Bataan Death March - Definisie, datums en oorlewendes

Bataan Death March - Definisie, datums en oorlewendes



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Na die Amerikaanse oorgawe van die Bataan-skiereiland op 9 April 1942 tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (1939-45) aan die Japannese tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (1939-45), is die ongeveer 75 000 Filippynse en Amerikaanse troepe op Bataan genoodsaak om 'n moeisame 65 myl te maak optrek na gevangeniskampe. Die optoggangers het die tog in intense hitte onderneem en is deur Japannese wagte ernstig behandel. Duisende het omgekom in wat bekend gestaan ​​het as die Bataan -doodsmars.

Bataan Death March: Agtergrond

Die dag nadat Japan die Amerikaanse vlootbasis by Pearl Harbor op 7 Desember 1941 gebombardeer het, het die Japannese inval in die Filippyne begin. Binne 'n maand het die Japannese Manila, die hoofstad van die Filippyne, ingeneem en die Amerikaanse en Filippynse verdedigers van Luzon (die eiland waarop Manila geleë is) moes terugtrek na die Bataan -skiereiland. Die gekombineerde Amerikaanse-Filippynse leër het die volgende drie maande uitgehou ondanks 'n gebrek aan vloot- en lugondersteuning. Uiteindelik, op 9 April, met sy magte wat lam is van hongersnood en siektes, het die Amerikaanse generaal Edward King Jr. (1884-1958) sy ongeveer 75 000 troepe by Bataan oorgegee.

Bataan Death March: April 1942

Die oorgegee Filippyne en Amerikaners is spoedig deur die Japannese afgerond en gedwing om ongeveer 65 myl van Mariveles, aan die suidelike punt van die Bataan -skiereiland, na San Fernando te marsjeer. Die mans is in groepe van ongeveer 100 verdeel, en die optog het elke groep ongeveer vyf dae geneem om te voltooi. Die presiese syfers is onbekend, maar daar word geglo dat duisende troepe gesterf het as gevolg van die brutaliteit van hul gevangenes, wat die optoggangers uitgehonger en geslaan het, en diegene wat te swak was om te loop, met 'n bajonet geplaas het. Oorlewendes is per trein van San Fernando na krygsgevangenekampe gebring, waar duisende meer aan siektes, mishandeling en hongersnood gesterf het.

Bataan Death March: nadraai

Amerika het sy nederlaag in die Filippyne gewreek met die inval van die eiland Leyte in Oktober 1944. Generaal Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964), wat in 1942 beroemd beloof het om na die Filippyne terug te keer, het sy woord goedgekeur. In Februarie 1945 het die Amerikaanse-Filippynse magte die Bataan-skiereiland herower, en Manila is vroeg in Maart bevry.

Na die oorlog het 'n Amerikaanse militêre tribunaal luitenant -generaal Homma Masaharu, bevelvoerder van die Japannese invalsmagte in die Filippyne, verhoor. Hy is verantwoordelik gehou vir die doodsmars, 'n oorlogsmisdaad, en is op 3 April 1946 deur 'n vuurpeloton tereggestel.


OOR BATAAN

Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, op 9 April 1942, is 75 000 Amerikaanse soldate en Filippynse soldate oorgegee aan Japannese magte na maande se geveg in uiterste klimaatstoestande. Die Amerikaanse soldate kom uit die verskillende takke van die Amerikaanse weermag: Army, Army Air Corps, Navy en Marines. Onder die mense waarop beslag gelê is, was lede van die 200ste kusartillerie, New Mexico National Guard.

Kort na die bombardement op Pearl Harbor op 7 Desember 1941, het die Japannese magte die inval in die Filippyne begin. Die inname van die Filippyne was vir die Japannese van deurslaggewende belang. Dit sou hulle 'n stap nader aan die beheer van die Suidwes -Stille Oseaan bring. Die Filippyne was net so belangrik vir die VSA. Deur troepe in die Filippyne te hê, het die VSA voet in die suidweste van die Stille Oseaan gelê. Na die inval van die Filippyne, verdedig Amerikaanse-Filippynse troepe die belangrike lande.

Hierdie dapper soldate was verantwoordelik vir die verdediging van die eilande Luzon, Corregidor en die hawe-verdedigings forte van die Filippyne. Hulle het geveg in 'n gebied wat deur malaria besmet is, en het oorleef op klein porsies kos. Sommige het van half- of kwartrantsoene geleef. Die soldate het mediese hulp ontbreek. Amerikaanse medici het gedoen wat hulle kon om hul medesoldate te help. Hulle het geveg met verouderde toerusting en feitlik geen lugmag nie.

Die soldate het teruggetrek na die Filippynse Skiereiland toe Japannese magte versterk en die Amerikaanse-Filippynse soldate oorweldig het.

Op 9 April 1942 gee die Amerikaanse en Filippynse soldate hulle oor na sewe maande se geveg, gekombineer met blootstelling aan die uiterste elemente, siektes en 'n gebrek aan noodsaaklike voorrade. Die tienduisende Amerikaanse en Filippynse soldate moes die Japannese krygsgevangenes word. Die soldate het gruwelike toestande en behandeling as krygsgevangenes ondervind.

Die soldate het kos, water en mediese aandag ontneem en is gedwing om 65 myl na bevallingskampe in die Filippyne te marsjeer.

Die gevange soldate is dae lank opgeruk, ongeveer 65 kilometer deur die versengende oerwoude van die Filippyne. Duisende is dood. Diegene wat oorleef het, het die swaarkry van krygsgevangenekampe en die brutaliteit van hul Japannese gevangenes in die gesig gestaar.

Die krygsgevangenes sou eers in 1945 vryheid kry toe Amerikaanse-Filippynse magte die verlore gebied herower het.

In 1945 het die Filippyne van die VSA die Filippyne herower en die gevangenes wat in die bevallingskampe gely het, bevry. Hierdie soldate sal beïnvloed word deur die swak toestande van die kampe en die mishandeling van hul Japannese gevangenes. Ongeveer 'n derde van die gevangenes sterf aan gesondheidskomplikasies nadat hulle bevry is.

Ander is gewond of dood toe ongemerkte vyandelike skepe wat krygsgevangenes na Japan vervoer het, deur Amerikaanse lug- en vlootmagte gesink is.

Tydens die Bataan -sterftemars het ongeveer 10 000 mans gesterf. Van hierdie mans was 1 000 Amerikaners en 9 000 Filippyne.

Dit het 'n groot impak op New Mexico -gesinne gehad. Van die 1816 200ste en 515ste kusartilleriemanne wat geïdentifiseer is, sou 829 mans nooit terugkeer huis toe nie, hul lewens verloor in die geveg, in gevangenisse of na bevryding.

Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, die bloedigste oorlog in die geskiedenis, het 60 miljoen lewens geëis en op 2 September 1945 geëindig.

21 Maart 2021 is die 79ste herdenking van die Bataan -sterfmars.


Vir Amerikaners en Filippyne is die Bataan -doodsmars een van die ergste gruweldade van die Stille Oseaan -oorlog.

Persepsies oor die geloofwaardigheid en stand van militêre tribunale na die oorlog sal onvermydelik gevorm word deur 'n individu se persoonlike ervaring van die betrokke oorlog. Vir Amerikaners en Filippyne is die Bataan -doodsmars een van die ergste gruweldade van die Stille Oseaan -oorlog. President Truman se toespraak nadat hy die atoombomme op Hiroshima en Nagasaki laat val het, weerspieël die Amerikaanse verontwaardiging:

Die Japannese siening is te verstane dat die bombardement van Japannese stede — die brandbom van Tokio en die gebruik van atoomwapens — die ergste gruweldade van die Stille Oseaanoorlog is. [31] Generaal Homma het in sy laaste briewe aan sy familie na hierdie aanvalle verwys en verklaar: "[T] hier is nie iets soos geregtigheid in internasionale betrekkinge in hierdie heelal nie." [32] Die oorwinnaar in 'n gegewe konflik het waarskynlik die voordeel om die skryf van die geskiedenis en die verhaal oor die brutaliteit van oorlog te vorm.

