog onopgegrawe strukture by Göbekli Tepe tot 14 000–15 000 jaar oud kan wees. 13 As dit reg is, sou dit die vroegste gebou in Göbekli Tepe tot 9 000 jaar ouer as Stonehenge en 10 000 jaar ouer as die Piramides van Giza maak. Koolstof-14-datering dui aan dat Göbekli Tepe teen 10 000 BP laat vaar is. 2

Rock the Cradle

Göbekli Tepe is geleë in die vrugbare halfmaan, wat bekend staan ​​as die wieg van die beskawing. As u die tyd kon terugspoel, sou u sien hoe die aarde 'n reeks kort dramatiese klimaatswisselings van 14 700–11 700 BP ondervind terwyl die ystydperk tot 'n einde kom. Die eerste was 'n skielike opwarmingsgebeurtenis wat bekend staan ​​as die Bølling-Allerød interstadial. Die klimaat in Turkye tydens die Bølling-Allerød sou gunstige toestande vir jagter-versamelaars gebied het. 12, 14, 15, 16 Vergelykbaar met die huidige klimaat, sou wilde korrels en kuddes op die grond gelê het - maklike pluk vir jagtersamelaars. Jagter-versamelaars-nedersettings uit hierdie tyd is in Sirië en elders ontdek. Dit is waarskynlik dat onontdekte nedersettings uit hierdie tyd ook in die suidooste van Turkye bestaan. 17

Die opwarming is gevolg deur 'n afkoelingsgebeurtenis van 12 900 BP wat die jonger Dryas genoem word, wat 'n skielike terugkeer na die ystydperk voorspel. In Turkye het die klimaat koud en droog geword. Wilde korrels het teruggetrek na gebiede met klam grond, wat graanversameling en jag meer problematies maak.18 Tog blyk dit dat die Siriese nedersettings wat tydens die Bølling-Allerød gevestig was, deurlopend deur die jonger Dryas beset was. 18, 19

Wat die jonger Dryas aan die gang gesit het, kan betwis word. Die beste hipotese is dat dit veroorsaak is deur 'n groot hoeveelheid ysige smeltwater wat die Atlantiese meridionale sirkulasie tydelik afskakel. Die koueperiode het 1 200 jaar geduur. Toe die klimaat weer ongeveer 11 700 BP warm word, was dit die einde van die ystydperk. This was the start of a long period of climatic stability known as the Holocene interstadial — the geological epoch we live in.

Wild Times at Göbekli Tepe

As temperatures rose at the start of the Holocene wild grains again carpeted the land, including in the Göbekli Tepe area. Massive herds of grazing animals quickly followed. This was a land of plenty and ideal conditions for hunting and gathering. Given the abundance of wild grains and game there would be no reason to start farming.

Foraging to Farming

STANDARD PARADIGM

  1. Invent farming
  2. Create a food surplus
  3. Settle in communities
  4. Develop a social hierarchy
  5. Construct megalithic architecture

NEW PARADIGM

  1. Gather wild grains
  2. Create a food surplus
  3. Settle in communities
  4. Develop a social hierarchy
  5. Construct megalithic architecture
  6. Invent farming

For at least 200,000 years people lived as hunter-gatherers, foraging for whatever daily food they could find. A successful hunt could supply enough meat to feed the group for several days. What little technology there was had to be carried from place to place.

Perhaps the largest single step in our history was the change from forager to farmer. The established view was that rapid warming at the end of the Ice Age produced favorable conditions for farming. Farming was considered the first necessary step towards permanent settlement. It freed people from daily chores of survival. Unburdened by the necessity of devoting their lives to gathering food, farming came with a bonus, something never seen before, a huge food surplus. The surplus food gave farmers the freedom to develop complex religious rituals and monumental architecture. Some members of the population would be set free to create a workforce capable of constructing something like Göbekli Tepe. Except, of course, Göbekli Tepe wasn’t built by farmers.

