Menseregte van Trinidad en Tobago - Geskiedenis

Menseregte van Trinidad en Tobago - Geskiedenis



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Die wet, insluitende verwante statute en regulasies, maak voorsiening vir die reg van die meeste werkers, insluitend dié in staatsondernemings, om onafhanklike vakbonde te stig en by hulle aan te sluit, gesamentlik te onderhandel en regstakings uit te voer, maar met 'n paar beperkings. Nóg werkgewers nóg werknemers wat in noodsaaklike dienste, soos hospitaal, brandweer en eksterne kommunikasie (telefoon, telegraaf, draadloos) verskyn, het die reg om te staak, en uitstappies kan tot 36 maande gevangenisstraf en 'n boete van $ 40,000 opgelê word ($ 5,970). Hierdie werknemers onderhandel met die regering se hoofpersoneel om arbeidsgeskille op te los. Die wet bepaal dat slegs stakings oor onopgeloste arbeidsbelanggeskille mag plaasvind en dat owerhede stakings op versoek van een party mag verbied indien dit nie deur 'n meerderheidsvereniging opgeroep word nie. Die minister van arbeid kan 'n versoekskrif aan die hof rig om enige staking wat hy as skadelik vir nasionale belange ag, te beperk.

Die wet maak ook voorsiening vir verpligte erkenning van 'n vakbond wanneer dit meer as 50 persent van die werkers in 'n gespesialiseerde onderhandelingseenheid verteenwoordig. Die wet laat vakbonde toe om deel te neem aan kollektiewe bedingings, verbied werkgewers om werknemers weens hul vakbondlidmaatskap te ontslaan of andersins te benadeel, en verplig werkers wat onwettig ontslaan word vir vakbondaktiwiteite, om hulle terug te sit. Die registrasie-, erkennings- en sertifiseringsraad van die regering bepaal of 'n gegewe werkersorganisasie aan die definisie van 'n bedingingseenheid voldoen en kan die erkenning van vakbonde op hierdie manier beperk. Die registrateurskantoor vereis dat vakbondfondse in ag geneem word en kan rekeninge van 'n vakbond op aanvraag kontroleer en beperk. Die omskrywing van die Wet op Nywerheidsverhoudinge sluit huiswerkers (huisskoonmakers, chauffeurs en tuiniers) uit, maar huiswerkers het 'n gevestigde vakbond wat hul regte beywer. Afsonderlike wetgewing bepaal die diensverhouding tussen die regering en sy werknemers, insluitend staatsamptenare, onderwysers en lede van die beskermingsdienste (brandweer, polisie en gevangenisdienste). Die Wet op Nywerheidsverhoudinge verbied werknemers in noodsaaklike dienste om industriële stappe te doen. Die regering het toepaslike wette toegepas.

'N Vakbond moet die steun van 'n absolute meerderheid werkers hê om bedingingsregte te verkry. Hierdie vereiste het die reg op kollektiewe bedinging beperk. Verder is onderhandelinge oor kollektiewe ooreenkomste onderhewig aan verpligte bemiddeling en moet dit ten minste drie jaar dek, wat dit bykans onmoontlik maak vir sulke ooreenkomste om werknemers op korttermynkontrakte in te sluit. Volgens die National Trade Union Center bied die vereiste dat alle onderhandelinge deur die komitee vir die openbare sektor gaan eerder as deur die individuele regeringsagentskap of die bedryf wat deur die regering besit word, 'n bykomende groot beperking wat aansienlike vertragings veroorsaak. Sommige vakbonde beweer dat die regering die gesamentlike bedingingsproses ondermyn het deur die komitee te druk om verhogings van hoogstens 5 persent oor drie jaar aan te bied.

Die regering het arbeidswette toegepas met effektiewe remedies en strawwe. Hulpbronne, inspeksies en herstel was voldoende, hoewel sommige waarnemers 'n groter aantal onaangekondigde inspeksies en bykomende regters in die nywerheidshof gevra het. 'N Vakbond kan versoek dat die nywerheidshof die wette afdwing, en die hof kan beveel dat werkgewers wat skuldig bevind is aan aktiwiteite teen die vakbond of andersins in stryd met die Wet op Nywerheidsverhoudinge, werkers herstel en vergoeding betaal, of ander boetes kan oplê, insluitend gevangenisstraf. Daar was geen inligting oor spesifieke strawwe of of dit voldoende was om oortredings af te weer nie.

Owerhede respekteer oor die algemeen die vryheid van assosiasie en die reg op kollektiewe bedinging. Die owerhede het nie buitensporige geweld gebruik om stakings of protesoptredes te beëindig of andersins weerwraak te neem teen werkers wat hul regte wil uitoefen nie.

In Januarie en Februarie het die nywerheidshof 11 ondernemings beveel om ongeveer $ 11,000,000 miljoen ($ 1,6 miljoen) te betaal aan 26 werkers wat onregmatig ontslaan is. Die grootste individuele uitspraak was teen die aardgasmaatskappy BG Trinidad en Tobago Beperk waarin die werknemer TT $ drie miljoen ($ 500,000) toegeken is.


Menseregte in Trinidad en Tobago

SEATTLE — Menseregte in Trinidad en Tobago is nog lank nie perfek nie, maar verbeterings is moontlik. Die land is in die top -50 lande wat ekonomiese gelykheid betref. Die pers daarvan word gekategoriseer as meestal gratis. Aktiviste daag die homofobiese wette van binne en van buite uit. Baie moet gedoen word, maar baie kan bereik word.

Geslagsgelykheid

Die Karibiese nasie met twee eilande, Trinidad en Tobago, hou by 'n grondwet. Die vierde afdeling, die erkenning en verklaring van regte en vryhede, verbied diskriminasie op grond van seks.

In die praktyk vertel die getalle 'n effens ander verhaal. Verlede jaar het die World Economic Forum (WEF) die land 'n rangorde van 44 uit 144 lande gegee wat ekonomiese gelykheid betref. Op 'n ander skaal van nul tot een (met een wat perfek gelyk is), het WEF ’s opname resultate aan die land 'n telling van 0.636 gegee.

In 2013, die jongste jaar wat beskikbaar is vir hierdie gegewens, het Amnesty International 'n verslag vrygestel waarin die stand van menseregte in Trinidad en Tobago uiteengesit word. Die land se polisiediens het verklaar dat 689 gevalle van seksuele misdrywe tussen Januarie en September in 2013 aangemeld is.

Wat politieke bemagtiging betref, vul vroue 11,1 persent van die ministeriële posisies in die land en 44,9 persent van die parlement. Een van die opmerklikste voorbeelde is die agbare Kamla Persad-Bissessar, die voormalige premier van Trinidad en Tobago.

Persvryheid

Die reg op persvryheid is ook ingesluit in die Grondwet van Trinidad en Tobago ’s. In 2017 kategoriseer Freedom House, 'n onafhanklike Amerikaanse organisasie, die pers van Trinidad en Tobago as gratis. Die organisasie gaan voort met 'n lys van die land se wettige, politieke en ekonomiese omgewings wat op dieselfde vlak van meestal gratis is.

Mensehandel

Mensehandel is 'n belangrike kwessie in Trinidad en Tobago. Soveel so dat die parlement van die republiek die Wet op mensehandel van 2011 geskep het. Almal wat skuldig bevind word aan die pleeg of andersins betrokke is by mensehandel, kan boetes van nie minder nie as $ 500 000 opgelê word en tot 15 jaar gevangenisstraf opgelê word. Die Kinderwet van 2012 (wat in Mei 2015 in werking getree het) bevat 'n klousule waarin almal wat skuldig bevind word aan betrokkenheid by kinderpornografie 20 jaar tronkstraf opgelê kan word.

