Potez 636 C3 vegter

Potez 636 C3 vegter



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Potez 636 C3 vegter

Die Potez 636 C3 was 'n vegter met drie sitplekke wat ontwerp is om in Tsjeggo-Slowakye met 'n lisensie gebou te word. Die Potez 63 -vliegtuigfamilie is in 1937 vir uitvoer uit Frankryk beskikbaar gestel, en terwyl elke ander buitelandse bestelling vir voltooide vliegtuie was, het die Tsjeggoslowaakse Avia -onderneming besluit om 'n lisensie te neem om sy eie vliegtuie te vervaardig. Die Potez 636 is aangepas vir Tsjeggiese vereistes, maar geen vliegtuie is vervaardig voordat die Duitsers Tsjeggo -Slowakye beset het nie.


Typ vznikl na základě specificací francouzského ministerstva letectví z 31. října 1934, které požadovalo výkonný stroj pro stíhání, doprovod bombardérů a noční stíhání. Rychlost požadovaného stroje měla dosahovat 450 km/h v hladině 4000 m s dvou až tříčlennou posádkou. Ons kan 'n maksimum lengte van 20 mm in 'n ander kolom hê.

Na specificace reagovaly francouzské společnosti vypracováním projectů Breguet Bre.690, Hanriot H.220, Loire-Nieuport L-N.20, Romano model 110 en Potez 63.

Vinnige prototipe Potez 63-01, uhoz označení bylo později změněno na Potez 630-01, byla určena dvojice dvouhvězdicových čtrnáctiválců Hispano-Suiza 14 Hbs s výkonem po 433 kW.

První prototype vzlétl 25. dubna 1936 v Méaulte, za jehož řízení usedl šéfpilot Fred Nicole. In 1936 kan u 'n prototipe van 'n uitstekende weergawe van SOP vir celokovovou samonosnou installeer. Ons kan u 'n toets vir die CEMA en Villacoublay bied om 'n goeie visie vir Cazaux te kry. Ons kan 'n maksimum hoeveelheid van 500 kW en 'n maksimum van 4000 m bereik.

Oorspronklike prototipe Potez 631-01 přešla po znárodnění 23. prosince 1936 firma Potez na státní koncern SNCAN (Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Nord). Hy het 'n bewys gelewer van 'n vlieënier van Georges Détré uit 1937. Během přistání byl prototypes, poháněný motory Gnome-Rhône 14M Mars, poškozen natolik, ce jej odborníci z CEMA mohli převzít ke zkouškám až v listopadu 1937.

In 1937 word die Technická správa letectva vir ons 'n nuwe weergawe van 'n prototype van Potez 630/631 en 'n konsert van 'n SNCAN -předala předběžnou vir 'n vinnige eksperiment. Skupinu měly tvořit tři třímístné stíhací stroje Potez 630-C3, jeden třímístný noční stíhací Potez 630-CN3, dva třímístné stíhací Potezy 631-C3, jeden cvičný dvoumij, Jeden cvičnj dvoumístný bombardovací/bitevní Potez 639-AB2 a jeden třímístný Potez 637-A3 s podtrupovou gondolou určený k taktickému průzkumu a podpoře pozemních jednotek.

Vr 1937 deur SNCAN van Technické správy letectva vir ons Potez 631-C3 'n deseti dvoumístných cvičných Potez 631-Ins se pohonnými jednotkami Gnome-Rhône. U kan ook 'n motor gebruik om 'n voorbeeld te gee Potez 630-C3 s agregáty Hispano-Suiza 14AB-10/11. Potezy 630 en meer as 20 mm dikte. Ons kan 'n motoriese motor gebruik om 'n motor te verwerk. V prosinci 1937 Technická správa letectva navíc přiobjednala 50 lehkých bombardovacích letounů Potez 633-B2. Podobaly se strojům Potez 631, en ons kan ook 'n radiotelegrafistou/střelcem byla umístěna pumovnice pro vertikálně uložené bomby en ve spodní části přídě v pravé horní části přenom přnom zomie doen. Daar is 71 produkte beskikbaar.

O licenční stavbě verze Potez 636-C3 Uvažovalo i v Československu u firma Avia, maar u kan ook 'n tegnologiese tegnologie van Tupolevy SB-2 vir Avie B-71 kry. Maak seker dat u 'n baie vinnige tyd kan kry om u 'n vinnige weg te gee Švýcarské vzdušné síly po jednom Potezu 630-C3 a 633-B2.

V sériové výrobě typové řady Potez 63 en die SNCAN kan uplasnila specializovaná dělba práce. Trup a ocasní plochy vyráběla továrna v Caudebec-lès-Elbeuf, křídlo v Le Havre a kompletace probíhala v Méaulte a později v Les Mureaux. První sériový Potez 630 vzlétl v Méaulte v únoru 1938.

V srpnu 1938 deur 60 dae oud Potezů 637-A3, prototipe Potez 637-01 vzlétl právě v létě tohoto roku. Ons kan 'n 631-C3-kamer met 'n gemaklike kamer en 'n swembad gebruik. Pod jeho trup byla zabudována zčásti prosklená gondola pozorovatele. Ons kan twee of meer pompe in 'n kolom van 7,5 mm bereik. Soek ook 'n ander opsie.

Průzkumný Potez 637-A3, sloužící od začátku války, byl považován pouze za přechodový typ. Již v létě roku 1938 objednala Technická správa letectva 70 slibnějších průzkumných letounů Potez 63.11-A3. Prototipe této verze vzlétl 31. prosince 1938. Třímístný letoun byl určen k taktickému průzkumu a pozorování, ale také k přímé palebné podpoře pozemních jednotek. V motorových gondolách byly zabudovány pohonné jednotky Gnome-Rhône 14M-4/5 nebo M-6/7 s vrtulemi Ratier nebo Gnome-Rhône. Ons kan u twee pneumatiese eiersoortige MAC -toestelle gebruik. 34 uložených pod přídí trupu. Stejnou zbraň obsluhoval také radiotelegrafista/střelec v zadní části kabiny. U kan 'n vinnige weergawe van die installasie installeer. Dva křídelní byly určeny pro pumy to ráže 50 kg, zbylé pro osvětlovací pumy. Prézkumné stroje nesly obvykle letecké kamery typu Labrely F 30 a F 20. Letecké opravárenské dílny od konce roku 1939 a výrobce from jara 1940 instalovali pod trup další dva až tři vpřed zaměřené kulomety ráže 7,5 mm snel. Místo zadního spodního kulometu byly v některých případech montovány tři vějířovitě uspořádané kulomety MAC vz. 34m39. Během květnových en červnových bojů se pod každou polovinou křídla mnohých strojů objevily dva protáhlé výstupky ukrývající kulomety MAC stejné ráže.

Pvny sériový Potez 630-C3 převzalo Armée de l'Air ke zkouškám koncem května 1938, následující kusy pak from srpna téhož roku. K 1. lednu 1939 bylo ve stavu francouzského letectva 45 Potezů 630 en 27 Potezů 631. V srpnu 1939 mělo letouny Potez 630 ve Francii a Africe ve stavu devět jednotek, Potez 631 dvanáct jednotek, Potez 633 jednaoted jotnednotek, Potez 633 jednaot

Letouny Potez 630 kom van 1940 af. Ons het 1940 in Potezy 631 geleefd met 'n groot aantal Flotille F1C, maar dit kan ook met AC1 en AC2 toegepas word. K 10. květnu 1940 měla Armée de l'Air u šesti nočních stíhacích Escadrille de Chase de Nuit 75 Potezů 631. Již během podivné války byly ze služby stahovány také Potezy 637-A3, které byly rovněža

Noční stíhací jednotky francouzského letectva dosáhly v bitvě o Francii čtyř potvrzených sestřelů en osmi pravděpodobných při ztrátě deseti Potezů 631. Úspěšnější Flotille F1Cřonav Luftwaffe kan 'n groot operasie in ons huis hê.

Po pádu Francie zůstalo v neokupované zóně 32 Potezů 630 en 112 Potezů 631, dalších 52 pak v severní Africe. Stroje využilo letectvo vlády ve Vichy v neokupované Francii, severní Africe, en Madagaskaru en v levantských koloniích. Po obsazení zbytku Francie získali Němci 134 Potezů 630/631, z nichž 53 bylo prodáno do Rumunska. Rumunské královské letectvo ještě převzalo dalších 10 Potezů 63.11-A3 en 20 Potezů 633-B2, třináct strojů této verze zakoupilo také Řecko.

