John Rennie

John Rennie



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John Rennie is gebore in East Linton, Skotland, in 1761. Nadat hy as meulenaar by Andrew Meikle gewerk het, studeer hy aan die Universiteit van Edinburgh (1780-83).

Rennie was vyf jaar in diens van Boulton & Watt, maar in 1791 verhuis hy na Londen waar hy sy eie ingenieursonderneming begin. Oor die volgende paar jaar het hy 'n beroemde brugbouer geword. Dit sluit Leeds Bridge, Southwark Bridge en Waterloo Bridge in.

Rennie was ook verantwoordelik vir die ontwerp en bou van dokke in Hull, Liverpool, Greenock en Leith en die verbetering van die hawens en werwe in Portsmouth, Chatham en Plymouth. Rennie se laaste projek was London Bridge, maar dit was onvoltooid toe hy in 1821 sterf. Die brug is voltooi deur sy seun, John Rennie.


'N Ruk na die voltooiing het sir John Rennie (die jongere) geskryf oor die moeilikheid om die koffiedamme vir die piere en distansies as gevolg van die rivierbedding te plaas.

bedek met groot los klippe wat weggevoer is deur die krag van die stroom van die fondament van die ou brug ... Die moeilikheid word verder verhoog deurdat die ou brug staande bly om die verkeer te akkommodeer terwyl die nuwe brug bou en die beperkte waterweg van die ou brug veroorsaak so 'n verhoogde snelheid van die stroom as om die werking van die nuwe brug materieel te vertraag, en soms het die gety gedreig om alles voor dit weg te dra.

Die konstruksie het sewe en 'n half jaar geduur, met 800 werknemers in diens. Veertig mans is gedurende hierdie tyd dood as gevolg van die probleme wat Rennie genoem het. Die totale koste van die brûe en benaderings was £ 2,500,000. Van die bedrag is 'n miljoen pond ingesamel deur belasting op steenkool en wyn en byna £ 200,000 deur die regering bygedra.

Die verskillende belyning, effens stroomop, het die City Corporation groot probleme veroorsaak, en nuwe benaderings moes aan beide kante van die rivier geskep word, wat twee keer die koste van die brug self kos. Wren's St. Michael, Crooked Lane -kerk moes gesloop word, asook die ou Boar's Head -taverne in Eastcheap (wat verskyn in Shakespeare's Hendrik IV), en Fishmongers ’Hall. Aan die suidekant is Borough High Street verbreed tussen die brug en die stadsaal, benewens die skep van 'n nuwe gedeelte van Tooleystraat. In die stad is Upper Thames Street, Fish Street Hill, Eastcheap, King William Street, Princes Street, Lothbury, Gresham Street, Moorgate Street en Threadneadle Street almal op een of ander manier geraak.

Die nuwe London Bridge is voltooi in 1831 deur koning William IV ('n maand voor sy kroning) en koningin Adelaide tydens 'n groot seremonie in Augustus, met die afvuur van kanonne en die lui van kerkklokke. Dit het die vorm aanneem van 'n wateroptog wat die koninklike bakke en agt Stadskepe ingesluit het. Duisende toeskouers was langs die oewers en het na verskillende vaartuie gegaan. Toe die koninklike egpaar na hul skuit by Somerset House afdaal, word die gejuig as 'byna oorverdowend' beskryf. Nadat hulle by die brug aangekom het, loop hulle oor, begin by die noordelike punt. By die bereiking van die Surrey -kant word vermaak verskaf deur 'n lugballon en die insittendes wat in die lug opklim. Die openingseremonie is gevolg deur 'n banket aan die einde van die brug van die stad vir 1500 mense.

Die hertog van Wellington het die City Corporation gehelp om die nodige wetsontwerp deur die parlement te stuur. Hy is uitgenooi na die openingseremonie, maar het geweier, wetende dat sy bywoning ongewild sou wees en 'n ontsteltenis sou veroorsaak as gevolg van sy teenstand teen die destydse debat oor die hervormingswetsontwerp in die parlement en die land in die algemeen. In plaas daarvan, as 'n bewys van hul waardering, het die stad 'n brons ruiterstandbeeld van die ysterhertog aan die voorkant van die Royal Exchange opgerig.

Op die eerste dag steek 200 000 voetgangers die brug oor, so baie dat die deur slegs in een rigting beperk moes word, van noord na suid. John Rennie die jongere is tot ridder geslaan vir sy werk, 'n eer wat sy pa voorheen geweier het.

Die afbreek van die ou brug, waarvan die fondamente meer as 600 jaar lank oorleef het, het twee jaar geduur. Tydens die bou van die nuwe brug en die sloping van die ou is 'n silwer Romeinse beeld van Harpocrates (nou in die British Museum) gevind, asook 'n aantal Romeinse en middeleeuse munte. Baie van die ou brug is as aandenkings verkoop. Vier alkove van die 1762 -brug is geleë in Guy's Hospital, Victoria Park, en in East Sheen. Die hout van die ou brug is verkoop aan die New River Company om hul nuwe reservoirs by Stoke Newington aan te trek.

Rennie se brug duur tot in die vroeë sewentigerjare toe dit deur die huidige kruising vervang is. Die buiteblokke van graniet is deur 'n eiendomsontwikkelaar gekoop en na Lake Havascu City in Arizona gestuur om 'n aantrekkingskrag vir 'n ouetehuis te word. Die blokke is vasgemaak op 'n betonstruktuur wat die brug van Rennie herskep het.

Bronne sluit in: Charles Welch 'History of the Tower Bridge' (1894, met vergunning van die versameling van Hawk Norton) Peter Matthews 'London's Bridges' John Summerson 'Georgian London' John Pudney ‘Crossing London ’s River ’ Robert Ward 'London's New River'.


Hy is gebore as die jongste seun van James Rennie, [1] 'n boer naby Phantassie, naby East Linton, East Lothian, Skotland. Hy het op 'n baie vroeë ouderdom 'n voorliefde vir werktuigkundiges getoon, en hy kon baie tyd spandeer in die werkswinkel van Andrew Meikle, 'n meulmaker en die uitvinder van die dorsmasjien, wat by Houston Mill op die Phantassie -landgoed gewoon het. Nadat hy 'n normale basiese opleiding aan die gemeenteskool van Prestonkirk Parish Church ontvang het, is hy na die burgh -skool in Dunbar gestuur, en in November 1780 het hy gematrikuleer aan die Universiteit van Edinburgh, waar hy tot 1783 gebly het. Sy ouer broer, George, het gebly om te help in die familie -landboubesigheid, met die bereiking van noemenswaardigheid in hierdie arena.

Dit lyk asof Rennie sy vakansies gebruik het om as molenmaker te werk, en dus 'n onderneming vir eie rekening gestig het. Op hierdie vroeë datum word die oorspronklikheid van sy gedagtes getoon deur die bekendstelling van gietyster -tandwiele in plaas van houtskommels. In 1784 reis hy suidwaarts om sy kennis te vergroot, en besoek James Watt in Soho, Staffordshire. Watt het hom 'n verlowing aangebied, wat hy aanvaar het. Na 'n kort tydjie by Soho vertrek hy in 1784 na Londen om die werke by die Albion Flour Mills, Blackfriars, te neem waarvoor Boulton & amp; Watt 'n stoommotor bou. Die masjinerie is almal ontwerp deur Rennie, wat 'n kenmerkende kenmerk is van die gebruik van yster in plaas van hout vir die skag en raamwerk. Omstreeks 1791 begin hy as 'n werktuigkundige ingenieur vir eie rekening in Hollandstraat, Blackfriars, waarvandaan hy en sy opvolgers lank ingenieursbedrywighede van groot belang uitgevoer het. (In dieselfde jaar is die Albion Meelmeule deur brandstigting vernietig.)

In 1791 verhuis hy na Londen en stig hy sy eie ingenieursonderneming, en begin dan met die bou van siviele ingenieurswese, veral die bou van kanale. Sy vroeë projekte was die Lancaster -kanaal (begin 1792), die Chelmer- en Blackwater -navigasie (1793), die Crinan -kanaal (1794-1801), Rudyard Lake (1797) en die Rochdale -kanaal, wat deur 'n moeilike land tussen Rochdale en Todmorden ( 1799). Die Kennet- en Avon -kanaal - insluitend die Dundas -akwaduk, Caen Hill Locks en Crofton -pompstasie - het hom tussen 1794 en 1810 beset.