Volgens 'n verslag van die Amerikaanse ministerie van Buitelandse Sake van 2016 het die regering egter nooit 'n individu skuldig bevind ingevolge die wet op mensehandel nie, insluitend amptenare wat aan mensehandel deelgeneem het. maar niemand is skuldig bevind nie. 'N Verskeidenheid faktore kan daartoe bydra: korrupte wetstoepassing, medepligtige amptenare en onderbefondsing van hulpbronne vir onder meer slagoffers.

'N Paar van die aanbevelings van die Amerikaanse ministerie van buitelandse sake is: ondersoeke en vervolgings om mensehandelaars (selfs amptenare) skuldig te maak, voldoende finansiering vir sterk gespesialiseerde dienste vir slagoffers met behulp van nie -regeringsorganisasies en meer effektiewe opleiding vir wetstoepassing.

LGBT -regte

Die wette van die land is betwis as 'n skending van menseregte in Trinidad en Tobago. Volgens Artikel 13 van die Wet op Seksuele Misdrywe (laas gewysig in 2012) kan anale omgang tussen mans (en ook tussen 'n man en 'n vrou) tot 25 jaar gevangenisstraf lei.

Benewens hierdie wette, bevat artikel 8 van die immigrasiewet die tipe mense wat verbied is om die land binne te gaan, tensy hulle reeds burgers of inwoners is. In subartikel 1 is ingesluit homoseksuele mense, mense wat op homoseksuele inkomste leef, mense wat redelikerwys vermoed word dat hulle na die land gereis het vir hierdie of vir enige ander immorele doeleindes en diegene wat homoseksuele probeer inbring of ander oorreed om met hulle kontak te maak.

Maurice Tomlinson is 'n Jamaikaanse burger en pleit vir LGBT -regte in die Karibiese Eilande. In 2013 daag hy die immigrasiewet van Trinidad en Tobago en 'n soortgelyke wet in Belize uit. Uiteindelik het CARICOM ('n Karibiese gemeenskap wat bestaan ​​uit 20 lande wat almal streef na die bevordering van die Karibiese mense) gesteun vir Tomlinson en saam met hom as 'n belanghebbende aangesluit. Hy het dit tot by die Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) geneem.

Tomlinson het aangevoer dat hy nie net die reg het om die betrokke nasies binne te gaan nie, maar dat hy homoseksuele uit die lys van verbode individue moet verwyder. Die CCJ het bepaal dat die verbod, in die geval van Trinidad en Tobago, nie van toepassing was op homoseksuele CARICOM -onderdane nie, en dat die land die burgers se reg op vrye reis handhaaf.

Alhoewel daar mense daar buite is wat die reëls uitdaag, probeer ander groepe die erkenning van LGBT-mense se menseregte in Trinidad en Tobago. Die koalisie wat pleit vir die insluiting van seksuele oriëntasie en I Am ONE Trinidad en Tobago is twee aktiewe Facebook -bladsye wat gewy is aan die verspreiding van bewustheid, die deel van nuus en die bemagtiging van die gemeenskap. Die Silver Lining Foundation is 'n NRO wat bestuur word deur jongmense wat LGBT -jeugdiges wil beskerm en op soek is na maniere om diskriminasie, boelies en selfmoordgedagtes te hanteer. Hierdie hulpbronne is geredelik beskikbaar vir almal wat dit wil hê.


Trinidad en Tobago: Menseregtedagbesinning

10 Desember was Menseregtedag. Kom ons besin oor die vele skendings van menseregte, en veral oor die reg wat die vroue en mans in Trinidad en Tobago (TT) wat hierdie jaar vermoor is, en die duisende wat in die verlede vermoor is, hul lewens moes lei . Dit is tyd om selfsug en individualisme opsy te sit en op te staan ​​vir die regte van mekaar. Die 18-jarige Ashanti Riley is slegs een van die 47 vroue wat vanjaar in TT vermoor is. Sy is verkrag en haar liggaam in 'n vlak graf "gestort". Tydens 'n mediakonferensie, toe sy gevra is om kommentaar te lewer op haar moord, het premier Keith Rowley gesê: 'Daar is nog monsters onder ons!'

Selfs as positiewe waardes nie in die huise van sommige individue geleer word nie, het onderwysinstellings, die media en die samelewing in die algemeen die plig om waardes/deugde te bevorder wat ons sal help om 'n regverdige nasie te bou. Ek het die onlangse Facebook -plasing van Criminologist, Renee Cummings, gelees. Wanneer sal ons ten minste 'n paar van die strategieë probeer wat sy, die UNDP, prof. Ramesh Deosaran en ander voorgestel het? Sy het onder meer gesê: ''n Paar jaar gelede, toe ek opleiding aan kriminele profiele aan lede van die TTPS gegee het, sou ek altyd 'n Oyin' Angel 'Assing -saak gebruik het. Die vraag is nie hoeveel vroue (ek sal ook mans insluit) vermis in TT, dood opgedaag of glad nie opgedaag nie. Die vraag is wie gee om? Na miljarde besteding aan polisiëring en nasionale veiligheid, moet TT nog geen verstandige of wetenskaplike strategie ontwerp om inligting oor moord en moord op geen liggaam te ontleed nie. , vermiste persone, seksuele aanrandings en ander geweldsmisdade waarby ongeïdentifiseerde menslike oorskot betrokke is. Dit is so tragies as al die lewens wat verlore is! "

CCSJ het Darrion Narine onlangs aangestel as programkoördineerder vir die Ministerie van Migrante en Vlugtelinge van die Katolieke Aartsbisdom. Ek groet hierdie talentvolle jeug en deel met u 'n uittreksel uit sy artikel wat via CCSJ se webwerf verkry kan word. Dit het die titel: ''n Boodskap aan ons manne.'

"... Wat veral lastig is, is dat ons meisies en jong vroue die meeste aangeval word. As dit gebeur, is dit die toekoms en die stabiliteit van ons land wat aangeval word. Hierdie vroue is toekomstige bydraers op alle gebiede van ons Hulle is egter nie in staat om hul werklike potensiaal te verwesenlik nie, omdat hulle aangeval, ontmenslik en vermoor word. "" Waarom was sy so laat uit? "" Waarom het sy alleen gereis? "

"As ons in die praktyk kom om slagoffers te blameer, dwaal ons af van die werklike vrae wat gevra moet word. Die dialoog en ondersoek moet eerder wees:" Wat het die aanvaller gedink? "" Wie is sy vriende? "" Hoekom het voel hy so gemaklik om dit te doen?

Hoe kon hy so maklik die waardigheid van 'n vrou/meisie aanrand, doodmaak en/of skeur? "

'Ek stem saam dat veiligheid almal se prioriteit is en dat ons almal voorsorg moet tref by die uitvoering van ons daaglikse pligte, maar die werklike taak hier is die heropvoeding van 'n samelewing en die uitdaging van stelsels wat manlike oorheersing en giftige manlikhede vermeerder. In eenvoudiger terme moet ons 'n dialoog begin oor die opvoeding van ons seuns en mans oor die belangrikheid van basiese beginsels wat die kern van menslike sosiale geregtigheid is - insluitend respek vir ons vroue. land.