Masaharu Homma (本 間 雅晴) bevelvoerder van die Japanse 14de leër wat die Bataan -doodsmars uitgevoer het, tereggestel na die oorlog. (CambridgeBlog.org)

Die Tokio-verhore was die belangrikste naoorlogse tribunale wat oorlogsmisdade in die Stille Oseaanoorlog hanteer het. Hulle is egter gekritiseer omdat hulle onderhewig was aan politieke wispelturigheid by die keuse van verteenwoordigende leiers wat verantwoordelik gehou sou word vir hul bevelverantwoordelikheid. [33] Verder is die geloofwaardigheid van die hof ondermyn omdat sommige regters óf nie internasionale volkereg gehad het nie óf direkte belangebotsings gehad het - die Filippynse regter was 'n oorlewende van die Bataan Death March. [34] Die verhoor sou waarskynlik bewys word omdat die verteenwoordiger wat verantwoordelik was vir die bevelverantwoordelikheid vir die Bataan -sterftemars - generaal Masaharu Homma - verhoor, skuldig bevind en tereggestel is. Kolonel Masanobu Tsuji - wat die moord en verskriklike behandeling van die gevangenes uit Bataan aangehits het - is egter nie verhoor nie ten spyte van die verantwoordelikheid vir bloedbad tydens die Bataan -doodsmars en ook in Singapoer. [35] As gevolg van sy uiterste anti-kommunistiese houding, is Tsuji beskerm deur sowel China (onder Chiang Kai-shek) as die Verenigde State. Hy het aan die einde van die veertigerjare steeds in die geheim in Japan gewoon, met die volle kennis van Amerikaanse militêre owerhede en uiteindelik in die vyftigerjare uit die weg geruim. [36] Downer verduidelik die behandeling van Tsuji en ander as moedswillig vergeet van wat tydens die oorlog plaasgevind het, miskien ten gunste van die byeenkoms en konsolidasie van nuwe bondgenote teen die kommunistiese bedreiging en die dreigende Koue Oorlog. [37]

Ontdek Kagitingan- Dag van dapperheid

Bataan Death March Memorial met Filippynse en Amerikaanse soldate, Las Cruces NM (Kris Punke/Wikimedia)

My oupa het die oorlog oorleef en volgens familierekeninge het hy diegene onthou waarmee hy op Bataan geveg het totdat hy gesterf het. Die Filippyne het 'n sterk nasionale geheue van die Japannese besetting en van diegene wat gedurende die tydperk geveg en gely het. Die 9de April word 'n nasionale vakansiedag genoem Ontdek Kagitingan of Dag van dapperheid, wat die val van Bataan en die daaropvolgende Doodsmars aandui. Hierdie dag word bygewoon deur die Filippynse president of vise-president, lede van die Filippynse weermag en ambassadeurs uit die Verenigde State en Japan. Die seremonie word gehou by die Shrine of Valor aan die voet van Mount Samat op die Bataan -skiereiland. [38] Die dag van dapperheid is die eerste keer gevier kort na die einde van die Stille Oseaan-oorlog en word beskou as sentraal vir die heropbou van die Filippyne. Dit word beskou as 'n viering van die Filippynse veerkragtigheid in die lig van uiterste teëspoed en oorwinning deur stryd. Ondanks die misbruik van hierdie herdenkingsdag deur politici soos Ferdinand Marcos, verwys onlangse Filippynse presidente soos Gloria Arroyo na die vakansie om burgerskap en selfopoffering in die bevolking te vestig. [39]

Die Slag van Bataan en die Bataan Death March is 'n paar van die meer uitmergelende verhale uit die Stille Oseaan -oorlog. Hoewel geregtigheid na oorlog steeds 'n omstrede saak is, is dit belangrik om daarop te let dat herinnering sentraal staan ​​in die bou en herstel van nasies, en 'n gevoel van trots wek by diegene wat tydens hierdie deel van die Stille Oseaan-oorlog gedien en opgeoffer het.

Jo Brick is 'n beampte in die Royal Australian Air Force, lid van die Military Writers Guild, en 'n mede -redakteur van The Strategy Bridge. Sy het 'n Master in die Regte en 'n Master in Militêre en Verdedigingstudies van die Australian National University. Haar primêre belangstellings is strategie en burgerlik-militêre verhoudings, die etiese aspekte van die oorlogswette, besluitneming oor bevele en die rol van lugmag en wapenrusting in moderne oorlogvoering. Volg Jo op Twitter @clausewitzrocks. Die menings wat hier uitgespreek word, is alleen die skrywer en weerspieël nie die van die Australiese weermag nie.

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Header Image: Illustrasie van hoe dit was om die 60 moeisame kilometers tussen Mariveles en Camp O'Donnell te reis tydens die Bataan Death March. (Ben Steele/Flikr)

Notas:

[1] Louis Morton. Die val van die Filippyne (Washington DC: Sentrum vir Militêre Geskiedenis, 1993) 31.

[2] Eerste weergawes van die Slag van Bataan en die Doodsmars sluit in: Carlos P. Romulo, Last Man Off Bataan (Glasgow: Sphere Books) 1981 Hampton Sides, Spooksoldate (Londen: Time Warner) 2002 Richard C. Mallonee, Battle for Bataan - 'n Ooggetuieverslag (Novato: Presidio Press) 1997.

[3] William L. O'Neill. Demokrasie in oorlog - Amerika se stryd tuis en in die buiteland in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995, 116-117.

[4] Morton, Die val van die Filippyne, 4.

[5] Edward J. Drea. In diens van die keiser: opstelle oor die keiserlike Japanse leër (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003) 28-29.

[6] Drea, In diens van die keiser, 29.

[7] Drea, In diens van die keiser, 31.

[8] Wyk Rutherford. Val van die Filippyne (Londen: Ballatine Books, 1972) 27.

[9] Louis Morton, 'War Plan Orange: Evolution of a Strategy' Wêreldpolitiek Vol. 11, nr. 2 (1959) 221, 221-222. Hierdie artikel bied 'n uitstekende oorsig van die geopolitieke oorwegings wat gelei het tot die ontwikkeling van verskillende oorlogsplanne vanaf die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog tot die begin van die Stille Oseaanoorlog in 1941.

[10] Morton, 'War Plan Orange: Evolution of a Strategy'.

[11] Rutherford, Val van die Filippyne, 15.

[12] Rutherford, Val van die Filippyne, 15. Sien ook John G. Doll. Die Battling Bastards van Bataan (8ste uitgawe) (New York: Merriam Press, 2017) 11.

[13] Rutherford, Val van die Filippyne, 15, 18.

[14] Donald J. Young. Die Slag van Bataan (2de uitgawe) (Jefferson: McFarland & amp, 2009) 5.

[15] Morton, 'War Plan Orange: Evolution of a Strategy', 250.

[16] Aangehaal deur Young, Die Slag van Bataan, 8.

[17] Pop, Die Battling Bastards van Bataan, 14.

[18] Jong, Die Slag van Bataan, 16.

[19] Jong, Die Slag van Bataan, 16.

[20] Kaartbron: Corregidor Historic Society -webwerf: 'Hoe die stryd in Bataan verloop het' http://corregidor.org/chs_bataan/bataan1.html (25 Februarie 2018 geraadpleeg)

[21] Charles Bateson. Die oorlog met Japan - 'n bondige geskiedenis (Noord -Sydney: Ure Smith Edms. Bpk., 1968) 78.

[22] Aangehaal deur Kinue Tokudome. 'The Bataan Death March and the 66-Year Struggle for Justice', Die Asia-Pacific Journal 6, uitgawe 1 (April 2008) 2.

[23] Tokudome. 'The Bataan Death March and the 66-Year Struggle for Justice', 1.

[24] Edwin P. Hoyt. Japan se oorlog - die groot Stille Oseaan -konflik (Londen: Guild Publishing, 1986), 269-270.

[25] Hoyt, Japan se oorlog, 269-270. Sien ook Tokudome, 'The Bataan Death March and the 66-Year Struggle for Justice'.

[27] Bateson, Die oorlog met Japan, 78.