Long before Göbekli Tepe was discovered, archaeologists already knew that farming began in the Fertile Crescent. DNA fingerprinting indicates that wheat was first domesticated near the Karacadağ mountains in Southern Turkey. The oldest evidence of wheat domestication and farming at 10,400 BP comes from Nevali Çori. 20, 21 Although exactly where plant domestication began remains an area of debate amongst archaeologists.

Much of the Göbekli Tepe region is covered by vast stands of grass, including wild wheat and barley. In 1967 Jack Harlan conducted an experiment to see how much wild grain he could gather using a flint bladed sickle. He concluded that a Karacadağ family group, working for just three weeks, could easily gather more grain than they could possibly consume in a year. More important is that excess grain could easily be stored and traded with other less sedentary tribes. 22 The natural abundance of both wild grains and animals created ideal conditions for the huntergatherers. In short, they did not farm because they did not need to. Known as affluent foragers, they relied solely on wild species of plants and animals. The natural abundance of food resources provided the freedom to develop complex religious rituals and monumental architecture.

Evidence from Syria indicates gathering of wild wheat dates to 30,000 BP.23 By 23,000 BP wild grains formed into bread were used as a source of food. 24 From as long ago as 30,000 years our ancestors relied on the same grains that they would eventually domesticate. By the time they switched to farming they already had the technology to process the grains.

Archaeologists already knew that hunter-gatherer groups congregated at specific locations and times for ritual purposes. Göbekli Tepe appears to be part of that tradition. These gatherings played an essential role in the exchange of information, goods, and marriage partners. They also strengthened bonds between huntergatherer communities. Ritual activities included feasting on a massive scale, as is evident by the huge volume of animal bones discovered at Göbekli Tepe. Feasting also probably involved the consumption of large amounts of alcohol. At Göbekli Tepe there is some evidence that beer was brewed. The construction of Göbekli Tepe itself would have been part of the community building process. Such gatherings typically occurred at predominant locations. Göbekli Tepe itself is a dominant landmark constructed on a predominant limestone plateau visible for miles.

Does it Have to be a Lost Civilization?

Much of the fascination with Göbekli Tepe by alternative archaeologists is the fact that there is still so much we do not know about it, and where mystery pervades a scientific subject, pseudoscience often jumps in. Much of alternative archaeology about Göbekli Tepe involves what triggered the Younger Dryas. I mentioned the most popular hypothesis above, but another is that the destruction and abrupt cooling were the result of a comet impact. Unfortunately, the comet left little, if any clear evidence. Seemingly against all odds, a second comet hit in 11,600 BP, destroying Atlantis. Like the previous impact it left little if any evidence. Only this time the comet produced an abrupt global warming event.

In this alternative history, simultaneous to the second impact some of the lucky survivors made it to Göbekli Tepe in 11,600 BP. There they bestowed the dual technological gifts of megalithic architecture and farming. The problem is that if Klaus Schmidt’s dating is correct, they had already been constructing megalithic structures at Göbekli Tepe for a thousand years or more. Farming would have been very much a white elephant gift given the abundance of wild grain. Since the actual work was performed by the indigenous people, farming would have been a make-work project if there ever was one.

According to the most prominent of alternative archaeologists, Graham Hancock, “No, the problem at Göbekli Tepe is the pristine, sudden appearance, like Athena springing full-grown and fully armed from the brow of Zeus, of what appears to be an already seasoned civilization so accomplished that it “invents” both agriculture and monumental architecture at the apparent moment of its birth.” 25 Here Hancock seems to have lost sight of the mystery of Göbekli Tepe — the construction of megalithic architecture without any evidence of agriculture.