První Potezy 63.11 převzaly do služby taktické průzkumné jednotky GR I/36 a GR II/36 v září 1939, from února 1940 také pozorovací jednotky GAO. Po pádu Francie se v jižní části země nacházelo 18 kusů letounů Potez 633, 12 Potez 637 en 221 Potez 63.11. V severní Africe bylo dalších 250 en Sýrii 17 kus Potez 63.11. Němci značný počet využili in Luftwaffe jako spojovací and cvičné. Op 1944 word 31 dae laai vir die vlieënier van Me 210.

Celkem 6 stroj Potez 630/631 bylo zařazeno do Jugoslávského královského letectva.


Potez-63s-fighter-01

Die Potez 63 was 'n laevlerk tweemotorige eenvliegtuig met meer as 'n verbygaande ooreenkoms met die Bf 110. Net soos die Duitse vliegtuig het dit 'n tweelingstert, 'n vaartbelynde romp, en die kajuit was bedek met 'n lang kweekhuis. Die vlerke was laag gemonteer. Die kort sentrale gedeelte, tussen die romp en die motor -nacelle, het parallelle voor- en agterrande en geen tweehoeke nie, terwyl die buitenste gedeeltes 'n duidelike tweeledige en reguit rande gehad het wat na 'n afgeronde punt afneem. Die horisontale oppervlak op die tweelingstert het ook 'n tweeledige voorkoms gehad. Die intrekbare onderstel vou in die motor se nacelle.

Potez het gekies om 'n prototipe van die 630 te bou, en begin werk aan die Potez 630-01 in April 1935. Die vliegtuig het amper presies 'n jaar geneem om te bou en het sy eerste vlug op 25 April 1936 gemaak. stert sonder tweeledigheid. Die prototipe is effens beskadig tydens 'n ongeluk op 6 Mei, maar is gou vervang en op 3 Augustus na Villcoublay gestuur vir amptelike proewe. Na 'n paar vroeë proewe is die houtstert vervang met die produksiemodel, en die toetse is in November hervat. Die enjins is twee keer vervang totdat die prototipe die Hispano-Suiza 14 Ab 10/11 enjins gebruik het, wat 640 pk op seevlak, 700 pk by opstyg en 725 pk op hoogte bied. Met hierdie enjins het die volgelaaide vliegtuig 'n topsnelheid van 286 mph bereik.

Die tweede prototipe, die Potez 631-01, het sy eerste vlug in Maart 1937 gemaak. Hierdie vliegtuig is aangedryf deur die Gnome-Rhone 14 Mars radiale enjin, wat 570 pk op seevlak, 700 pk by opstyg en 660 pk op hoogte gelewer het. Alhoewel die Gnome-Rhone-enjins minder kragtig was, was hulle ook kleiner en was die Potez 631-01 slegs 4 km / u stadiger as die 630-01.

Die vervaardiging van die vliegtuig het eintlik in Mei 1937 begin, voordat die voorneme uitgereik is. Die romp en sterte is by Caudebec gebou, die vlerke by Le Havre en die vliegtuig is bymekaargemaak in Méaulte, daarna by Les Mureaux.

Die Potez 637 -verkenningsvliegtuig wat volgende in produksie gelas is, gevolg deur die Potez 63.11 -weermag -samewerkingsvliegtuie. Hierdie weergawe sal in groter getalle as enige ander gebou word, wat driekwart van die totale produksieloop uitmaak. Die bestelling vir Potez 633s is spoedig gekanselleer en het in Potez 631's een geword. Die eerste produksie van Potez 680 is in Februarie 1938 voltooi, en die tipe is laat in 1938 in diens.

Slegs die Potez 631, Potez 637 en Potez 63.11 het aansienlike optrede beleef tydens die Slag van Frankryk. Die Potez 630 is teruggetrek weens enjinprobleme en die Potez 633 is hoofsaaklik vir opleiding gebruik.


Die Potez 637 was een van die meer moderne vliegtuie in die verkenningsgroepe, maar die verliese was groot. Die produksie van hierdie variant was beperk, en die Potez 63.11 speel net so 'n belangrike rol in hierdie groep. Die Potez 63.11 was ook die belangrikste vliegtuig in die weermag-samewerkingseenhede, waar dit groot verliese gely het, meestal op die grond en op die grond (alhoewel dit reggekry het teen Duitse vegters). Teen 1940 was die hele gesin verouderd, met die gebrek aan enjinkrag en dus spoed hul grootste swakheid, maar 'n stadige produksie van die meer moderne vliegtuie wat bedoel was om dit te vervang, beteken dat 'n groot aantal Franse vliegtuigbeamptes gedwing is om in die Potez -lede te veg. 63 gesin.

Die Potez 63 is in 1937 vir uitvoer beskikbaar gestel, en 'n aantal bestellings is ontvang, hoewel slegs twee gedeeltelik uitgevoer is. Die Potez 633 B2 was die gewildste uitvoermodel. Nadat die Franse lugmag sy eie bestelling vir die bomwerpervariant gekanselleer het, was hierdie uitvoervliegtuie die enigste wat gebou is en het hulle saam met die Armée de l 'Air gedien.

Vyf lande het vliegtuie uit Frankryk bestel: China het vier Potez 631 C3's en vyf Potez 633 B2s bestel. Griekeland het vier en twintig Potez 633 B2's bestel. Roemenië bestel twintig Potez 633 B2's in die eerste orde en nog twintig in 1938. Switserland bestel een Potez 630 C3 en een Potez 633 B2s. Joego -Slawië het twee Potez 630 C3's en een Potez 631 C3 bestel. Uiteindelik het Avia in Tsjeggo -Slowakye gereël vir die vervaardiging van lisensies van die Potez 636 C3, maar die produksie het nie aan die gang gekom toe Duitsland die land beset het nie.

Uit hierdie bevele het Switserland sy Potez 630 ontvang. Joego -Slawië het een van sy Potez 630's ontvang, maar die ander, 'n afrigter met dubbele beheer, is in Frankryk behou.


Plaas deur David Lehmann & raquo 31 Aug 2003, 17:25

Slegs later was MS.406's toegerus met die HS.404-geweer; die vroeëre motors het die stadiger HS.9. Ek is nie seker met watter variant Finse Moranes toegerus is nie, maar die eerste een wat voor die oorlog afgelewer is, kan moontlik slegs die HS.9 hê.

Wat die ammunisiekwessie betref, bestaan ​​beide 'standaard sensitiwiteit' en 'lae sensitiwiteit' versmeltde skulpe in die Franse diens, laasgenoemde is beslis bedoel om die vroeë ontploffingsprobleem te vermy. Sien byvoorbeeld die volgende bladsy:

Aan die einde van 1939 het die Armée de l'air 'n baie volledige studie gedoen oor die effek van 20 mm (en ander) ammunisie op vliegtuie en vliegtuigmotors, met behulp van 'n HS.404 op 'n 75 mm -houer en Loire 46, Potez 39 en Dornier 17 vliegtuie of onderdele as teikens.

Plaas deur David Lehmann & raquo 02 Sep 2003, 00:41

Ek het verskeie vriende gevra en kan u verskeie dinge vertel oor MS.406 en die 20 mm -geweer daarvan.
Die Hispano 20mm HS.9 -geweer of 20mm Gun Mark I is in 1937 deur die RAF aangeneem na 'n paar demonstrasies in 'n gekoopte Dewoitine 510. Dit het talle gebreke gehad en word in Brittanje voortgesit deur Boulton & Paul en in Frankryk deur Chatellerault, die laasgenoemde, met die beter ingenieurs wat die meeste gebreke opgelos het. Een van die belangrikste probleme was voerprobleme uit die 60 -ronde tydskrif en ook 'n skoon uitstoot uit die Spitfire en Hurricanes waarin die geweer gemonteer moes word. die volgende ding wat hy weet nadat hy op die vuurknoppie gedruk het, was bloed en oorblyfsels van die vyandelike vlieënier was oral op sy voorruit. Die geweer was egter te onbetroubaar en is teruggetrek vir verdere ontwikkeling van die voermeganisme. Die Britte het die Mark II -geweer ontwikkel en die Franse die HS.404 wat in 1940 gebruik is. Die weergawe van Mark V is aan die einde van 1943 as die standaard vir alle toekomstige vegters aanvaar.
Dit lyk nie asof daar baie gepubliseerde Franse vlieënier- of werktuigkundigeverhale is waar die skrywer spesifiek kla oor die HS.404 nie. Daar word algemeen gesê dat die Morane vergewensgesind en aangenaam was om te vlieg, maar verskeie is dit eens dat dit 'n ernstige diensprobleem het. Dit was moeilik om van 'n goeie vliegveld en al die fasiliteite af weg te bly, en daarom het die prestasie mettertyd versleg. Franse vlieëniers het gekla dat voorbeelde in diens nie die amptelike maksimum snelheid van 486 km/h in vlugvlakke kon bereik nie. Sommige Finse bronne sê selfs dat sommige Moranes probleme ondervind het om vinniger as 400 km/h te ry. Miskien het die Finse klimaat niks gehelp vir die laaghoutkomponente van die Morane nie. Daarteenoor word gesê dat die Curtiss H-75 uiters betroubaar en maklik is om te onderhou, miskien een van die redes vir sy uitstekende tellings in 1940 (behalwe die waarde en dapperheid van die vlieëniers natuurlik).
Die 20 mm -ammunisie is verbeter met 'n beter perforeringsvermoë toe die eenheid na die D.520 oorgeskakel het, wat die vroeë ontploffingsprobleem wat hulle soms ondervind het toe hulle Moranes gevlieg het, opgelos het. In vergelykende proewe op 21 April 1940 by CEMA in Orleans-Bricy teen 'n vasgelegde Bf 109E-3, het toetse getoon dat die Duitse masjien 'n snelheidsvoordeel van 20 km / h gehad het as gevolg van sy hoër krag. Die D.520 het egter uitstekende maneuverbaarheid as gevolg van sy uitstekende hanteringseienskappe. "Op 'n suiwer tegniese vlak het die D.520 'n hoër vleuelvrag: 2677 kg / 15,97 m2 = 167,6 kg / m2 teenoor 2540 kg / 16,4 m2 = 154,9 kg/m2 vir die Bf 109E-3.