[28] Tokudome. 'The Bataan Death March and the 66-Year Struggle for Justice', 3.

[29] Tokudome. 'Die Bataan-sterftemars en die 66-jarige stryd om geregtigheid' 4.

[30] Aangehaal deur Tokudome. 'Die Bataan-sterftemars en die 66-jarige stryd om geregtigheid' 5.

[32] John W. Downer. Omhels nederlaag - Japan in die herfs van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 1999) 516.

[33] Downer. Omhels nederlaag, 464.

[34] Downer, Omhels nederlaag, 465.

[35] Downer, Omhels nederlaag, 512.

[36] Downer, Omhels nederlaag, 512.

[37] Downer, Omhels nederlaag, 513.

[38] Kevin Blackburn, 'Oorlogsgeheue en nasiebou in Suidoos-Asië', Suidoos -Asië Navorsing 18, uitgawe 1, 10.

[39] Blackburn, 'Oorlogsgeheue en nasiebou in Suidoos-Asië', 13-14.


Bataan Death March - Definisie, datums en oorlewendes - GESKIEDENIS

Nie -amptelike lys van Bataan -krygsgevangenes uit die Filippyne wat opgestel is of by die Amerikaanse weermag aangesluit het (tans uitgesluit van S. 768 en H.R. 2598)

Data versamel deur Maria Elizabeth Embry van Antiochië Kalifornië uit verskeie bronne

(Opmerking: aparte lyste wat bygevoeg moet word vir krygsgevangenes van Corregidor en Luzon wat tans uitgesluit is van HR 2598)

Stuur 'n e-pos vir byvoegings en regstellings

Crescencio E. Abad Weermag gebore 29/02/1920 San Esteban Ilocos Sur sterf 8/5/2008 LA. Ca. begrawe Forest Lawn Cemetery Glendale Ca. USAFFE 301 1ste veldartilleriedoodmars POW guerrilla onder USFIP-NL geveg Slag van Bessangpas by PS ontslaan 1949 word advokaat M.P.A. grad

Salvador "Sal" A. Abad sterf op 11 Desember in San Francisco op 87 -jarige ouderdom. Sal, gebore in Manila, het op 3 Februarie 1941 in die 26ste Golgota (PS) aangesluit en die geveg, die Bataan -doodsmars en gevangenisstraf oorleef. Bron: http : //www.philippine-scouts.org

Ulpiano C. Abila Weermag se doodsmars survivor SSgt 12 th Ordnance Co (PS) uit Rosales, Pangasinan

Ponciano Abiles Army Battery 'n 91ste Coast Artillery Death March POW

Pedro O. Abubo gebore 16/04/1916 gesterf het 18/05/2000 begrawe Arlington Artikel 59 Terrein 36 bedien 22/08/1946 tot 13/07/1947 2de Lt. -Amerikaanse weermag uit die Cagayan -vallei, Bataan gewond in aksie POW

Alipio L. Acosta ongeval sterf 5/3/1942 terwyl POW @ Camp O ’Donnell van Tagudin Ilocos Sur Pfc PS 14de Engineers Death March

Rafael Agbayani Sterf Maart Bron: http://www.wwiimemorial.com Voormalige Filippynse verkenner

Arthur Agpalasin oorlede. Arthur het op Bataan geveg, het deelgeneem aan die berugte Death March, het die krygsgevangenekamp in O'Donnell oorleef en na dertig jaar lojale diens uit die Amerikaanse weermag afgetree. 'N Bron van die eerste sersant: http://www.philippine-scouts.org

Demetrio L.O. Aguila , Sr. Bataan Sterfmars van San Jose Batangas Bron: http://www.wwiimemorial.com

Gavino S. Aguila ontsnap uit Death March guerilla van Mabini Batangas Bron: http://www.wwiimemorial.com

Melecio J. Aguila 41ste Inf Div Death March POW vrygestel op 7/4/1942 van Mabini Batangas Bron : http://www.wwiimemorial.com

Julian Orale Alayon USAFFE, Bataan Defense, Death March, POW, guerrilla, Filippynse weermag ook Koreaanse oorlog w/ 8 th U.S. Army Awards: POW Medal WW11 Victory, American Defense Service Medal, Presidential Unit Citation, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, Philippine Islands Defense Medal, Philippine Liberation Ribbon & amp Philippine Independence Lint

Carlos J. Albert POW Off-Shore Patrol guerilla

Ramon A. “Monching ” Alcaraz USAFFE Cpt bevorder tot 1ste Lt. POW 4/10/1942-9/1942 Regt Commander Kakarong Guerrilla Award: Silver Star vir 1/1942 PMA 1940 grad uit Quingua, Bulacan, naoorlogs: Admiraal Phil Navy, het 'n oorlogsdagboek geskryf wat gebruik is vir die dokumentêr in 2002 “Bataan: The Last Defense ” Orange, Ca. eiendomsbelegger 2008 Legacy -toekenning van die Filipino Veterans Foundation (FVF)

Andres Buendia Aldaba gebore1923 Filippyne oorlede 18/05/1942 Kamp O ’Donnell aan dysenterie terwyl krygsgevangene Weermagverdediging van Bataan en Corregidor Death Maart van Malolos, Bulacan

Igmidio Ek. Alejandro Weermagverdediging van Bataan het ontsnap en by guerrillas aangesluit uit Lubao, Pampanga

Avelino P. Alonso PS Bataan Death March ontsnap guerrilla van Oran Samar

Tito P. Amasol gebore 1/4/1907 Filippyne oorlede 18/10/1981 begrawe National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific Army Pfc PS Death March ook Koreaans Oorlogsveteraan TSgt Air Force

Alex C. Andres, Sr ., jare lange PSHS -staatmaker en president van die LTC Lloyd E. Mills Chapter, is in die ouderdom van 83 jaar in Rancho Palos Verdes, Kalifornië, oorlede van die 57ste infanterie (PS) na die hoofkwartier van die Filippynse afdeling net voor die Japannese het die Filippyne binnegeval. Hy oorleef die geveg, die Bataan Death March en Camp O'Donnell en gaan voort in die Amerikaanse weermag na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, en tree as kaptein af. Bron: http://www.philippine-scouts.org

Manuel “Manny ” Aquino gebore 13/08/1917 Filippyne oorlede 8/5/2008 USAFFE Death March na-oorlog: Phil Army (Peftok Koreaanse oorlog veteraan gestuur deur die Republiek van die Filippyne) dien later in die Filippynse vloot tot aftrede

Irineo Arenas Sr. gebore 18/06/1907 Pangasinan was in Bataan ontsnap aan Death March medic (PS)

Alberto “Bert ” Bacani gebore 24/01/1911 Isabela Oorlewende Death March, inwoner van Alexandria Virginia, werk saam met die Environmental Protection Agency tot hy 97 jaar oud was, gepubliseerde outeur van handboek

Faustino “Peping ” Baclig gebore 1922 Filippyne se doodsmars guerrilla naoorlogs: inwoner van Whittier, Kalifornië

Ramon D. Bagatsing Slag van Bataan , Kpl later burgemeester

Jesse Mallares Baltazar Lugmagmajor, Ret, Verdediging van Bataan, Doodsmars (van Mariveles tot Bagac) POW na aftrede: Staatsdepartement van Manila, Filippyne

Damaso Basco gebore 1912 Filippyne Death March verhuis na die 26ste Calvalry (PS) in die 1950's na Pittsburg, Kalifornië

Erasto R. Batongmalaque gebore 26/07/1905 Filippyne sterf 3/9/1995 Riverside Ca Kpt 21ste Inf Div uit Bataan geskryf “ My Road Back”, 'n outobiografie, vader van dr. Jenny Batongmalaque, Pres van Filipino Veterans Foundation (FVF)