In 1802 hersien hy die planne vir die Royal Canal of Ireland van Dublin na die Shannon naby Longford. Hy was ook adviseur vir die pypwaterkomitee van Dublin Corporation, waarvoor hy in 1804 die Freedom of the City of Dublin ontvang het.

Hy was jare lank besig met uitgebreide dreineringsbedrywighede in die vinne Lincolnshire en Norfolk (1802–1810), en met die verbetering van die rivier die Witham. Die Eau Brink Cut, 'n nuwe kanaal vir die Ouse -rivier, is net voor sy dood voltooi. [2] Hy was ook hoofingenieur vir die kanaal en major, maar aborsiewe lazaret by Chetney Hill, aan die rivier die Medway -monding in Kent. [3]

In die komende jare het Rennie ook 'n welverdiende reputasie gekry as bouer van brûe, wat klip kombineer met nuwe gietystertegnieke om voorheen ongehoorde lae, wye elliptiese boë te skep. Daar word vermoed dat die Waterloo -brug, oor die Teems in Londen (1811–1817), met sy nege gelyke boë en perfek plat pad, beïnvloed is deur Thomas Harrison se ontwerp van die Skerton -brug oor die Lune -rivier in Lancaster. In Leeds het hy die opdrag gekry om twee klipbrue te bou, een oor die rivier die Aire en 'n tweede kleiner struktuur oor die Leeds en Liverpool -kanaal, aan die westekant van die middestad en stroomop van die Leeds Bridge. Die hoofaanstigter van hierdie skema was meul eienaar Benjamin Gott, wat eiendomme aan weerskante van die waterweë gehad het en 'n makliker roete tussen hulle wou hê. Die groter brug is in 1934 (Parsons 'Directory) beskryf as' 'n pragtige struktuur, bestaande uit 'n elliptiese boog van honderd voet '. Die brug, aanvanklik bekend as Waterloo Bridge, het gou die naam Wellington Bridge gekry. Rennie se latere pogings in hierdie lyn toon ook aan dat hy 'n vaardige argitek was, toegerus met 'n skerp gevoel van skoonheid van ontwerp. Waterloo Bridge word beskou as sy meesterstuk en was die mees gesogte brugprojek in Engeland, beskryf as 'miskien die beste groot metselbrug wat ooit in hierdie of 'n ander land gebou is'. [4] Die Italiaanse beeldhouer Canova noem dit 'die edelste brug ter wêreld' en sê dat 'dit slegs die moeite werd is om na Engeland te gaan om Rennie se brug te sien.' [5] Na Rennie se dood is die London Bridge uit sy ontwerp gebou deur sy seuns John Rennie (junior) en George Rennie. Dit vervang die middeleeuse brug, wat 'n ernstige belemmering vir die vloei van die rivier was. Rennie se brug is uiteindelik na Arizona verskuif. Southwark Bridge (1815–1819) is gebou as drie gietyster oor die rivier. Hy het ook die Old Vauxhall Bridge ontwerp.

Rennie was ook verantwoordelik vir die ontwerp en bou van dokke in Hull, Liverpool, Greenock, Londen (Londen, Oos -Indië en Wes -Indië), en Leith en die verbetering van die hawens en werwe in Chatham, Devonport, Portsmouth, Holyhead, Ramsgate, Sheerness, Howth en Dunleary. Hy het baie tyd bestee aan die voorbereiding van planne vir 'n regeringswerf by Northfleet, maar dit is nie uitgevoer nie.

Dún Laoghaire Edit

Die Dunleary -hawe van 'Asylum' was 'n baie moeilike en belangrike projek, want dit was van kritieke belang om 'n effektiewe kommunikasieverbinding tussen Ierland en Londen, die setel van die regering, te handhaaf. Rennie was 'n dekade tevore verantwoordelik vir die bou van Howth Harbour aan die noordekant van die baai van Dublin. Dit was oorspronklik beplan as die landing vir die Holyhead -pakkies, maar dit het in so 'n mate ingesluk dat dit ongeskik geraak het. 'N Parlementswet van 1816 (56 Geo.III. Cap 62) het die bou van die Dunleary -hawe gemagtig. Oorspronklik was dit die bedoeling dat slegs een pier (die East Pier) gebou sou word (3,500 voet lank), maar toe John Rennie aangestel is as regisseur vir die werk, het hy daarop aangedring dat 'n enkele pier sou lei tot sand wat agter die pier dryf en dat 'n tweede West Pier (4,950 voet lank) sou verhoed dat dit gebeur. Hy was korrek aangesien die sand agter die westelike pier opgebou het. Die hawe wat vroeër gebou is, is in 1821 herdoop tot 'The Royal Harbour of Kingstown' ter geleentheid van die besoek van George IV. Die materiaal vir die hawe is Dalkey Hill -graniet. Die graniet is gratis deur die konstruksiespan deur Richard Toucher ('n jarelange kampvegter vir die nuwe hawe) verskaf. Die fondamente van die piere is 300'-0 "breed en 24'-0" onder lae watervlak. Daar is baie opsies oorweeg vir die breedte van die ruimte tussen die twee pierkoppe. Rennie het aan die hawe-kommissarisse geskryf dat die opening 430'-0 "breed moet wees met die pierkoppe wat in die hawe gedraai word om deinings in die hawe te beheer. Daar is nooit aan sy eise voldoen nie en die hawe-opening is gebou op 1,066'-0". Dit was duidelik te wyd en is daarna verminder tot 760'-0 ".

Custom House Docks en die CHQ -gebou, Dublin Edit

Een van John Rennie se laaste projekte was die bou van die Custom House Docks in Dublin, saam met die slotte en pakhuise, waaronder die CHQ-gebou, waar hy in die vroeë 19de eeu 'n pionier in die gebruik van gietyster was. [6] Rennie is die eerste keer uitgenooi om in 1809 aan die skema te werk deur John Foster, die Ierse kanselier van die skatkis. Die eerste steen van die dokke is in Mei 1817 gelê; dit is voorheen einde Augustus 1821 oopgemaak voor ''n geselekteerde geselskap van edelmanne, biskoppe, dames en meer.' In 1824 is die dokke op 'n lang termyn geplaas. huurkontrak aan Harry en John Scovell, en hul neef George. Harry en John was die jonger broers van sir George Scovell, die intelligensiebeampte wat beroemd was omdat hy Bonaparte se geheime kodes tydens die Napoleontiese oorloë gekraak het.

Teen Maart 1820 was Rennie op soek na 33 ton strukturele gietyster, tesame met 'n groot hoeveelheid yster, vir die bou van 'n "Tabakpakhuis, met die Spirit Stores daaronder." [7] Die yster is verskaf deur die Butterley Iron Company uit Derbyshire. [8] 'n Doodsberig van die gebore ingenieur en yster-stigter William Hazeldine uit Shropshire uit 1841 beweer egter dat Hazeldine ook 'die ysterdakke vir die Dublin Custom House and Store Houses' verskaf het. [9] In 1821 het John James Macgregor opgemerk: ' Die tabakwinkels is aan die suidekant klaargemaak ten koste van £ 70,000. Hulle is 500 voet lank by 160 voet breed. Die dak is van gietyster en die gebou is op die permanentste manier afgehandel. ’[10] In 1821 het eerwaarde George Newenham Wright, 'n Anglikaanse predikant, ook opgemerk:

Ten ooste van die nuwe wasbak is die tabakwinkel (500 voet by 160, wat 3000 varkkoppe kan bevat), waarvan die plan deur John Rennie, Esq. In hierdie winkel, wat nou voltooi en in gebruik is, is daar nie een deeltjie hout of ander brandbare materiaal nie. Daar is nege kluise onder, wat altesaam 'n perfekte en gerieflike berging bied vir 4500 wynpype, wat moontlik maak om agter die koppe van die pype te loop, en tussen hulle word hierdie kluise verlig deur dik lense wat in ysterplate op die vloer geplaas is. die tabakwinkel, maar dit is nie voldoende om die noodsaaklikheid van kerslig te vervang nie. Die binnekant van die tabakwinkel is uiters nuuskierig en interessant: die dak word ondersteun deur metaalraamwerk van 'n vernuftige konstruksie, en met tussenposes word lang lanterns aangebring, waarvan die rame ook metaal is, en die hele raamwerk ondersteun word deur drie rye silindriese metaalpilare, 26 in elke ry rus dit op ander van graniet, wat deur die klipvloer tot in die gewelms daaronder voortgesit word. Al die ysterwerk is vervaardig by die Butterley-gietery in Derbyshire. Die enigste ongerief wat tans in hierdie winkel ervaar word, is die oormatige hitte, wat na alle waarskynlikheid reggestel kan word deur 'n behoorlike ventilasiestelsel. [8]

Die tabakwinkel, wat nou bekend staan ​​as die CHQ -gebou, is die tuiste van verskillende ondernemings, waaronder EPIC - The Irish Emigration Museum en Dogpatch Laboratories.