"As ons vroue aangeval word, word die weefsel en wese van ons samelewing aangeval. Een voorstel is om 'n kursus binne die skoolkurrikulum oor respek en grense in te voer. Baie ongeregtighede het die afgelope maand in TT plaasgevind. Uit die seksuele aanranding van minderjariges na die moord op Ashanti Riley. Ons mense bloei rooi in die strate. Dit is nie genoeg vir ons om te sê "Beskerm ons vroue" nie. Om ons vroue te beskerm, moet ons ons mans opvoed. Ons piccong en grap kultuur, voeg ook druk toe op 'n reeds onbestendige situasie. Ongewenste seksuele vooruitgang op enige vlak, hetsy mondelings of fisies, beïnvloed ons almal. Dit is belangrik dat ons as manne 'ons broeikas' optrek. '

"Ons as mans moet die eerste wees om 'n ander man reg te stel wanneer hy die grense van 'n vrou oorskry en iets verkeerd doen. Kom ons werk om sterker beleid en wette te ontwikkel en laat ons ons beskermende stelsels verbeter. Boonop moet politici aanspreeklik gehou word. vir wat hulle sê en doen in die openbare diskoers. Ons moet beter doen as 'n volk. Dit is tyd om op te hou om pleisters op die wonde van ons land te plaas en die proses te begin om dit weer aanmekaar te sit. "

Leela Ramdeen is voorsitter, Katolieke Kommissie vir Sosiale Justisie en Aartsbisdom se Ministerie vir Migrante en Vlugtelinge Aartsbisdom van Port of Spain, Trinidad en Tobago

Webwerf: http://rcsocialjusticett.org
Facebook: www.facebook.com/ccsjtt
Instagram: ammrcatholictt
Twitter: @ammrcatholictt1

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Universele Verklaring van Menseregte

Die Universele Verklaring van Menseregte (UDHR) is 'n mylpaaldokument in die geskiedenis van menseregte. Opgestel deur verteenwoordigers met verskillende regs- en kulturele agtergronde uit alle streke van die wêreld, is die verklaring deur die Algemene Vergadering van die Verenigde Nasies in Parys op 10 Desember 1948 (Algemene Vergadering se resolusie 217 A) as 'n gemeenskaplike standaard van prestasies vir alle mense en almal nasies. Dit bepaal vir die eerste keer dat fundamentele menseregte universeel beskerm moet word en dit is in meer as 500 tale vertaal. Die UDHR word algemeen erken dat dit die aanneming van meer as sewentig menseregteverdrae geïnspireer en die weg gebaan het vir dit, wat vandag permanent op globale en streeksvlak toegepas word (wat almal in die aanhef daarvan verwys).

Aanhef
Terwyl erkenning van die inherente waardigheid en die gelyke en onvervreembare regte van alle lede van die mensegesin die grondslag is van vryheid, geregtigheid en vrede in die wêreld,

Terwyl miskenning en minagting van menseregte tot barbaarse dade gelei het wat die gewete van die mensdom woedend gemaak het, en die koms van 'n wêreld waarin mense vryheid van spraak en oortuiging en vryheid van vrees en gebrek sal geniet, is tot die hoogste strewe uitgeroep van die gewone mense,

Terwyl dit noodsaaklik is dat die menseregte deur die oppergesag van die reg beskerm moet word as die mens nie as laaste uitweg tot rebellie teen tirannie en onderdrukking moet terugkeer nie,

Terwyl dit noodsaaklik is om die ontwikkeling van vriendelike betrekkinge tussen nasies te bevorder,

Terwyl die volke van die Verenigde Nasies in die Handves hul geloof in fundamentele menseregte, in die waardigheid en waarde van die mens en in die gelyke regte van mans en vroue herbevestig het en besluit het om sosiale vooruitgang en beter lewensstandaarde in groter vryheid,

Terwyl die lidstaten hulself daartoe verbind het om, in samewerking met die Verenigde Nasies, universele respek en nakoming van menseregte en fundamentele vryhede te bevorder,

Terwyl 'n gemeenskaplike begrip van hierdie regte en vryhede van die grootste belang is vir die volle verwesenliking van hierdie pand,

Verkondig hierdie Universele Verklaring van Menseregte as 'n algemene prestasie -standaard vir alle mense en alle nasies, tot die einde dat elke individu en elke orgaan van die samelewing, met inagneming van hierdie Verklaring, voortdurend daarna sal streef deur onderrig en opvoeding om respek daarvoor te bevorder regte en vryhede en deur progressiewe maatreëls, nasionaal en internasionaal, om hul universele en doeltreffende erkenning en nakoming te verseker, sowel onder die volke van die lidstate self as onder die mense van gebiede onder hul jurisdiksie.

Artikel 1
Alle mense word vry en gelykwaardig gebore in waardigheid en regte. Hulle is toegerus met rede en gewete en moet teenoor mekaar optree in 'n gees van broederskap.

Artikel 2
Almal is geregtig op alle regte en vryhede soos uiteengesit in hierdie Verklaring, sonder enige onderskeid, soos ras, kleur, geslag, taal, godsdiens, politieke of ander opinie, nasionale of sosiale oorsprong, eiendom, geboorte of ander status. Verder word daar geen onderskeid getref op grond van die politieke, jurisdiksionele of internasionale status van die land of gebied waartoe 'n persoon behoort nie, ongeag of dit onafhanklik, vertroulik, nie-selfregerend of onder enige ander beperking van soewereiniteit is.

Artikel 3
Elkeen het die reg op lewe, vryheid en sekuriteit van die persoon.

Artikel 4
Niemand mag in slawerny of slawerny -slawerny gehou word nie, en slawehandel is in alle vorme verbied.

Artikel 5
Niemand mag aan marteling of wrede, onmenslike of vernederende behandeling of straf onderwerp word nie.

Artikel 6
Almal het die reg tot erkenning oral as 'n persoon voor die wet.

Artikel 7
Almal is gelyk voor die wet en is geregtig op gelyke beskerming van die wet sonder enige diskriminasie. Almal is geregtig op gelyke beskerming teen enige diskriminasie in stryd met hierdie verklaring en teen enige aanhitsing tot sodanige diskriminasie.

Artikel 8
Almal het die reg op 'n effektiewe regsmiddel deur die bevoegde nasionale tribunale vir dade wat die fundamentele regte skend wat deur die grondwet of die wet aan hom verleen word.

Artikel 9
Niemand mag willekeurig gearresteer, aangehou of in ballingskap onderwerp word nie.

Artikel 10
Almal is in volle gelykheid geregtig op 'n regverdige en openbare verhoor deur 'n onafhanklike en onpartydige tribunaal, in die vasstelling van sy regte en verpligtinge en van enige strafregtelike aanklag teen hom.

Artikel 11
Elkeen wat van 'n strafbare oortreding aangekla word, het die reg om as onskuldig beskou te word totdat hy volgens die wet in 'n openbare verhoor skuldig bewys is, waarby hy al die waarborge het wat nodig is vir sy verdediging.
Niemand mag skuldig bevind word aan enige strafbare oortreding nie weens 'n daad of nalating wat nie 'n strafbare oortreding uit hoofde van nasionale of internasionale reg op die tydstip waarop dit gepleeg is nie. Daar moet ook nie 'n swaarder straf opgelê word as die geldende op die tydstip waarop die strafbare oortreding gepleeg is nie.