Handmatige kabels gebore 1919 oorlede 23/11/2004 Manny het in 2/1941 aangesluit by die 57ste Infanterie (PS), Kompanjie M. Hy het aansienlike gevegte in die verdediging van Bataan gesien en Corregidor, het 'n kort termyn as 'n krygsgevangene deurgebring voordat hy deur die Japannese vrygelaat is en by die Filippynse Constabulary (PC) aangesluit het. Terwyl hy in die rekenaar was, werk hy saam met die Fil-Am-guerrillas, en dan, toe generaal MacArthur terugkom, vertrek hy om by die anti-Japannese verset aan te sluit. Hy verlaat die diens in 1947 en verhuis na die VSA waar hy tydens die Koreaanse Oorlog weer by die infanterie aangesluit het. & amp het drie Purple Hearts gekry vir wonde in die geveg en 'n Silver Star vir die bestryding van dapperheid. tree in 1963 af en word 'n Department of Army Civilian totdat hy weer in 1978 aftree. was 'n inwoner van San Francisco Bron: http://www.philippine-scouts.org

Arcadio V. Calabas Army Cmdr Death March oorlewende

Aldred A. Calambro gebore 25/04/1912 Iloilo, Filippyne sterf 18/09/1925 begrawe Arlington Afdeling 64 Terrein 6546 het 1932 WW11 -krygsgevangene aangewys & amp Bataan Death March oorlewende Koreaans War (1951-53) het op 4/1/1959 'n Cpt afgetree

Jose Calugas, Sr Mess Sgt Army 88 e Field Artillery Battery B, PS Medal of Honor vir heroïsme op 9/16/1942 @ Culis Bataan van Barrio Tags: begrawe Mountain View Memorial Park Cemetery Tacoma Washington

Mateo Capinpin Brig -generaal gebore 22-4-1887 Morong Rizal Filippyne sterf 28/12/1958 Binan Laguna Filippyne Dood Maart POW oorlewende vooroorlog: Phil Scouts1906-1918, terug 1919 1ste Lt. Phil National Guard 1918-1919 bevelvoerder van Phil Army 21ste Div1934 naoorlog: afgetrede Adj Gen AFP Toekennings: Distinguished Service Cross

Eriberto Caranto Major gebore 1917 oorlede 12/7/2003 Huntsville Alabama Death March na-oorlog: afgetrede 32 jaar staatsdiens van die weermag tot 1989. Bron: http://www.philippine-scouts.org

Florencio Calvo Causin # gebore 11/7/1916 Filippyne oorlede 28/08/2008 Filippyne Doodsmars PMA 1940 graad

Pantaleon Cawagas gebore 12/8/1917 Candelaria Zambales sterf 3/5/2005 San Diego Kalifornië begrawe San Diego California Death March, POW @ Capas Tarlac tot en met 7/4/1942 terugrapporteer by USAFFE 11/1945 Battery F Coast Artillery 1ste Regt. aangesluit by USAFFE 23/12/1941 eerbare ontslaan as Tech Sgt na-oorlog: onderwyser 1946-1970 in San Narciso immigreer na San Diego 11/1984 seun van Lazaro. Bron: doodsberig deur Rodel J. Ramos Balita, VS -boodskap 471

Mario D. Cid oorlede in San Francisco op 13 Februarie 2009. Oorleef deur Hortensia, sy vrou van 50 jaar drie kinders en drie kleinkinders. 'N Sersant in die Filippynse Verkenners, 14de Ingenieurs (PS), het gehelp om Bataan te verdedig en daarna ontsnap uit die Doodsmars. Mario was ook 'n veteraan van die Amerikaanse weermag uit die Koreaanse Oorlog. Hy het 'n lang loopbaan as meganiese ingenieur by die Southern Pacific Railroad geniet. Hy was lank aktief in die Katolieke Kerk en was 'n stigter van die Filippynse Katolieke Vereniging van San Francisco in die St. Dominic's Church. Hy was ook 'n entoesiastiese orgidee -opkikker, kundige kok wat die Filippynse kookkuns bevoordeel en 'n entoesiastiese ondersteuner van alle sportspanne in die Bay Area, veral die San Francisco Giants. Bron: http://www.philippine-scouts.org

Simplicio Copiaco Ret 2ste Lt (AFP) Oorlewende doodsmart

Serafin Salazar “Serry ” Crisostomo gebore 1/21/1924 Corregidor Filippyne oorlede 4/8/1998 begrawe Tacoma (Wash) Cemetery Battery E 91ste Coast Artillery (PS) Death March POW Capas ook in Koreaans & amp; Viëtnam Wars & amp; Okinawa Army CW3

Juanito Dalisay gebore 1915 Rosales, Pangasinan oorlede 1/3/2005 Alameda Ca. van 1941-1965 in die Amerikaanse weermag gedien het, het die Doodsmars oorleef & amp POW kamp. Bron: http://www.philippine-scouts.org

Eleuterio de Dios ("Terry") van Mountain View, Kalifornië en Dulag, Leyte, sterf in die Filippyne op 2 Oktober 2004. Hy was 85. Terry het in Februarie 1941 aangestel en dien in die hoofkwartier en die hoofkwartierbattery van die 24ste veldartillerie (PS). Hy het op Bataan geveg en daarna die Doodsmars oorleef en gevangeniskamp. Kort nadat die oorlog geëindig het, het hy 'n graad in bankwese en finansies verwerf op die GI -wetsontwerp, 'n paar jaar by Coca Cola gewerk en daarna sy loopbaan by die Filippynse ministerie van arbeid en werk voltooi. dien as hoof van die filippynse nasionale polisie -afdeling in Dulag. Na aftrede verhuis hy na die VSA waar hy van 1992 tot 2002 woon. Bron: http://www.philippine-scouts.org

Catalino De Guzman gebore 1916 Death March oorlewende

Luciano Dimaano Doodsmars

Geoffray Dumaquit , SFC sterf 27/08/2007 in Cathedral City, CA. Hy het in Maart 1941 as 'n masjiengeweer by die 14de Engineers BN (PS) ingeskryf en was 'n oorlewende van Bataan Death March wat in die Koreaanse oorlog gedien is voordat hy in 1961 uittree. Sy militêre versierings het 'n bronsster, 'n pers hart, 'n krygsgevangenesmedalje, 'n Amerikaanse medalje vir die verdedigingsdiens, 'n medalje vir die Asiatiese Stille Oseaan, 'n oorwinningsmedalje van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, 'n medalje van die nasionale verdedigingsdiens, 'n Koreaanse diensmedalje, 'n medalje van die Verenigde Nasies, 'n Filippynse verdedigingsmedalje ingesluit. , Filippynse bevrydingsmedalje, embleem van die presidensiële eenheid en die Filippynse Republiek -verwysing. Bron: http://www.philippine-scouts.org

Benjamin “Ben ” Valdez Embry # Doodsmars, POW gebore 10/5/1924 Paniqui, Tarlac, Filippyne. 2de Lt. Thomas Embry, sy pa was 'n veteraan van die Amerikaanse weermag uit Spaanse-Amerikaanse en Filippyns-Amerikaanse oorloë. Op 21/2/1941, om 16 4 ′, het Benjamin by die 26ste Cavalry Troop C PS ingeroep deur die medepligtigheid van die Amerikaanse militêre werwer in die afwesigheid van sy ouers se toestemming (en kennis). verander na 10/7/1920. Benjamin, hoewel in 'n verswakte toestand, het die gruwels van die beleg van Bataan en die Bataan -sterftemars oorleef toe hy net 17 1/2 jaar oud was. Op 29/07/1942 is hy vrygelaat, siek aan malaria en brongitis, nadat sy Spaanse mestiza -moeder aan die Japannese ingestem het dat Benjamin van Spaans is en nie van Amerikaanse afkoms nie. Die Spanjaarde, die koloniale heerser van die Filippyne voor die Verenigde State, is deur die Japannese bevoordeel, bloot as gevolg van die ou gesegde dat u vyand my vriend is.

Benjamin het tot 28/2/1945 saam met Co D 2de MP Bataljon PS in Buenlag, Calasiao, Pangasinan gedien. Thomas Embry is op 9/18/1946 oorlede, sy dood is bespoedig deur probleme tydens die oorlog. Die Embrys is die inwoners van Paniqui dankbaar omdat hulle Thomas en sy gesin se wegkruipplek nie aan die Japannese weermag bekend gemaak het nie, alhoewel die verarmde stadsmense finansieel aansienlik kan baat by die gee van sulke inligting.