Donaghadee Edit

Donaghadee is waarskynlik die bekendste vir sy vuurtoring en hawe. Vir eeue was dit 'n toevlugsoord vir skepe, en die hawe was daar sedert ten minste die 17de eeu.

Sir Hugh Montgomery het 'n groot klipkaai gebou vir vaartuie wat vanaf 1616 tussen Skotland en Ierland vaar. [3] Die hawe van Burggraaf Montgomery (1626 verbeter 1640), wat waarskynlik slegs 'n klein steiger was, het dit gebou en onderhou as gevolg van die koninklike lasbrief van 1616, wat die reis tussen die Ards en die Rhyn van Galloway na hierdie hawe beperk het, en dat by Portpatrick ook in besit van Montgomery. Dit word in 1744 deur Harris beskryf as ''n geboë kaai van ongeveer 120 voet lank en 6,7 meter breed, gebou van ongesementeerde klippe'. Dit loop van die oewer aan die noordelike punt van die parade in 'n breë boog, gebuig teen die oop see, na die suidelike punt van die huidige noordelike pier. Die kaai, wat baie gevlek en vervalle was, is feitlik herbou, alhoewel langs die oorspronklike lyn, tussen 1775 en 1785 deur die verhuurder, Daniel Delacherois, waarskynlik met die hulp van John Smeaton, die vooraanstaande siviele ingenieur wat blykbaar vroeër meer uitgebreide planne vir uitbreiding gemaak het die hawe, en wat pas die Portpatrick -hawe herbou het. Die ou kaai het gebly tot na die voltooiing van die nuwe hawe, en dan, ten spyte van die voortgesette guns van plaaslike vissers, is dit ongeveer 1833 verwyder vir die plaaslike muurbou (dit verskyn in die tekening van 1832, maar nie op die eerste OS -kaart van 1834 nie).

Die grondsteen van die nuwe hawe is op 1 Augustus 1821 deur die Markies van Downshire gelê. Die aanvanklike planne en opnames vir hierdie ambisieuse onderneming is deur John Rennie gemaak. Hy sterf egter binne twee maande nadat hy begin het, en word opgevolg deur sy seun, John, wat as sy ingenieur 'n mede -Skot gehad het, die ervare mariene bouer, David Logan, wat Robert Stevenson bygestaan ​​het by die Bell Rock -vuurtoring ( 1807–1810). Die nuwe hawe moes groter diepte hê om stoompakkies te akkommodeer. Rots wat uit die seebodem geblaas is, binne die hawegebied en verder suidwaarts in wat bekend gestaan ​​het as die Quarry Hole by Meetinghouse Point, is gebruik om die buitenste hange van die twee piere te vorm, maar die binneste vlakke is van kalksteen uit die Moelfre -steengroewe van Anglesea gebou . Hierdie 'Anglesea -marmer' is geskik vir die beste aslaverwerking en die nuwe piere bly 'n triomf van klipsnywerk. Die trappies toon spesiale vaardigheid in die diep diagonale binding van elke vaste stap, wat 'n tipies robuuste ingenieur se reaksie bied op die dra van seestewels en golwe. Die hawe bestaan ​​uit twee onafhanklike piere wat noord weswaarts na die see loop, parallel nader aan die oewer. By eb is die water in die hawe vyftien voet diep.

Die Bell Rock -vuurtoring, naby die ingang van die Firths of Forth en Tay, is gedurende 1807 en 1810 gebou. Rennie word deur sommige toegeskryf aan die ontwerp en uitvoering, maar daar is min twyfel dat hy slegs nominaal verantwoordelik was vir die groot onderneming. Robert Stevenson, landmeter van die Commissioners of Northern Lights, het die oorspronklike planne opgestel, en op sy voorstel het die kommissarisse Rennie gebel om te help met die verkryging van parlementêre goedkeuring vir die projek, wat hom die titel van hoofingenieur gee (waarvoor hy egter slegs betaal is £ 400). [11] Stevenson aanvaar nie baie van die wysigings wat deur Rennie voorgestel is nie, maar die twee mans bly op vriendelike voet. Rennie het die vuurtoring twee keer besoek terwyl dit gebou is. Toe Stevenson in 1850 sterf, het die kommissarisse in hul notule opgeteken dat hy 'die eer was om die Bell Rock -vuurtoring te bedink en uit te voer'. Rennie se seun, sir John Rennie, het egter in 'n lang briefwisseling met Alan Stevenson in 1849 beweer dat die advies wat Rennie Stevenson gegee het, hom geregtig het om die gebou te rangskik as 'n ontwerp wat hy 'ontwerp en gebou' het. [12]

Die Holyhead Mail Pier Light is 'n koniese wit huis wat deur Rennie in 1821 gebou is. Dit is waarskynlik die tweede oudste vuurtoring in Wallis, na Point of Ayr Lighthouse. Die vuurtoring is van nasionale belang as een van Rennie se oorlewende werke. Van besondere belang, in 'n Walliese konteks, is die vroeë datum van die vuurtoringlantaarn, wat oorspronklik deur gas aangesteek is. Voor die omskakeling na elektrisiteit was 'n gaswerke op die eiland geleë om die vuurtoring, die piere en selfs 'n deel van Holyhead self aan te dryf. Die werke is gebou vir £ 130,000, 'n astronomiese som destyds. Die toring oorleef ongeskonde en het pragtig geboë galery -relings, soortgelyk aan dié by die Bardsey -vuurtoring. Dit word nie meer gebruik nie, hoewel dit gebruik word as 'n navigasieverwysing vir matrose.

Die Howth Harbour -vuurtoring is 'n bypassende toring in Howth, Ierland, ook ontwerp deur Rennie, vir die ander terminale van die Ierse pakkie -stoomboot. [13]

Van al die werke van Rennie, wat die sterkste by die verbeelding aanspreek, is miskien die golfbreker by Plymouth Sound, bestaande uit 'n muur van 'n kilometer lank oor die klank, in ongeveer 20 meter water [14] en met 3670 444 ton ruwe klip, behalwe 22 149 kubieke meter (16 934 m 3) metselwerk op die oppervlak. Dit is gebou om 'n veilige deurgang te bied vir vlootvaartuie wat die rivier Tamar (Hamoaze) by Devonport binnegaan. Hierdie kolossale werk is die eerste keer voorgestel in 'n verslag van Rennie, gedateer 22 April 1806, 'n bevel in die raad wat die aanvang daarvan toestaan, is op 22 Junie 1811 uitgereik en die eerste klip is op 12 Augustus daarop neergesit. Die werk is voltooi deur sy seun, sir John Rennie, en deur Joseph Whidbey.