Plaas deur David Lehmann & raquo 13 Feb 2004, 11:47

Die Potez 63x -reeks. In die Franse lugmag in 1939/1940:
Potez 631 = swaar vegter en aanval (207) - gelykstaande aan die Me -110
Potez 633 = ligte bomwerper, hierdie model het 'n bombaai (71)

Bewapening Potez 631:
2x 20 mm HS404
4x 7,5 mm MAC34
(4x 50 kg bomme vir aanvalmissies)
1-2x 7.5mm MAC34 vir agterverdediging

Potez 633 bewapening:
1x 7.5 mm MAC34
2x 100 kg bomme
4x 100 kg bomme OF 8x 50 kg bomme (in die bombaai)
1-2x 7.5mm MAC34 vir agterverdediging

Die Potez 63x is 'n moderne vliegtuig in 1938.

- Die Tsjeggiese AVIA -onderneming het die lisensie gekoop om 'n vegterweergawe te bou (Potez 636), maar die Duitse inval het die projek beëindig.

- China het 4 PO.631 en 5 PO.633 gekoop, maar hulle is in beslag geneem deur die Franse leër in Indochina (Franse kolonie bestaande uit Annam, Cochinchina, Tonkin, Kambodja, Laos en 'n deel van die Chinese gebied wat Kouang-Tcheou- genoem word Wan) voor aflewering. Drie van hulle is gebruik teen die Japannese (in Lang Son) en Thaise leërs wat Vichy -magte in 1940 en 1941 aangeval het.

- Joegoslavië het 2 PO.630 ontvang, geen verdere aflewering as gevolg van die oorlog nie en die hele produksie is aan die Franse leër gestuur

- Switserland gebruik 1 PO.630 en 1 PO.632 (= PO.633 met Hispano -enjins), geen verdere aflewerings nie as gevolg van die oorlog en al die produksie is aan die Franse leër gestuur. Gebruik tot 1944 en toegerus met 'n 2x20 mm Oerlikon FF/K -gewere, addisionele pod.

- Duitsers gebruik Franse buit PO.630's vir opleiding en rekonstruksie

- Griekeland het 24 PO.633 bestel, maar slegs 10 kon afgelewer word en het aksie teen Italiaanse en Albanese magte onderneem.

- Roemenië het 21 PO.633B2 ontvang wat gebruik is in die 74ste en 75ste bombardement. Hulle is gebruik vir bombardemente en langafstandrekonstruksies. Word byvoorbeeld tydens Barbarossa, Odessa en Stalingrad gebruik en ten minste tot 1943.


Potez 636 C3 -vegter - Geskiedenis

Die Brusselse lugmuseum is geleë in die Royal Museum -kompleks by die 'Cinquantenaire'. Die fasiliteit vir hierdie uitstallings is vanaf 1875 gebou om die 50 jaar van Belgiese onafhanklikheid te herdenk. Die konstruksie en uitbreiding het geleidelik voortgegaan om die universele uitstalling van 1910 te akkommodeer. Dit was nie net die plek vir verskillende geleenthede, perdeskoue en kompetisies nie, maar ook 'n besondere stoorkamer. Sommige dele van 'n Duitse bunker of geklassifiseerde monumentfades is hier gestoor. In 1923 is 'n deel van die geboue aan die Ministerie van Verdediging toegewys om die primêre Belgiese museum vir militêre geskiedenis te skep. Die museums van die Cinquantenaire bestaan ​​uit die argeologiese museum (Romeinse en Egiptiese era, ens.), Die Autoworld -museum (geskiedenis van die motor), die weermag- en militêre geskiedenismuseum met versamelings van wonderlike wapens en uniforms en uiteindelik, die Marine, die Armoured en die Air & amp Space (Air museum) departemente.

Die lug- en ruimte -afdeling is in 1972 gestig onder die impuls van passievolle lugmagmanne, naamlik Mike Terlinden en Jean Boten, wat later deur Herv Donnet aangesluit is.

Hulle enigste idee was om die waarde van die Belgiese lugvaart -erfenis te beklemtoon.

Na baie onderhandelinge is die groot saal langs die Army -museum toegeken. Hierdie saal gebou uit klippe, metaal en 'n glasafskorting was 'n goeie begin met betrekking tot die aangebied ruimte vir die uitstalling. Hierdie gebou met 'n oppervlakte van byna 12.000 m 2 en 40 m hoog het die potensiaal om 'n manjifieke museum te word. 'N Mens moet weet dat die destydse verlate hangar destyds as 'n stoorkamer gebruik is ('n unieke oorlewende muskiet NF-30 is op die perseel gevind) en het nog steeds 'n geskommelde grond gehad.

Dit was 'n ware uitdaging, en die eerste ding wat gedoen moes word, was om hierdie grond te beton. Toe het ons die eerste vliegtuie van die Lugmag gekry of van ongewone plekke soos die kelders van die Universiteit van Gent. Bietjie vir bietjie het die versamelings gegroei tot een van die rykstes met betrekking tot die Eerste Wêreldoorlog.

Hierdie bekendheid het gou internasionaal geword en uitruilings het begin, sodat die uitstallings nie meer net tot Belgiese items beperk was nie.

Na 40 jaar het die museum grootliks ontwikkel en bevat dit tans slegs 130 vliegtuie en ander vlieënde masjiene. Ondanks die groot hangar moes die bestuur van die museum besluit om verskillende vliegtuie te verwyder en weg te bêre weens 'n gebrek aan ruimte.

'N Paar idees om die uitstalruimte te vergroot, is voorgehou, soos om 'n storie op die bestaande balkonne te maak, maar ongelukkig is die geskiedenis in België nie die belangrikste bekommernis van die besluitnemers op hoë vlak nie en het die projek in die vergetelheid geraak.

Nuwe vliegtuie word bietjie vir bietjie herstel soos die Battaille-drievliegtuig of laastens die DH-89 Dominie. Hierdie wonderwerke is te danke aan 'n handjievol vrywilligers wat hul vrye tyd en kennis verminder sodat die geskiedenis kan voortleef (die uwe was in sy vroeë jare deel van hierdie span.).

Hoe dit ook al sy, hierdie museum is beslis 'n besoek werd vir die neofiet sowel as vir die passievolle wat hulle in staat stel om die groot bladsye van die Belgiese lugvaartgeskiedenis te ontdek. Van die & quotBelgica & quot -ballon en die Gordon Bennet-trofee tot die F-16-vegter deur die ervarings van professor Piccard, sien die werkswinkel van die bekende vervaardiger Renard, leer wie die uitvinder Florinne was of selfs bewus is van die Belgiese teenwoordigheid in Antarktika tydens die ekspedisie van Gaston de Gerlache in 1957-1958 (60 jaar nadat sy pa Adrien de Gerlache met die skip Belgica na die Suidpool vertrek het).

Behalwe hierdie vliegtuigversamelings, word ook verskeie afdelings verteenwoordig, soos die para-kommando-regiment, die Sabena Company of die afdeling vir lugvaart-argeologie in België, sodat ons ander lugvaartartikels in België kan ontdek. Om nie te vergeet van die talle vitrines met 'n ongelooflike versameling lugvaartmasjiengewere uit die Eerste Wêreldoorlog nie.

U kan u aangename besoek afsluit deur 'n drankie te drink by die & quot

Ernest Antoine Joseph Paul Demuyter is gebore in Gent (26 Maart 1893 - 7 Februarie 1963). Hy was een van die burgemeester van Ixelles (Brusselse gemeente).