Sien die genealogiese geskiedenis van Benjamin Embry ’s @

Romy Entac gebore 1919 Filippyne 57 e Inf (PS) G Co Machine Gun Platoon Death March oorlewingstoekenning: Purple Heart

Rafael Estrada (Ret) Kol Doodsmars oorlewende Verweerders van die voorsitter van die weermag van Bataan en Corregidor, Inc. het 'n erkenningsbewys toegeken deur die Amerikaanse ambassadeur in die Filippyne, Kristie Kenney, 9/09/2009

Democrito Academia Fedalizo Death March ongevalle vader van Editha Bernardino Fedalizo, 'n verpleegkundige opvoeder in Montreal, Kanada

Feliciano A. (Tony) Figuracion , SFC gebore 5/2/1919 in Alcala, Pangasinan, oorlede in Tacoma Wash. Op 3/14/2005 45ste Infanterie (PS) Bataan Death March, POW oorlewende ook Koreaanse Oorlog veteraan. Hy tree uit die Amerikaanse weermag in 1961. Vanaf sy uittrede tot 1994 het Tony en sy gesin na ontwikkelingsgestremde pleegkinders omgesien. Hy was ook direkteur van onderhoud by 'n reeks verpleeginrigtings in Tacoma. Bron: http://www.philippine-scouts.org

Juan M. Fontanilla , gebore 1911 oorlede 13/05/2005 het in 1941 by die Bataan Death March aangesluit by die Verkenners & amp POW.survivor, Koreaans oorlogsveteraan en uiteindelik uittree. Bron: http://www.philippine-scouts.org

Jesus R. Franco # gebore 16/03/1920 Intramuros Manila oorlede op 17-7-2006 Vallejo California Colonel. 26ste Kavalerie PS Doodsmars, POW ontsnapte, Guerilla -toekennings: Silver Star, DSC, medalje vir eerbare diens terwyl POW, (3) Purple Hearts -medalje, later inwoner van Vallejo, Kalifornië Bron: Juni Ranillo Ang Panahon 11/11/2004 bladsy

Patrick “Pat ” G. Ganio, Sr. gebore 1921 Rizal, Nueva Ecija, Slag van die Filippyne van Bataan Toekenning: Purple Heart advokaat vir PhilAm Veterans Equity Rights

Manuel Gavino gebore 1922 Filippyne PS SFC 23 e Field Artillery Reg. Battery A Death March

Luis De Leon Gonzalez # 21/06/1911 Lingayen, Pangasinan-12/9/2004 Pittsburg California het aangesluit by 26ste Cavalry PS 1933-1963 Death March Toekenning: Purple Heart , ook in Koreaans Oorlog

Dominador A. Guevarra , gebore 1919 Capas, Tarlac oorlede 3/6/2007 57ste Infanterie (PS ingeskryf in 2/1941 Philippine Scouts Bataan Death March en POW oorlewende immigreer in 1967 na die VSA en werk as ingenieur en woon by sy dood in Morton Grove, Illinois. Bron: http://www.philippine-scouts.org

Catalino “Iggy ” Ignacio# gebore 12/9/1919 Nueva Ecija, Filippyne oorlede 7/7/2005 in Carson Ca begrawe Green Hills Memorial Park @ Palos Verdes Ca PS, Death March, POW, ook 'n Koreaanse Oorlog veteraan afgetrede fr. Militêr 1968 as 'n eerste Lt. -naoorlog: vlugbal skeidsregter (Olympiese Spele van 1968 in 1977, Wêreldbeker, ens.)

Julian Aniciete Ignacio, Sr. # gebore 1/20/1921 Filippyne oorlede 18/10/2006 John Muir Mediese Sentrum Concord Ca begrawe @ Holy Cross Cemetery Antiochië Ca Death March besetting na die oorlog: 'n prokureur en opvoeder in die Filippyne verhuis na Pittsburg, Ca. in 1967

Daniel Laureta Ledda , veteraan van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en die Koreaan en Viëtnam Wars, oorlede 8/10/2007 in Sacramento, gebore 1919 Balaoan, La Union Philippines Philippine Military Academy 1942. grad As kommandant van die geselskap op Bataan het die jong kaptein sy berede kavallerietroep gelei in 'n teenaanval teen die Japannese en hulle gedwing om 'n seldsame terugtrek. Tydens die aanval het kaptein Ledda lewensgevaarlike beserings opgedoen van 'n handgranaat, granatsplinter waaruit hy tot aan die einde van sy lewe gedra het. Nadat hy herstel het, keer hy terug na die geveg, maar met die oorgawe van die Amerikaanse weermag was een van die ongeveer 75 000 krygsgevangenes wat gedwing was om die berugte Bataan Death March te maak. Hy is vrygelaat weens ernstige mediese probleme, maar by sy herstel het hy by die ondergrondse aangesluit en aan weerstandsaktiwiteite teen die Japannese deelgeneem totdat die Filippyne bevry is. WW2 militêre toekennings: Purple Heart, Bronze Star en Silver Star , en later die U.S.Army Commendation Medal en die Joint U.S.Armed Forces Commendation Medal. Hy sit sy 30-jarige weermagloopbaan voort tot met sy aftrede in 1974 nadat hy die eerste Filippynse gebore Amerikaner geword het wat die rang van volle kolonel bereik het Bron: http://www.philippine-scouts.org

Vicente Lim # Brigadegeneraal gebore 1889 Calamba Laguna ongeval oorlede 12/ 31/1944 stafhoof Phil Army 41ste Phil Division bevelvoerder Verdediging van Bataan Filipino in die hoogste posisie onder genl Douglas MacArthur Bataan Death March oorlewende guerrilla -leier gevange geneem in 1944 krygsgevangenes gevange @ Ft Santiago & amp; Bilibid gevangenis onthoof met kol Antonio Escoda hul begraafplase tot vandag toe onbekend. Toekennings: Legion of Merit Purple Heart 1ste Filippynse Wespunt graad (1914) 2de Lt WW1 skrywer van “Die briewe van generaal Vicente Lim (1938-1942) ” beroemde aanhaling “ Om te inspireer en om te lei ”

Antonio N. Lumio 45ste Doodsmars POW, Ongeval sterf 14/05/1942 Camp O ’Donnell van malaria Inf (PS) L Co Sgt uit Capiz


Oordrag van die krygsgevangenes vanaf Bataan


Japannese foto wat geneem is, toon Amerikaanse gevangenes wat geïmproviseerde werpsels gebruik om kamerade te dra wat langs die pad geval het weens die gebrek aan voedsel of water. Dit is een van die min foto's van die werklike Bataan Death March, uit die National Archives. Gedateer Mei 1942.

Die behandeling van die geallieerde gevangenes was inkonsekwent. Alhoewel sommige gevangenes in vragmotors of motors gereis het en min gely het, moes die meeste tot 65 myl te voet optrek en het hulle min kos, water of mediese hulp ontvang. Sommige groepe het meer kos gekry of tyd om te rus, ander het minder gekry. Some guards treated their captives reasonably well, while others tortured the POWs or murdered them outright as punishment for surrender, considered dishonorable by the Japanese military code of conduct.

For those who marched to camp, the only constant presence was death. Reports from survivors tell of brutal guards who shot or bayonetted anyone who fell behind. The pace was inhuman under hot sun, without food or water, difficult even for soldiers in good condition, deadly for malnourished and sick POWs. By the end of the evacuation in early May 1942, an estimated 5,000 to 10,000 POWs had died. Another 18,000 prisoners died in the first six weeks of imprisonment at Camp O Donnell. Those who survived remained in Japanese prisons from April 1942 until the end of the war in the Pacific in September 1945, enduring more than three years of torture, beatings, forced labor, illness and near starvation. Those who were liberated were in terrible condition, their bodies skeletal and ridden by diseases such as beriberi, dysentery and scurvy.


Bataan Death March - Definition, Dates and Survivors - HISTORY

The Bataan Death March was when the Japanese forced 76,000 captured Allied soldiers (Filipinos and Americans) to march about 80 miles across the Bataan Peninsula. The march took place in April of 1942 during World War II.