Rennie was 'n man met 'n onbegrensde bron en oorspronklikheid. Tydens die verbetering van die Ramsgate-hawe het hy gebruik gemaak van die duikbel, wat hy baie verbeter het. Hy word algemeen toegeskryf aan die uitvinding van 'n vorm van stoom-baggermasjien met 'n ketting emmers, maar dit lyk asof Sir Samuel Bentham dit op hom verwag het. Hy was beslis die eerste om dit op groot skaal te gebruik, wat hy tydens die bou van die Humber Dock, Hull (1803–09) gedoen het, toe hy 'n stoombagger bedink het om die probleme van die spesifieke werk te oorkom, en blykbaar sonder enige kennis van Bentham se uitvinding. 'N Ander doel was die gebruik van hol mure, wat voorgestel is deur die noodsaaklikheid om 'n uitgebreide laeroppervlak te bied vir die fondamente van 'n muur in los grond. Mure wat op hierdie plan gebou is, is grootliks deur Rennie gebruik.

Die kenmerkende kenmerke van Rennie se werk was fermheid en stewigheid, en dit het die toets van tyd deurstaan. Hy was die pligsgetrouste in die voorbereiding van sy verslae en ramings, en het nooit 'n onderneming aangegaan sonder om hom ten volle vertroud te maak met die plaaslike omgewing nie. Hy was toegewyd aan sy beroep, en alhoewel hy 'n man met 'n sterk raamwerk en volharding was, het sy onophoudelike arbeid sy lewe verkort. Hy is op 28 Januarie 1788 verkies tot Fellow van die Royal Society of Edinburgh, Fellow of the Royal Society op 29 Maart 1798 en in 1815 dien hy as bestuurder van die nuutgeboude London Institution.

In 1790 trou hy met Martha Ann Mackintosh († 1806), dogter van E. Mackintosh, en het sy sewe kinders, waarvan twee, George en John, noemenswaardige ingenieurs geword het. Sy dogter Anna trou met die argitek Charles Cockerell.

Hy sterf, na 'n kort siekbed, op 4 Oktober 1821 in sy huis in Stamfordstraat, Londen, en word begrawe in die krip in die St. Paul's Cathedral. [15]


John Rennie is gebore in 1959, naby Boston, MA. In 1981 voltooi hy 'n Bachelor of Science in Biology aan die Yale Universiteit. Rennie werk toe die grootste deel van 'n dekade in 'n laboratorium aan die Harvard Medical School voordat hy sy loopbaan as wetenskapskrywer en -redakteur begin. Hy het sy redaksieloopbaan begin met Wetenskaplike Amerikaner in 1989 toe hy by die redaksie aangesluit het en in 1994 hoofredakteur word. Rennie het verskeie artikels gepubliseer in Wetenskaplike Amerikaner, begin met die September 1989 -uitgawe en so onlangs as die Desember 2013 -uitgawe. Rennie het 'n gevarieerde loopbaan gehad, benewens sy tyd as redakteur by Wetenskaplike Amerikaner, insluitend poste in hoër onderwys, as skrywer en as televisie -gasheer. [1]

Wetenskaplike Amerikaner Redigeer

Rennie het by die Raad van Redakteurs aangesluit by Wetenskaplike Amerikaner in 1989. In 1994 is hy aangestel as die 7de hoofredakteur vir Wetenskaplike Amerikanerwat in hierdie rol gedien het tot 2009. Terwyl hy hoofredakteur was, was Rennie betrokke by verskeie projekte, waaronder die bekendstelling van sy webwerf, die skryf van artikels en bydraes tot Wetenskaplike Amerikanerse podcasts, Wetenskappraatjie en 60-tweede wetenskap. [2]

Televisie wysig

Rennie het sedert die middel 1990's in verskeie televisieprogramme verskyn, of op 'n ander manier daartoe bygedra: [3]

    ' Bedrog, skemas en skurke 's Anderson Cooper 360 ° 's Vreemde VSA en MysteryQuest 's Naakte Wetenskap 's Hacking the Planet en Die waarheid oor twisters 's Geheimenisse in die museum 's Die diepste geheime van die ruimte

Ander skryfwerk Redigeer

Die blog wat Rennie vir PLoS geskryf het, Die glimmende antwoord, fokus hoofsaaklik op wetenskapskrywing, klimaat, tegnologie en gesondheid. Dit was aktief van September 2010 tot Desember 2014. [4]

Rennie het die blog geskryf Die kundige wetenskaplike vir SmartPlanet tussen November 2011 en September 2012 [5] en 'n handjievol artikels neergeskryf vir die General Electric geborgde aanlyn tydskrif, Txchnologist, in 2011 en 2012. [6]

In 2017 het Rennie by die personeel van Quanta Tydskrif as adjunkredakteur. [7]

Hoër onderwys Redigeer

Rennie is aangewys as adjunk -fakulteit vir die gegradueerde program vir wetenskap-, gesondheids- en omgewingsverslagdoening aan die Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute van die Universiteit van New York. [8] [9] Rennie verskyn ook as kernfakulteit vir Beakerhead se SciComm Lab. [10]

In die openbaar spreek Edit

Rennie was 'n spreker by verskeie konferensies en werkswinkels, waaronder: [11] [12]

    (2009, 2010, 2011 en 2015) 5 (2007) NYC 2010 2011
  • TAM 2013 Vega Fellows Science Communications Workshop vir 2013
  • "Die alledaagse belangrikheid van STEM" -paneel tydens die 2014 American Conference Association se jaarlikse konferensie
  • Paneel "Electric Medicine and the Brain" vir die World Science Festival (2015)

In 2000 het Rennie die Carl Sagan -toekenning vir openbare begrip van wetenskap deur die Raad van die Wetenskaplike Verenigingsvoorsitters ontvang. [13] In September 2003 ontvang hy die Navigator -toekenning van die Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. [14]


Wat Rennie familie rekords sal jy vind?

Daar is 88 000 sensusrekords beskikbaar vir die van Rennie. Soos 'n venster in hul daaglikse lewe, kan die Rennie-sensusrekords u vertel waar en hoe u voorouers gewerk het, hul opvoedingsvlak, veteraanstatus en meer.

Daar is 97 000 immigrasierekords beskikbaar vir die van Rennie. Passasierslyste is u kaartjie om te weet wanneer u voorouers in die VSA aangekom het en hoe hulle die reis onderneem het - van die skeepsnaam tot die aankoms- en vertrekhawe.

Daar is 9 000 militêre rekords beskikbaar vir die van Rennie. Vir die veterane onder u Rennie -voorouers, bied militêre versamelings insigte oor waar en wanneer hulle diens gedoen het, en selfs fisiese beskrywings.

Daar is 88 000 sensusrekords beskikbaar vir die van Rennie. Soos 'n venster in hul daaglikse lewe, kan Rennie-sensusrekords u vertel waar en hoe u voorouers gewerk het, hul opvoedingsvlak, veteraanstatus en meer.

Daar is 97 000 immigrasierekords beskikbaar vir die van Rennie. Passasierslyste is u kaartjie om te weet wanneer u voorouers in die VSA aangekom het en hoe hulle die reis onderneem het - van die skeepsnaam tot die aankoms- en vertrekhawe.

Daar is 9 000 militêre rekords beskikbaar vir die van Rennie. Vir die veterane onder u Rennie -voorouers, bied militêre versamelings insigte oor waar en wanneer hulle diens gedoen het, en selfs fisiese beskrywings.


Uit Graces Guide

Sir John Rennie (1794-1874), van G. en J. Rennie

1794 30 Augustus. Gebore te Stamfordstraat 27, Blackfriarsweg, Londen, die seun van die ingenieur John Rennie (die ouer) en broer van George Rennie.

Alhoewel hy die jongste van John Rennie se seuns was, het die voltooiing van die siviele ingenieurswerke van sy vader hom hoofsaaklik toegeskryf.

1824 Gestig G. en J. Rennie saam met sy broer George.

Hy is gekies om sy vader se ontwerp vir London Bridge tussen 1824 en 1831 uit te voer. Hy en sy broer George was betrokke by die bou van George Stephenson se Liverpool en Manchester Railway in 1830.