Kellner-Béchereau 28VD Air Racer

Société Kellner was 'n Franse luukse koetsbouer wat deur Georges Kellner bestuur word. Tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het die maatskappy hom tot die vervaardiging van SPAD VII, S.XI en S.XIII vegvliegtuie onder lisensie gewend. Die SPAD (Société Pour L ’Aviation et ses Dérivés / Company for Aviation and its Derivatives) vliegtuie is ontwerp deur die Franse lugvaartingenieur Louis Béchereau. Na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het Société Kellner teruggekeer na die afrigterskap, en SPAD is bedrywig. Béchereau vorder deur 'n aantal maatskappye tot 1926, toe hy die stigter van die Société pour la Réalisation d ’Avions Prototipes (SRAP / Prototype Aircraft Company).

Die Kellner-Béchereau 28VD in aanbou. Die koepel wat aan die voorkant van die vliegtuig vasgemaak is, bevat die oliekoeler van die oppervlak. Die bokant van die koelvloeistoftenk is net agter die kuip bo -op die enjin sigbaar. Let op die brandstoftenks voor en agter die kajuit.

Société Kellner is ná sy pa se afsterwe deur Jacques Kellner oorgeneem. Jacques was 'n liefhebber van lugvaart en wou die onderneming terugstuur om betrokke te raak by lugvaart. In 1931 het Jacques Kellner kragte saamgesnoer met Louis Béchereau om te vorm Avions Kellner-Béchereau in Boulogne-Billancourt, Frankryk. Kellner-Béchereau het onmiddellik vliegtuie begin ontwerp, en een van hul eerste konsepte was die van die 28VD (ook bekend as KB-28), 'n lugrenjaer wat bedoel was vir die 1933 Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe. Die Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe was 'n wedloop om 2 000 km (1,242 myl) af te lê met 'n verpligte stop van 90 minute op 1 000 km, en vliegtuie was beperk tot die gebruik van 'n enkele enjin met 'n verplasing van nie meer as 8,8 liter nie. Bykomende stop kan gemaak word, maar dit was nie verpligtend nie, en dit sal in berekening gebring word teen die totale tyd om die kursus te voltooi. Tien rondtes van die 200 kilometer lange baan sou die wedloop voltooi, en die ruitvormige baan is gelê met die dorpe Chartres, Moisy, Orléans en Étampes op sy hoeke. Die Étampes-Mondésir-vliegveld was die begin- en eindpunt, en die prys in 1933 was vier miljoen frank.

Die Kellner-Béchereau 28VD was 'n laevlerkstert wat amper geheel en al van metaal gemaak is, en die ontwerp daarvan is in 'n windtunnel getoets. Die slanke monokok-romp van die vliegtuig was van aluminium-konstruksie met 'n oop kajuit in die middel. 'N Skuins kuip het na die kajuit gelei en 'n verlengde kopsteun het daaruit getrek. Dit het daartoe gelei dat die vlieënier taamlik laag sit met min sig vorentoe, maar die sysig was redelik goed. Brandstoftenks is voor en agter die kajuit gehuisves. Die vliegtuig se vertikale en horisontale stabiliseerders was van aluminium, maar die roer en hysbakke was van hout. Die hoek van die horisontale stabiliseerders was verstelbaar en kan verander word om die vliegtuig tydens die vlug af te sny. 'N Aërodinamiese kuip het die stertgedeelte gedeeltelik bedek.

Die 28VD wat die laaste aanraking ondergaan. Hierdie beeld gee 'n goeie beeld van hoe die oppervlakradiators om die voorkant van die vleuel vou. Let op die groot Ratier -metaalskroef. Die innames van die enjin se aanjaers kan net aan die onderkant van die motor gesien word.

Die relatief kort, uitsteekvlerke van die 28VD is aan die romp vasgemaak deur 'n hoofspar in die middel en 'n agterspat. Die vlerke is verder ondersteun deur vals voorste en agterste spartels. 'N Groot aileron het byna die hele lengte van die vleuel se agterrand gehardloop en was vasgemaak aan die valse agterste spar. Die vleuelkonstruksie het sy binnekant meestal oop gehou en drie brandstoftenks is in elke vleuel geplaas. Elke vleueltenk was toegerus met 'n snelafvoerklep met 'n deursnee van 10 cm. Vir die klep is koolsuurgas in 'n ruimte gevoer wat 'n onderste seël uitblaas, sodat 'n boonste prop vry kan val, gevolg deur die inhoud van die brandstoftenk. Alhoewel dit nie spesifiek vermeld word nie, word vermoed dat die vlieënier die vloei van die koolsuurgas sou beheer om die brandstofstorting te begin. Dit is nie duidelik of die romptenks ook met 'n stortklep toegerus was nie.

Die boonste oppervlak van elke vleuel was bedek met verkoelers in vyf afdelings. Elke oppervlakradiatorafdeling het bestaan ​​uit 'n voorste en agterste deel. Die voorste verkoeler vir elke gedeelte het om die voorkant van die vleuel gebuig om die voorkant te vorm. Die binneste drie verkoelerafdelings eindig kort nadat hulle na die onderkant van die vleuel gedraai het. Die buitenste twee afdelings het om die voorkant gegaan om die voorste helfte van die ondervleuel te bedek, en bykomende verkoelers het die agterste buitenste oppervlak onder die vleuel bedek. Water uit die tenk wat bo die enjin geïnstalleer is, vloei deur pype in die voorste en agterste rande van die vleuel en dan in die radiator van die oppervlak. Nadat dit deur die verkoeler gegaan het, is die afgekoelde water in 'n buis wat langs die middelste spoel loop, opgevang en na die enjin teruggekeer. 'N Groot kuip wat die agterkant van die vleuel met die romp verbind, bevat 'n aantal lamellen om hitte, dampe en vog uit die vleuel te laat ontsnap.

Die nuut voltooide 28VD word uit die hangar gerol vir toetsing. Die vaartbelyning en skraal romp van die vliegtuig is duidelik. Hierdie beeld bied 'n goeie beeld van die boogsteun van die landingsgestel. Om terug te trek, het die bokant van die ratbeen na die vlerkpunt gegly en die onderste ratbeen om die boogsteun gedraai.

Onder die binneboordgedeeltes van die vlerke was die gedeeltelik intrekbare hooflandingsstel, wat 'n spoor van 1,48 m lank het. Wanneer dit uitgestrek is, is 'n vaste bal aan die bokant van elke ratbeen op sy plek vasgesluit, en die been self is ondersteun deur 'n booglid wat aan die romp geheg is. Die bal bo -op die ratbeen is in 'n kanaal in die vleuel gemonteer. Om die rat in te trek, het 'n terugtrekhendel die afsluiting losgelaat en die druk in 'n silinder ontbloot, wat 'n trommel oopgesluit het en 'n kabel laat losloop het. Terwyl die ratbeen om sy boogsteun draai, trek 'n elastiese kabel die bokant van die ratbeen na die vlerkpunt totdat die ratbeen teen die onderkant van die vleuel rus. 'N Uplock onder die binneste vleuel het die ratbeen in die teruggetrokke posisie vasgemaak, en die boogsteun het 'n ru -aerodinamiese kuip gebied. Om die rat uit te brei, het 'n verlenghendel die uplock losgemaak en druk onder 'n silinder gevoer. Die suier in die silinder het 'n trom gedraai wat 'n kabel opgedraai het. Die kabel is aan die boonste ratpote vasgemaak en dit aan die binnekant getrek teen die spanning van die elastiese kabel. Nadat die kabel die rat in sy verlengde posisie getrek het, is die bal bo -op die ratbeen vasgemaak deur die afsluit.

Die Delage 12 CDirs-enjin was gehuisves in 'n vaartbelynde, pasgemaakte kap aan die voorkant van die 28VB. Gebou deur la Société des Automobiles Delage (die Delage Automobile Company), is die enjin spesiaal gemaak vir die Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe ras. Die naam "12 CDirs" het 12 silinders, Coupe Deutsch, omgekeerde (omgekeer), onderwyser (ratvermindering), en suralimenté (oorlaai). Die 400 pk (298 kW) enjin was 'n watergekoelde V-12 met tweewortels-aanjaers. Die 12 CDirs het 'n 100 mm -boring, 'n slag van 84 mm en 'n verplasing van 7,92 L. Innames aan elke kant van die onderste kap het lug na die enjins se aanjaers gebring. Uitlaat is uitgestoot deur individuele stapels wat uit die kap kom. 'N Saalwatertenk het bo -op die agterkant van die enjin gesit. 'N U-vormige olietenk is tussen die enjin en die skroef geïnstalleer. 'N Oppervlakoliekoeler is bo -op die enjin geplaas en bedek die gebied tussen die watertenk en die spinnerak. Die enjin het 'n tweelem, metaal, grondverstelbare Ratier-skroef gedraai wat ongeveer 2,37 m in deursnee was.