The Bataan Death March
Source: National Archives

Bataan is a province in the Philippines on the island of Luzon. It is a Peninsula on the Manila Bay across from the capital city Manila.

Leading up to the March

After bombing Pearl Harbor, Japan quickly began to take over much of Southeast Asia. As the Japanese troops approached the Philippines, U.S. General Douglas MacArthur moved the U.S. forces from the city of Manila to the Bataan Peninsula. He did this hoping to save the city of Manila from destruction.

After three months of fierce fighting, the Japanese defeated the U.S. and Filipino army on Bataan at the Battle of Bataan. On April 9, 1942, General Edward King, Jr. surrendered to the Japanese. There were about 76,000 combined Filipino and American troops (around 12,000 Americans) that surrendered to the Japanese.

The Japanese commander knew he had to do something with the large army he had captured. He planned to move them to Camp O'Donnell, about eighty miles away, which the Japanese would turn into a prison. The prisoners would walk part of the way and then ride the train the rest of the way.

The size of the army captured took the Japanese by surprise. They thought there were only around 25,000 Allied soldiers, not 76,000. They divided the army into smaller groups of 100 to 1000 men, took their weapons, and told them to start marching.

The Japanese did not give the prisoners food or water for three days. As the soldiers became weaker and weaker many of them started to fall behind the group. Those that fell behind were beaten and killed by the Japanese. Sometimes exhausted prisoners were driven over by trucks and other army vehicles.

Once the prisoners reached the trains they were crammed into the trains so tight they had to stand for the rest of the journey. Those that could not fit in were forced to march the entire way to the camp.

The march lasted for six days. No one is sure how many soldiers died along the way, but estimates put the death toll between 5,000 and 10,000. Once the soldiers reached the camp, conditions didn't improve much. Thousands more died at the camp from starvation and disease over the next few years.

The prisoners that survived were rescued in early 1945 when the Allies retook the Philippines. The Japanese officer in charge of the march, General Masaharu Homma, was executed for "war crimes against humanity."


Bataan Death March - Definition, Dates and Survivors - HISTORY

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In World War II's Pacific Theater, the Philippines was a hotly contested area due to its proximity to Japan and its status as a U.S. Commonwealth. Throughout the war, many a bloody battle was fought there, including the Battle of Bataan.

After a grisly three-month campaign in early 1942 that left around 10,000 American and Filipino troops dead, the Japanese emerged victorious. Nearly 80,000 Allied troops laid down their weapons, making it the largest American surrender in history.

All told, the total number of prisoners was double what Japanese Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma was expecting. Since he lacked the vehicles to move the prisoners elsewhere, he decided to make the prisoners march 70 miles in the sweltering tropical heat. On April 9, 1942, the Bataan Death March began.

With little food or water, the prisoners soon began dropping like flies. Others were made to sit in direct sunlight without helmets or protection. Some were stabbed or beaten at random while others were shot if they asked for water. Trucks would run over those who were unable to continue the march.

After the long march, the prisoners arrived at the train station of San Fernando, where they were forced into boxcars in which temperatures reached heights of 110 degrees Fahrenheit. Many prisoners died in the trains.

After disembarking from the train, the prisoners then marched another 10 miles to Camp O'Donnell. At long last, this was the final destination of the Bataan Death March, but not the end of its terror.

Some 20,000 soldiers who'd survived the march and made it to the camp soon died there thanks to disease, sweltering heat, and brutal executions.

Eventually, after Japan's surrender three years later, eight generals, including Masaharu Homma, were all executed for war crimes related to the unforgettable horrors of the Bataan Death March.


DEATH MARCH: The Survivors of Bataan

A quick-cut, continuously-running oral history of the war in the Philippines--from the first surprise Japanese attacks through the retreat to Bataan peninsula and the four-month holding action to unconditional surrender and the long, ghastly death march to the San Fernando railhead. . . when the I-was-there accounts really take hold. Spent, frightened columns of starving, parched, often wounded men marched 60 miles with malaria and diarrhea. Guards on trucks took to dragging prisoners by long black snake whips fallen men were bayoneted at once. At night, fire from US field guns on nearby Corregidor ""sounded like freight trains going through the air over our heads"" for lack of latrines, filth and excrement lay everywhere. Waiting for shipment at San Fernando, many of the crammed prisoners stood about screaming. And at O'Donnell POW camp, the death march seemed only to go on: whenever a prisoner escaped, ten men were taken and shot to death. From O'Donnell, most were moved to Cabana-tuan's three camps (""Death was easier than life. . . . A lot of people quit hanging on"") and to Davao Penal Colony--from which some escaped, eventually to freedom. Later, many were sent by ""Hell Ships"" to work in Japan but over 5,000 died when several ships were torpedoed. With the atom bombs, ""our guards got very bitter"" then the Emperor surrendered, and (in one of the stellar vignettes) Captain Jerome McDavitt was called into the Japanese commander's office at his camp, told that he was in charge, asked for his orders--and presented with the commander's samurai sword, which he declined to take (""Right then, for the first time. . . I saw tears in a Jap's eyes""). For most, the euphoria of release gave way to the confusion and discomfort of homecoming and many attest to having nightmares three decades later. (Hardest to face was the widespread indifference.) As a memorial volume, this is somewhat long at 500-plus pages but the experiences are effectively pieced together and the very intensity of the recall is impressive at this date.


BATAAN: A SURVIVOR’S STORY

I loved meandering through the shelves, surrounded by the smell of books. Familiar titles called out like old friends, while the unfamiliar ones promised new stories and adventures.

After having kids, going to the library is a bit different.

They love stories too, and browsing the children’s section with them is great fun. But if I want to find something to read, well, let’s just say I’ve learned to move fast.

Last week I dared the history aisle with them. I knew I had about five minutes before someone got restless and wandered off, started fighting with a sibling, or started idly pulling books off the shelf.

Luckily, Lt. Gene Boyt’s slender volume Bataan: A Survivor’s Story caught my eye at once. I had been reading and writing about the WW2 tragedies of Bataan, and I’ve written before about how I love survivor stories. I grabbed it and ran, and I’m so glad that I did.

Boyt learned early how to do without. He was born on March 29, 1917 in Houston, Missouri. His father, whose unpredictable work had just kept them financially afloat, abandoned the family when Gene was in high school. Gene’s mother scraped by with the help of friends, but the Great Depression left them wondering how they’d manage.

Gene found the answer in the Civilian Conservation Corps, a part of FDR’s “New Deal.” He worked building roads, and was able to save up enough for college. He earned his mechanical engineering degree at the Missouri School of Mines.

Since Mines was a federal land-grant college, Boyt was required to take basic ROTC. He enjoyed it, decided to take advanced courses, and ended up a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army.

In July of 1941, he received his first assignment. He was headed to the Philippines.

Boyt’s accounts make his early days in the Philippines sound idyllic. He met kind people, lived in comfortable surroundings, and he was given charge of engineering projects on Clark Field.

The Philippines is on the other side of the International Date Line from Hawaii, so Boyt heard about the attacks on Pearl Harbor on December 8th.

While he was shaken by the news of the attack, the threat seemed far away. He and his housemates sat down to lunch as usual, laughing as a radio broadcaster announced that Clark Field, right outside, was under attack by the Japanese.

Just to be sure, his friend looked out the back door, scanning the sky. They asked him if he saw any Japanese planes.

“No.” He laughed, as if the idea seemed ridiculous.

We were behaving nonchalantly with no sense of the severity of the situation. The adjutant lieutenant returned to the table, and dessert, a tasty pie, was served. I took two bites of my piece before the house blew up.” (Boyt 56)

So begins Boyt’s account of the failed defense of the Philippines. He takes his readers on the retreat down the Bataan Peninsula, through his eventual surrender, and then back up the peninsula as a member of the Bataan Death March.

Boyt’s survival story could be pretty bleak reading, but his tale, though dark, has moments of light.

He writes of their captors forcing men to march without food or drink, then making them stand by sources of clean water without being allowed any. He also tells of the one Japanese soldier, who as he was relieved of guard duty murmured, in perfect English, “I’m sorry.”