To make his interpretation work, Hancock takes the liberty of assigning Göbekli Tepe (15,000–10,000 BP), agriculture (10,400 BP), the start of the Younger Dryas (12,900 BP), the end of the Younger Dryas (11,700 BP), and the construction of the Sphinx (4,500 BP) all to the same time as the destruction of the imagined civilization (12,900 BP) and the flooding of Atlantis (11,600 BP). The survivors transferred the technology with the goal of restarting their civilization at Göbekli Tepe. Unfortunately, according to Hancock “it didn’t quite work.” 26 That is quite an understatement, as the quality and scale of the megalithic architecture declined until eventually the site was abandoned. The supposed technology transfer marks the beginning of the enclosure burials. There is no evidence the gift of farming was ever used. Instead of invigorating Göbekli Tepe the technological gifts appear to lead to its decline and eventual collapse.

Meanwhile in Egypt other survivors, working with aliens, used acoustic levitation and other advanced technologies to create the Sphinx and the Hall of Records beneath. Perhaps at Göbekli Tepe, if they had applied the full array of their technological capabilities or at least brought more practical gifts, things might have turned out better.

Writing a New Chapter

The people of Göbekli Tepe, with sufficient natural resources, found the time to write a new chapter in the history of life. Archaeologists have read only a small part of that story. Still, they have read enough to know that they were wrong about farming being a prerequisite for megalithic architecture, and they admit it. In some ways they are actually happy to be wrong, as it proves the scientific method works — they were just following the evidence. The evidence against the farming-first paradigm had been building for a while it was Göbekli Tepe that put the final nail in that coffin. The ability to construct something like Göbekli Tepe is fundamentally controlled by the availability of food. It makes no difference if the food is planted or simply gathered. Affluent hunter-gatherers were gathering wild grains long before Göbekli Tepe was built. We now know gathering provided more than sufficient food resources. Freed from the demands of daily foraging, the people of Göbekli Tepe derived the benefits of farming without all the work. Klaus Schmidt said it best:

The results of these recent and ongoing excavations have not turned our picture of world history upside down, but they are adding a splendid and colourful new chapter between the period of the hunters and gatherers of the Ice Age and the new world of the food producing cultures of the Neolithic period the extent of which had not been predicted some years ago — a chapter which is enlarged year by year by the ongoing excavations at PPN sites in the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia.

Oor die skrywer

Robert Adam Schneiker has been studying the Sphinx for more than seven years. He has a M.S. in geology/geophysics. He designed and developed SEVIEW, the industry standard contaminant modeling software. Regulatory agencies use his modeling software to develop soil contaminant concentrations protective of groundwater quality. He conducts transport and fate modeling training seminars across America. He has presented papers on contaminant transport and fate modeling in the United States, the European Union and Canada. Trained as a petroleum geophysicist his project experience includes: riskbased evaluations, vadose zone and groundwater modeling, remedial investigations, geophysical exploration and groundwater resources exploration. Mr. Schneiker is an avid bicyclist who also enjoys kayaking, hiking and off-road fourwheeling.

The author would like to thank Jens Notroff and David S. Anderson for taking the time to comment on an earlier draft version of this article.


The Meme Merchant

Recent archeological findings in Turkey could do to our model of human history what Hubble’s discovery did to the “island-universe” theory back in 1934. The idea that the oldest civilizations on earth date back to no later than 6,000 BCE could be seriously damaged by these new discoveries, opening the door to a variety of fringe theories which have, until now, been treated with scorn or dismissed out of hand by mainstream academics.

The consensus is that humans came on the scene around 2 million years ago in Africa. They eventually wandered out of the Olduvai Gorge in small groups of hunter-gatherers and spread out across Europe, the Middle-East, and Asia before crossing the Bering Strait to the Americas.

This narrative implies that the appearance and advancement of civilisation is only possible daarna agriculture arrives on the scene. Before the Neolithic Revolution, people were too busy chasing their next meal and surviving the elements to start experimenting with metallurgy, masonry, or large-scale construction. Being scattered across the globe in small groups, humans could never mobilise a workforce large enough to build the megaliths of ancient times.