Artikel 12
Niemand mag willekeurig inmeng met sy privaatheid, familie, huis of korrespondensie nie, en ook nie aanvalle op sy eer en reputasie nie. Almal het die reg op die beskerming van die wet teen sulke inmenging of aanvalle.

Artikel 13
Elkeen het die reg op vryheid van beweging en verblyf binne die grense van elke staat.
Elkeen het die reg om enige land, insluitend sy eie, te verlaat en na sy land terug te keer.

Artikel 14
Almal het die reg om asiel in vervolging te soek en te geniet in ander lande.
Hierdie reg mag nie ingeroep word in die geval van vervolgings wat werklik voortspruit uit nie-politieke misdade of dade wat strydig is met die doelstellings en beginsels van die Verenigde Nasies nie.

Artikel 15
Elkeen het die reg op 'n nasionaliteit.
Niemand mag willekeurig van sy nasionaliteit ontneem word nie, en ook nie die reg om sy nasionaliteit te verander nie.

Artikel 16
Mans en vroue van volle ouderdom, sonder enige beperking as gevolg van ras, nasionaliteit of godsdiens, het die reg om te trou en 'n gesin te stig. Hulle is geregtig op gelyke regte ten opsigte van die huwelik, tydens die huwelik en by die ontbinding daarvan.
Die huwelik word slegs aangegaan met die vrye en volledige toestemming van die voorgenome eggenote.
Die gesin is die natuurlike en fundamentele groepseenheid van die samelewing en is geregtig op beskerming deur die samelewing en die staat.

Artikel 17
Elkeen het die reg om eiendom sowel as in samewerking met ander te besit.
Niemand mag willekeurig van sy eiendom ontneem word nie.

Artikel 18
Elkeen het die reg op vryheid van denke, gewete en godsdiens. Hierdie reg sluit die vryheid in om sy godsdiens of oortuiging te verander, en die vryheid, alleen of in gemeenskap met ander en in die openbaar of privaat, om sy godsdiens of oortuiging in onderrig, praktyk, aanbidding en viering.

Artikel 19
Almal het die reg op vryheid van mening en uitdrukking; hierdie reg sluit die vryheid in om menings sonder inmenging te hê en om inligting en idees te soek, te ontvang en oor te dra deur middel van enige media en ongeag grense.

Artikel 20
Almal het die reg op vryheid van vreedsame vergadering en vereniging.
Niemand mag gedwing word om aan 'n vereniging te behoort nie.

Artikel 21
Elkeen het die reg om deel te neem aan die regering van sy land, direk of deur vrylik gekose verteenwoordigers.
Elkeen het die reg op gelyke toegang tot staatsdiens in sy land.
Die wil van die mense is die basis van die gesag van die regering, hierdie wil sal uitgedruk word in periodieke en egte verkiesings wat deur algemene en gelyke stemreg geskied en gehou word deur geheime stemming of deur gelykwaardige vrystemprosedures.

Artikel 22
Elkeen as lid van die samelewing het die reg op sosiale sekerheid en is geregtig op realisering, deur nasionale inspanning en internasionale samewerking en in ooreenstemming met die organisasie en hulpbronne van elke staat, van die ekonomiese, sosiale en kulturele regte wat onontbeerlik is vir sy waardigheid en die vrye ontwikkeling van sy persoonlikheid.

Artikel 23
Almal het die reg op werk, op vrye keuse van werk, op regverdige en gunstige werksomstandighede en op beskerming teen werkloosheid.
Almal het, sonder enige diskriminasie, die reg op gelyke betaling vir gelyke werk.
Elkeen wat werk, het die reg op regverdige en gunstige vergoeding wat vir homself en sy gesin 'n menswaardige bestaan ​​verseker, en, indien nodig, aangevul deur ander sosiale beskerming.
Elkeen het die reg om vakbonde te stig en aan te sluit ter beskerming van sy belange.

Artikel 24
Almal het die reg op rus en ontspanning, insluitend redelike beperking van werksure en periodieke vakansiedae met betaling.

Artikel 25
Elkeen het die reg op 'n lewenstandaard wat voldoende is vir die gesondheid en welstand van homself en sy gesin, insluitend voedsel, klere, behuising en mediese sorg en die nodige maatskaplike dienste, en die reg op sekuriteit in geval van werkloosheid, siekte , gestremdheid, weduwee, ouderdom of ander lewensonderhoud in omstandighede buite sy beheer.
Moederskap en kinderjare is geregtig op spesiale sorg en hulp. Alle kinders, hetsy binne of buite die huwelik, sal dieselfde sosiale beskerming geniet.

Artikel 26
Almal het die reg op opvoeding. Onderwys moet gratis wees, ten minste in die elementêre en fundamentele stadiums. Laerskoolonderrig is verpligtend. Tegniese en professionele opleiding word algemeen beskikbaar gestel en hoër onderwys is op grond van verdienste ewe toeganklik vir almal.
Onderwys is gerig op die volle ontwikkeling van die menslike persoonlikheid en die versterking van respek vir menseregte en fundamentele vryhede. Dit bevorder begrip, verdraagsaamheid en vriendskap tussen alle nasies, rasse- of godsdienstige groepe en bevorder die aktiwiteite van die Verenigde Nasies vir die handhawing van vrede.
Ouers het vooraf die reg om die soort opvoeding aan hul kinders te kies.

Artikel 27
Almal het die reg om vryelik deel te neem aan die kulturele lewe van die gemeenskap, om die kunste te geniet en om deel te neem aan wetenskaplike vooruitgang en die voordele daarvan.
Elkeen het die reg op die beskerming van die morele en materiële belange wat voortspruit uit enige wetenskaplike, literêre of artistieke produksie waarvan hy die outeur is.

Artikel 28
Elkeen is geregtig op 'n sosiale en internasionale orde waarin die regte en vryhede wat in hierdie verklaring uiteengesit word, ten volle verwesenlik kan word.

Artikel 29
Almal het pligte teenoor die gemeenskap waarin alleen die vrye en volle ontwikkeling van sy persoonlikheid moontlik is.
By die uitoefening van sy regte en vryhede is elkeen slegs onderworpe aan die beperkings wat deur die wet bepaal word uitsluitlik met die doel om behoorlike erkenning en respek vir die regte en vryhede van ander te verseker en om te voldoen aan die regverdige vereistes van moraliteit, openbare orde en die algemene welsyn in 'n demokratiese samelewing.
Hierdie regte en vryhede mag in geen geval in stryd met die doelstellings en beginsels van die Verenigde Nasies uitgeoefen word nie.

Artikel 30
Niks in hierdie verklaring mag geïnterpreteer word dat dit vir enige staat, groep of persoon die reg impliseer om aan enige aktiwiteit deel te neem of 'n handeling uit te voer wat daarop gemik is om die regte en vryhede wat hierin uiteengesit word, te vernietig nie.


Algemeen

BRERETON, Bridget – 'n Geskiedenis van die moderne Trinidad, 1783-1962. (Kingston en Port-of-Spain en London en Exeter, NH: Heinemann) 262 bladsye hb, 14 plate, 2 kaarte, biblio, 1981 (ibidem) rep 1985.

Deosaran, Rames Some Issues in Multiculturalism: The Case of Trinidad and Tobago in the Post Colonial Era Ethnic Groups 1981.