1835 Getroud met Selina Garth Colleton in St Marylebone, Londen Ώ ]

1841 Sir Jno Rennie 40, ingenieur, woon in Charing Cross, saam met Lady Rennie 25, Colyton Rennie 3, Charlotte Rennie 1 ΐ ]

1845 Hy word president van die Institution of Civil Engineers.

1851 Sir John Rennie 52, woon in Charing Cross, saam met Lady Rennie 37, Charlotte Rennie 11, Alice Rennie 8 Α ]

1871 Sir John Rennie 78, siviele ingenieur, woon in Belgrave, Londen met Selina Rennie 60, Charlotte A Rennie 29 Β ]

Sir John Rennie, die tweede seun van wyle mnr John Rennie, is gebore te Stamfordstraat 27, Blackfriarsweg, op 30 Augustus 1794.

Nadat hy die beginsels van opvoeding by die huis ontvang het, is hy eers na die skool van Dr Greenlaw op Isleworth gestuur, en daarna na die gevierde dokter Charles Burney, in Greenwich.

Toe hy laasgenoemde verlaat, in 1809, besluit sy vader om hom onder sy eie oog vir die ingenieursberoep op te lei. Sir John het gevolglik die fabriek van sy vader in Hollandstraat, Blackfriars, binnegegaan en is daar ingelyf tot in die fynste besonderhede van die beroep, selfs om planke te saag, te skaaf en te draai. Van daar af het hy na die tekenkantoor gegaan en daarna is wyle Francis Giles vir praktiese opmetings onderrig.

In 1813, nadat hy 'n aanvaarbare kennis van sy beroep verkry het, is Sir John geplaas onder die heer Hollingsworth, die inwonende ingenieur van Waterloo Bridge, waarvan hy die fondamente persoonlik onder toesig gehou het tydens die ernstige winter van 1813-14.

In 1815 word die oudste Rennie as ingenieur van die nuwe Southwark Bridge Company aangestel, en hoewel hy die ingenieur van die heer Meston benoem het, het hy in werklikheid die besonderhede aan sy seun vertrou. By hierdie geleentheid was sir John, hoewel hy net 'n seuntjie was, die eerste om groot blokke Skotse graniet van Portishead [Peterhead ?!] bekend te stel.

Met die uitsondering van 'n kort tydjie by Giles om die kus van Skotland en Ierland te ondersoek, met die doel om 'n reeks pospakkies vir die regering tussen Portpatrick en Donaghadee, die toesighouding van Waterloo en veral Southwark -brûe op te stel, beset Sir John tot die opening van laasgenoemde, in 1819, waarna mnr. Rennie, altyd begerig om sy seun se professionele opleiding op die wydste en mees liberale wyse te bevorder, na die buiteland gestuur het om hom die geleentheid te gee om die werke van antieke en moderne ingenieurs. Hoe goed die jong Rennie baat by die geleenthede wat hy hom gebied het, getuig die notaboeke wat hy agtergelaat het, vol tekeninge en beskrywings van verskillende werke, sowel as die kennis wat hy opgedoen het oor hidroulika, en sy vertroudheid met die argitektuur en ingenieurswese werke van die ou mense.

By die afsterwe van die oudste Rennie is die onderneming verdeel tussen sy twee oudste seuns, wat in vennootskap gebly het met betrekking tot die werke in Hollandstraat, maar die belangrikste deel van die meganiese besigheid het die oorlede meneer G. Rennie, M. Inst.CE, terwyl die voltooiing van die ingenieurswerke hoofsaaklik op Sir John gegaan het. Die belangrikste van hierdie werke was die nuwe London Bridge. Die ou brug, wat die verkeer bo en onder die terrein onmiddellik vernou het, is lankal veroordeel, en talle planne is op verskillende tye vir die heropbou daarvan saam met kaaie vir die rivieroewers gemaak. Na 'n lang bespreking is 'n ontwerp van wyle meneer Rennie in wese goedgekeur, en by sy dood het sir John die opdrag gekry. uitvoer dit. Die oorspronklike plan is byna volledig nagekom, maar die vasbeslotenheid van die korporasie om die ou brug en sy benaderings as 'n tydelike kommunikasiemiddel te bewaar, het gelei tot die bou van die huidige brug effens hoër teen die rivier, tesame met nuwe benaderings op beide kant.

The disputes as to the bridge were numerous and violent, until the construction of what was simply a great convenience for the metropolis assumed almost the importance of a national struggle and when a bill was required to give enlarged powers to the Corporation, consequent on the necessity for fresh approaches, five Cabinet ministers (the Duke of Wellington, the Premier, being in the chair) sat on the select committee of the Lords, and the session of Parliament was prolonged, in order to pass the bill.

The new bridge was opened by his late Majesty William IV., in 1831, and Sir John received the honour of knighthood, - being the first of his profession since Sir Hugh Myddleton, similarly distinguished.

London Bridge was, however, but a part of the inheritance which Sir John had received. The completion of Sheerness Dockyard, of Ramsgate Harbour, and of Plymouth Breakwater also devolved upon him, in the capacity of Engineer to the Admiralty, a post in which he succeeded his father.

As regards Ramsgate, originally designed and commenced by Smeaton, and continued by the elder Rennie, Sir John completed the two outer piers, besides rebuilding the greater portion of the original structure. Over the breakwater at Plymouth he exercised a general superintendence, confiding the details and personal supervision to Mr. Whidbey but he provided the berm on the seaward face, where additional strength was required against the action of the sea.

At Woolwich he executed a large dock, mast, and pond, now, with the rest of the dockyard, disused also some minor works at Chatham. One of his leading works was the Victualling Establishment at Plymouth, of which the machinery was mainly designed by his brother.

At this time, and for many years afterwards, he was engaged on alterations and additions to Kingstown, Portpatrick, Portrush, Donaghadee, Warkworth, Sunderland, Hartlepool, Cardiff, and Whitehaven harbours, together with the enlargement of the Newry canal, several designs and reports for the harbours of the Isle of Man, the bridges at Staines, New Galloway, and over the Serpentine, the latter designed by the late Mr. Rennie.

In the drainage and reclamation of land, Sir John followed in the footsteps of his father, although he had not actually to carry out any specific designs. Among the works of this class may be mentioned the completion, in 1822, of the Eau Brink cut, near King's Lynn, by which a lowering of water of 7 feet was gained in the Ouse the construction, in conjunction with the late Mr. Telford, of the Nene outfall below Wisbeach, which had the effect of similarly depressing the water-level by from 10 feet 6 inches to 11 feet, and which would have been still greater, had not strong opposition prevented the improvements being carried to the higher grounds at Peterborough, as was originally intended. These works were begun in 1826, and finished in 1831.

Subsequently Sir John reported, for the Duke of Bedford, on the drainage of Whittlesea Mere and the surrounding fens, an area of 50,000 acres but his plan, owing to the opposition of conflicting interests, was never carried into effect.

In 1827-8 he restored the harbour of Boston, which, owing to neglect and bad management, had been nearly ruined, by forming a new channel, 1 mile in length, for a portion of the course of the Witham below the town. At an expense not exceeding £33,000, the navigation was so improved, that the town was accessible to vessels drawing 15 feet to 16 feet at spring tides, and from 12 feet to 13 feet at neaps.

Besides the above, Sir John executed various improvements on the Welland the effect of the whole being to improve the drainage of nearly 800,000 acres, and as may be imagined, Sir John, constantly employed on these works, so congenial to his tastes, could not fail to form some comprehensive plan for the entire district. Accordingly, when a committee of the leading landowners requested him to survey and report upon all the rivers falling into the Wash, he devoted a year to a thorough examination, not only of the rivers, but of the Wash itself, and elaborated a scheme by which the navigation of the Nene, Ouse, Welland, and Witham would have been improved, the water lowered, and from 150,000 to 200,000 acres of land reclaimed from the sea. But this scheme appeared too great for realisation, and it was subsequently considerably reduced, and divided into two, of which the Norfolk Estuary Company proposed to reclaim about 40,000 acres, and the Lincolnshire Company a somewhat less amount.

Eventually the opposition of the Lincolnshire landholders, who feared for their foreshore rights, led to the latter scheme being abandoned while the Norfolk Estuary Company was so hampered by conditions and obligations, that, though still in existence, it has as yet inclosed but a very small portion of land. One benefit, however, was derived from their operations. The plan included a new channel for the mouth of the Ouse this, the first work undertaken, besides greatly improving the port of Lynn, has been instrumental, in conjunction with the Eau Brink cut, in lowering the water in the Ouse to 11 feet below its former level.