Verhoogde aansig van die 28VD illustreer die oppervlaktestralers wat die boonste vlerke bedek. Let op die vents in die agterkant van die vleuel. Die ren nommer “5” is op die romp toegepas. This image was most likely taken on 14 May 1933, the day of the accident, as the aircraft is prepared for its qualification flight.

The Kellner-Béchereau 28VD had a wingspan of 21 ft 10 in (6.65 m), a length of 23 ft 6 in (7.16 m), and a height of 8 ft 8 in (2.64 m). The aircraft weighed 2,176 lb (987 kg) empty and 3,527 lb (1,600 kg) fully loaded. The 28VD had an anticipated top speed of 249 mph (400 km/h) and a cruising speed of 214 mph (345 km/h). On 5 May 1933, the aircraft was moved to the Étampes-Mondésir airfield where it would be completed for the Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe, to be held on 28 May. Qualifying for the race was scheduled 8–14 May, which left very little time for flight testing. The 28VD was given race number 5 and made its first flight on 12 May. Armée de l’Air Capitaine Maurice Vernhol conducted the very brief flight tests, which did not reveal any issues, and would fly the 28VD for the race. Refining and preparing the aircraft used up most of the qualifying time. Based on previous tests, Vernhol felt that the engine’s full power was not being utilized and requested that the propeller be adjusted to a finer pitch.

During an afternoon qualification flight on 14 May 1933, Vernhol added full power, and the engine revved to an excess of 4,400 rpm—over 600 rpm more than its maximum limit. At that moment, a coolant hose blew free from its mount, and Vernhol was enveloped in a shower of steam and hot water. It is not clear if the increased coolant pressure from the engine overspeed caused the hose to blow free, or if it was just bad timing. Regardless, Vernhol was blinded by the spray and attempted an emergency landing near Ville Sauvage, north of the Étampes-Mondésir airfield. In his impaired condition, Vernhol misjudged the landing, and the 28VD hit the ground hard. The extended landing gear broke off, and the aircraft flipped upside down, tearing off the engine and breaking the fuselage behind the cockpit. Amazingly, Vernhol escaped with only minor injuries, but the 28VD was completely destroyed. A Potez 53 flown by Georges Détré went on to win the 1933 Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe at a speed of 200.58 mph (322.81 km/h).

Kellner-Béchereau also designed a fighter along the same lines as the 28VD / KB-28. Known as the KB-29, the fighter was powered by a 550 hp (410 kW), 731 cu in (11.97 L) Delage 12 GVis inverted V-12 engine. The engine was displayed at the 1932 Paris Salon de l’Aéronautique, but the KB-29 fighter never materialized.

The remains of the 28VD after its forced lading. The landing gear and engine have been ripped away, and the fuselage is broken at a right angle behind the wing. The surface radiators under the outer wing are visible. The circular openings seen in the wing’s underside are the dump valves for two of the three fuel tanks.


Inhoud

Genesis and competition [ edit | wysig bron]

Bf 110s in France in 1942

Throughout the 1930s, the air forces of the major military powers were engaged in a transition from biplane to monoplane designs. Most concentrated on the single-engine fighter aircraft, but the problem of range arose. Die Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM), pushed by Hermann Göring, issued a request for a new multipurpose fighter called the Kampfzerstörer (battle destroyer) with long range and an internal bomb bay. The request called for a twin-engine, three-seat, all-metal monoplane that was armed with cannon as well as a bomb bay. Of the original seven companies, only Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (Messerschmitt), Focke-Wulf and Henschel responded to the request. Γ ]

Messerschmitt defeated Focke-Wulf, Henschel and Arado, and was given the funds to build several prototype aircraft. The Focke-Wulf design, the Focke-Wulf Fw 57, had a wing span of 25.6 m (84 ft) and was powered by two DB 600 engines. It was armed with two 20 mm MG FF cannons in the nose and a third was positioned in a dorsal turret. The Fw 57 V1 flew in 1936 but its performance was poor and the machine crashed. Δ] The Henschel Hs 124 was similar in construction layout to the Fw 57, Δ] equipped with two Jumo 210C for the V1. The V2 used the BMW 132Dc radial engines generating 870 PS compared with the 640 PS Jumo. The armament consisted of a single rearward-firing 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 15 machine gun and a single forward-firing 20 mm MG FF cannon. Δ ]

Messerschmitt omitted the internal bomb load requirement from the RLM directive to increase the armament element of the RLM specification. The Bf 110 was far superior to its rivals in providing the speed, range and firepower to meet its role requirements. Ε] By the end of 1935, the Bf 110 had evolved into an all-metal, low-wing cantilever monoplane of semi-monocoque design featuring twin rudders and powered by two DB 600A engines. The design was also fitted with Handley-Page wing slots Ε] (actually, leading-edge slats).

Early variants [ edit | wysig bron]

Bf 110s in flight above Budapest. 1944

By luck (and pressure by Ernst Udet), RLM reconsidered the ideas of the Kampfzerstörer and began focusing on the Zerstörer. Due to these changes, the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke design better fitted RLM's requests. On 12 May 1936, Rudolf Opitz flew the first Bf 110 out of Augsburg. Ζ] But, as many pre-war designs found, the engine technologies promised were not up to acceptable reliability standards. Even with the temperamental DB 600 engines, the RLM found the Bf 110, while not as maneuverable as desired, was quite a bit faster than its original request specified, as well as faster than the then-current front line fighter, the Bf 109 B-1. Thus the order for four pre-production A-0 units was placed. The first of these were delivered on January 1937. During this testing, both the Focke-Wulf Fw 187 and Henschel Hs 124 competitors were rejected and the Bf 110 was ordered into full production.

The initial deliveries of the Bf 110 encountered several issues with delivery of the DB 600 motors, which forced Bayerische Flugzeugwerke to install Junkers Jumo 210B engines, leaving the Bf 110 seriously underpowered and able to reach a top speed of only 431 km/h (268 mph). The armament of the A-0 units was also limited to four nose-mounted 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns.

Even without delivery of the DB 600 engines, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke began assembly of the Bf 110 in the summer of 1937. As the DB 600 engines continued to have issues, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke was forced to keep on using Jumo motors, the 210G, which supplied 515 kW (700 PS) each (versus the 471 kW/640 PS supplied by the 210B). Three distinct versions of the Bf 110B were built, the B-1, which featured four 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns and two 20 mm MG FF cannons. The B-2 reconnaissance version, which had a camera in place of the cannons, and the B-3 which was used as a trainer, with the cannons replaced by extra radio equipment. Only 45 Bf 110Bs were built before the Jumo 210G engine production line ended. The major identifier of the A and B 110s was the very large "mouth" bath radiators located under the engine.

In late 1938, the DB 601 B-1 engines became available. With the new engine, the design teams removed the radiators under the engine nacelles and replaced them with water/glycol radiators for the C-series airframes onwards, placing them under the wing just outboard of each nacelle, otherwise similar in installation, appearance and function to those on the Bf 109E. With the DB 601 engine, the Bf 110's maximum speed increased to a respectable 541 km/h (336 mph) with a range of approximately 1,094 km (680 mi). A small oil cooler and airscoop remained under each engine nacelle for the remainder of the Bf 110's production run.

First conceived in the latter half of 1939, the D-series of Bf 110s was targeted to have improvements meant to increase its range. The initial D-series version, the Bf 110D-1 was designed to omit the twin MG FF nose-mount cannon for weight saving and added a large, streamlined 1,050 litre (277 U.S. gallon) integral ventral fuel tank built into the fuselage, which required a substantially sized, conformal streamlined ventral fuselage fairing extending from halfway back under the nose to the rear of the cockpit glazing, inspiring the nickname Dackelbauch (dachshund's belly). The D-1 was also set up to accept a pair of fin-equipped 900 litre (238 U.S. gallon) drop tanks, one under each wing, increasing the total fuel capacity to 4,120 litres (1,088 U.S. gallons). The substantial added drag of the "dachshund's belly" integral ventral fuselage tank in test flights mandated its omission from production D-1s, with the Rüstsatz designation of D-1/R1 given to airframes alternatively fitted to have a ventral rack, accepting a third 900 litre drop tank under the fuselage instead, and retaining the twin MG FF nose-mount cannon in both cases. Later D-2/R2 and D-3 versions retained the twin underwing 900 litre drop tank capability, using multipurpose ordnance racks capable of holding either drop tanks or carrying bombs. Η ]

Later production variants [ edit | wysig bron]

FuG 220 and FuG 202 (center) "Lichtenstein" SN-2 VHF band, and B/C UHF band night fighter radar antennas on the nose of a Bf𧅮 G-4 being serviced by Luftwaffe ground crew on Grove airfield, Denmark postwar in August 1945, before the aircraft was sent to the UK for research.

