Japannese landingstuig, Nieu -Guinee

Japannese landingstuig, Nieu -Guinee



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Japannese landingstuig, Nieu -Guinee


Amerikaanse troepe inspekteer 'n Japannese landingsvaartuig aan die noordelike oewer van Nieu -Guinee


Japan ontplooi sy eerste mariniers sedert die Tweede Wêreldoorlog om China teen te werk

Vyf en sewentig jaar gelede sou die gesig van 300 Japannese mariniers wat stormloop op 'n strand in Queensland stormloop met amfibiese voertuie, 'n katastrofiese terugslag in Australië se nasionale veiligheid veroorsaak het.

Maar dit is duidelik dat die wêreld sedert die Tweede Wêreldoorlog heelwat verander het. Die soldate van die Japanse Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade (ARB) was nie indringers nie, maar deelnemers aan die internasionale Talisman Saber -oefening van 2019 het tweejaarliks ​​op Australiese bodem plaasgevind.

Die letsels uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog verduidelik egter waarom Japan na die oorlog-'n nasie wat bestaan ​​uit 6 852 eilande-eers in 2018 'n toegewyde amfibiese mag gehad het.

In die dertigerjare het die Keiserlike Japanse vloot begin met die opleiding van spesiale vlootlandingsmagte, hoofsaaklik by vlootbasisse in Kure, Maizuru, Sasebo en Yokosuka. Aanvanklik was dit nie-standaard in organisasie, teen 1941 was daar sestien bataljongrootte SNLF-regimente wat Japannese amfibiese aanvalle in die Filippyne, die Oos-Indiese Eilande, die Amerikaanse Aleoetiese Eilande van Kiska en Attu en Nieu-Guinee sou lei.

Alhoewel die SNLF 'n paar valskermsoldate- en tenk -eenhede ingesluit het, was dit hoofsaaklik 'n ligte infanteriemag, sonder die gemeganiseerde landingsvaartuig wat 'n integrale deel van die US Marine Corps was. Die vreesaanjaende reputasie van die mag is bevorder in die slagting van vyande wat oorgegee is en deur die neiging om tot die laaste man te veg in verdedigingsaksies, soos die bloedige slag van Tarawa in 1943.

Na die oorlog beskou Japannese leiers amfibiese oorlogvoering as fundamenteel aggressief en dus onvanpas vir Japan se selfverdedigingsmagte en pasifistiese grondwet. Wat konflikte oor verre eilande betref, het die JSDF die konsep van 'Maritieme Operasionele Vervoer' ontwikkel - troepe na daardie eilande versnel voor die vyandelike magte het aangekom.

Maar die spanning tussen Tokio en Beijing het in die een-en-twintigste eeu toegeneem-veral op die Senkaku/Diaoyu-eilande (die eerste naam is Japannees, laasgenoemde Chinees), klein stukkies land meer as 200 myl weg van beide die vasteland van China en groot Japannese eilande.

Alhoewel Sasebo vroeër vloot-SNLF-eenhede gebaseer het, is die nuwe brigade gevorm uit die West Self Army Force se infanterie-regiment van die Ground Self Defense Force, 'n elite-680 man ligte infanteriebataljon wat in 2002 gestig is.

Die ARDB bestaan ​​nou uit twee 800 manlike Amfibiese vinnige implementeringsregimente, met 'n derde wat tans gevorm word om die eenheid tot 3000 personeel te verhoog. Ondersteuningsbataljons sluit in eenhede wat gespesialiseer is in artillerie (met 120 millimeter RT-mortiere), verkenning (met klein opblaasbote), ingenieurswese en logistieke ondersteuning.

Maar die brigade se belangrikste ondersteuningseenheid is 'n Combat Landing Battalion wat bestaan ​​uit 58 huldigende AAV-P7A1 amfibiese pantservoertuie wat mariniers van skip tot kus teen 8 myl per uur kan swem. Dit lyk soos die Jawa Sand Crawler in Star Wars, die "amtracs" van 32 ton kan elk een-en-twintig troepe dra-twee of drie keer meer as die meeste moderne personeeldraers-en borsel met .50 kaliber masjiengewere en granaatwerpers. Amtracs is egter dun gepantser - VS. Marines het baie in Irak verloor - en kan sukkel om te onderhandel oor die koraalriwwe rondom die meeste van die suidwestelike eilande van Japan.

Japan is ook besig om sewentien MV-22B Osprey tilt-rotor-vliegtuie aan te skaf vir die invoeging van lug op afgeleë eilande. Die visarend is duur en die hoë ongeluksyfers het gelei tot groot protesoptredes deur Japannese burgers. Die vermoë van die tipe om die vertikale opstyg- en landingsvermoë van 'n helikopter te kombineer met die hoër potensiële reikwydte en spoed van 'n vliegtuig, is egter belangrike kenmerke, gegewe die meer as 600 myl wat die suidwestelike Japannese eilande van Kyushu skei.

Die MSDF -skyfies in die derde belangrike logistieke element: drie Osumi-Landskip, tenks (LST's) van klas tussen 1998 en 2003 in gebruik geneem. Hierdie vaartuie van 14 000 ton word vol met tot 'n duisend troepe, of tien groot gepantserde voertuie, soos Type 16 Maneuver Combat Vehicles. 'N Interne "putdek" stel elke LST in staat om twee van Japan se ses Landing Craft Air Cushions (LCAC's) te lanseer om troepe aan wal te neem. Japan werk daaraan om die Osumis aan te pas om AAV-P7's en MV-22's aan te gaan.

Die Japannese vloot het ook ongeveer 'n dosyn kleiner LCM's (Landing Craft Mechanized) en twee 540 ton nutslandingsvaartuie (LCU's). Die Ground Self Defense Force het voorgestel om sy eie tenks vir landingsskepe aan te skaf, onafhanklik van die Maritime Self Defense Force, en het LST -ontwerpe by die venster ingekoop, hoewel dit nie geld het nie.

Die nuutgemaakte brigade het vinnig sigbaar geraak tydens oorsese oefening. Op Oktober 2018 het vyftig ARDB-soldate wat in vier amtracs was, deelgeneem aan 'n oefening teen terrorisme in Luzon, in die Filippyne. Dit was die eerste Japanse pantservoertuie wat sedert die Tweede Wêreldoorlog op vreemde grond geland het - op 'n plek waar Japannese tenks die eerste keer met Amerikaanse en Filippynse magte geveg het.

Toe neem 550 ARDB -soldate met AAV's deel aan die 2019 Iron Fist -oefening in Camp Pendleton, Kalifornië, gevolg in Junie deur die amfibiese landing in Australië.

Maar realisties, wat is die operasionele konsep agter die ARDB?

Japan deel beslis met Australië, die Filippyne en die Verenigde State die kommer dat China die belangrikste eilande in die Stille Oseaan kan beset wat dit kan gebruik om seevaart te belemmer. Maar die grondwet van Japan verbied sy magte om bondgenote te hulp te kom.

Die doel van die ARDB bly dus spesifiek: om Japan se suidwestelike eilande vinnig terug te neem as hulle deur Chinese magte beset word. Dit bly in die belang van die Verenigde State en Australië, aangesien die Japanse eilandgordel die PLA -vlootbedrywighede effektief beperk.

Nou, 'n eensame 3000 man-brigade, hoe bekwaam dit ook al is, gaan nie die weegskaal in 'n konflik met 'n hoë intensiteit laat kantel nie. So voer Mina Pollmann in The Diplomat aan dat "teen die tyd dat die eilande deur China oorgeneem is, Japan reeds verloor het." Sy meen Tokio moet eerder die geld na die Maritieme en Air Self Defense -magte verskuif om te keer dat Chinese magte in die eerste plek enige eilande bereik.

Dit vergeet egter nie dat die amfibiese brigade kleiner skaal "grys sone" -aksies kan afskrik wat moontlik deur die paramilitêre vlootmilisies en kuswagte van China gemonteer is nie. Die vermoë om vinnig en geloofwaardig te reageer op beslagleggings op eilande, kan die risiko-beloning-berekening vir sulke optrede fundamenteel verander.