In spite of this failure, and two others somewhat similar in Holland and on the Essex coast, Sir John always upheld the feasibility and great value of these reclamations. He maintained that at least 600,000 acres in England and Scotland would amply repay the trouble and expense of inclosure, besides adding greatly to the permanent wealth of the country, and he has left in manuscript numerous suggestions as to the mode in which these may be effected.

In 1825-6 Sir John, in partnership with his brother, made his first contribution to railways by designing the Manchester and Liverpool line. Ultimately, however, the direction was conferred upon Mr. G. Stephenson. For this line the Messrs. Rennie, after a very careful investigation, decided that the gauge should be 5 feet 6 inches, a medium between the present broad and narrow gauges but when the control of the works was conferred upon Mr. Stephenson, he adopted the old colliery gauge of 4 feet 8.5 inches, which, as the narrow gauge, has since become universal.

From that time until the great extension of the railway system in 1844-5, Sir John Rennie had but little to do with this branch of the profession, confining himself principally to hydraulics and, though he prepared several bills, the lines were not carried out, but several have since been constructed on similar plans to those he proposed. It may here be mentioned that his principle in laying down a line was to make it as direct as possible, tapping the districts which lay on either side of the main line by nearly straight branches.

In 1852 he laid out a system of railways for Sweden, for which he received the Order of Gustavus Wasa and three years afterwards, in 1855, he designed s series of railways and fire harbours for Portugal, including a harbour of refuge for Oporto none of which, however, were carried out, though he was subsequently commissioned to erect a breakwater at Ponte Delgada, at the isle of St. Michaels, one of the Azores, and the chief seat of the orange trade. For these services he received the Portuguese Order of the Tower and Sword.

In 1861 he was invited by the Corporation of the City of London to submit, competitive plans for the rebuilding of Blackfriars Bridge.

In the succeeding year he reported to the Municipality of Vienna on supplying the city with water, and in 1862 he was Chairman of the Civil Engineering section of the International Exhibition. This was almost the last of his public acts he shortly afterwards retired from the Norfolk Estuary works, and Ramsgate Harbour being acquired by the Government, he ceased to be the inspecting engineer.

From this time he seldom appeared in public save at the Royal Society Club, of which he was remarkably fond. He occupied his leisure with the composition of several works, especially on hydraulics, which remain in manuscript.

The mechanical achievements, of which Sir John Rennie could claim a share, were mostly carried out in connection with his brother, the late Mr. George Rennie, M. Inst. C.E., to whose memoir reference may be made.

Sir John Rennie might, in his declining years, have claimed the title of 'Dean of the Faculty of Engineers.' He stood alone, the last of a bygone race, a link connecting the Brindleys, the Smeatons, the Rennies, and the Telfords of the old system with the Stephensons and the Brunels of the new.

His presidential address to the Institution in 1846 was a complete history of the rise and progress of the profession while the monograph on Plymouth Breakwater and, still more, his work on British and Foreign Harbours, for which he received tokens of honour from the sovereigns both of Russia and Austria, are no insignificant memorials of literary skill.

He contributed the following Papers to the Institution:- 'An Account of the Drainage of the Level of Ancholme, Lincolnshire' 'On the Ancient Harbour of Ostia' and 'On the improvement of the Navigation of the River Newry.'

In his retirement he addressed several letters to 'The Times' on the drainage and improvement of land, and the storage of water and regulation of rivers. A letter on the management of the rivers and marshes of Italy having attracted the notice of Signor Sella, then premier, procured for him the Order of St. Maurice and Lazare.

It only remains to add that Sir John’s acquirements extended much beyond his profession. Understanding several languages, he was extensively versed in general literature. He was long a Member of the Royal Society, and other scientific bodies and was one of the first persons to whom Sir Humphry Davy applied when forming the Zoological Society.

Of his personal character one trait may be sufficient. Throughout his lengthened career, and in spite of the numerous disputes in which he was involved, he never bore a moment’s envy or malice against any human being. His posthumous memoirs are full of the kindest notices of all with whom he came in contact and whenever he had occasion to notice the Stephensons and their works, it is with a eulogy which their most devoted adherents might rival but could not surpass.

Sir John Rennie was elected a Member of the Institution on the 25th of June, 1844 he became President on the 21st of January, 1845, retaining the office for three years.

He died at Bengeo, near Hertford, on the 3rd of September, 1874, just after completing his eightieth year.


Engineering achievements

John Rennie's work on canals, aqueducts, bridges and dockyards mark him as one of the greatest engineers of his age.

Rennie was born near East Linton, 20 miles east of Edinburgh. He played truant from school to watch Andrew Meikle, the local millwright and inventor of the threshing machine, and began to work there when he was 12, while continuing his education. He studied at Edinburgh University and then worked for Matthew Boulton and James Watt , manufacturer of steam engines.

When he was 29, he moved to London and set up his own engineering business. His first works were the Lancaster Canal, the Kennet & Avon Canal, the Royal Military Canal, and improving the drainage of the Norfolk fens. He also designed bridges in stone and cast iron with daringly wide arches - like Kelso Bridge, Waterloo Bridge, Southwark Bridge and London Bridge, completed by his son George after his death. His docks and harbours included Grimsby, Leith and the London Docks. But his largest projects were for the Royal Navy as it built the infrastructure for its century of world domination, including Sheerness Dockyard and the great breakwater at Plymouth. Rennie also gave advice on novel maritime structures such as steam-powered dredgers, diving bells and the Bell Rock lighthouse.

His Life

Age Gebeurtenis Jaar
Born in Phantassie, Haddingtonshire, Scotland on 7 th June 1761
12 Worked with Andrew Meikle, engineer and millwright 1773
14 Attended Dunbar High School 1775
18 Set up in own right as a millwright 1779
19 Matriculated at Edinburgh University 1780
22 Completed his studies at Edinburgh University 1783
23 Employed by Boulton and Watt to manage their London business 1784
23 Erected engines for the Albion Mills at Blackfriars Bridge 1784
25 Albion Mills opened for business 1786
26 Elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh on 28th January 1788
29 Married Martha Ann Mackintosh 1790
29 Appointed engineer to the Kennet and Avon Canal 1790
37 Elected Fellow of Royal Society 1798
39 Appointed engineer to the London docks 1800
42 Appointed engineer to the East India docks with Ralph Walker 1803
46 Collaborated with Robert Stevenson on design of Bell Rock Lighthouse 1803-
50 Construction of Plymouth Sound breakwater began 1811
50 Construction of Waterloo Bridge began1811
53 Construction of Southwark Bridge began1814
56 Declined knighthood on opening of Waterloo Bridge 1817
60 Died of liver disease at Stamford Street, Southwark on 4 th October 1821
60 Buried in St Paul's Cathedral 1821

His Legacy

Rennie's greatest legacy lies in the many enduring works of civil engineering he created, including:

Canals: Lancaster Canal, Ulverstone Canal, Crinan Canal, Kennet and Avon Canal, Grand Trunk Canal (Leek Branch), Aberdeenshire Canal, Croydon Canal, Royal Canal Ireland, Royal Military Canal, Grand Western Canal
Docks and Harbours: Grimsby Haven, London Docks, East Dock Leith, East India Docks London, Humber Dock, East India Dock Greenock, Margate Harbour, Howth Harbour, Berwick Harbour, West Dock Leith, Plymouth Breakwater, Sheerness Dockyard, Pembroke Dockyard, Deptford Dockyard, Kingstown Harbour, Chatham Dockyard dry dock
Bridges: Wolsely Bridge, Kelso Bridge, Radford Bridge, Town Bridge Boston, Musselburgh Bridge, Waterloo Bridge, Lucknow Bridge, Southwark Bridge,


Inhoud

The company was founded by John Rennie and his brother George Rennie after the death of their father John Rennie (senior) in 1821, who at that time was engaged in the building of London Bridge, an activity which the younger John Rennie took over, and on completion in 1831 he was knighted. George Rennie was an equally distinguished civil engineer with many academic publications, and was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1822. Both brothers continued their civil and hydraulic engineering interests, with their joint company participating in diverse ways. Their hydraulic engineering interest involved them with work on docks, canals and bridges, and apart from civil engineering the company specialised in building marine steam engines such as those for the SS Archimedes in 1838, which was the world's first steamship driven by screw propeller. This side of the business being a particular interest of George Rennie.