He writes of comrades succumbing to cruelty in the darkness of their captivity, but also of Filipino people who risked their lives to leave sugarcane and water along the road to help the troops survive.

He writes of the horrors and deprivations of the five (yes five) prison camps he was interned in during the war, but also of he people who helped him survive it.

“I want to make one thing clear about my wartime service. Ek is nie a hero. I saw real heroes in action, however – men such as Tom Griffin, who saved my life during the Death March Dr. Van Peenen, the physician who did so much with so little at Zentsuji and Major Orr, who risked his life in support of prisoners’ rights in Japan. These fine men, and countless others like them, deserve our adoration for their bravery and self-sacrifice.” (Boyt 219)

I’m thankful for writers like Boyt, who preserve memories of the courage and sacrifice and suffering of those who’ve come before us. If a copy of Bataan: A Survivor’s Story crosses your path, it’s well worth reading, and taking the time to remember them.


The Battling Bastards of Bataan

The poet is unknown. It is inscribed on the monument to the Pacific War Dead, in Corregidor, Philippines. Each May 6th, the sun is in such a position that it's rays fall into the center of the monument, exactly at noon.

NOTE: This article was submitted by Richard M. Gordon of Burnt Hills, NY, who wrote, "While numerous articles have been written on Bataan, Corregidor, and 'The Death March,' I believe that my article dispels several myths found in other writings…I am a firm believer in historical accuracy. The myth concerning who was on the Bataan Death March must be dispelled." Gordon was a defender of Bataan, a survivor of the Death March, Camps O'Donnell, and Cabanatuan. He is writing a book on his experiences in the Philippines from October 1940 to October 1945, when he was liberated in Japan.

The recollection of these historic events should elicit memories of the early dark days of World War II. Our fleet had just been crippled at Pearl Harbor. Hong Kong and Singapore had fallen. Whatever the Japanese military had touched "turned to gold." The one bright spot in those dismal days was the Philippine Islands, where Americans and Filipinos were making a stand on Bataan, Corregidor, and the southern islands of the Philippines. Such resistence would disrupt the Japanese military timetable of the conquest of the South Pacific and gain valuable time for the United States to recover from Japan's initial onslaught.

Each event, however, was different from the other and the difference often spelled life or death for the participants. Bataan was not synonymous with Corregidor, mistaken belief to the contrary. As a result of this misbelief for the past 40-odd years, many have assumed Bataan, Corregidor, and the Death March to be interrelated. Corregidor had very little relationship with Bataan it had no connection with the Death March whatsoever. Such a mistaken belief has been spawned by numerous writings.

An example of such misinformation can be found in the writings of a noted historian, William Manchester, author of "American Caesar," a biography of General Douglas MacArthur. Manchester is widely accepted as a "meticulous researcher," yet he commits an unforgivable sin in his writing on the subject of Corregidor. In his book, Manchester writes, "On May 6, a terrible silence fell over Corregidor. White flags were raised from every flagstaff that was still standing and the triumphant Japanese moved their eleven thousand captives to Bataan. The next day began the brutal Death March."

Aside from the error in the number of prisoners taken on Corregidor, Manchester made several glaring mistakes in the above quote. Error number one, the captives were not taken to Bataan, but, instead, to Manila, where they were forced to march through the streets of that city to impress the Filipino with the might of the Japanese military forces. Error number two by Manchester: When Corregidor fell on May 6, 1942, the last of the Death Marchers had already entered the hellhole called Camp O'Donnell on April 24, 1942, twelve days before the surrender of Corregidor. The POWs, from the Death March, arrived in Camp O'Donnell everyday from April 12, 1942 up to April 24, 1942. After the 24th of April, a few scattered groups did arrive. Error number three: Captives on Corregidor did not leave the island for two weeks' time, pending the surrender of Fil-American forces in the southern islands of the Philippines.

Manchester, however, is not alone in his misconception of what occurred in the days following the fall of Bataan, and its subsequent Death March. In 1982, a joint resolution of Congress, perhaps following Manchester's writings of 1980, made the same mistake when honoring the men of Bataan and Corregidor who made the Death March. Obituaries of men who were captured on Corregidor often indicate that the individual made the Death March. Such information obviously comes from the relatives of the deceased, who also were misinformed.

One can readily see how powerful myths can be. Someone once said, "When history becomes legend, print the legend." The Corregidor garrison did not participate in the Death March, despite any belief to the contrary.

About 1,200 survivors of Bataan are alive today. In perhaps ten years, they will all be gone. Die meeste, indien nie almal nie, wil die waarheid wat Bataan was, agter hulle laat. To do less would dishonor those men who died in both events.

April 9, 1989, has been selected, as "Former Prisoner of War Day." Obviously that date has been selected to recall the day that Bataan fell, with the subsequent capture of the largest military force in US military history. It is important, however, to point out that the "Battling Bastards of Bataan" did not surrender, as some of us are prone to say, but were surrendered. A vast difference exists between the two terms. In fairness to the men of Bataan, and Corregidor, the difference must be emphasized. Specific orders were given to the Bataan garrison to surrender. Initially, some commanders refused to do so and were threatened with court-martial if they failed to obey a lawful order.

The reasons for the surrender order, given by Major General Edward P. King, commanding officer of the forces on Bataan, were many. Time and space do not allow a lengthy explanation of the situation that compelled General King to give such an order. Suffice to say that only two days' rations for his troops remained. Medication to treat the countless number of Bataan defenders suffering from the deleterious effects of malaria were exhausted. Ammunition of every type was about to run out. Weak, diseased, starving soldiers lacked the physical strength to mount a counter-attack ordered by General Jonathan Wainwright, on Corregidor. Continuous aerial bombardment and artillery barrages for several consecutive days, unanswered, had left the men of Bataan reeling like a prize fighter who had absorbed too many punches. To prevent a "slaughter" of his troops, General King opted to surrender. Later, in a gathering of his men in prison, Camp O'Donnell, King told them, "You did not surrender, I did. That responsibility is mine and mine alone."

To begin to understand the fall of Bataan and the aftermath, the Death March, one must know what led to its fall. When the Japanese invaded the Philippine Islands in December 1941, with their 14th Army consisting of two full divisions (the 16th and 18th), five anti-aircraft battalions, three engineering regiments, two tank regiments, and one battalion of medium artillery, led by Lt. General Masaharu Homma, they faced a defending force of ten divisions of the Philippine Army. Numerically speaking, the advantage belonged to the defenders. What appears to be an advantage, however, was in reality a disadvantage: one that hastened the fall of Bataan and one that contributed to thousands of deaths in O'Donnell's prison camp.

At the end of the first week in December 1941, the Philippine forces consisted of 20,000 regulars and 100,000 totally raw reservists, most of whom were called to the colors within the three months preceding the war. The training of their artillerymen, so vital in any military action, did not take place until after the outbreak of hostilities. Many of these troops were illiterate and lacked the ability to communicate with each other. The enlisted men spoke their native dialect, depending on the area they were from the officers spoke English, Spanish, or the so-called national language, Tagalog. Unfortunately, Tagalog was spoken mainly in and around Manila, the country's capital. Weapons such as the British Enfield rifle of World War I were obsolete. Uniforms consisted of fiber helmets (the men were never issued steel helmets), canvas shoes, short-sleeve shirts, and short pants, hardly suitable for the jungles of Bataan and their surprisingly cold nights.

In addition to the Philippine Army, Bataan's forces consisted of 11,796 Americans and several regiments of Philippine Scouts who had been part of the United States Army in the Philippines for many years prior to the war. These were magnificent soldiers, well trained, loyal, and dedicated to the war effort. Led by American officers, they repeatedly distinguished themselves in the four months of combat. Adding to the number of military in Bataan were civilians who fled the advancing Japanese. They entered Bataan of their own free will, yet they had to be fed from military supplies.