Verder behoort die amfibiese vermoëns van die brigade die JSDF se vermoë om afgesonderde kus- en eilandgemeenskappe te bied, te verbeter.

Onvermydelik sal sommige - veral in China - die opgewekte amfibiese mag van Japan as 'n voorbode van aggressie beskou. Maar realisties ontwikkel Tokio eenvoudig 'n beskeie vermoë om te reageer op invalle op sy baie kwesbare eilande.

Sébastien Roblin het 'n meestersgraad in konflikoplossing aan die Universiteit van Georgetown en was 'n universiteitsinstrukteur van die Peace Corps in China. Hy werk ook in onderwys, redigering en hervestiging van vlugtelinge in Frankryk en die Verenigde State. Hy skryf tans oor veiligheid en militêre geskiedenis vir Oorlog is vervelig.


Die nuwe landingsvaartuig van die Amerikaanse weermag bereik 'n vroeë mylpaal

WASHINGTON-Werk aan die Amerikaanse generasie se volgende generasie landingsvaartuie, die Maneuver Support Vessel (Light), is goed aan die gang, het die maatskappy wat die bote gebou het, Dinsdag aangekondig.

Die in Washington gebaseerde Vigor Works het die kielie gelê vir die eerste boot by sy fasiliteit in Vancouver, Washington, volgens 'n maatskappyverklaring.

Vigor Works het in 2017 'n kontrak van byna $ 1 miljard vir die MSV (L) gekry. Die Army and Vigor Works sal oor die volgende vier jaar 'n volskaalse prototipe vir die boot ontwikkel, en dan na die aanvanklike produksie van vier vaartuie in 2022. Die totale aankoop beloop 36 MSV (L) s.

Die boot is ontwerp in samewerking met BMT.

Die weermag gee kontrak van 'n miljard dollar aan vir landingsskepe van 100 voet

Die weermag het 'n kontrak van byna $ 1 miljard toegeken aan die Oregon-gebaseerde skeepsbouer Vigor Works om sy verouderde Mike Boats te vervang met 'n groter, vinniger maneuverondersteuningsvaartuig (lig).

Die MSV (L) vervang die verouderde Mike Boats. Die 100 voet MSV (L) sal een M1A2 Abrams-tenk, twee Stryker-pantservoertuie met latte-pantser of vier Joint Light Tactical-voertuie met sleepwaens kan sleep. Dit het 'n topsnelheid van 18 knope, 15 knope vol gelaai en 'n reikafstand van ongeveer 350 myl.

Die kontrak is 'n kontrak van 10 jaar, onbepaalde aflewering, onbepaalde hoeveelheid. Vigor Works het vier mededingers vir die taak geklop.

Die Mike -bote was nie groot genoeg nie, en hulle het ook nie die reikwydte wat nodig is om moderne weermaguitrusting te vervoer oor die vlakke wat nodig is in 'n geweierde gevegsgebied nie.


Japannese landingstuig, Nieu -Guinee - Geskiedenis

Deur SETH ROBSON | STERRE EN STREPE Gepubliseer: 4 Augustus 2015

YOKOTA AIR BASE, Japan - As Leon Cooper en Kokichi Nishimura mekaar tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog raakgeloop het, was die resultaat moontlik dodelik.

Toe hulle einde Julie in Tokio ontmoet, word 'n warm handdruk gevolg deur oorlogsverhale en praatjies oor hul pogings om die oorskot van gevalle Amerikaanse en Japannese soldate van afgeleë gevegte in die Stille Oseaan te haal.

Cooper was 'n marineluitenant in bevel van 'n groep landingsvaartuie genaamd Higgins -bote wat van die USS Harry Lee gelanseer is, 'n passasierskip wat mariniers na sommige van die moeilikste gevegte in die Stille Oseaan vervoer het, insluitend die inval in Nieu -Guinee.

Nishimura was 'n lanskorporaal in die Imperial Japanese Army se South Seas Detachment en het deelgeneem aan die inval in Guam voordat hy in Nieu -Guinee geveg het.

"Ek was baie ontroer deur 'n man wat my sterflike vyand op 'n tyd was," het Cooper (95) gesê nadat hy Nishimura, ook 95, in 'n hospitaal in Tokio besoek het. 'As ek en hy mekaar tydens die oorlog in Nieu -Guinee ontmoet het, sou een van ons doodgemaak of ten minste ernstig beseer gewees het deur die ander.'

Cooper was in Japan saam met Los Angles se dokumentêre rolprentmakers Steve Barber en Matthew Hausie. Die drietal besoek die plekke van ses groot gevegte waarin Cooper tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog geveg het. Hulle was in Tarawa en die Filippyne en beplan om Guam, Iwo Jima, Kwajelein en die Gilbert -eilande te besoek.

In Nieu -Guinee het Nishimura geveg op die Kokoda -roete, waar die Japannese 'n reeks dodelike skermutselings met Australiërs onderneem het om Port Moresby te verower. Volgens die boek "Kokoda Bone Man" van die Australiese joernalis Charles Happell in 2008, was hy die enigste oorlewende in 'n peloton van 56 man wat in die Slag van Brigade Hill uitgewis is.

Intussen land Cooper genl. Douglas MacArthur se magte op Nieu -Guinee in Hollandia en Aitape in 'n poging om voorraad vir Japanse troepe af te sny. Hy is sedertdien nie terug nie, maar beplan om daarheen te gaan op sy volgende reis.

Hy sal in die voetspore van Nishimura volg. Gemotiveer deur verhale van Japannese troepe wat geweier het om te glo dat hul nasie al dekades lank oorgegee en in die oerwoud oorleef het, het hy agt jaar lank gesoek na die oorskot van diegene wat in aksie vermis geraak het.

Nishimura het talle stelle oorskot gekry en hom die bynaam “Bone Man of Kokoda” gekry, ”het Cooper gesê.

Die ontmoeting tussen die twee ou krygers was emosioneel.

"Ek het my hand gegee in vriendskap, respek en bewondering vir 'n man wat, net soos ek, meer wou doen om sy land te laat verstaan ​​wat hierdie ouens gedoen het," het Cooper gesê.

Hy het geïnteresseerd geraak in die repatriasie van die oorblyfsels van verlore oorlogssterftes ná 'n besoek in 2007 aan die plek van sy eerste geveg - Tarawa. Sy doel was destyds om vullis van die strand waar hy Marines geland het in 1943 te verwyder, maar eilandbewoners het hom vertel van die grafte van ongeïdentifiseerde mariniers en matrose, het hy gesê.

Die eerste reis is deur Barber en Hausie vertolk in 'Return to Tarawa: The Leon Cooper Story', 'n dokumentêr uit 2009 wat deur die akteur Ed Harris vertel is.

Die rolprentmakers het in 2008 teruggegaan met die Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command en 'Tot hulle tuis is', vertel deur Kelsey Grammer, oor die herstel van twee stelle oorskot uit Tarawa.

Die soektog na oorskot op die eiland - waar vermoedelik honderde Amerikaanse troepe begrawe word - het verlede maand vrugte afgewerp met die terugkeer van 39 stelle oorskot, insluitend dié van die ontvanger van Medal of Honor Alexander Bonnyman Jr., na die VSA

Cooper het gesê dat dit nou sy oproep is om na ander MIA's in die Stille Oseaan te soek.

'Meer van ons ouens lê in ongemerkte grafte in die Stille Oseaan as in Europa waar gevegte in gebiede met stedelike bevolkings was,' het hy gesê.

Verlede jaar het Barber en Hausie Cooper na die Filippyne geneem om na oorskot te soek en 'n dokumentêr gemaak met die naam "Return to the Philippines", ook deur Harris vertel.