Sitting atop a mountain ridge in Turkey, the site was discovered in the 1960's and left untouched until 1994 when a team of German archaeologists led by Klaus Schmidt started digging down into the hill. According to one Stanford professor, what these archaeologists found "changes everything."

The oldest part of Gobekli Tepe consists of T-shaped stone pillars arranged in a circle. Each pillar measures twenty feet in height and weighs 20 tons. There are more than 200 pillars arranged in about 20 circles and each pillar is fitted into sockets that were hewn out of the bedrock. The second and newest phase consists of smaller pillars set in rectangular rooms furbished with polished lime floors.

Now Gobekli Tepe isn't unique or unrivalled in terms of size, scope, or engineering. In fact it is comparable to Stonehenge, whose outer circle uses stones which are slightly larger than those used in Gobekli Tepe's first phase.

The thing that makes Gobekli Tepe stand out is its age. According to radiocarbon dating, the oldest portion is in the neighbourhood of 12,000 years old.

Göbekli Tepe's purpose is also a mystery, though slightly less so.

Excavations have revealed little proof of permanent habitation. A variety of animals, some local, some exotic, were carved onto the pillars. The workmanship is impressive too, especially considering they lacked experience in stone working and possessed only flint tools.

Another clue is the presence of butchered animal bones, present in large numbers at the site.

Schmidt believes Göbekli Tepe was a stone-age mountain sanctuary, a site of ritualistic, spiritual, or maybe even religious importance. It may have served as an annual meeting place for local groups of hunter-gatherers, a place for them to celebrate some forgotten holiday.

In order to make sense of Göbekli Tepe scholars will have to review the accepted chronology of human existence. In doing so, I hope they take a second-look at some of the other theories they rejected on the basis of the Neolithic Revolution. The notion that humans were incapable of advanced construction before the appearance of sedentary civilisations is clearly wrong Göbekli Tepe proves that.

Either our prehistoric ancestors were more advanced and resourceful than we thought, or else we must look for alternate means of explaining Göbekli Tepe. No, I don't subscribe to the ancient astronaut theory but I think the idea of a lost civilisation merits further inquiry.

The concept may sound fantastical but it actually isn't that far-fetched.

Look at the current state of our species. Smartphones, solar power, jets, space-flight, hydrogen bombs, the Large Haldron Collider: we achieved this level of technology in a mere 12,000 year period. How many times might we have achieved similar levels sophistication in the past 200,000 years?

All it takes is a well-placed asteroid or global catastrophe, the near-extinction of our species, and 30,000 years for Mother Earth to bury the evidence. The lucky survivors would revert back to primitive life in a few generations, carrying with them tales of this prehistoric doomsday in the form of myths and legends.

I won't plead my case for the "False Start Hypothesis" here as it merits its own post. Consider this a primer. Like Hubble's discovery, Gobleki Tepe forces us to question notions we accepted as truth. There's more to prehistory than we know, just like there's more to the universe than our Milky Way.

The more we learn, the more we realise we don't know a whole lot. We've got records going back 6,000 years but we've been around for hundreds of thousands of years. Think of human history as a puzzle. Gobekli Tepe is the missing piece we didn't know existed. Fitting it into the puzzle will require us to take other pieces out, rearranging them if we can, discarding them if we can't.

How many more such pieces are scattered across the globe, waiting to be discovered? And what will human history look like once we find more of them?


How does Göbekli Tepe fit with biblical history?

Göbekli Tepe is a site just north of the Syrian-Turkish border on a ridge overlooking a wide valley to the south. It has been in the news a lot lately, prompting several people to write in and ask about our view. For instance, Travis H., whose question is published below with a response from Lita Cosner and Dr. Robert Carter. As there is so much that is uncertain about the find at present, these should be taken as preliminary comments which may change depending on how the story develops.

Thanks for writing in. We&rsquove gotten several questions lately regarding Göbekli Tepe.