Figueredo, Alfredo E. en Stephen D. Glazier. 'N Hersiene inheemse etnohistorie van Trinidad. (in International Congress for the Study of Pre-Columbian Cultures of the Lesser Antilles, VII, Montreal, Kanada, 1978.

Ryan, Selwyn One love revisited: the persistance of race in the policy of Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean Affairs [Trinidad] 1988.

Stark en James H. Boston, James H. Stark, uitgewer London, Sampson Low, Marston & amp Company. 1897.

Landverslae van Trinidad en Tobago oor menseregtepraktyke 2002 “ Ontsluit 17 Mei 2007, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2002/18346.htm”

Landverslae van Trinidad en Tobago oor menseregtepraktyke 2005 “ Ontsluit 17 Mei 2007, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61743.htm”

Oos -Indiër

Aho, William R. Brathwaite, Farley Race, Intergenerational Occupational Mobility, and Career Aspirations of African and East Indian Secondary School Teachers in Trinidad and Tobago International Review of Modern Sociology 1977, 7, 2, July-Dec, 147-159.

Angrosino, Michael V. Metafore van etniese identiteit: Projektiewe lewensgeskiedenisvertellings van Trinidadiërs van Indiese afkoms Journal of Narrative & amp Life History, 1995.

Bell, Robert R. Huweliks- en gesinsverskille tussen laer-klas negers en Oos-Indiese vroue in Trinidad Race 12: 1 (1970).

Carter, Marina: Indiese immigrasie en die debat oor dwangarbeid Itinerario, lente 1997.

Cross, M., The East Indians of Guyana and Trinidad, London, MRG -verslag, 1987.

Emmer, PC Immigrasie na die Karibiese Eilande: die bekendstelling van Chinese en Oos -Indiese arbeiders tussen 1839 en 1917 Itinerario [Nederland] 1990.

Ifill, Max B. Ons wil nie Indiese imperialisme in die Karibiese Eilande hê nie [Port of Spain, Trinidad en Tobago]: People's ’s Democratic Society, 1987.

Naipaul, V. S. Oos -Indiane in die Karibiese Eilande: kolonialisme en die stryd om identiteit: referate voorgelê aan 'n simposium oor Oos -Indiane in die Karibiese Eilande, The University of the West Indies, Junie 1975.

Nevadomsky, Joseph J. Changes over Time and Space in the East Indian Family in Rural Trinidad Journal of Comparative Family Studies 1980.

Roberts, G.W. en L. Braithwaite: Paring onder Oos-Indiese en nie-Indiese vroue in Trinidad Social and Economic Studies (1962).

Sanjek, Roger Caribbean Asiërs: Chinese, Indiese en Japannese ervarings in Trinidad en die Dominikaanse Republiek [Flushing, N.Y.]: Asiatiese/Amerikaanse sentrum by Queens College, CUNY, 1990.

Singaravelou. Oos -Indiese immigrasie en die plantasiesisteem in die Franse Karibiese Eilande. (in World Plantation Conference, 1st, Baton Rouge, La., 1984. Plantasies regoor die wêreld. Geredigeer deur Sue Eakin en John Tarver. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, 1986.


Artikel 4 van die Grondwet verbied diskriminasie op grond van seks. [1] In 2014 was Trinidad en Tobago 49ste op die Global Gender Gap Index van die World Economic Forum, met 'n telling van 0,715, vergeleke met die 36ste plek in 2013. Wat deelname aan die arbeidsmag betref, was die land 87ste , met 59% van die vroue wat deelneem in teenstelling met 82% van die mans. Vroue het gemiddeld 66% van mans se lone vir soortgelyke werk ontvang, het 29% van die parlement uitgemaak en 6% van die ministeriële poste beklee. Die Afdeling Geslagsake van die Ministerie van Geslag, Jeug en Kinderontwikkeling is daartoe verbind om die situasie in die land te verbeter, met die nasionale geslags- en ontwikkelingsbeleid sedert die finalisering sedert 2011. Vanaf 2014. In 2010 het die land sy eerste vroulike premier, Kamla Persad-Bissessar. [3] [4]

  • Administratiewe afdelings
  • Prokureur-generaal
  • Verkiesings
  • Buitelandse betrekkinge
  • Menseregte
  • Militêre
  • Parlement
  • Politiek
  • Politieke partye
  • President
  • Eerste Minister
  • Antigua en Barbuda
  • Bahamas
  • Barbados
  • Belize
  • Kanada
  • Costa Rica
  • Kuba
  • Dominica
  • Dominikaanse Republiek
  • El Salvador
  • Grenada
  • Guatemala
  • Haïti
  • Honduras
  • Jamaika
  • Mexiko
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama
  • Saint Kitts en Nevis
  • Saint Lucia
  • Saint Vincent en die Grenadines
  • Trinidad en Tobago
  • Verenigde State
  • Anguilla
  • Aruba
  • Bermuda
  • Bonaire
  • Britse Maagde -eilande
  • Cayman Eilande
  • Curaçao
  • Groenland
  • Guadeloupe
  • Martinique
  • Montserrat
  • Puerto Rico
  • Saint Barthélemy
  • Saint Martin
  • Saint Pierre en Miquelon
  • Saba
  • Sint Eustatius
  • Sint Maarten
  • Turks- en Caicoseilande
  • Amerikaanse Maagde -eilande
  1. ^ a b c "Hoe menseregte in Trinidad en Tobago beskerm word". Ministerie van die Prokureur -generaal. Besoek op 1 Maart 2015.
  2. ^ "Ons menseregte". Voog van Trinidad en Tobago. Besoek op 1 Maart 2015.
  3. ^ "Nasionale resensie TRINIDAD EN TOBAGO" (PDF). Regering van die Republiek van Trinidad en Tobago. Besoek op 1 Maart 2015.
  4. ^ "Trinidad en Tobago". Wêreld Ekonomiese Forum. Besoek op 1 Maart 2015.
  5. ^ "Annual Report: Trinidad & Tobago 2013". Amnesty International . Retrieved 1 March 2015 .
  6. ^ "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013 Trinidad and Tobago". US Secretary of State . Retrieved 1 March 2015 .
  7. ^ "World Press Freedom Index 2014" (PDF) . Reporters Without Borders . Retrieved 4 March 2015 .
  8. ^ "Freedom of the Press Worldwide in 2014". Reporters Without Borders . Retrieved 4 March 2015 .
  9. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago". Freedom House . Retrieved 1 March 2015 .
  10. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report for 2013 Trinidad and Tobago". Secretary of State . Retrieved 1 March 2015 .
  11. ^ "TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO (Tier 2)" (PDF) . US Secretary of State . Retrieved 1 March 2015 .
  12. ^ "‘Human trafficking one of the worst forms of abuse’". Trinidad Express . Retrieved 1 March 2015 .

From Trinidad and Tobago to International Human Rights: A Female Lawyer's Powerful Story

I have been a lawyer for 11 years licensed to practice in Trinidad and Tobago. I am also a permanent resident of the United States of America. In 2016, following the media coverage of the Syrian humanitarian crisis, the more I read, the more I wanted to learn. Perhaps it was fate that I came across an article from the Huffington post which contained a link to Amnesty International’s course on the rights of refugees. Upon successful completion of that course, it changed my life. I knew I had to do more if I wanted to help those who were suffering as a result of atrocities they never asked for and not of their own making.

I still remember the images of a man wheeling his dead wife, crying out for anyone for help and the sounds of children saying goodbye to the world. I had no connection to any person affected, I was not looking for name or fame. I felt a sense of duty to do something to alleviate their suffering strictly from a place of empathy and duty from one human being to the other. I could not just continue to sit and watch the news coverage. In that moment I knew I needed to do better.