Cooper het gesê dat hy gefrustreerd is oor wat hy beskou as die gebrek aan moeite van die departement van verdediging om soldate te vind wat in die buiteland verlore geraak het en dat dit nie die DNA van duisende Amerikaanse troepe wat as onbekend in Manila begrawe is, kan toets nie.

Die drietal het met vrywilligers gesels op soek na oorblyfsels van dienslede daar, maar volgens Barber het hulle min hulp gekry van die Amerikaanse en Filippynse regerings. Daar is 'n ooreenkoms tussen die twee nasies om die soektog na soldate wat tydens die oorlog verlore geraak het, te vergemaklik, maar dit lyk asof geen van die partye aktief na hulle soek nie, het hy gesê.

Barber het gesê hy is geïnspireer deur Cooper se pogings.

'Leon is die laaste Amerikaanse WOII -veearts in die stryd,' het hy gesê. 'Daar is nog baie veterane van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog wat lewe, maar hy doen dinge wat niemand van sy ouderdom kan doen nie.'

Air Force Maj. Natasha Wagoner, 'n woordvoerder van die Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency, het Vrydag in 'n e -pos gesê dat daar meer as 3 000 grafte met onbekende dienslede in die Amerikaanse begraafplaas van Manila is.

In April het die minister van verdediging, Ash Carter, drempels gedefinieer waaraan voldoen moet word voordat die afbreek van 'n graf kan plaasvind. Dit sluit in die opstel van 'n lys met vermiste dienslede wat onder die onbekendes kan wees en mediese en tandheelkundige rekords en gesins -DNA -monsters versamel wat die dooies kan help identifiseer.

"DPAA is aktief besig om navorsing te doen en daaraan te werk om die drempels wat hierbo uiteengesit is, te bereik, sodat ons hierdie individue kan ontbind," het Wagoner gesê.

Wyatt Olson, personeel van Stars and Stripes, het tot hierdie verslag bygedra.


Tweede Wêreldoorlog: die Stille Oseaan -eilande


Teen die einde van 1942 het die Japannese Ryk tot in die verste omvang uitgebrei. Japannese soldate het posisies van Indië tot Alaska, sowel as eilande in die suide van die Stille Oseaan, beklee of aangeval. Vanaf die einde van daardie jaar tot vroeg in 1945 het die Amerikaanse vloot, onder admiraal Chester Nimitz, 'n strategie van 'eiland-spring' aangeneem. In plaas daarvan om die keiserlike vloot van Japan aan te val, was die doel om strategiese eilande vas te vang en te beheer langs 'n pad na die Japanse tuiseilande, wat Amerikaanse bomwerpers binne bereik bring en voorberei op 'n moontlike inval. Japannese soldate het hard op die landings van die eilande geveg, baie geallieerde soldate doodgemaak en soms desperate selfmoordaanvalle uitgevoer. Op see het Japannese duikbote, bomwerpers en kamikaze-aanvalle die Amerikaanse vloot baie geëis, maar Japan kon nie die eiland-vir-eiland-opmars stuit nie. Vroeg in 1945 het die Amerikaanse troepe tot by Iwo Jima en Okinawa, binne 340 myl van die vasteland van Japan, gevorder teen 'n groot koste vir beide kante. Alleen op Okinawa, tydens 82 dae van gevegte, is ongeveer 100,000 Japannese troepe en 12,510 Amerikaners dood, en êrens is tussen 42,000 en 150,000 Okinawan -burgers ook dood. Op hierdie stadium was die Amerikaanse magte naby hul posisie vir die volgende fase van hul offensief teen die Ryk van Japan. (Hierdie inskrywing is Deel 15 van 'n weeklikse 20-gedeeltelike terugblik op die Tweede Wêreldoorlog)

Vier Japannese vervoer, getref deur beide Amerikaanse oppervlaktevaartuie en vliegtuie, het op 16 November 1942 gestrand en gebrand by Tassafaronga, wes van posisies op Guadalcanal. die noorde op 13 en 14 November. Slegs hierdie vier het Guadalcanal bereik. Hulle is heeltemal vernietig deur vliegtuie, artillerie en oppervlakteskipgewere. #

In die dekking van 'n tenk het Amerikaanse infanteriste in Maart 1944 'n gebied op Bougainville, Salomonseilande beveilig, nadat Japannese magte gedurende die nag hul linies binnegedring het. #

Die Japannese vernietiger Yamakaze wat deur 'n perpoop van die USS Nautilus gefotografeer is, gefotografeer, op 25 Junie 1942. Die Yamakaze het gesink binne vyf minute nadat hy getref is, en daar was geen oorlewendes nie. #

Amerikaanse verkenningspatrolle in die digte oerwoude van Nieu-Guinee, op 18 Desember 1942. Lt. Philip Winson het een van sy stewels verloor terwyl hy 'n vlot bou en hy het 'n skuif gemaak van 'n deel van 'n grondvel en bande van 'n pak. #

Hierdie prent kan grafiese of aanstootlike inhoud bevat.

Japannese soldate wat tydens die bemanning van 'n mortier op die strand beman word, word gedeeltelik begrawe in die sand by Guadalcanal op die Salomonseilande ná aanval deur Amerikaanse mariniers in Augustus 1942. #

'N Helm Australiese soldaat, geweer in die hand, kyk uit op 'n tipiese Nieu -Guinee -landskap in die omgewing van Milne Bay op 31 Oktober 1942, waar 'n vroeëre Japannese poging tot inval deur die Australiese verdedigers verslaan is. #

Japannese bomwerpervliegtuie vee baie laag in vir 'n aanval op Amerikaanse oorlogskepe en -vervoerders, op 25 September 1942, op 'n onbekende plek in die Stille Oseaan. #

Op 24 Augustus 1942, terwyl hulle aan die kus van die Salomonseilande werk, het die USS Enterprise swaar aanvalle deur Japannese bomwerpers opgedoen. Verskeie direkte treffers op die vliegdek het 74 mans doodgemaak. Die fotograaf van hierdie foto was na bewering onder die dooies. #

'N Broekboei word in gebruik geneem om van 'n Amerikaanse verwoester na 'n kruiser te oorleef, 'n oorlewende van 'n skip wat op 14 November 1942 in 'n vlootaksie teen die Japanners van die Santa Cruz -eilande in die suidelike Stille Oseaan gesink is. Navy het die Japannese in die geveg teruggedraai, maar 'n vliegdekskip en 'n vernietiger verloor. #

Hierdie Japannese gevangenes was een van die gevangenes wat deur Amerikaanse magte op Guadalcanal -eiland in die Salomonseilande gevang is, wat op 5 November 1942 getoon is.

Wake-eiland in Japan wat in November 1943 deur Amerikaanse vliegtuie gebaseer is, aangeval. #

Hurkend hardloop Amerikaanse mariniers oor 'n strand op Tarawa -eiland om die Japannese lughawe op 2 Desember 1943 te neem.

Sekondêre batterye van 'n Amerikaanse kruiser het hierdie patroon van rookringe gevorm toe gewere van die oorlogskip op die Japannese op Makin -eiland in die Gilberts geblaas het voordat Amerikaanse magte die atol op 20 November 1943 binnegeval het.

Troepe van die 165ste infanterie, die voormalige "Fighting 69th" opgang in New York op Butaritari -strand, Makin Atoll, wat reeds opgevlam het van vlootbomaanvalle wat op 20 November 1943 voorafgegaan het. Die Amerikaanse magte het die Japannese Gilbert -eiland in beslag geneem. #

Hierdie prent kan grafiese of aanstootlike inhoud bevat.