The production of the Bf 110 was put on a low priority in 1941 in expectation of its replacement by the Me 210. During this time, two versions of the Bf 110 were developed, the E and F models. The E was designed as a fighter bomber (Zerstörer Jabo), able to carry four 50 kg (110 lb) ETC-50 racks under the wing, along with the centerline bomb rack. The first E, the Bf 110 E-1 was originally powered by the DB 601B engine, but shifted to the DB 601P as they became available in quantity. A total of 856 Bf 110E models were built between August 1940 and January 1942. ⎖] The E models also had upgraded armour and some fuselage upgrades to support the added weight. Most pilots of the Bf 110E considered the aircraft slow and unresponsive, one former Bf 110 pilot commenting the E was "rigged and a total dog." The Bf 110F featured the new DB 601F engines which produced 993 kW/1,350 PS (almost double the power the original Jumo engines provided), which allowed for upgraded armour, strengthening, and increased weight with no loss in performance. Three common versions of the F model existed. Pilots typically felt the Bf 110F to be the best of the 110 line, being fully aerobatic and in some respects smoother to fly than the Bf 109, though not as fast. Eventually 512 Bf 110F models were completed between December 1941 and December 1942, when production gave way to the Bf 110G. ⎖ ]

Although the Me 210 entered service in mid-1941, it was withdrawn for further development. There were insufficient aircraft to fully replace the Bf 110, so it remained in service until the end of the war. In the wake of the failure of the Me 210, the Bf 110G was designed. ⎗] Fitted with the DB 605B engines, producing 1,085 kW (1,475 PS) in "War Emergency" setting, and 997 kW (1,355 PS) at 5.8 km (19,000 ft) altitude, the Bf 110G also underwent some changes which improved the aerodynamics of the aircraft, as well as upgrading the nose armament and moving the rear cockpit access forward from the transversely-hinged, "tilt-open" rearmost canopy glazing (which was changed to a differently framed fixed section) to a side/top hinged opening section of the main canopy, opening to port, with a new rearmost framed glazing section fixed in place. No Bf 110 G-1 existed, as the Bf 110 G-2 became the baseline Bf 110G and was fitted with a large number of Rüstsätze field conversion packs, making the G subtype the most versatile production version of the Bf 110. The initial batch of six pre-series production G-0 aircraft built in June 1942 followed by 797 G-2, 172 G-3 and 2,293 G-4 models, built between December 1942 and April 1945. ⎖] Pilots reported the Bf 110G to be a "mixed bag" in the air, in part due to all changes between the G and F series. However the Bf 110G was considered a superior gun platform with excellent all-around visibility, and considered, until the advent of the Heinkel He 219, the Luftwaffe's best night fighters.

Armament [ edit | wysig bron]

The Bf 110's main strength was its ability to accept unusually powerful air-to-air weaponry. Early versions had four 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns in the upper nose and two 20 mm MG FF/M cannons fitted in the lower part of the nose. Later versions replaced the MG FF/M with the more powerful 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons and many G-series aircraft, especially those which served in the bomber-destroyer role, had two 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 cannons fitted instead of the MG 17. The defensive armament consisted of a single, flexibly mounted 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 15 machine gun. Late F-series and prototype G-series were upgraded to a 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 81 machine gun with a higher rate of fire and the G-series was equipped with the twin-barreled MG 81Z. Many G-series night fighters were retrofitted or factory-built with the Schräge Musik off-bore gun system, firing upward at an oblique angle for shooting down bombers while passing underneath, frequently equipped with two 20 mm MG FF/M, but field installations of the 20 mm MG 151/20 or 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 cannons were also utilized. Die Schräge Musik weapons were typically mounted to the back of the rear cockpit.

The Bf 110 G-2/R1 was also capable of accepting armament such as the Bordkanone series 37 mm (1.46 in) BK 3,7 autofed cannon, mounted in a conformal ventral gun pod under the fuselage. A single hit from this weapon was enough to destroy any Allied bomber.

Bf 110 with twin 900 litre drop tanks with vertical fins, from 9.Staffel/ZG 26, on a Regia Aeronautica photo

The fighter-bomber versions could carry up to 2,000 kg (4,410 lb) of bombs, depending on the type.


Do expert fighters and military personnel really have to register their hands as deadly weapons?

Posted On July 30, 2020 22:05:18

Anyone who’s ever watched pretty much any movie in the history of ever or otherwise watched professional pugilists spar words with one another in a media session knows that those trained in the art of kicking ass are required to register their hands as deadly weapons in the United States. Further, if they use their fists of fury against the general public, not only will they get thrown in the slammer for a rather long time for assault with a deadly weapon, but afterwards they’ll go on a high flying adventure with the likes of Cyrus The Virus Grissom and his band of lovable ragamuffins. But is any of this actually true in reality? Well, as the universe hates simplicity and basically nothing is black and white- no, and also yes, and then nuance.

As to the easiest part of this particular topic to address- are those highly trained in hand to hand combat required to register their hands as deadly weapons in the U.S.? Nope… except for in one U.S. territory- Guam. There, in Title 10- Health & Safety Division 3- Public Safety, Chapter 62, it states,

Any person who is an expert in the art of karate or judo, or any similar physical in which the hands and feet are used as deadly weapons, is required to register with the Department of Revenue and Taxation…

An exception to this is that U.S. military members, as well as law enforcement, are not required to register. The fee for such a registration is a mere and does not ever need to be renewed. Should such an expert fail to register and this is discovered by the authorities, said individual will be found guilty of a misdemeanor crime.

As to the end result of such a registration, in a nutshell the Department of Revenue and Taxation keeps a database of those registered and it further states in section 62106, “Any registered… who thereafter is charged with having used his art in a physical assault on some other person, shall upon conviction thereof, be deemed guilty of aggravated assault.”

Interestingly, no part of this section of the law seems to give any guidelines about how long you have from entering Guam to register yourself. And it does seem to require you show up in person to register, so there will always be a period between entering Guam, or reaching “expert” status while living there, and when you actually register.

And if you’re wondering, they define “expert” as “a person trained in the arts of karate, judo or other hand-to-hand fighting technique, whereby the hands, feet or other parts of the body are used as weapons, who shall have completed at least one level of training therein and shall have been issued a belt or other symbol showing proficiency in such art.”

As a brief aside, we’re just saying, but if Guam really wanted to make some nice side money for their Treasury, they’d allow this registration and issuance of such a certificate to be done via the internet and then raise the price considerably, as well as offer worldwide shipping on officially embossed and laminated registration cards. With some good word of mouth marketing, this would be an extremely popular gift to get martial arts students the world over who reach certain proficiency levels, whether they ever have any plans to visit Guam or not.

On that note, other than Guam, the only places where you can even try to register your deadly hands as such are in various fighting schools we could find who sell novelty certificates to students who reach a certain threshold in their training.

So that’s the yes and no. What about the nuance?

While it is true that in most of the world you do not have to register your deadly hands, it turns out the fact that you do have that training is extremely likely to come up in any court case in which you used your skills in a fight, with potentially very serious consequences, as we’ll illustrate later in the famous Con Air Cameron Poe fight, among some real world examples.

But before we get into that, this might all have you wondering how the myth that expert fighters do have to register their hands as deadly weapons became established and so prevalent. While nobody is sure who first got the bright idea, it is the case that professional fighters in the past have occasionally claimed they had to do this. Most notably, for a time it was all the rage for boxers. In these cases, the boxer might, for example, hold up their fists during a press conference and proclaim they had to register said extremities as deadly weapons upon arrival into town and come SUNDAY, SUNDAY, SUNDAY their opponent will find out just how valid that registration is.

Beyond publicity stunts spreading the myth, Taekwondo 7th Dan Grandmaster and former police officer Darwin J Eisenhart states that some among the particularly well trained actually find getting or making these novelty certificates very practical. It would seem a side effect of being a relatively high profile fighter is that random drunk or “tough guys” at bars like to challenge said fighters to fights, similar to what frequently happened to Abraham Lincoln once he gained the reputation as an expert fighter.

Such official-looking certificates help forestall these conflicts via the fighter flashing the certificate or card they made and explaining to the individual suffering from small penis syndrome that the fighter cannot engage in such a contest of manhood because it could result in said fighter getting charged with assault with a deadly weapon, regardless of the outcome of the fight.

As Eisenhart elaborates, “There was no legal standing for these claims, and no one was actually ‘officially’ registered or required to announce in advance that they had training, but most of them did this to avoid fights rather than state it as a brag or boast…”

Hollywood, of course, has done a great job further spreading the myth as well.