First, we find it rather curious that this site is being used as if it&rsquos something that should be a big challenge to creationists because of the date. Our response to that is the same as the dates that put the earliest Egyptian pyramids before the biblical date for the Flood and those that claim dinosaurs died out 65 million years ago&mdashthe dates are wrong. In this case the dates are based on carbon dating, something we&rsquove written much about previously. We would agree though that it&rsquos probably one of the earliest big human monuments we have&mdasha tentative dating would put it soon after the Flood. The site&rsquos location is about perfect for it to be the product of one of the early post-Flood or post-dispersion people groups to have built it.

To put things in perspective&mdasharchaeologists are claiming that, 12,000 years ago, people were capable of carving these huge monuments. This is supposed to be long before any sort of written language, thousands of years before the Egyptian pyramids, and prior to the settlement of Sumer. Out of nowhere, we have this ancient monument, and then humans supposedly put down their chisels and don&rsquot build anything for thousands of years more&mdashbut when they do, we get Sumer and the Egyptian pyramids. This stretches credulity.

The video you sent observes that the kinds of animals described vary from current biodiversity in the area, and therefore it might be evidence of many types of animals existing in the area that currently don&rsquot live there. This would also fit with the biblical narrative. Post-flood, it would take a while for the animal populations to spread out to where we find them today, and we would expect many shifts in species composition as ecological changes occur and as interspecies competitions and associations ebb and flow. Also, there is evidence that the land is now much drier than it was in historical times (many dry wells in plain to the south, for example).

In several places the archaeologists marvel that we have this huge stone monument with no tools&mdashseveral people repeat this in the video as if it&rsquos very extraordinary. But just think&mdashwe have skyscrapers with no cranes around them, no scaffolding, no jackhammers or tools. Dit is omdat the tools were removed after construction was finished. This is even more likely as an explanation in the case of Göbekli Tepe if it was in use for some time before being buried.

The identity of Göbekli Tepe&rsquos builders is also problematic. Supposedly, they are hunter-gatherers, but there is a very basic problem with this&mdashhunter-gatherer societies don&rsquot have the specialization of labor necessary to free up workers for something of this scale&mdashhunter-gatherers don&rsquot build great big monuments, because they&rsquore too busy, well, hunting and gathering. It&rsquos not an efficient way to get food (see also An ancient textile factory?).

Only 5% of Göbekli Tepe has been uncovered&mdashwho knows what will be discovered as the other circles are excavated. At this point, archaeologists are making tons of assumptions that they can&rsquot possibly know. They have a little bit of data, to which they add a lot of assumptions to give the narrative gloss so that the History Channel can make a compelling piece on it. Yet, it fits well in creationist assumptions&mdashnot far from where we think Noah&rsquos Ark probably landed, there&rsquos an incredibly ancient monument that shows amazing human artistic skill and engineering ability, and it depicts lots of animals that aren&rsquot in the area today.

Another piece of evidence that we uncovered&mdashthe once-fertile plain to the south of Göbekli Tepe is the site of the biblical Haran, a mere 25 miles away. This is where Abraham lived for several years during his family&rsquos migration from Ur of the Chaldeans to the land of Canaan. It is where Terah settled and died, and from whence Isaac and Jacob both obtained their wives. It is uncertain what the association between these two places might be, but there&rsquos a lot of tantalizing circumstantial evidence that they are somehow connected. The people of Haran should have known of the existence of Göbekli Tepe at the very least, assuming the biblical history is true. Whatever the outcome, we are confident that the evidence will be able to be interpreted in line with biblical assumptions.