Uitgestrekte liggame van Amerikaanse soldate op die strand van Tarawa-atol getuig van die hewigheid van die stryd om hierdie stuk sand tydens die Amerikaanse inval in die Gilbert-eilande, einde November 1943. Tydens die 3-dae Slag van Tarawa, het ongeveer 1 000 Amerikaanse mariniers gesterf het, en nog 687 Amerikaanse matrose het hul lewens verloor toe die USS Liscome Bay deur 'n Japannese torpedo gesink is. #

Amerikaanse mariniers word gesien terwyl hulle teen die Japannese posisies vorder tydens die inval by die Tarawa -atol, Gilbert -eilande, op hierdie laat November 1943 -foto. Van die byna 5000 Japannese soldate en werkers op die eiland is slegs 146 gevange geneem, die res is dood. #

Infanteriste van Kompanjie "I" wag op die woord om op te tree in die strewe om Japanse troepe op die Vella Lavella -eilandfront, op die Salomonseilande, op 13 September 1943 terug te trek. #

Twee van die twaalf Amerikaanse A-20 Havoc ligte bomwerpers op 'n missie teen Kokas, Indonesië in Julie 1943. Die onderste bomwerper is getref deur 'n vuurvliegtuigvuur nadat dit sy bomme laat val het, en in die see gedompel en albei bemanningslede doodgemaak. #

Klein Japannese vaartuie vlug van groter vaartuie tydens 'n Amerikaanse lugaanval op Tonolei -hawe, Japannese basis op Bougainville -eiland, in die Sentraal -Salomonseilande op 9 Oktober 1943. #

Twee Amerikaanse mariniers rig vlamgooiers op Japannese verdediging wat die pad na Iwo Jima se berg Suribachi op 4 Maart 1945 blokkeer. Links is Pvt. Richard Klatt, van North Fond Dulac, Wisconsin, en regs is PFC Wilfred Voegeli. #

'N Lid van 'n Amerikaanse mariene patrollie ontdek hierdie Japannese gesin wat op 21 Junie 1944 op 'n heuwel in Saipan skuil. Die ma, vier kinders en 'n hond het skuiling in die grot geneem van die hewige gevegte in die gebied tydens die Amerikaanse inval in die Mariana -eilande. #

Kolomme van troepepakte LCI's (Landing Craft, Infanterie) in die nasleep van 'n kuswagbemande LST (Landing Ship, Tank) op pad na die inval in Cape Sansapor, Nieu-Guinee in 1944. #

Hierdie prent kan grafiese of aanstootlike inhoud bevat.

Dooie Japannese soldate bedek die strand by Tanapag, op Saipan -eiland, in die Marianas, op 14 Julie 1944, ná hul laaste desperate aanval op die Amerikaanse mariniers wat die Japannese vesting in die Stille Oseaan binnegeval het. Na raming is 1300 Japannese in hierdie operasie deur die mariniers doodgemaak. #

Met sy skutter in die agterste kajuit, is hierdie Japannese duikbommenwerper, rook wat uit die kuip stroom, op pad na vernietiging in die water daaronder nadat dit op 2 Julie 1944 naby Truk, Japannese vesting in die Carolines, deur 'n Navy PB4Y neergeskiet is Luitenant -bevelvoerder William Janeshek, vlieënier van die Amerikaanse vliegtuig, het gesê die kanonnier het opgetree asof hy op die punt staan ​​om te borg en toe skielik gaan sit en nog in die vliegtuig was toe dit die water tref en ontplof. #

Terwyl 'n vuurpylvuur LCI 'n spervuur ​​op die reeds verduisterde strand op Peleliu neerlê, draai 'n golf Alligators (LVT's, of Landing Vehicle Tracked) na die verdediging van die strategiese eiland 15 September 1944. Die amfibiese tenks met 'n rewolwer kanonne het ingegaan na swaar lug- en seebombardeer. Weermag- en mariene aanvalseenhede het op 15 September op Peleliu aan wal gestorm, en daar is aangekondig dat die georganiseerde verset byna heeltemal op 27 September beëindig is.

Hierdie prent kan grafiese of aanstootlike inhoud bevat.

Amerikaanse mariniers van die eerste mariene divisie staan ​​by die lyke van twee van hul kamerade, wat in September 1944 deur 'n Japannese soldaat op 'n strand op die eiland Peleliu, Palau, vermoor is. Na die einde van die inval was 10.695 van die 11.000 Japanse soldate wat op die eiland gestasioneer is, is dood, slegs sowat 200 gevang. Amerikaanse troepe het ongeveer 9 800 slagoffers gely, waaronder 1 794 dood. #

Paragrasbomme val op 'n gekamoefleerde Japannese Mitsubishi Ki-21, "Sally", tydens 'n aanval deur die Amerikaanse weermag se vyfde lugmag op die ou Namlea-lughawe op Buru-eiland, Nederlands-Oos-Indië, op 15 Oktober 1944. 'n Paar sekondes daarna hierdie foto is geneem die vliegtuig is in vlamme verswelg. Die ontwerp van die para-frag bom het moontlik gemaak dat lae vliegbomaanvalle met 'n groter akkuraatheid uitgevoer kon word. #

Genl. Douglas MacArthur, middel, word vergesel deur sy offisiere en Sergio Osmena, president van die Filippyne in ballingskap, uiterste links, terwyl hy op 20 Oktober 1944 aan wal kom tydens die landingsoperasies in Leyte, Filippyne, nadat Amerikaanse magte die strand herower het van die Japannese besette eiland. #

Hierdie prent kan grafiese of aanstootlike inhoud bevat.

Die liggame van Japannese soldate lê gestrooi oor 'n heuwel nadat hulle deur Amerikaanse soldate geskiet is terwyl hulle 'n banzai -aanval oor 'n rant in Guam in 1944 probeer doen het. #

Rook kom op uit die Kowloon -dokke en spoorwegwerwe ná 'n verrassingsaanval op die hawe van Hong Kong deur die 14de Lugmag van die Amerikaanse weermag, 16 Oktober 1944. 'n Japannese vegvliegtuig (links in die middel) draai in 'n klim om die bomwerpers aan te val. Tussen die werf van die Royal Navy, links, steek vyandelike vaartuie vlamme uit, en net buite die wasbak, op die voorgrond, is nog 'n skip getref. #

'N Japannese torpedobomaanvaller vlam in vlamme ná 'n direkte treffer van 5-duim-skulpe van die vliegdekskip USS Yorktown, op 25 Oktober 1944. #

Landingsbakke gelaai met Amerikaanse troepe wat in Oktober 1944 op die strande van die eiland Leyte op pad was, terwyl Amerikaanse en Japannese vegvliegtuie met die dood oorhoofs tweestryd voer. Die manne aan boord van die ambagte kyk na die dramatiese geveg in die lug terwyl hulle die strand nader. #

Hierdie foto wat deur die voormalige Kamikaze -vlieënier Toshio Yoshitake verskaf is, toon Yoshitake, regs, en sy mede -vlieëniers, van links, Tetsuya Ueno, Koshiro Hayashi, Naoki Okagami en Takao Oi, terwyl hulle saam voor 'n Zero -vegvliegtuig vertrek voordat hulle vertrek die Imperial Army -vliegveld in Choshi, net oos van Tokio, op 8 November 1944. Nie een van die 17 ander vlieëniers en vlieginstrukteurs wat op daardie dag met Yoshitake gevlieg het, het oorleef nie. Yoshitake het net oorleef omdat 'n Amerikaanse oorlogsvliegtuig hom uit die lug geskiet het, hy neergestort het en deur Japannese soldate gered is. #

'N Japannese kamikaze-vlieënier in 'n beskadigde enkelmotorige bomwerper, 'n paar oomblikke voordat hy die Amerikaanse vliegtuigdraer USS Essex, van die Filippynse Eilande, op 25 November 1944 getref het.

'N Nader beskouing van die Japannese kamikaze -vliegtuie, rook van vliegtuie en tref effens na links voordat dit op 25 November 1944 by die USS Essex ingeval het.

Na die aanval op die 25 November 1943 kamikaze -aanval op die USS Essex. Brandbestryders en verspreide fragmente van die Japannese vliegtuie bedek die vliegdek. Die vliegtuig het die hawe van die vliegdek getref en geland tussen vliegtuie wat aangevuur is vir opstyg, groot skade aangerig, 15 mense gedood en 44 gewond.