Now, all that said, it turns out that while the cards themselves weren’t official, the reasoning these fighters were stating it wouldn’t be a good idea for them to get into such a fight was completely valid.

You see, much like as you’re not required to register a walking stick, car, steak knife, or a dog as a deadly weapon, all four can unequivocally be considered such by the courts in the right set of circumstances. Similarly, regardless of whether you’re an expert fighter, pretty much every part of your body can be considered by the courts to be a deadly weapon in the right set of circumstances, depending on how you use said body part. For example, in the past, U.S. courts have found everything from knees to elbows to teeth to be deadly weapons in court cases.

A very important thing to note about all this is that, again, in many regions of the world, those who are highly trained in hand to hand combat will often have a much greater chance of having a court decide that the person’s body parts are to be considered deadly weapons.

The result of this is that it’s much easier for that person to be found guilty of a criminal or felony assault than a normal person who might be charged with a simple misdemeanor assault for the same set of actions and events.

On top of that, in some regions and sets of circumstances, it doesn’t even matter if you were the one being attacked and simply were defending yourself, as we’ll get into in a bit.

The distinction between these two legal classifications is rather important as, in the U.S. and many other regions, something like a misdemeanor assault might result in only a small fine to pay and/or a little bit of jail time, but not usually significant. In contrast, a Felony assault’s minimums will probably see a fine of at least several thousands dollars and very likely also include lengthy incarceration, even up to life in prison if the assault resulted in a death.

Thus, in all of this, while technically outside of Guam the letter of the law doesn’t distinguish between a random Jimmy Layabout and Bruce Lee, it turns out in criminal and civil proceedings this is most definitely going to be factored in.

As a real world example here, consider the words of Judge John Hurley who was ruling over a road-rage case that included an ex-marine and very skilled mixed martial artist by the name of Fernando Rodrigues. Judge Hurley states, “I’ve always thought that if you are a black belt in karate or you are an expert in martial arts, that your hands and feet would be considered weapons.”

Perhaps it is no surprise from this that said judge ruled, “The court believes at this time that [Rodrigues’] hands and feet are considered, for probable cause, to be deadly weapons.”

Similarly, many a jury member may hold the exact same opinion, ultimately biasing them somewhat against the professional fighter in a given assault case, especially as the opposing attorney will absolutely be shoving this fact down the jurors’ throats.

For yet another real world case, we have an incident involving one Jamal Parks of Texas in 2013. Parks first got in a fight with one of his friends, resulting in the police being called. When police arrived to the scene, Parks beat the crap out of one of the officers as well. In this case, because Parks was a mixed martial arts fighter, the court went ahead and considered his hands to be deadly weapons and he was charged with Felony Aggravated Assault with a Deadly Weapon, rather than going with a lesser charge as would have likely been the case if he was just some Jimmy Crapface. District attorney Bill Vassar noted on this one, “It’s pretty unusual, but in this instance — because he is an MMA fighter — we thought it was appropriate to charge his hands as deadly weapons.”

Jumping across the pond to Merry Ol’ England, we have a rather tragic assault against an 18 year old named Daniel Christie. Christie was walking with friends on New Years’ when they encountered a scuffle where a rather large individual was attacking some much smaller teens, prompting Christie to apparently approach and yell at the man “Why are you hitting kids?”

Well, it turns out the group of teens had offered to sell drugs to the rather muscular man, Shaun McNeil, as well as apparently made some comments about McNeil’s girlfriend which McNeil apparently wasn’t too happy about. The slightly inebriated McNeil declined the offer for drugs, but after the comments about his lady, there was some sort of fight between them, with McNeil knocking one of the teens down.

When Christie and his group approached and Christie yelled his question at McNeil, McNeil subsequently misinterpreted Christie and his friends with being with the other teens and punched Daniel in the face, as well as punched Daniel’s brother, Peter.

Unfortunately for McNeil and the Christie family, while you wouldn’t normally expect a single blow to the face to cause serious long term damage, in this case when Christie hit the ground, said unyielding surface shattered part of his skull. The result was that, 11 days later, Daniel’s family had to say their goodbyes and had the doctors turn off life support.

As to the court case, given McNeil was a highly trained fighter, it was decided to charge him with murder instead of manslaughter, despite it being very questionable that there was any murderous intent.

The court did, in the end, rule McNeil not-guilty of murder. But he wasn’t off the hook. They instead convicted him of manslaughter. As to the ultimate ruling and sentencing, Justice Hulme cited McNeil’s training in MMA and background in body building (thus his hands being more deadly than most), as well as McNeil’s rather large size compared to Daniel’s (thus Daniel could have not possibly posed any real threat to him). On top of that, witnesses claimed that once McNeil approached to punch, Daniel attempted to retreat the situation and put his hands up and said “no”. This, again, demonstrated Daniel had posed no threat to McNeil, despite the somewhat inebriated McNeil allegedly interpreting the situation as him being surrounded by a unified group of drug dealing, potentially hostile teens.

Further going against him, McNeil had something of a history of getting into random, often alcohol induced, fights with his rather deadly hands and seemingly had not learned his lesson from previous more minor run-ins with the authorities over such. Thus, after explaining all his reasoning, for this single punch, Justice Hulme sentenced McNeil to a maximum of 10 years in prison, with the earliest possibility of parole after 7.

The point being in all of this- if one is an expert fighter and is considering attacking anyone, they are in many regions of the world going to be at a higher risk of having the courts level much more severe charges against them than Jimmy Couchpotato.

Now, of course, Jimmy Couchpotato still could potentially have similar charges leveled against him if the court deems he used extreme degrees of force, such as curb stomped someones’ head into the ground or the like- even if that someone had been the one to initially attack. But should Mr. Couchpotato punch someone in the face once and accidentally kill a person with that single blow, they are more likely to face lesser charges than if Bruce Lee did the exact same thing.

So how can Mr. Lee (and indeed your average Joe) help ensure things go smoothly in court when it comes to self defense?

It’s important to note that what constitutes acceptable self-defense is an incredibly nebulous concept with varying laws from region to region, including even varying from state to state in the United States. Beyond varying laws, determining culpability can be extremely difficult, especially when factoring in both civil and criminal courts and often conflicting first hand accounts of what happened and exactly when and how.

That caveat out of the way, while rules differ, there are a handful of things you can do to help yourself out in the general case. First, if evidence shows that you attempted to de-escalate the situation in words or actions, that’s a point in your favor. Further, if it can be shown that you attempted to exit the situation, that’s another point. In fact, there are actually some regions where you are required, if at all possible, to attempt to retreat before defending yourself. (Note even in these regions, if you’re in your home, you usually are not required to attempt to exit the situation. Though, contrary to popular belief, in most regions this still doesn’t give you carte blanche to use whatever force you please to the person who entered your home without your consent. Proportional force to the perceived threat still applies.)

Just another quick note here as well, also contrary to popular belief, in most regions, you are not required to wait for the attacker to throw the first blow. If the attack is very clearly imminent, such as someone running at you and yelling they are going to put a dent in your face, you can strike first and have that be considered self defense. It’s simply that, once again, in many cases it can potentially be another point in your favor if the other person is the one that attempts the first blow.

So you’ve done all that, and the fight starts anyway. What now? Most laws concerning this sort of thing in many parts of the world usually say something like that the person defending themselves is free to use up to the minimum force required to protect themselves from harm.

As you can imagine, what constitutes “minimum force required” can vary considerably from case to case. You can also see from this why an expert fighter might be much more prone to getting into trouble while defending themselves. They are much better at inflicting an awful lot of damage with a single blow compared to most, and, on top of that, have much more experience than most at knowing what kind of damage they will do with a given blow- thus more likely that a judge or jury might deem that inflicting that excessive damage was intentional.

So, for example, if Jimmy Crapface comes at Bruce Lee with his fists, and Lee responds by a quick and decisive kick to the head which then breaks Jimmy’s skull, killing him, there’s a non-zero chance the prosecutor might level some rather serious charges against Lee and leave it up to a judge or jury to sort the matter out. After all, while Jimmy was the attacker- and being Jimmy absolutely deserved death- he only brought fists and being a Grade A asshole to the fight. In contrast, Bruce Lee knowingly brought a deadly weapon- his foot, and then used it in a way that he was expert enough to know could cause deadly damage. Thus, Lee could be deemed to have, essentially, brought a gun to a fist fight, and then used it.

Further, even if the criminal court ultimately decided to let Mr. Lee off (because Lee did the world a favor by offing Jimmy), should Jimmy’s family choose to sue Lee over the death, there’s yet another round of proceedings to contend with where the ruling very much might go against Lee. (That said, on the civil case side of things, this is region dependent as, for example, 22 states in the U.S. have rules against an attacker suing for subsequent injuries, even if excessive force was ultimately used by the defender.)