It took me 8 years to develop a solid and lucrative law practice, and here I was so moved, that I was ready to give it all up to pursue my post graduate studies in International Human Rights Law. During my LLM, I was fortunate to be chosen to participate in the Northwestern University’s Access to Justice Project. The project was focused on infectious disease law and policy. It involved investigating barriers faced by the most vulnerable communities in accessing healthcare, for tuberculosis treatment in India, which has the largest tuberculosis burden in the world.

My commitment to human rights was reinforced during this project. Following a focus group discussion, with women and children who were survivors of tuberculosis, I learned the depth of human compassion, courage, the power of listening, allowing others to be heard and empowering them in the process. While I do speak some Hindi and can understand it on a basic to moderate level, even through a translator, these women who had faced ostracism by their own family members and friends, connected with me in a way I could never have imagined. Following the discussion, I went to these women to thank them for their courage in sharing their painful accounts with us. In that moment just by the gesture of a handshake it literally erupted into hugs all around because for the first time, these women who had been stigmatized, discriminated against, said they felt heard, understood and accepted, for the first time in a long time.

Upon completion of the trip and returning to the US I became very ill, and had to be admitted to urgent care to be treated for food poisoning and dehydration. Despite the illness, I finished my assigned report truly motivated that justice and reform could come. Knowing that today, those very women and children are now empowering others to break the barriers of shame and stigma down, to enable others in their community to get accurate diagnostic testing and treatment, made it all worth it. I knew in my heart and head that every bit of this work is fulfilling and this was no longer just studies but a life commitment to help others get justice, in the best way I could.

Often we think we need to do some sort of massive global action to create positive change, but the reality is every action and voice that dares to speak out against injustice counts. We are all capable of bringing about positive change, and you do not need to be a lawyer, or an activist to do that, you can simply be you.

Upon completion of my masters, I became the first female of Trinidadian origins to be awarded the Schuette fellowship in Global Health and Human Rights. My placement for the fellowship was with Human Rights Watch (“HRW”), which had newly incorporated its health policy in the Women’s Rights Division which enabled me to gain an in depth understanding of the intersection between these two rights regimes.

My research was focused on ending early forced and child marriage in the US state of Massachusetts and combating its linkages to human trafficking, sexual assault, modern slavery, female genital mutilation/cutting and domestic violence.

Even after completing the fellowship I continued to work on this issue funding myself through savings, as only 2 US States had ended child marriage. I became a member of UNICEF Unite and advocated in my individual capacity and on behalf of UNICEF USA to end child marriage in other States which came to fruition in May 2020, when Pennsylvania and Minnesota became the 3rd and 4th US States to end child marriage amid a global pandemic. 46 States have yet to pass laws to end child marriage.

Personally I have had no difficulty working with men in these campaigns, my only thoughts on this is we need more male allies and survivors to speak out and join us. I also think human rights issues tend to be less polarizing and provides an inclusive platform for both men and women to work together, as well as people from different political backgrounds.

My role as a woman in the human rights space has been challenging, especially as a woman of color, who is originally from a small island. I have faced unequal treatment as well as stereotyping. I had this idealistic idea that once the fellowship was over, I would be able to access jobs to enable me to advance the rights of women and children.

With the onset of Covid all that changed, as the hiring freezes came, but I was not going to let that stop me. I have been doing pro bono work for over a year, and have still not managed to find a paying human rights job. It has been an incredibly challenging year, but being able to do what I love, brings so much fulfilment. The idealist in me felt like there would be more women who are in positions of seniority willing to help other women get a chance to use their knowledge and experience. In the absence of having that, I am consistently doing pro bono work to build my experience, expand partnerships and do what I love most.

In terms of next steps, my next big dream, it is twofold. My hope is to gain more experience and knowledge working with an international human rights NGO, and thereafter to one day create an NGO of my own to work both on human rights issues affecting the rights of women and children in the US and the Caribbean. How will that happen? I have always believed when the heart is pure and your intention is good, success is bound to follow. Even if it takes time and you’re running out of patience, never give up, because there is nothing more rewarding than living a life of service.


Trinidad and Tobago Human Rights - History

Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, January 30, 1997.

Trinidad and Tobago, a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, is a parliamentary democracy in which there have been free and fair general elections since independence from the United Kingdom in 1962. A bicameral Parliament and a Prime Minister govern the country. Parliament elects the President, whose office is largely ceremonial. A 12-member elected House of Assembly handles local matters on the island of Tobago.

The Ministry of National Security controls the police service and the defense force, which are responsive to civilian authority. An independent body, the Police Service Commission, makes all personnel decisions in the police service, and the Ministry has little direct influence over changes in senior positions.

The country's mixed economy is based primarily on the petroleum and natural gas industries, but efforts are being made to diversify the economy into services, manufacturing, and tourism. The Government has historically owned many businesses wholly or partially however, under a major divestment program a number of state-owned corporations have been privatized either partially or completely. The rate of real economic growth was about 3.1 percent, and annual per capita income was about $4,391.

Citizens enjoy a wide range of civil liberties and individual rights. Nonetheless, increased violent crime and narcotics trafficking strained the justice system, which was severely bogged down by excessive delays. Human rights abuses also included overcrowded prisons and violence against women.

Section 1 Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

a. Politieke en ander buite -geregtelike moord

There were no reports of political or other extrajudicial killing.

There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances.

c. Marteling en ander wrede, onmenslike of vernederende behandeling of straf

The Constitution prohibits the imposition of cruel or unusual treatment or punishment, and there were no allegations of police brutality in 1996.

Courts frequently order the flogging of prisoners, but this is not actually carried out in practice. The relevant statute requires that the punishment be carried out within 6 months of sentencing defendants appeal all flogging sentences, and courts do not hear the appeals before the 6-month deadline.

Overcrowding is a serious problem in men's prisons, where shortages of guards and unsanitary conditions have led to serious social and health problems. Conditions are most serious in the older facilities: Port of Spain prison, for example, was designed for 250 inmates, but houses 977. Diseases such as chicken pox, tuberculosis, AIDS, and other viruses spread easily, and prisoners generally must purchase their own medication. A new maximum security facility was supposed to open but had not been completed at year's end. Facilities for, and treatment of, women prisoners appear to be better, with a strong and successful orientation toward rehabilitation.

The Government admits independent human rights monitors into prisons, according to the Ministry of National Security.

d. Willekeurige arrestasie, aanhouding of ballingskap

The Constitution prohibits arbitrary detention, imprisonment, or exile of any person. A police officer may arrest a person either based on a warrant issued or authorized by a magistrate or without a warrant when the officer witnesses commission of the alleged offense. For less serious offenses, the authorities typically bring the accused before a magistrate within 24 hours for indictable offenses, the accused must appear within 48 hours. At that time the magistrate reads the charge and determines whether bail is appropriate. Magistrates may deny bail to violent or repeat offenders. If for some reason the accused does not come before the magistrate, the case comes up on the magistrate's docket every 8 to 10 days until a hearing date is set. The courts notify persons of their right to an attorney and allow them access to an attorney once they are in custody and prior to any interrogation. The authorities do not always comply with these standards, however.