Die slagskip USS Pennsylvania, gevolg deur drie kruisers, beweeg in lyn in die Lingayen -golf voor die landing op Luzon, in die Filippyne, in Januarie 1945. #

Amerikaanse mariniers gaan aan wal by Iwo Jima, 'n Japannese eiland wat op 19 Februarie 1945 binnegeval is. Foto gemaak deur 'n vlootfotograaf wat oor die armada van vloot- en kuswagvaartuie in 'n vloot -soekvliegtuig gevlieg het. #

'N Amerikaanse marinier, vermoor deur die Japannese skerpskuttervuur, hou steeds sy wapen vas terwyl hy op 19 Februarie 1945 tydens die aanvanklike inval op die eiland in die swart vulkaniese sand van Iwo Jima lê. Op die agtergrond is die slagskepe van die Amerikaanse vloot waaruit die taakmag bestaan. #

Amerikaanse mariniers van die 28ste regiment van die vyfde divisie lig die Amerikaanse vlag bo -op Suribachi, Iwo Jima, op 23 Februarie 1945. Die Slag van Iwo Jima was die duurste in die geskiedenis van die Marine Corps, met byna 7 000 Amerikaners in 36 dae dood baklei. #

'N Amerikaanse kruiser skiet in 1945 sy hoofbatterye af op Japannese posisies aan die suidpunt van Okinawa, Japan.

Amerikaanse invalsmagte vestig op 13 April 1945 'n strandhoof op die eiland Okinawa, ongeveer 350 myl van die Japannese vasteland. vloot. #

'N Aanval op een van die grotte wat aan 'n drie-verdieping blokhuis gekoppel is, vernietig die struktuur aan die rand van Turkey Nob, wat 'n duidelike uitsig gee op die strandkop in die suidweste op Iwo Jima, terwyl Amerikaanse mariniers die eiland op 2 April 1945 storm. #

Die USS Santa Fe lê langs die USS Franklin wat baie genoteer is om hulp te verleen nadat die vliegdekskip deur 'n enkele Japanse duikbommenwerper tydens die inval in Okinawa, op 19 Maart 1945, aan die kus van Honshu, Japan, aan die brand gesteek is. Meer as 800 aan boord is dood, terwyl oorlewendes brande geveg het en genoeg herstelwerk gedoen het om die skip te red. #

Tydens 'n Japannese lugaanval op Yonton-vliegveld, Okinawa, Japan op 28 April 1945, word die korsare van die "Hell's Belles", die Marine Corps Fighter Squadron gesilhouet teen die lug deur 'n kantwerk van lugafweerskulp. #

Ons wil hoor wat u van hierdie artikel dink. Dien 'n brief aan die redakteur in of skryf aan [email protected]


Die nasleep van die Koraalsee en die aanloop tot Midway

Takties was die stryd 'n oorwinning vir die Japannese. Hulle het die Lexington, Sims en Neosho laat sink en Yorktown ernstig beskadig terwyl hulle net die ligte draer Shoho en 'n paar kleiner vaartuie by Tulagi verloor het.

Strategies was dit egter 'n Amerikaanse oorwinning. Sonder dat die vliegdekskip Shokaku ondersteunende vliegtuie kon lanseer, en die groot verliese van die luggroepe van die Zuikaku, is die inval in Port Moresby gestaak. Erger nog, die skade aan die twee draers het hulle uit die komende Slag van Midway gehou. Aan die ander kant sou Yorktown teruggaan na Pearl Harbor en betyds herstel word om in die komende geveg te veg.

Die Geallieerdes het die te selfversekerde Japannese vir die eerste keer in die oorlog gestop. Hulle het nie toegeskryf dat die Amerikaanse vloot op presies die regte plek en tyd met twee vliegdekskepe opgedaag het nie, omdat die Amerikaners hul vlootkodes verbreek het. Hulle het dit as onbreekbaar beskou.

Die volgende maand by Midway sou dieselfde kriptoanalise egter daartoe lei dat die Amerikaners weer die Japannese plan vooraf ken. As gevolg hiervan sou Japan katastrofiese verliese ly, wat die oorlog sou verander.


Woordeboek van American Naval Fighting Ships-inskrywing vir BB-62

Opmerking van webmeesters: The Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships dek slegs die geskiedenis van New Jersey tot die publikasie van die boek in 1970. Ons hoop om 'n aparte gedeelte van hierdie webblad by te voeg wat oor die tydperk 1982-1991 handel.

Uit: WOORDEBOEK VAN AMERIKAANSE VEESGEVERSKIPPE, James L. Mooney, red., Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, Washington, DC., 1970

Getranskribeer en geredigeer deur: Larry W. Jewell [email protected]

Klas IOWA
Verplasing: 45,000
Lengte: 887'7 "
Breedte: 108'1 "
Diepgang: 28'11 "
Spoed: 33+ knope
Aanvulling: 1921
Bewapening: 9 16 ", 20 5"

Die tweede NEW JERSEY (BB-62) is op 7 Desember 1942 gelanseer deur die Philadelphia Naval Shipyard geborg deur mev. Charles Edison, die vrou van goewerneur Edison van New Jersey, voormalige sekretaris van die vloot en in opdrag by Philadelphia 23 Mei 1943, kaptein Carl F Hou in bevel.

NEW JERSEY het haar eerste bemanning in die Wes -Atlantiese Oseaan en die Karibiese Eilande opgelei en opgelei. Op 7 Januarie 1944 gaan sy deur die Panamakanaaloorlog na Funafuti, Ellice -eilande. Sy het daar op 22 Januarie aangemeld vir diens by die vyfde vloot, en drie dae later het sy met Task Group 58.2 vergader vir die aanranding op die Marshall -eilande. NEW JERSEY het die draers van vyandelike aanvalle afgeskerm terwyl hul vliegtuie teen Kwajalein en Eniwetok van 29 Januarie tot 2 Februarie gevlieg het, wat laasgenoemde versag het vir die inval en die troepe wat op 31 Januarie geland het, ondersteun het.

NEW JERSEY het haar vooraanstaande loopbaan as 'n vlagskip op 4 Februarie in die Majuro -strandmeer begin toe admiraal Raymond A. Spruance, bevelvoerder oor die vyfde vloot, sy vlag van haar hoofkant afgebreek het. Haar eerste optrede as vlagskip was 'n gewaagde tweedaagse oppervlak- en lugaanval deur haar taakspan teen die vermoedelik onneembare Japanse vlootbasis op Truk in die Carolines. Hierdie slag is gekoördineer met die aanval op Kwajalein, en het Japannese vlootwraak effektief onderbreek vir die verowering van die Marshalls. On 17 and 18 February the task force accounted for two Japanese light cruisers, four destroyers, three auxiliary cruisers, two submarine tenders, two submarine chasers, an armed trawler, a plane ferry, and 23 other auxiliaries, not including small craft. NEW JERSEY destroyed a trawler and, with other ships, sank destroyer MAIKAZE, as well as firing on an enemy plane which attacked her formation. The task force returned to the Marshalls 19 February.

Between 17 March and 10 April, NEW JERSEY first sailed with Rear Admiral Marc A. Mitscher's flagship LEXINGTON (CV-16) for an air and surface bombardment of Mille, then rejoined Task Group 58.2 for a strike against shipping in the Palaus, and bombarded Woleai. Upon his return to Majuro, Admiral Spruance transferred his flag to INDIANAPOLIS (CA-35).

NEW JERSEY's next war cruise, 13 April - 4 May, began and ended at Majuro. She screened the carrier striking force which gave air support to the invasion of Aitape, Tanahmerah Bay and Humboldt, Bay, New Guinea, 22 April, then bombed shipping and shore installations at Truk 29-30 April. NEW JERSEY and her formation splashed two enemy torpedo bombers at Truk. Her sixteen inch salvos pounded Ponape 1 May, destroying fuel tanks, badly damaging the airfield, and demolishing a headquarters building.