Of course, if you feel your life is in danger for some reason, such as if the attacker is coming at you with a knife, you are free to use deadly force to a point. As to the limits, let’s say the attacker comes at you, tries to stab you, and you then deflect the blow. In so doing, you cause the attacker to drop their knife. After the knife is dropped, you then use a severe blow that has the possibility of causing deadly damage. Unfortunately for you, given that the attacker no longer offers a deadly threat to you, having just dropped the knife, you once again are in danger of the court ruling that you used excessive force and, given you are an expert fighter, more likely they’ll also rule that your hands be deemed deadly weapons.

Of course, in all of this, a variety of factors are also considered including, among many other things, your size relative to your opponent (such as was brought up in the aforementioned Daniel Christie case), whether there are multiple attackers, whether it was likely that the attacker might recover the knife and try to use it against you, if the attacker seemed to be on some sort of drugs that might require deadly force to get them to stop, even if they are unarmed themselves, etc. etc. And, of course, what the exact sequence of events were in the fight is going to be closely looked at, though is a rather difficult thing to accurately determine in many cases, further muddying the waters.

So let’s now look at the Con Air fight which illustrates many of these points. In it, at no point did Cameron Poe try to de-escalate the situation with words, nor try to exit the approaching fight. In fact, when the attackers first started to approach from a distance, Poe was standing right next to his open car door with no imminent threat present. Thus, he could have simply got in and drove away, as his wife was begging him to do. Instead, he stepped away from the car towards the attackers, actually purposefully escalating the situation. The group of “hounddogs” then attacked and Poe defended himself against all of them but one in a perfectly reasonable way that would have caused him no issue in court.

But, of course, there was the matter of the person he killed. Unfortunately for him, there were no witnesses other than the combatants to that part of the fight. It was simply his word against the remaining attackers that the one he killed tried to use a knife against him. With no physical evidence that the attacker posed a deadly threat, as the knife was taken (and presumably the other attackers claiming no such knife existed), it is not out of the question for the court to rule both that Poe used excessive force to defend himself, and that he intentionally brought and used a deadly weapon to a fight where the attackers only brought fists.

Granted, there were multiple attackers and one Cameron Poe, so it might have been possible for Poe’s lawyer to try to argue that even without evidence of a knife, Poe feared for his life given he was surrounded- as ever nothing is black and white. However, given Poe more or less willingly entered the fight, arguing that he was afraid for his life is a bit of a stretch. Further, at the point he killed the attacker, he had already incapacitated everyone else. So it was just one on one. So that argument probably wouldn’t have gone far.

Thus, given all the pertinent facts that the court was aware of (including, again, no evidence of a knife outside of Poe saying there was), the ultimate ruling was perfectly reasonable given the letter of the law. Just because someone attacks you doesn’t give you the right to intentionally use deadly force against them, and the court is especially not going to be on your side if they know you had a chance to leave the situation and, rather than doing that, actually willingly entered it.

Granted, what the Judge said in his ruling about Poe not being subject to the same laws as a normal person was all a bunch of crap, and his lawyer seemingly screwed him over to boot, but the ultimate ruling even if he hadn’t plead guilty wasn’t unrealistic.

At least one thing Poe did have in his favor was that Alabama law does not allow attackers to sue for damages should the one they are attacking inflict such. So while he was convicted in the criminal court, he at least wouldn’t have faced any civil suits later.

But to sum up, while outside of Guam nobody is actually registering their hands as deadly weapons, should you actually be highly trained in hand to hand combat, you still want to approach any fight as if the courts will consider your body parts deadly weapons, whether you are attacking or are the one being attacked.

If being attacked- attempt to de-escalate the situation with words and/or leave. If that fails, then use the absolute minimum force possible to end the fight, and then resist the urge to do anything else after your opponent is incapacitated. Even a single blow after they are no longer a threat to you could be awfully expensive for you in a civil court proceeding, and may have very serious criminal ramifications on top of it.

The plus side of all of this is that, while you the expert fighter might not be able to use “my hands are registered as deadly weapons” as a pick up line for the ladies, you could technically rephrase it a bit for the same effect- “Parts of my body are more likely to be considered a deadly weapon in court given the right set of circumstances, varying based on region and exactly what I do with them in the fight. And baby, I know what to do with my body parts.”

And when that doesn’t work. Well, move to Guam. No doubt the ladies will throw themselves at you when you have the official certificate.

This article originally appeared on Today I Found Out. Follow @TodayIFoundOut on Twitter.


Biden to Request $715 Billion for DOD, Eliminate the OCO Account

President Joe Biden will request $715 billion for the Pentagon in his first budget request in office, about a $10 billion increase from the 2021 enacted budget but below the sustained growth military officials have asked for.

Notably, Biden’s budget looks to do away with the “overseas contingency operations” fund, marking a significant shift in military funding. The OCO is intended to fund wartime operations, but critics have long lamented it’s nothing more than a slush fund for more defense spending. Biden wants to move that wartime funding back to the base budget.

Former President Donald J. Trump, for example, requested $705 billion in his last budget for the Pentagon, plus $69 billion in OCO funding. Congress appropriated $636.4 billion for the Pentagon’s base budget, $25.9 billion for national security programs within the Department of Energy, and $69 billion for the Overseas Contingency Operations account.

The White House Office of Management and Budget on April 9 released a “skinny” budget outline, with limited details of what to expect in the forthcoming overall budget request. Biden’s budget includes $753 billion total for national defense, including the Pentagon budget and other defense-related programs, such as the National Nuclear Security Administration.

Rep. Betty McCollum (D-Minn.), chairwoman of the House Appropriations Committees defense panel, said the proposed 1.5 percent increase for the Department of Defense “will sustain readiness and modernization while we also focus on divesting from ineffective legacy programs and eliminating wasteful spending.”

“I applaud President Biden’s proposed budget for its strong and responsible investments in critical domestic priorities and essential national security needs,” McCollum added in a statement released April 9. “The President understands that the health, economic, climate, and equity crises facing our country must be addressed with bold action.”

OMB, in its statement, states the funding will “defend America and deter adversaries while ensuring America is positioned for strategic competition.” While it does not outline specific efforts, the administration said it will support “ongoing nuclear modernization programs,” which would include the Ground-Based Strategic Deterrent, while it also reviews the overall U.S. nuclear posture.

The administration also plans to divest “legacy systems and programs to redirect resources from low- to high-priority programs, platforms, and systems,” though OMB did not specifically mention which platforms would be affected. The Air Force has long tried to cut legacy aircraft, such as KC-10s and A-10s, to free up funding for newer systems.

“Some legacy force structure is too costly to maintain and operate, and no longer provides the capabilities needed to address national security challenges,” OMB states. “The discretionary request enables DOD to reinvest savings associated with divestitures and other efficiencies to higher priority investments.”

The budget would continue the military’s overall effort to focus on the threat from China as the DOD’s top challenge, while also deterring Russia, by funding the Pacific Deterrence Initiative and working closely with allies and partners in both the Pacific and in NATO.

The request will support DOD research and development, by prioritizing funding “to invest in breakthrough technologies that would drive innovation and underpin the development of next-generation defense capabilities.”

The Biden administration will invest in a “mix” of long-range strike capabilities, a sign that it will continue funding U.S. Army efforts in this area in addition to continued USAF programs.

"Die diskresionêre versoek belê in die ontwikkeling en toetsing van hipersoniese stakingsvermoëns, terwyl die bestaande langafstandstakingvermoëns verbeter word om afskrikking te versterk en oorlewings- en reaksietydlyne te verbeter," lui die dokument.

Boonop sal die begrotingsversoek 'gereedheid' verseker met befondsing vir opleiding, klimaatsbestendigheid bevorder, opkomende biologiese bedreigings teenstaan, militêre gesinne ondersteun en die Amerikaanse vlootskipbou optimaliseer, volgens OMB.

Die gebrek aan befondsingsgroei, as dit aangepas is vir inflasie, het vinnige kritiek van die Republikeine op Capitol Hill ontlok. In 'n gesamentlike verklaring het sens. Jim Inhofe (Okla.), Mitch McConnell (Ky.), Marco Rubio (Fla.), Lindsey Graham (SC) en Richard Shelby (Ala.) Gesê sonder meer finansiering, sal China uit- die VSA meeding

'Die begrotingsvoorstel van president Biden verminder die uitgawes van verdediging, en stuur 'n vreeslike sein nie net na ons teëstanders in Beijing en Moskou nie, maar ook aan ons bondgenote en vennote. Die besnoeiing van Amerika se begroting vir verdediging ondermyn die Washington se demokrate se harde gesprekke heeltemal oor China en bevraagteken die bereidwilligheid van die administrasie om die Chinese Kommunistiese Party te konfronteer, ”het die senatore geskryf.


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