It’s truly amazing their sites like this all over the world that are unexplained and way out date history as we know it or taught in school

It’s truly amazing their sites like this all over the world that are unexplained and way out date history as we know it or taught in school

should be able to pain killers to stop heart disease

pain killers has existed as long as many of us can consider. it became added greater than 100 rice as nausea reducer in addition to the discomforts reliever after that, It has created like distance to virtually every medical care wooden box in the united kingdom. over the past ages, aspirin may well identified in lowering the risks of cardiac arrest while you are snapped every and every day. It has been hinted at that you have got symptoms of a heart attack, having a large medication dosage of a pain killers have helped release the specific ailments and also help you stay to life! So could possibly a fact? ?

First, just let clearly define issue is. all of us have compact mobile phone pieces termed platelets becoming more common in your your blood. this kind of platelets cling along with to conserve the circulation to clog and quit blood loss. In cases of heart disease, here platelets will often neighborhood modest arteries getting together clots and consequently impeding circulation of blood. although blood and as well oxygen include stuffed from the very center for a extended session, a heart attack may possibly impact. yielding brings about to the telltale occurrences actually are high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, deemed obese and as a consequence deficiency of doing exercises.

however how about we just think about here is how aspirin strives. since ancient times, The will bark your willow tree has been utilized by the chinese language program to manipulate a fever with reduce painfulness. well within 19th century, Acetylsalicylic urate crystals, A offshoot through the willow debris were isolated hence commence the aspirin of. pain killers can be used to block prostaglandins, which may controll definitely sure major operations contained in the body. constricting these functions could pu a decrease in body temperature, respite from inflammed joints, pains and aches and interference in the organization involved with thrombus.

it is the clotting interference we are related to because pertains to lowering the risks to soothing symptoms of cardiac arrest. [url=http://chnlove-scam.tumblr.com/]chnLOVE.COM[/url] there initially were loads of research to run a test the theories coming from all aspirin strengths with dangers big. one analysis demonstrated that aspirin, once broken through the first hour using the onset of cardiac arrest symptoms and signs, reduced the instance of the illness coming from challenge. simply by conquering the electricity with platelets to stay coupled, pain killers slows the development including clotting achievable those important unnecessary min’s to receive hidden medical help.

not to mention here is a lot more great about some great connected with cardiovascular deterrence. [url=http://chnlovescamornot.tripod.com/]chnlove Review[/url] aspirin can possibly substantially reduce the potential risk of actually having your first heart attack. advantages of pain killers procedures, slightly 81mg every day, ended up noted for everybody [url=https://bestasianbrides.com/chnlove-review/]chnLOVE.COM[/url] which one in the past a heart stroke, heart attack or just side-line artery problems. aside from that, individuals suffered with angina or perhaps a had just gotten circumvent a surgical procedure as well located getting rid of disorders.

a number of unintended effects of pain killers to find out. specifically, it would likely reek chaos on your stomach. some people that have level of responsiveness that can aspirin may see a sick stomach, nausea, heartburn ( pyrosis ) or even a stomach problems. additionally, aspirin is going to escalate blood loss but more expressly sores even while these symptoms tend to be observed through particularly long stays among usage perhaps a past history. you are required to confer with your doctor before beginning an pain killers treatment solution to weigh the risks rather than amazing benefits.

this treatment, aspirin is carrying proved to be extremely necessary for heart attack persons and the great seeking to take preventive procedures upon heart disease. now, to reply which will cloning debate, aspirin bring to an end cardiac arrest? I say the answer will be a unqualified, sure enough! associated with! sure enough.

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Geometric building plan discovered

Main excavation area with the three monumental circular buildings.