After rehearsing in the Marshalls for the invasion of the Marianas, NEW JERSEY put to sea 6 June in the screening and bombardment group of Admiral Mitscher's Task Force. On the second day of pre invasion air strikes, 12 June, NEW JERSEY downed an enemy torpedo bomber, and during the next two days her heavy guns battered Saipan and Tinian, throwing steel against the beaches the marines would charge 15 June.

The Japanese response to the Marianas operation was an order to its Mobile Fleet it must attack and annihilate the American invasion force. Shadowing American submarines tracked the Japanese fleet into the Philippine Sea as Admiral Spruance joined his task force with Admiral Mitscher's to meet the enemy. NEW JERSEY took station in the protective screen around the carriers on 19 June as American and Japanese pilots dueled in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. That day and the next were to pronounce the doom of Japanese naval aviation in this "Marianas Turkey Shoot," the Japanese lost some 400 planes. This loss of trained pilots and aircraft was equaled in disaster by the sinking of three Japanese carriers by submarines and aircraft, and the damaging of two carriers and a battleship. The anti- aircraft fire of NEW JERSEY and the other screening ships proved virtually impenetrable. Only two American ships were damaged, and those but slightly. In this overwhelming victory but 17 American planes were lost to combat.

NEW JERSEY's final contribution to the conquest of the Marianas was in strikes on Guam and the Palaus from which she sailed for Pearl Harbor, arriving 9 August. Here she broke the flag of Admiral William F. Halsey, Jr., 24 August, becoming flagship of the Third Fleet. For the eight months after she sailed from Pearl Harbor 30 August NEW JERSEY was based at Ulithi. In this climactic span of the Pacific War, fast carrier task forces ranged the waters off the Philippines, Okinawa, and Formosa, striking again and again at airfields, shipping, shore bases, invasion beaches. NEW JERSEY offered the essential protection required by these forces, always ready to repel enemy air or surface attack.

In September the targets were in the Visayas and the southern Philippines, then Manila and Cavite, Panay, Negros, Leyte, and Cebu. Early in October raids to destroy enemy air power based on Okinawa and Formosa were begun in preparation for the Leyte landings 20 October.

This invasion brought on the desperate, almost suicidal, last great sortie of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Its plan for the Battle for Leyte Gulf included a feint by a northern force of plane-less heavy attack carriers to draw away the battleships, cruisers and fast carriers with which Admiral Halsey was protecting the landings. This was to allow the Japanese Center Force to enter the gulf through San Bernadino Strait. At the opening of the battle planes from the carriers guarded by NEW JERSEY struck hard at both the Japanese Southern and Center Forces, sinking a battleship 23 October. The next day Halsey shaped his course north after the decoy force had been spotted. Planes from his carriers sank four of the Japanese carriers, as well as a destroyer and a cruiser, while NEW JERSEY steamed south at flank speed to meet the newly developed threat of the Center force. It had been turned back in a stunning defeat when she arrived.

NEW JERSEY rejoined her fast carriers near San Bernadino 27 October for strikes on central and southern Luzon. Two days later, the force was under suicide attack. In a melee of anti- aircraft fire from the ships and combat air patrol, NEW JERSEY shot down a plane whose pilot maneuvered it into INTREPID's (CV- 11) port gun galleries, while machine gun fire from INTREPID wounded three of NEW JERSEY's men. During a similar action 25 November three Japanese planes were splashed by the combined fire of the force, part of one flaming onto HANCOCK's (CV-19) flight deck. INTREPID was again attacked, shot down one would-be suicide, but was crashed by another despite hits scored on the attacker by NEW JERSEY gunners. NEW JERSEY shot down a plane diving on CABOT (CVL-28) and hit another which smashed into Cabot's port bow.

In December, NEW JERSEY sailed with the LEXINGTON task group for air attacks on Luzon 14-16 December then found herself in the furious typhoon which sank three destroyers. Skillful seamanship brought her through undamaged. She returned to Ulithi on Christmas Eve to be met by Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz.

NEW JERSEY ranged far and wide from 30 December to 25 January 1945 on her last cruise as Admiral Halsey's flagship. She guarded the carriers in their strikes on Formosa, Okinawa, and Luzon, on the coast of Indo-China, Hong Kong, Swatow and Amoy, and again on Formosa and Okinawa. At Ulithi 27 January Admiral Halsey lowered his flag in NEW JERSEY, but it was replaced two days later by that of Rear Admiral Oscar Badger commanding Battleship Division Seven.

In support of the assault on Iwo Jima, NEW JERSEY screened the ESSEX (CV-9) group in air attacks on the island 19-21 February, and gave the same crucial service for the first major carrier raid on Tokyo 25 February, a raid aimed specifically at aircraft production. During the next two days, Okinawa was attacked from the air by the same striking force.

NEW JERSEY was directly engaged in the conquest of Okinawa from 14 March until 16 April. As the carriers prepared for the invasion with strikes there and on Honshu, NEW JERSEY fought off air raids, used her seaplanes to rescue downed pilots, defended the carriers from suicide planes, shooting down at least three and assisting in the destruction of others. On 24 March she again carried out the vital battleship role of heavy bombardment, preparing the invasion beaches for the assault a week later.

During the final months of the war, NEW JERSEY was overhauled at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, from which she sailed 4 July for San Pedro, Pearl Harbor, and Eniwetok bound for Guam. Here on 14 August she once again became flagship of the Fifth Fleet under Admiral Spruance. Brief stays at Manila and Okinawa preceded her arrival in Tokyo Bay 17 September, where she served as flagship for the successive commanders of Naval Forces in Japanese waters until relieved 28 January 1946 by IOWA (BB-61). NEW JERSEY took aboard nearly a thousand homeward bound troops with whom she arrived at San Francisco 10 February.

After west coast operations and a normal overhaul at Puget Sound, NEW JERSEY's keel once more cut the Atlantic as she came home to Bayonne, NEW JERSEY, for a rousing fourth birthday part 23 May 1947. Present were Governor Alfred E. Driscoll, former Governor Walter E. Edge and other dignitaries.

Between 7 June and 26 August, NEW JERSEY formed part of the first training squadron to cruise Northern European waters since the beginning of World War II. Over two thousand Naval Academy and NROTC midshipmen received sea-going experience under the command of Admiral Richard L. Connoly, Commander Naval Forces Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, who broke his flag in NEW JERSEY at Rosyth, Scotland 23 June. She was the scene of official receptions at Oslo, where King Haakon VII of Norway inspected the crew 2 July, and at Portsmouth, England. The training fleet was westward bound 18 July for exercises in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic.

After serving at New York as flagship for Rear Admiral Heber H. McClean, Commander, Battleship Division One, 12 September - 18 October, NEW JERSEY was inactivated at the New York Naval Shipyard. She was decommissioned at Bayonne 30 June 1948 and assigned to the New York Group, Atlantic Reserve Fleet.

NEW JERSEY was recommissioned at Bayonne 21 November 1950, Captain David M. Tyree in command. In the Caribbean she welded her crew into an efficient body which would meet with distinction the demanding requirements of the Korean War. She sailed from Norfolk 16 April 1951 and arrived from Japan off the east coast of Korea 17 May. Vice Admiral Harold M. Martin, commanding the Seventh Fleet. placed his flag in NEW JERSEY for the next six months.

NEW JERSEY's guns opened the first shore bombardment of her Korean carrier at Wonsan 20 May. During her two tours of duty in Korean waters, she was again and again to play the part of sea borne mobile artillery. In direct support to United Nations troops or in preparation for ground actions, in interdicting Communist supply and communication routes, or in destroying supplies and troop positions, NEW JERSEY hurled a weight of steel, fire far beyond the capacity of land artillery, moved rapidly and free from major attack from one target to another, and at the same time could be immediately available to guard aircraft carriers should they require her protection. It was on this first such mission at Wonsan that she received her only combat casualties of the Korean War. One of her men was killed and two severely wounded when she took a hit from a shore battery on her number one turret and received a near miss aft to port.