The Minister of National Security may authorize preventive detention in order to prevent actions prejudicial to public safety, public order, or national defense, and the Minister must state the grounds for the detention. A detainee under this provision has access to counsel and may have his detention reviewed by a three-member tribunal established by the Chief Justice and chaired by an attorney. The Minister must provide the tribunal with the grounds for the detention within 7 days of the detainee's request for review, which shall be held "as soon as reasonably practicable" following receipt of the grounds. There have been no reports that the authorities abused this procedure.

As noted, exile is forbidden by the Constitution and is not practiced.

e. Ontkenning van billike openbare verhoor

The judiciary is independent in practice and is not influenced by the executive or legislative branches or the military.

The court system consists of high courts, a system of magistrate's courts, and a national court of appeal. The high courts handle all civil cases and most "serious" offenses, such as capital crimes. All criminal cases are first sent to a magistrate's court, but for serious offenses, the magistrate only hears the case to record whether the defendant pleads guilty or innocent. Appeals may be made to the national court of appeal and then to the Privy Council in London.

The Constitution provides the right to a fair public trial for persons charged with criminal offenses. It also provides for presumption of innocence, reasonable bail, fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, and an interpreter for non-English speakers. The authorities generally respected these rights in practice. All criminal defendants have the right to an attorney. In practice, the courts sometimes appoint attorneys for those persons charged with indictable offenses (serious crimes) if they cannot retain one on their own behalf. The law requires a person accused of murder to have an attorney. An indigent person may refuse to accept an assigned attorney for cause and obtain a replacement. In spite of these provisions, however, there were several allegations by prisoners charged with narcotics trafficking offenses that the authorities did not provide them with attorneys even after they specifically requested counsel.

Despite serious efforts to improve the judiciary, severe inefficiency remains in many areas. Several criminal cases were dismissed due to judicial or police inefficiency. On October 11, the courts acquitted a defendant charged with murdering a police officer in March 1982 the authorities had held him in custody for over 14 years. Over 20,000 criminal cases introduced since 1986 await trial.

The limited availability of transport to take defendants from prisons to courts is a serious problem contributing to the delay in trials. Despite efforts to provide more transportation, prisoners continue to miss court dates because of a lack of vehicles, and there have been charges by inmates that transport operators demand bribes in order to transport prisoners.

Daar was geen berigte van politieke gevangenes nie.

f. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence

The law prohibits such practices, government authorities generally respect these prohibitions, and violations are subject to effective legal sanction. Police must obtain search warrants to enter private property.

Section 2 Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:

a. Freedom of Speech and Press

The Constitution provides for freedom of the press, and the Government respects this right in practice. An independent press and a functioning democratic political system combine to ensure freedom of speech and of the press, including academic freedom.

The three major daily newspapers freely and often criticize the Government in editorials. Widely read weekly tabloids tend to be extremely critical of the Government. All newspapers are privately owned. The two local television newscasts, one of which appears on a state-owned station, are sometimes critical of the Government but generally do not editorialize.

In April a reporter with the Trinidad Guardian newspaper said that plainclothes police grabbed him after he photographed the arrest of a robbery suspect. The reporter said that a police officer forced him to open the camera, took out the film, and exposed it. He reported the matter to the San Fernando police, but the authorities took no action.

A Board of Film Censors is authorized to ban films it considers to be against public order and decency or contrary to the public interest. This includes films which it believes may be controversial in matters of religion, seditious propaganda, or race. In practice, films are rarely prohibited.

b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association

The Constitution provides for the rights of freedom of assembly and association, and the Government respects these rights in practice. Registration or other governmental permission to form private associations is not required. The police routinely grant the required advance permits for street marches, demonstrations, or other outdoor public meetings.

Political activity by trade associations or professional bodies is not restricted, and these organizations affiliate freely with recognized international bodies in their fields.

The Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the authorities respect this right in practice.

d. Bewegingsvryheid binne die land, buitelandse reise, emigrasie en repatriasie

The Constitution provides for these rights, and the Government respects them in practice. Residents are free to emigrate, return, and travel within or outside the country, as well as to change residence and workplace.

There is no provision for persons to claim or be classified as refugees or asylum seekers any such cases are handled on a case-by-case basis by the Ministry of National Security's Immigration Division. The issue of the provision of first asylum did not arise. There were no reports of forced return of persons to a country where they feared persecution.

Section 3 Respect for Political Rights: The Right of Citizens to Change Their Government

Citizens choose their government by secret ballot in free and fair multiparty elections held at intervals not to exceed 5 years. Elections for the 12-member Tobago House of Assembly are held every 4 years. The Constitution extends the right to vote to citizens as well as to legal residents with citizenship in other Commonwealth countries who are at least 18 years of age.

In November 1995 general elections, the former opposition United National Congress (UNC) and the ruling People's National Movement (PNM) each won 17 seats in Parliament. The National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR) won two seats and joined with the UNC in forming a new government. Basdeo Panday became the country's first Prime Minister of East Indian descent. The PNM is primarily but not exclusively Afro-Trinidadian the UNC is primarily but not exclusively Indo-Trinidadian.

There are no specific laws that restrict the participation of women or minorities in government or the political parties. Women hold many positions in the Government and political party leadership. Four out of 36 elected members of the House of Representatives and 9 out of 31 appointed Senators are female, with 3 serving as ministers. Prime Minister Panday appointed a woman as Attorney General. She was the first female Attorney General, and she has since moved to the position of Minister of Legal Affairs.

Afdeling 4 Regeringsgesindheid oor internasionale en nie -regeringsondersoek na beweerde skendings van menseregte

Several small nongovernmental human rights groups operate freely without government restriction or interference. An independent Ombudsman receives complaints relating to governmental administrative issues and investigates complaints of human rights abuse. The Ombudsman can make recommendations but does not have authority to force government offices to take action.

Afdeling 5 Diskriminasie op grond van ras, geslag, godsdiens, gestremdheid, taal of sosiale status

The Government respects in practice the constitutional provisions of fundamental human rights and freedoms to all without discrimination based on race, origin, color, religion, or sex.

Physical abuse of women continued to be an extensive problem murder, rape, and other crimes against women are frequently reported. There are several shelters for battered women, and a rape crisis center offers counseling for rape victims and perpetrators on a voluntary basis as of September 30, 154 people had voluntarily requested counseling, and 54 incidents of rape had been reported. Law enforcement officials and the courts are generally not sensitive to family violence problems.

Many women hold positions in business, the professions, and government, but men tend to hold the most senior positions. There is no law or regulation requiring equal pay for equal work.

The Division of Women's Affairs in the Ministry of Community Development, Women's Affairs, and Culture is charged with protecting women's rights in all aspects of government and legislation. Several active women's rights groups also exist.

The Government's ability to protect children's welfare is limited by a lack of funds and expanding social needs. Some parts of the public school system seriously fail to meet the needs of the school age population due to overcrowding, substandard physical facilities, and occasional classroom violence by gangs. There is no societal pattern of abuse directed at children. The Domestic Violence Act provides protection for children abused at home. Abused children are usually placed with relatives if they are removed from the home. If there is no relative who can take them, there are several government institutions and nongovernmental organizations (NGO's) which accept children.

There is no legislation that specifically enumerates or protects the rights of disabled persons nor mandates the provision of access to buildings or services, although NGO's lobbied Parliament to pass such legislation. Lack of access to transportation, buildings, and sidewalks is a major obstacle for the disabled. Only two vans in the country are equipped with hydraulic lift devices for access by disabled persons. One such van broke down in 1995 and was not repaired the other broke down in 1996. The Government provides some public assistance and partial funding to a variety of NGO's which, in turn, provide direct services to disabled members or clients.