Göbekli Tepe has been turning up mystery after mystery. Besides the scale of the site, some of the pillars are covered in bas relief images of animals, and a few of the carvings are in deep relief, meaning the artisan had to remove a lot of stone to leave, for example, a 3-D crocodile on the side of a pillar. Images include crocodiles, which no longer live in the area, as well as vultures, scorpions, ducks, and lions. To date, three circular enclosures, thought to have been temples, have been excavated, but the majority of the site (90% or more) has yet to be uncovered. A recent architectural examination has tried to explain how the three known stone circles related to each other. 2 The enclosures have two enormous free-standing pillars, facing each other on large rectangular bases and surrounded by additional pillars kept in place by a wall. A recent article on LiveScience.com stated, &ldquoThey found that the two centermost pillars aligned exactly with the midpoint of the circular structures. What&rsquos more, when they drew an imaginary line connecting the centerpoints of three of the structures, they found that it made a nearly perfect equilateral triangle, or one with three equal-length sides&rdquo (see image). 1

Having now discovered their geometric plan, it is clear that the three enclosures &ldquowere planned and initially built as a complex&rdquo, 2 not just a hotchpotch of separate buildings. This of course means that the builders required mathematical knowledge and a specific architectural plan before arranging for the building material to be obtained and transported to the site.


Facts About Göbekli Tepe

1. Göbekli Tepe is the oldest megalithic structure ever found.

It dates back as far as 11,000 years.

This makes it a whopping 6,000 years older than Stonehenge.

2. As of 2020, excavations are still ongoing, and archeologists estimate that it could take several decades to reveal the entire area.

3. The oldest layer in the area contains 200 stones that are neatly arranged into various enclosures.

In the center of each of these circles, there are two large, t-shaped stones (or pillars, as Schmidt called them).

The biggest of them weighs an incredible 50 tons and is over 19 feet tall.

4. According to mainstream history, the megaliths at Göbekli Tepe hadn’t gone through the ‘Neolithic revolution’.

Meaning, they were most likely erected sonder critical technology like metal-working, animal domestication, and the wheel.

The original builders would have been hunter-gatherers (at least according to the currently-prevailing model — more on that later).

5. It is estimated that as many as 500 people would be needed to make and move just een of the t-shaped pillars of Göbekli Tepe.

6. Many mysterious carvings can be seen on the stones — most of them depicting animals like bears, boars, vultures, and scorpions.

7. The megaliths appear to have been deliberately buried by someone around 8,200 BCE. As of yet, nobody knows why this was done.


Human bones were found to be fragmented. Studies in 2017 revealed that most of these bones belong to skull parts. Morphological studies on human skull bone fragments were able to separate the bones of three different individuals in these bone fragments. One of these three different individuals is likely to be a woman. The sex of the other two skulls has not been identified. The skulls belong to individuals aged 20-50 years. Tafonomic studies, on the other hand, showed that four different processes were performed on these skull bones: stripping, cutting, drilling and dyeing. When these bone pieces belonging to the human skull are assembled in accordance with the skull model, it has been revealed that they can be traced by hanging from above.

Göbekli Tepe is under the protection of the Law No. 2863 on Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage. It was registered as the First Degree Archeological Site with the decision of the Regional Board Directorate of Diyarbakır Cultural Heritage Preservation dated 27.09.2005 and numbered 422.

In the last few years of the excavation works carried out in Göbekli Tepe, works aimed at preserving and exhibiting the structures and the region as revealed were developed. The walls and obelisks are tried to be protected by fabric, screened soil, wooden construction and wire mesh lines. However, the threat of looting and external environmental conditions in the long run still requires special preservation of the structures and archaeological artifacts there. As an answer to this requirement, the Global Heritage Fund has announced that in 2010, a multi-annual work program will be organized to protect Göbekli Tepe. This aspect of work in the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Şanlıurfa Municipality, the German Archaeological Institute and the German Research Fund that is expected to be carried out in cooperation. The aim of this initiative is to support the establishment of an adequate arrangement for the management of the structures and surroundings uncovered, to determine a suitable future protection plan, to make a protective cover to protect the works to be exhibited from the weather conditions and to make the necessary initiatives. In this framework, it is planned to develop the facilities, transportation lines and parking areas, visitor areas required for the project team, and to develop the tourism infrastructure in a broad sense as required by the situation.


Kyk die video: Новые находки в Гебекли-Тепе. Что скрывали подземелья возрастом 10 тысяч лет