Between 23 and 27 May and again 30 May, NEW JERSEY pounded targets near Yangyang and Kansong, dispersing troop concentrations, dropping a bridge span, and destroying three large ammunition dumps. Air spotters reported Yangyang abandoned at the end of this action, while railroad facilities and vehicles were smashed at Kansong. On 24 May, she lost one of her helicopters when its crew pushed to the limit of their fuel searching for a downed aviator. They themselves were able to reach friendly territory and were later returned to their ship.

With Admiral Arthur W. Radford, Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet, and Vice Admiral C. Turner Joy, Commander Naval Forces Far East aboard, NEW JERSEY bombarded targets at Wonsan 4 June. At Kansong two days later she fired her main battery at an artillery regiment and truck encampment, with Seventh Fleet aircraft spotting targets and reporting successes. On 28 July off Wonsan the battleship was again taken under fire by shore batteries. Several near misses splashed to port, but NEW JERSEY's precision fire silenced the enemy and destroyed several gun emplacements.

Between 4 and 12 July, NEW JERSEY supported a United Nations push in the Kansong area, firing at enemy buildup and reorganization positions. As the, Republic of Korea's First Division hurled itself on the enemy, shore fire control observers saw NEW JERSEY's salvos hit directly on enemy mortar emplacements, supply and ammunition dumps, and personnel concentrations. NEW JERSEY returned to Wonsan 18 July for an exhibition of perfect firing: five gun emplacements demolished with five direct hits.

NEW JERSEY sailed to the aid of troops of the Republic of Korea once more 17 August, returning to the Kansong area where for four days she provided harassing fire by night, and broke up counterattacks by day, inflicting a heavy toll on enemy troops. She returned to this general area yet again 29 August, when she fired in an amphibious demonstration staged behind enemy lines to ease pressure on the Republic of Korea's troops. The next day she an a three day saturation of the Changjon area, with one of her own helicopters spotting the results: four buildings destroyed, road junctions smashed, railroad marshaling yards afire, tracks cut and uprooted, coal stocks scattered, many buildings and warehouses set blazing.

Aside from a brief break in firing 23 September to take aboard wounded from the Korean frigate APNOK (PF-62), damaged by gunfire, NEW JERSEY was heavily engaged in bombarding the Kansong area, supporting the movement of the U.S. Tenth Corps.. The pattern again was harassing fire by night, destruction of known targets by day. Enemy movement was restricted by the fire of her big guns. A bridge, a dam, several gun emplacements, mortar positions, pillboxes, bunkers, an two ammunition dumps were demolished.

On 1 October, General Omar Bradley, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and General Matthew B. Ridgeway, Commander in Chief Far East, came on board to confer with Admiral Martin.

Between 1 and 6 October NEW JERSEY was in action daily at Kansong, Hamhung, Hungnam, Tanchon, and Songjin. Enemy bunkers and supply concentrations provided the majority of the targets at Kansong at the others NEW JERSEY fired on railroads, tunnels, bridges, an oil refinery, trains, and shore batteries destroying with five inch fire a gun that straddled her. The Kojo area was her target 16 October as she sailed in company with HMS BELFAST, pilots from HMAS SYDNEY spotting. The operation was well planned and coordinated ad excellent results were obtained.

Another highly satisfactory day was 16 October, when the spotter over the Kansong area reported "beautiful shooting every shot on target - most beautiful shooting I have seen in five years." This five hour bombardment leveled ten artillery positions, and in smashing trenches and bunkers inflicted some 500 casualties.

NEW JERSEY dashed up the North Korean coast raiding transportation facilities from 1 to 6 November. She struck at bridges, road and rail installations at Wonsan, Hungnam, Tanchon, Iowon, Songjin, and Chongjin, and left smoking behind her four bridges destroyed, others badly damaged, two marshaling yards badly torn up, and many feet of track destroyed. With renewed attacks on Kansong and near the Chang-San-Got Peninsula 11 and 13 November, NEW JERSEY completed this tour of duty.

Relieved as flagship by WISCONSIN (BB-64), NEW JERSEY cleared Yokosuka for Hawaii, Long Beach and the Panama Canal, and returned to Norfolk 20 December for a six month overhaul. Between 19 July 1952 and 5 September, she sailed as flagship for Rear Admiral H. R. Thurber, who commanded the NROTC midshipman training cruise to Cherbourg, Lisbon, and the Caribbean. Now NEW JERSEY prepared and trained for her second Korean tour, for which she sailed from Norfolk 5 March 1953.

Shaping her course via the Panama Canal, Long Beach, and Hawaii, NEW JERSEY reached Yokosuka 5 April, and next day relived MISSOURI (BB-63) as flagship of Vice Admiral Joseph H. Clark, Commander Seventh Fleet. Chongjin felt the weight of her shells 12 April, as NEW JERSEY returned to action in seven minutes she scored seven direct hits, blowing away half the main communications building there. At Pusan two days later, NEW JERSEY manned her rails to welcome the President of the Republic of Korea and Madame Rhee, and American Ambassador Ellis O. Briggs.

NEW JERSEY fired on coastal batteries and buildings at Kojo 16 April on railway track and tunnels near Hungnam 18 April and on gun emplacements around Wonsan Harbor 20 April, silencing them in five areas after she had herself take several near misses. Songjin provided targets 23 April. Her NEW JERSEY scored six direct 16 inch hits on a railroad tunnel and knocked out two rail bridges.

NEW JERSEY added her muscle to a major air and surface strike on Wonsan 1 May, as Seventh Fleet planes both attacked the enemy and spotted for the battleship. She knocked out eleven Communist shore guns that day, and four days later destroyed the key observation post on the island of Hodo Pando, commanding the harbor. Two days later Kalmagak at Wonsan was her target.

Her tenth birthday, 23 May, was celebrated at Inchon with President and Madame Rhee, Lieutenant General Maxwell D. Taylor, and other dignitaries on board. Two days later NEW JERSEY was all war once more, returning to the west coast at Chinampo to knock out harbor defense positions.

The battleship was under fire at Wonsan 27-29 May, but her five- inch guns silenced the counter fire, and her 16 inch shells destroyed five gun emplacements and four gun caves. She also hit a target that flamed spectacularly: either a fuel storage area or an ammunition dump.

NEW JERSEY returned to the key task of direct support to troops at Kosong 7 June. On her first mission, she completely destroyed two gun positions, an observation post, and their supporting trenches, then stood by on call for further aid. Then it was back to Wonsan for a day long bombardment 24 June, aimed at guns placed in caves. The results were excellent, with eight direct hits on three caves, one cave demolished, and four others closed. Next day she returned to troop support at Kosong, her assignment until 10 July, aside from necessary withdrawal for replenishment.

At Wonsan 11-12 July, NEW JERSEY fired one of the most concentrated bombardments of her Korean duty. For nine hours the first day, and for seven the second, her guns slammed away on gun positions and bunkers on Hodo Pando and the mainland with telling effect. At least ten enemy guns were destroyed, many damaged, and a number of caves and tunnels sealed. NEW JERSEY smashed radar control positions and bridges at Kojo 13 July, and was once more on the east coast bombline 22-24 July to support South Korean troops near Kosong. These days found her gunners at their most accurate and the devastation wrought was impressive. A large cave, housing an important enemy observation post was closed, the end of a month long United Nations effort. A great many bunkers, artillery areas, observation posts, trenches, tanks and other weapons were destroyed.

At sunrise 25 July NEW JERSEY was off the key port, rail and communications center of Hungnam, pounding coastal guns, bridges, a factor area, and oil storage tanks. She sailed north that afternoon, firing at rail lines and railroad tunnels as she made for Tanchon, where she launched a whaleboat in an attempt to spot a train known to run nightly along the coast. Her big guns were trained on two tunnels between which she hoped to catch the train, but in the darkness she could not see the results of her six-gun salvo.