Apart from marine engines, Messrs Rennie were listed with Boulton and Watt as one of two suppliers commissioned in 1845 to make engines to create the vacuum for the South Devon atmospheric railway. [1]

In an advert of 1882 [2] the company listed the following among their products :

  • Steam Ships (builders of Ironclad warshipsColombo en Cabral for the Imperial Brazilian Navy)
  • Dredging Machines
  • Floating Docks
  • Screw & Paddle Engines (e.g. for HMS Bacchante, HMS Boadicea, HMS Kanada, HMS Cordelia, HMS Briton, HMS Ametis, HMS Ontmoeting)
  • Centrifugal Dock Pumping engines (for Chatham and Plymouth Docks)
  • Steam Jib & Travelling Cranes
  • Screw Steam Hoppers

More of the products of the Rennie company can be deduced from a catalogue of exhibits from the 1876 exhibition at the South Kensington Museum, [3] which records a number of models exhibited :

  • Model of the inverted cylinder compound engines, for P&O's Pera of 2000 hp 1872
  • Model of the first screw steamer in the British Navy, Meermin, later named the Dwarf, built in 1840.
  • Model of HM Gun-boats Pyltjie en Bonetta. Length 85 ft, breadth 26 ft, depth 8 ft 10in, 244 tons. To carry one 18 ton gun.
  • Model of the iron Paddle-wheel steamer Koningin, built and fitted with engines by Rennie 1842.Length 160 ft, breadth 17 ft, depth 9 ft.
  • Model of Indian Famine Relief Steamers. Built complete with engines in 35 days. Length 90 ft, breadth 14 ft, depth 5 ft 6in, 100iHP.
  • Model of twin-screw gun boats built for East Indian government, 1857. Length 70 ft, breadth 11 ft, draught 2ft6in, 76iHP. One long brass 12pounder - 18cwt.
  • Model of twin-screw gun boats Colombo en Cabral, 1866. Length 160 ft, breadth 34 ft, depth 17 ft. 240 nominal HP. 4 of 68-pounder guns.
  • Model of twin-screw gun boats built for Spanish Government, 1859. Length 90 ft, breadth 14 ft, draught 2 ft 6in. 30HP.
  • Model of the engines of HM ships Boadicea en Bacchante (1875 and 1876), compound system 5250 indicated HP.
  • Model of horizontal marine engines with injection condensers, 1860.
  • Model of reversed horizontal marine screw engines, 1860
  • Design drawing for 60 hp low pressure condensing disc engine for screw steamship as fitted to HMS Cruizer, 1853.

The brothers' involvement in the support for the screw propeller was significant, as the British Admiralty was reluctant to change away from paddle wheels, believing the pitching of a ship would lift the propeller clear of the water in heavy seas causing the engine stress and rendering the vessel hard to control. Francis Pettit Smith and Captain John Ericsson had been trying to demonstrate the potential of the propeller for five years, and eventually it was Smith who formed a company to finance the building of the Archimedes (107 ft length) fitted with a Rennie single cylinder engine and 5 ft 9in screw propeller. It was her successful trials that began in 1839 that led to the admiralty purchasing the Meermin in 1842 (130 ft length), which was built and engined by Rennie, and fitted with the Rennie's patent propeller of 5 ft 8in diameter. [4] This was followed by the Admiralty fitting a 10-foot diameter Smith's propeller to the unfinished sailing sloop Ardent, which was launched in April 1843 renamed HMS Rattler. [5] Die Archimedes was also loaned to Brunel and resulted in him changing the design of the SS Groot Brittanje to screw propulsion, even though the paddle wheels were part constructed, setting back the project by 9 months.

The nutating disc engine was an unusual development, based on a design that dated back to the 1820s. In this engine the normal piston and cylinder was replaced by an oscillating disc. In 1849 Rennie employed George Daniell Bishopp as a foreman at their works, and he held an 1848 patent regarding this form of engine. Although the engines appear to have worked sufficiently well for several full scale trials, they had an inherent problem with their seals, and this appears to have been the main reason they were not a success.

A Rennie disc engine, with 27 inch disc, was fitted in HMS Minx in 1849, but as a supplementary engine, the original engines still being in situ. A working model of the Rennie disc engine was exhibited by George and John Rennie at the 1851 Great exhibition.

In addition to the stationary engines to create the vacuum for the South Devon atmospheric railway, the company had other involvement with the railways. John Rennie was involved with the surveying of a route for the London and Brighton Railway, which was in competition with a route by Stephenson. Among the engines purchased by the railway are several listed as supplied by G. and J. Rennie (as opposed to J. and G. Rennie). It appears the brothers formed a separate company for this activity to keep the books separate. The locomotives were:

  • Eagle, a 2-2-2 of 1840, withdrawn 1855
  • Vulture, a 2-2-2 of 1840, withdrawn 1853
  • Satellite, a 2-2-2 of 1841, withdrawn 1855

A fourth locomotive was supplied to the 'Joint Committee' which was a co-operation of the Brighton, Croydon, and Dover railways to pool rolling stock. This arrangement was dissolved at the start of 1846.

Rennie also supplied two 0-4-2 locomotives to the London and Croydon Railway in 1838 and 1839 which were used for banking and named "Archimedes" and "Croydon".

Five locomotives were built for the London & Southampton Railway, but problems were experienced and all of them were rebuilt by W Fairbairn & Son in 1841. [6]

Other locomotives include two of the GWR Firefly Class (hence broad gauge), "Arab" and "Mazeppa", both 2-2-2s built in 1841, and withdrawn in 1870 and 1868 respectively.


John Rennie (1761 - 1821)

John Rennie © Rennie's work on canals, aqueducts, bridges and dockyards mark him as one of the greatest engineers of his age.

Rennie was born on 7 June 1761, the fourth son of a prosperous farmer on the Phantassie estate near the village of East Linton, 20 miles east of Edinburgh. He played truant from school to watch what went on at the local millwright's workshop - run by the celebrated mechanic, Andrew Meikle, the inventor of the threshing machine - and began to work there when he was 12 years old, while continuing his education. He studied at Edinburgh University and then worked for Boulton and Watt, a firm based near Birmingham which manufactured steam engines.

In 1791, Rennie moved to London and set up his own engineering business. His first works were canals, notably the Lancaster Canal (1792 - 1803), the Kennet & Avon Canal (1794 - 1810), and the Royal Military Canal (1804-1909), and also improving the drainage of the Norfolk fens.

Meanwhile Rennie also acquired experience as a bridge designer, using stone and cast iron to produce bridges with daringly wide arches. These included the Lune Aqueduct (1793 - 1797), Kelso Bridge (1800 - 1804), Waterloo Bridge (1811 - 1817), Southwark Bridge (1815 - 1819) and London Bridge (1824 - 1831), which was completed to Rennie's design by his son George after his death.

Rennie also worked on the development of docks and harbours for commercial purposes, including Grimsby (1797 - 1800), Leith (1801 - 1817) and the London Docks (1801 - 1821). His largest projects were the civil engineering works required as the Royal Navy began to build the infrastructure for its century of world domination, including Sheerness Dockyard (1813 - 1821) and the great breakwater at Plymouth (1812 - 1821). Rennie was also commissioned to give advice on other novel maritime structures, notably steam-powered dredgers, diving bells and the famous Bell Rock lighthouse.


John Rennie - History

RENNIE, JOHN, a celebrated civil engineer, was the youngest son of a respectable farmer at Phantassie, in East Lothian, where he was born, June 7, 1761. Before he had attained his sixth year, he had the misfortune to lose his father his education, nevertheless, was carried on at the parish school (Prestonkirk) by his surviving relatives. The peculiar talents of young Rennie seem to have been called forth and fostered by his proximity to the workshop of the celebrated mechanic, Andrew Meikle, the inventor or improver of the thrashing-machine. He frequently visited that scene of mechanism, to admire the complicated processes which he saw going forward, and amuse himself with the tools of the workmen. In time, he began to imitate at home the models of machinery which he saw there and at the early age of ten he had made the model of a wind-mill, a steam-engine, and a pile-engine, the last of which is said to have exhibited much practical dexterity.