Forced to feed such a large number of military and civilians, food became an immediate and critical problem to the command. Tons of precious rice were left in the warehouses upon the withdrawal into Bataan and were destroyed by the Japanese. Americans accustomed to "stateside chow" found themselves (mid-January) on half-rations along with the Filipino soldiers. A month later, these rations were cut again (1,000 calories per day) and consisted of rice and fish, or what little meat could be found. Most of the meat came from the horses and mules of the 26th Cavalry, Philippine Scouts, or the Philippine beast of burden, the carabao, or water buffalo. Occasionally monkeys, snakes, ECT, supplemented the diet. Malaria ran rampant in Bataan, one of the most heavily mosquito-infested areas in the world at that time. Medication to offset the effects of that disease began to disappear early in the campaign.

On April 3, 1942, General Homma finally launched his long-awaited (by both the Japanese high command and the Americans) final push to crush the Philippines. He easily broke through the final line of resistance of the Fil-American troops on Bataan, but he did so because of the deplorable state of the defending forces facing him.

Food supplies stored on Corregidor often never found their way to the front lines of Bataan, being stolen by hungry rear area troops while the food was enroute in trucks. Hijacking became a common practice along the way. Here may be found the first difference between Bataan and Corregidor. Corregidor troops did not go hungry until their capture by the Japanese. Consequently, the men of Corregidor entered captivity in relatively good health and with very few cases of malaria on record.

Such differences were to have a major impact on who was to survive the prison camps that were to follow. Comparing rosters of units serving on Bataan and Corregidor, it was determined that the chances of surviving imprisonment were two in three, if captured on Corregidor, and one in three if captured on Bataan, an obvious substantiation of the differences between the two groups at the time of their capture.

On Corregidor, there were 15,000 American and Filipino troops, consisting of anti-aircraft and coastal defenses, along with the Fourth Marine Regiment, recently arrived from China (December 1941), less a detachment stationed on Bataan, as part of a Naval Battalion. Despite some writings to the contrary, again dealing in "legends," the Fourth Marine Regiment did not participate in the defense of Bataan. Their mission was beach defense on Corregidor. Approximately 43 Marines arrived in Camp O'Donnell after completing the Death March.

Of the 11,796 American soldiers on Bataan on April 3,1942, about 1,500 remained wounded or sick in Bataan's two field hospitals after the surrender. Others, relatively few, made their way across the two miles of shark-infested waters to Corregidor, where they were assigned to beach defense. About 9,300 Americans reached Camp O'Donnell after completing the Death March. About 600-650 Americans died on the March. Of the 66,000 Filipino troops, Scouts, Constabulary and Philippine Army units, it can be said the approximately 2,500 of them remained in the hospitals of Bataan about 1,700 of them escaped to Corregidor, and a small number of them remained on Bataan as work details for the Japanese after the surrender.

Those captured on Bataan on or about April 9,1942, were in the general area of the town of Mariveles, at the southern tip of the Bataan peninsula. Large fields outside this town were used as staging areas for the thousands of captives, American and Filipino, gathered together.

Mass confusion reigned in these areas and when darkness fell, it became impossible to recognize anyone. In a brief period of time buddies were soon separated and, in many cases, never to see one another again. Two friends from the same unit entered one of these fields and did not know of each other's survival for over 40 years.

Each morning, groups of several hundred would be hustled out on Bataan's, one time, concrete road (National Road) leading north out of the peninsula and began the exodus to prison camp. No design or plans for the group ever materialized. Each sunrise, shouting, shooting, bayoneting, by Japanese, would assemble anyone they could to make up the marching groups.

As a result, individuals generally found themselves among perfect strangers, even if they were fellow Americans. Consequently, a "dog eat dog, every man for himself" attitude soon prevailed. Few helped one another on the March. Those belonging to the same military unit were fortunate, with their buddies helping when needed.

During one group's march, volunteers were sought to carry a stretcher containing a colonel wounded in both legs and unable to walk. Four men offered to help. After hours of carrying the man in a scorching hot sun with no stops and no water, they asked for relief from other marchers. No one offered to pick up the stretcher. Soon, the original four bearers, put down the man and went off on their own. The colonel was last seen by the side of the road begging to be carried by anyone.

After the first day of marching, without food or water, men began to drop out of column. Japanese guards would rush up, shouting commands in Japanese to get back in the group. When that approach failed, shots rang, out killing those who would not or could not rise. Many of those failing to obey the order to march were beheaded by sword wielding-Japanese guards, usually officers and non-coms.

Such actions on the part of the Japanese brought many captives to their feet and they continued the march for awhile longer. As each day and night passed without water, the marchers began to break from their group to run to anything that resembled water. Most often they would hurl themselves into a water puddle alongside of the road and lap up, similar to a cat lapping milk from a saucer, the so-called water. The puddles were used by the carabao to coat themselves with mud as a protection against the huge flies constantly about them. Upon rising from the puddle, the water would assume a "clear" state. Needless to say, the water was not potable and drinking of it soon brought on cramps, diarrhea, and eventually dysentery caused by the numerous flies found in the puddle. Such acts continued for each day of the March, lasting from five to ten days, depending upon where one joined the March, and continued until the marchers reached the town of San Fernando, Pampamga, P.I., a distance for most marchers of over 100 kilometers.

Upon reaching San Fernando, the prisoners were forced into 1918 model railroad boxcars (40X8) used in France during World War I. With over 100 men in each car, the Japanese then closed the doors on the prisoners. There was no room to sit down or fall down. Men died in the sweltering cars. Upon arriving in Capas, Tarlac, almost four hours later, the men detrained for Camp O'Donnell, another ten kilometer walk.

Official figures estimate that between 44,000 and 50,000 of the Filipinos arrived at O'Donnell after completing the March. Between 12,000 and 18,000 of their number are unaccounted for. What happened to them is unknown, but a safe guess is that between 5,000 to 10,000 of them lost their lives on the Death March. The death toll for both Filipinos and Americans, however, did not cease upon reaching O'Donnell. Instead, during the first forty days of that camp's existence, more that 1,500 Americans were to die. At least 25,000 Filipinos died by July 1942 in the same camp. All of the deaths were the direct result of malnutrition on Bataan, disease, and the atrocities committed by the Japanese on the March.

Shortly after the last of these prisoners entered O'Donnell (April 24,1942), Corregidor fell on May 6. Battered by constant shell fire from Bataan and aerial bombardment, with their supplies running out, Wainwright, successor to MacArthur as commanding officer of the United States forces in the Philippines, decided his situation was hopeless and surrendered Corregidor and the troops in the southern part of the Philippines. With the establishing of a beach head on Corregidor by the Japanese, he avoided a "bloodbath" that would have most certainly occurred had the Japanese fought their way from the beach to Malinta Tunnel, where most of the defenders of the island had withdrawn.

After two weeks of the famous Japanese "sun treatment" for prisoners, in the sun-baked areas of Corregidor, these troops were taken across Manila Bay to Manila and then by train to Prison camp Cabanatuan, Cabanatuan, P.I. The men were in that camp when the Bataan survivors arrived from Camp O'Donnell in June 1942. The extremely high death rate in that camp prompted the Japanese to make such a move, and thereby allowed the American medical personnel to treat the Filipino prisoners remaining behind until their release beginning in July 1942. The condition of the prisoners arriving in Cabanatuan was such as to shock their fellow Americans from Corregidor. In a short period of time, however, they, too, would feel the full effects of Japanese captivity.

It was not, however, until June 1942 that the men of Bataan and Corregidor began to share a common experience. During the first nine months of Cabanatuan's existence, when the vast majority of the camp's 3,000 American deaths occurred, most of the deaths were men of Bataan, still suffering from the effects of Bataan, the Death March, and Camp O'Donnell. That the men of Corregidor were more fortuitous than their fellow Americans in avoiding starvation, pestilence, and atrocities up to this point is beyond question.

It is the author's hope that by this writing we have contributed to the dispelling of some myths, provided some insight, and recognized those who died on Bataan, and its subsequent Death March. If we leave nothing else behind us, when we leave this earth, let us at least leave behind the truth that was Bataan. Americans on both Bataan and Corregidor share one common bond: they were both prisoners of the Japanese, but so were those captured on Wake Island and elsewhere in the South Pacific. Each group played a distinctive, vital role in World War II.


Kyk die video: Bataan Memorial Death March 2021