NEW JERSEY's mission at Wonsan, next day, was her last. Here she destroyed large caliber guns, bunkers, caves and trenches. Two days later, she learned of the truce. Her crew celebrated during a seven day visit at Hong Kong, where she anchored 20 August. Operations around Japan and off Formosa were carried out for the remainder of her tour, which was highlighted by a visit to Pusan. Here President Rhee came aboard 16 September to present the Korean Presidential Unit Citation to the Seventh fleet.

Relieved as flagship at Yokosuka by WISCONSIN 14 October, NEW JERSEY was homeward bound the next day, reaching Norfolk 14 November. During, the next two summers she crossed the Atlantic with midshipmen on board for training, and during the rest of the year sharpened her skills with exercises and training maneuvers along the Atlantic coast and in the Caribbean.

NEW JERSEY stood out of Norfolk 7 September 1955 for her first tour of duty with the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean. Her ports of call included Gibraltar, Valencia, Cannes, Istanbul, Suda Bay and Barcelona. She returned to Norfolk 7 January 1956 for the spring program of training operations. That summer she again carried midshipmen to Northern Europe for training, bringing them home to Annapolis 31 July. NEW JERSEY sailed for Europe once more 27 August as flagship of Vice Admiral Charles Wellborn, Jr., Commander Second Fleet. She called at Lisbon, participated in NATO exercises off Scotland, and paid an official visit to Norway where Crown Prince Olaf was a guest. She returned to Norfolk 15 October, and 14 December arrived at New York Naval Shipyard for inactivation. She was decommissioned and placed in reserve at Bayonne 21 August 1957.

NEW JERSEY's third career began 6 April 1968 when she recommissioned at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Captain J. Edward Snyder in command. Fitted with improved electronics and a helicopter landing pad and with her 40 millimeter battery removed, she was tailored for use as a heavy bombardment ship. Her 16 inch guns, it was expected, would reach targets in Vietnam inaccessible to smaller naval guns and, in foul weather, safe from aerial attack.

NEW JERSEY, now the world's only active battleship, departed Philadelphia 16 May, calling at Norfolk and transiting the Panama Canal before arriving at her new home port of Long Beach, California, 11 June. Further training off Southern California followed. On 24 July NEW JERSEY received 16 inch shells and powder tanks from MOUNT KATMAI (AE-16) by conventional highline transfer and by helicopter lift, the first time heavy battleship ammunition had been transferred by helicopter at sea.

Departing Long Beach 3 September, NEW JERSEY touched at Pearl Harbor and Subic Bay before sailing 25 September for her first tour of gunfire support duty along the Vietnamese coast. Near the 17th Parallel on 30 September, the dreadnought fired her first shots in battle in over sixteen years. Firing against Communist targets in and near the so-called Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), her big guns destroyed two gun positions and two supply areas. She fired against targets north of the DMZ the following day, rescuing the crew of a spotting plane forced down at sea by antiaircraft fire.

The next six months self into a steady pace of bombardment and fire support missions along the Vietnamese coast, broken only by brief visits to Subic Bay and replenishment operations at sea. In her first two months on the gun line, NEW JERSEY directed nearly ten thousand rounds of ammunition at Communist targets over: 3,000 of these shells were 16 inch projectiles.

Her first Vietnam combat tour completed, NEW JERSEY departed Subic Bay 3 April 1969 for Japan. She arrived at Yokosuka for a two-day visit, sailing for the United States 9 April. Her homecoming, however, was to be delayed. On the 15th, while NEW JERSEY was still at sea, North Korean jet fighters shot down an unarmed EC-121 "Constellation" electronic surveillance plane over the Sea of Japan, killing its entire crew. A carrier task force was formed and sent to the Sea of Japan, while NEW JERSEY was ordered to come about and steam toward Japan. On the 22nd she arrived once more at Yokosuka, and immediately put to sea in readiness for what might befall. As the crisis lessened, NEW JERSEY was released to continue her interrupted voyage. She anchored at Long Beach 5 May 1969, her first visit to her home port in eight months. Through the summer months, NEW JERSEY's crew toiled to make her ready for another deployment. Deficiencies discovered on the gun line were remedied, as all hands looked forward to another opportunity to prove the mighty warship's worth in combat. Reasons of economy were to dictate otherwise. On 22 August 1969 the Secretary of Defense released a list of names of ships to be inactivated at the top of the list was NEW JERSEY. Five days later, Captain Snyder was relieved of command by Captain Robert C. Peniston.

Assuming command of a ship already earmarked for the "mothball fleet," Captain Peniston and his crew prepared for their melancholy task. NEW JERSEY got underway on her last voyage 6 September, departing Long Beach for Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. She arrived on the 8th, and began pre inactivation overhaul to ready herself for decommissioning. On 17 December 1969 NEW JERSEY's colors were hauled down and she entered the inactive fleet, still echoing the words of her last commanding officer: "Rest well, yet sleep lightly and hear the call, if again sounded, to provide fire power for freedom." NEW JERSEY earned the Navy Unit Commendation for Vietnam service. She has received nine battle stars for World War II four for the Korean conflict and two for Vietnam.


Higgins boats changed the nature of amphibious warfare

Prior to the LCVP, large-scale seaborne invasions were more difficult to mount. They usually required the bombardment and capture of large ports and harbours, which were often heavily fortified and well-defended. But thanks to the availability of small landing craft like the Higgins boat, whole armies could instead be deposited on any stretch of shoreline with relative speed. To meet the threat of an invasion that could fall anywhere, enemy commanders suddenly needed to be spread their forces out across entire coastlines and fortify vast stretches of shore. “The Higgins boats broke the gridlock on the ship-to-shore movement,” said one Marine Corps historian. “It is impossible to overstate the tactical advantages this craft gave U.S. amphibious commanders in World War Two.” Others simply called the Higgins boat “the bridge to the beach.” Even Hitler was grudgingly impressed. After D-Day, he demanded to know how the Allies managed to land so many troops at Normandy in a single day. His generals reported the mammoth number of Higgins’ landing craft that were involved in the operation. “Truly this man is the new Noah,” the Fuhrer reportedly remarked.


Manning the LCP(L)

In US Navy or US Coast Guard service, the craft’s crew comprised two gunners and the coxswain. [11] Though the gunners would normally occupy the two gunner's cockpits, forward, during landing, they had other duties also. One acted as the bowman while the other served as the mechanic. The coswain was in charge of the boat and crew. His position was at the wheel directly behind the gunner's cockpits and only slightly off-set to the port side. From here he steered and operated engine controls.

The craft’s raked bow made beaching comparatively easy, and the craft came off without difficulty when unloaded, though it could snag on rocks or poor ground as any other small boat would. The LCP(L) could be loaded from the boat deck, [12] before launching, ‘unless otherwise specified by the warning plate in the boat’, [13] for its construction as much as its light weight made this speeding up of the launching-load time possible. Other craft, especially those with a ramp like the LCV and LCVP were structurally weak in the bow and could not be loaded before lowering from davits personnel being transported in these types climbed down scramble nets into these boat.

The 3-man crew of a British LCP(L) were led by a Leading Seaman or Royal Marine Corporal coxswain who steered the boat and operated engine controls on the port side of the cockpit. Beside him was the Lewis gunner who also acted as bowman handling any rope-work forward. The third man was a mechanic who might also handle stern ropes. At other times LCP(L)s might be led or towed by coastal forces craft when a raid was within reasonable range of a sally port. A number of these raids were made in 1940 to 1942 by British forces, sometimes using LCP(L)s though more often going ashore by canoe. The first major landing from LCP(L)s in Europe took place in August 1942 when the Canadians with elements of the British army and Royal Marines landed at Dieppe. The fortunes of the LCP(L) flotillas showed here how units and even individual craft could have very different luck in a landing.


Japanese landing craft, New Guinea - History

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