Members of a very small group in the population identify themselves as descendants of the original Amerindian population of the island. They maintain social ties with each other and other aboriginal groups and are not subject to discrimination.

Various ethnic and religious groups live together peacefully, generally respecting each other's beliefs and practices. However, at times racial tensions appear between Afro-

Trinidadians and Indo-Trinidadians. Each group comprises about 40 percent of the population. The private sector is dominated by Indo-Trinidadians and people of European, Middle Eastern, or Asian descent. Indo-Trinidadians also predominate in agriculture. Afro-Trinidadians tend to find employment in disproportionate numbers in the civil service, police, and military. Some Indo-Trinidadians assert that they are excluded from equal representation in the civil service due to racial discrimination. Since Indo-Trinidadians constitute the majority in rural areas and Afro-Trinidadians are in the majority in urban areas, competition between town and country for public goods and services often takes on racial overtones.

In October there were reports that several popular recreational clubs were refusing entry to Afro-Trinidadians and dark skinned Indo-Trinidadians. The reports created a great outcry in the local press against racism, and the Government pledged to implement a law banning racial discrimination in entry policies for private clubs.

a. The Right of Association

The 1972 Industrial Relations Act provides that all workers, including those in state-owned enterprises, may form or join unions of their own choosing without prior authorization. Union membership has declined, with an estimated 20 to 28 percent of the work force organized in 14 active unions. Most unions are independent of the Government or political party control, although the Sugar Workers' Union is historically allied with the UNC. The Prime Minister was formerly president of the Sugar Workers' Union.

The law prohibits antiunion activities before a union is legally registered, and the Ministry of Labor enforces this provision when it receives a complaint. A union may also bring a request for enforcement to the Industrial Court. All employees except those in "essential services," such as government employees and police, have the right to strike.

In August junior doctors at Port of Spain and San Fernando general hospitals began a series of sick-outs and work-to-rule actions to protest poor working conditions and insufficient pay. During these actions, several wards were frequently out of service at Port of Spain general hospital, including the intensive care ward. In late October, some of the junior doctors stopped their work-to-rule policy and began settlement negotiations with the Ministry of Health and the regional health authority. In September public school teachers began a series of work-to-rule actions and sick-outs. The Trinidad and Tobago Unified Teachers Association called for salary increases and improved working conditions.

The Labor Relations Act prohibits retribution against strikers and provides for grievance procedures if needed. A special section of the Industrial Court handles mandatory arbitration cases. Arbitration agreements are enforceable and appealable only to the Industrial Court.

Unions freely join federations and affiliate with international bodies. There are no restrictions on international travel or contacts.

b. The Right to Organize and Bargain Collectively

The Industrial Relations Act establishes the right of workers to collective bargaining. The Ministry of Labor conciliation service maintains statistical information regarding the number of workers covered by collective bargaining agreements and the number of antiunion complaints filed.

The Industrial Court may order employers found guilty of antiunion activities to reinstate workers and pay compensation, or it can impose other penalties including imprisonment. When necessary, the conciliation service also determines which unions should have senior status.

There are several newly organized export processing zones (EPZ's). The same labor laws apply in the EPZ's as in the country at large.

c. Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory labor

The law does not explicitly prohibit forced or compulsory labor, but there were no reports that it was practiced.

d. Minimum Age for Employment of Children

The minimum legal age for workers is 12 years. Children from 12 to 14 years of age may only work in family businesses. Children under the age of 18 may legally work only during daylight hours, with the exception of 16- to 18-year-olds, who may work at night in sugar factories. The probation service in the Ministry of Social Development and Family Services is responsible for enforcing child labor provisions, but enforcement is lax. There is no organized exploitation of child labor, but children are often seen begging or working as street vendors. Some are used by criminals as guards and couriers.

e. Aanvaarbare werksomstandighede

There is no national minimum wage. The Government has set minimum wages for 53 job categories in 5 nonunionized occupational groupings. The minimum pay ranges from $26 (TT$130.45) per week to $57 (TT$285) per week. These rates were to be adjusted for cost-of-living increases at regular intervals, but Parliament has never considered an adjustment since passing the laws. The Ministry of Labor enforces the minimum wage regulations. A minimum wage is not sufficient to support a worker and family, but most workers earn more than the minimum.

The standard workweek is 40 hours. There are no restrictions on overtime work. Daily rest periods and paid annual leave form part of most employment agreements. For those sectors covered, the minimum wage laws also stipulate holiday pay, 2 weeks' vacation, and 14 days' sick leave per year.

The Factories and Ordinance Bill of 1948 sets requirements for health and safety standards in certain industries and provides for inspections to monitor and enforce compliance. The Industrial Relations Act protects workers who file complaints with the Ministry of Labor regarding illegal or hazardous working conditions. Should it be determined upon inspection that hazardous conditions exist in the workplace, the worker is absolved in refusing to comply with an order that would have placed him or her in danger.


Painful chapter

The prime minister, ANR Robinson, was beaten and shot when he tried to order the army to "attack with full force".

After prolonged negotiations with the hostage-takers, during which the prime minister signed an amnesty agreement with their leader Yasin Abu Bakr, Jamaat-al-Muslimeen members surrendered on 1 August.

They were then tried for treason but were released when the Court of Appeal upheld their claim that their surrender was based on the promise of amnesty.

This decision was subsequently overturned by the London-based Privy Council - the country's highest court, which invalidated the amnesty - but the Muslimeen members were never re-arrested.

Trinidad and Tobago's current prime minister, Kamla Persad-Bissessar, was expected to attend the annual church service at the Holy Trinity Cathedral on Tuesday.

There was also due to be a wreath-laying ceremony at parliament - the Red House - in remembrance of those who lost their lives.

Last week, Ms Persad-Bissessar announced that a commission would be set up to look into what sparked the coup attempt.

Ms Persad-Bissessar, whose five-party coalition won the May parliamentary elections, said the investigation would help the country close a painful chapter in its history.

She went on to say her government also intended to auction off properties owned by Jamaat-al-Muslimeen to help repay the state for damage caused during the rebellion.

Mr Abu Bakr told a local newspaper he welcomed the initiative.

At long last, he said, they would be able to tell their side of the story.

"If I am alive, God willing, I will be the first person to testify," he said. "It's 20 years too late, but never too late."

The entire population needed to know the genesis of the events of 1990, said Mr Abu Bakr.


ILO Conventions ratified by the Repuplic of Trinidad and Tobago

  • Bindimattie Mahabir: Flexibilisation of the Workforce for Competitive Advantage, Possibilities and Limitations of Flexibilisation of the Workforce in the Context of Trinidad and Tobago, The Forum, a Quarterly Publication of the Ministry of Labour, June 1997.
  • Roop L. Chaudhary: Studies in Caribbean Labour Relations Law. 2 nd ed., Coles Printery Limited, 1984.
  • Sahadeo Basdeo: Labour Organisation and Labour Reform inTrinidad 1919-1939, Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
  • Zin Henry: Labour Relations and Industrial Conflict in Commonwealth Caribbean Countries, Columbus Publishers Ltd. Trinidad, 1972.
  • LennoxMarcelle: Changing Patterns of Employment in Trinidad and Tobago and the Legal Implications, The Forum, a Quarterly Publication of the Ministry of Labour, June 1997.

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