At twelve, Rennie left school, and entered into the employment of Andrew Meikle, with whom he continued two years. He then spent two years at Dunbar, for the purpose of improving his general education. So early as 1777, when only sixteen years of age, his Dunbar master considered him fit to superintend the school in his absence, and, on being removed to the academy at Perth, recommended Rennie as his successor. This, however, was not the occupation which the young mechanician desired, and he renewed his former labours in the workshop of Andrew Meikle, employing his leisure hours in modelling and drawing machinery. Before reaching the age of eighteen, he had erected two or three corn-mills in his native parish but the first work which he undertook on his own account was the rebuilding of the flour-mills at Invergowrie, near Dundee.

Views of an ambitious kind gradually opened to him, and, by zealously prosecuting his professional labours in summer, he was enabled to spend the winter in Edinburgh, where he attended the lectures of professor Robison on natural philosophy, and those of Dr Black on chemistry. Having thus fitted himself in some measure for the profession of an engineer, he proceeded to Soho, with a recommendation from Robison to Messrs Bolton and Watt. On the way, he examined the aqueduct bridge at Lancaster, the docks at Liverpool, and the interesting works on the Bridgewater canal. At Soho, he was immediately taken into employment, and it was not long ere Mr Watt discovered the extraordinary talents of his young assistant. In the erection of the Albion mills in London, which was completed in 1789, Mr Rennie was intrusted by his employers with the construction of the mill-work and machinery, which were admitted to be of superior excellence. These mills consisted of two engines, each of fifty horse power, and twenty pairs of millstones, of which twelve or more pairs, with the requisite machinery, were constantly kept at work. In place of wooden wheels, so subject to frequent derangement, wheels of cast-iron, with the teeth truly formed and finished, and properly proportioned to the work, were here employed the other machinery, which used to be made of wood, was made of cast-iron in improved forms. This splendid establishment, which Mr Watt acknowledges to have formed the commencement of the modern improved system of mill-work, was destroyed in 1791, by wilful fire, being obnoxious to popular prejudices, under the mistaken supposition of its being a monopoly. The mechanism, however, established Mr Rennie’s fame, and he soon after began to obtain extensive employment on his own account.

The earlier years of his professional life were chiefly spent in mill-work and his merits in this line may be briefly stated. One striking improvement was in the bridge-tree. It was formerly customary to place the vertical axis of the running mill-stone in the middle of the bridge-tree, which was supported only at its two extremities. The effect of this was that the bridge-tree yielded to the variations of pressure arising from the greater or less quantity of grain admitted between the mill-stones, which was conceived to be an useful effect. Mr Rennie, however, made the bridge-tree perfectly immovable, and thus freed the machinery from that irregular play which sooner or later proves fatal to every kind of mechanism. Another improvement by Mr Rennie has been adverted to in the above account of the Albion mills but the principal one was in the comparative advantage which he took of the water power. He so economized the power of water as to give an increase of energy, by its specific gravity, to the natural fall of streams, and to make his mills equal to fourfold the produce of those, which, before his time, depended solely on the impetus of the current.

Mr Rennie was gradually attracted from the profession of a mechanician to that of an engineer. In the course of a few years after his first coming into public notice, he was employed in a considerable number of bridges and other public works, all of which he executed in a manner which proved his extraordinary genius. His principal bridges are those of Kelso, Leeds, Musselburgh, Newton-Stewart, Boston, and New Galloway. The first, which was erected between 1799 and 1803, has been greatly admired for its elegance, and its happy adaptation to the beautiful scenery in its neighbourhood. It consists of a level road-way, resting on five elliptical arches, each of which has a span of seventy-three feet, and a rise of twenty-one. The bridge of Musselburgh is on a smaller scale, but equally perfect in its construction. A remarkable testimony to its merits was paid in Mr Rennie’s presence, by an untutored son of nature. He was taking the work off the contractor’s hands, when a magistrate of the town, who was present, asked a countryman who was passing at the time with his cart, how he liked the new bridge. "Brig," answered the man, "it’s nae brig ava ye neither ken whan ye’re on’t, nor whan ye’re aff’t" It must be remarked that this bridge superseded an old one in its immediate neighbourhood, which had a very precipitous road-way, and was in every respect the opposite of the new one.

Mr Rennie was destined, however, to leave more splendid monuments of his talents in this particular department of his profession. The Waterloo bridge across the Thames at London, of which he was the architect, would have been sufficient in itself to stamp him as an engineer of the first order. This magnificent public work was commenced in 1811, and finished in 1817, at the expense of rather more than a million of money. It may safely be described as one of the noblest structures of the kind in the world, whether we regard the simple and chaste grandeur of its architecture, the impression of indestructibility which it forces on the mind of the beholder, or its adaptation to the useful purpose for which it was intended. It consists of nine equal arches, of 127 feet span the breadth between the parapets is 42 feet and the road-way is perfectly flat. Mr Rennie also planned the Southwark bridge, which is of cast. iron, and has proved very stable, notwithstanding many prophecies to the contrary. The plan of the new London bridge was likewise furnished by him but of this public work he did not live to see even the commencement.

Among the public works of different kinds executed by Mr Rennie may be mentioned—of canals, the Aberdeen, the Great Western, the Kennet and Avon, the Portsmouth, the Birmingham, and the Worcesterof docks, those at Hull, Leith, Greenock, Liverpool, and Dublin, besides the West India docks in the city of London—and of harbours, those at Berwick, Dunleary, Howth, Newhaven, and Queensferry. In addition to these naval works, he planned various important improvements on the national dockyards at Plymouth, Portsmouth, Chatham, and Sheerness and the new naval arsenal at Pembroke was constructed from his designs. But by far the greatest of all his naval works was the celebrated breakwater at Plymouth. It is calculated that he planned works to the amount of fifty millions in all, of which nearly twenty millions were expended under his own superintendence.

Mr Rennie died, October 16, 1821, of inflammation in the liver, which had afflicted him for some years. By his wife, whom he married in 1789, he left six children, of whom the eldest, Mr George Rennie, followed the same profession as his father. This eminent man was buried with great funeral honours, in St Paul’s cathedral, near the grave of Sir Christopher Wren.

The grand merit of Mr Rennie as an engineer is allowed to have been his almost intuitive perception of what was necessary for certain assigned purposes. With little theoretical knowledge, he had so closely studied the actual forms of the works of his predecessors, that he could at length trust in a great measure to a kind of tact which he possessed in his own mind, and which could hardly have been communicated. He had the art of applying to every situation where he was called to act professionally, the precise form of remedy that was wanting to the existing evil,—whether it was to stop the violence of the most boisterous sea—to make new harbours, or to render those safe which were before dangerous or inaccessible—to redeem districts of fruitful land from encroachment by the ocean, or to deliver them from the pestilence of stagnant marsh--to level hills or to tie them together by aqueducts or arches, or, by embankment, to raise the valley between them—to make bridges that for beauty, surpass all others, and for strength seem destined to last to the latest posterity—Rennie had no rival. Though he carried the desire of durability almost to a fault, and thus occasioned more expense, perhaps, on some occasions, than other engineers would have considered strictly necessary, he was equally admired for his conscientiousness in the fulfilment of his labours, as for his genius in their contrivance. He would suffer no subterfuge for real strength to be resorted to by the contractors who undertook to execute his plans. Elevated by his genius above mean and immediate considerations, he felt in all his proceedings, as if he were in the court of posterity: he sought not only to satisfy his employers, but all future generations.

Although Rennie did not devote himself to the acquisition of theoretical knowledge, excepting to that general extent which is required by every well-informed engineer, he was fond of those investigations of a mixed character, where the results of experiment are combined by mathematical rules, and a train of inquiry directed and modified by the lights of theory. In his instrument for ascertaining the strength of flowing water, he has made a contribution to science of no small importance.


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