Severan -brug

Severan -brug



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Die ou Severn -brug kan herdoop word om die jubileum van die koningin te vier

Raadslede in South Gloucestershire sal Woensdag tydens 'n vergadering oor die mosie debatteer.

Die koningin maak die brug in 1966 oop en vier die jubileum in 2022.

Die konserwatiewe lid van Severn Vale, Matthew Riddle, staan ​​agter die mosie en het gesê dat hy wou hê dat die streek die ekstra myl moet gee om die geleentheid op 'n geskikte manier te merk.

As die mosie gesteun word, het mnr. Riddle die leier van die raad, Toby Savage, gevra om aan die minister van buitelandse sake vir Grant Grant Shapps te skryf om die versoek formeel te maak.

Nadat hy gedien het as 'n simbool van leierskap en hoop vir ons land in goeie tye en langer as 'n heerser in ons land, lyk dit gepas dat South Gloucestershire die ekstra myl loop om 'n manier te vind om The Queen se merkwaardige 70 te merk jaar op die troon op 'n gepaste manier, ' lui die mosie.

& quot Ek hoop dit. die regering kan oorweeg om die Severn Bridge, waarskynlik die mees ikoniese baken van South Gloucestershire, na haar naam te hernoem. & quot

'N Besluit om die tweede Severn Crossing the Prince of Wales Bridge in 2018 te hernoem, het kritiek van sommige Walliese parlementslede gekry en 'n aanlyn petisie het duisende handtekeninge gelok.

Die nuwer van die twee brûe is in 1996, 30 jaar na die oorspronklike kruising, deur die prins geopen.

Die 70-jarige bewind van die koningin word gevier met 'n vierdaagse bankvakansienaweek van 2-5 Junie 2022.

Om die langnaweek te skep, word die einde van die Lente -vakansiedag van daardie jaar na Donderdag 2 Junie verskuif en 'n ekstra vakansie op Vrydag 3 Junie geskep.

'N Wye verskeidenheid openbare geleenthede word gehou, jubelmedaljes word toegeken aan staatsdienswerkers en bome sal geplant word as deel van die vieringe.


Ironbridge Village

Die plek waar Iron Bridge gebou is, was 'n belangrike vervoerspunt in die Shropshire -streek, wat onmiddellik die eerste geboue veroorsaak het, en vinnig daarna die Ironbridge -dorp. Vandag is hierdie dorpie deel van die burgerlike gemeente The Gorge, in die stad Telford en Wrekin. Aangesien dit in die hartjie van Ironbridge Gorge geleë is, en reg rondom die oewer van die Iron Bridge, was die vroeë dekades van die geskiedenis van die dorp ten volle toegewy aan die ondersteuning van die plaaslike bedryf van steenkool- en ystermynbou en -verwerking. Die dorp is tot die toeriste bevorder as die ' Geboorteplek van die Industriële Revolusie, "en 'n plek waar mense van regoor Engeland die revolusionêre proses kan sien om yster goedkoop met coke te smelt. Natuurlik is moderne historici vandag dit eens dat die proses van die industriële revolusie in Engeland nie onmiddellik rondom Ironbridge in die streek begin het nie. dorp, maar op baie plekke en met invloede van baie uitvinders en entrepreneurs.

Die grootste industriële punt naby Iron Bridge was sonder twyfel Darby se ystersmeltgerief, wat gehelp het om die proses van ystersmelting te vereenvoudig voordat dit vervang is deur die meer kostedoeltreffende produksie van ander streke van Engeland. Alhoewel die gebied rondom Iron Bridge nie so 'n belangrike rol gespeel het in die geskiedenis van die Engelse ysterproduksie nie, word die blote bestaan ​​van die indrukwekkende gietysterbrug, 'n eerste wat uit sulke swaar konstruksiemateriaal gemaak is, vandag as 'n belangrike stuk geskiedenis.

Onmiddellik nadat die brug in 1781 gebou en oopgemaak is, het hierdie streek al hoe meer aandag getrek. Mense uit die verspreide nedersetting Madeley Wood is na die ysterbrug verplaas, en saam met hulle het die ou Madeley -mark gekom, die bou van die nuwe dorpsplein, 'n nuwe hotel wat deur toeriste en reisigers gebruik sou word, en verskeie geboue wat verband hou met die nuwe kommersiële en administratiewe sentrum van die Coalbrookdale. Die heuwel bo die rivier het 'n 16de-eeuse kliphuis op Lincoln Hill, en talle werkershuisies en 'n groot aantal Georgiese huise wat gebou is deur ryk ystermeesters, myneienaars, sakegesinne en selfs verskeie villa's wat deur die ryk elite in die Victoriaanse era geskep is. Teen die 19de eeu het die dorp gegroei en nog meer opvallende geboue gekry, waarvan die belangrikste die St Luke's Church was. Dit is in 1837 voltooi met ontwerpversierings deur Samuel Smith van Madeley en glaswerk van David Evans van Shrewsbury. Gedurende die 19de eeu en meer as die helfte van die 20ste was die suidekant van die Ironbridge -dorp die voormalige spoorwegstasie Iron Bridge en Broseley wat op die Severn Valley -lyn (GWR) van Hartlebury na Shrewsbury werk.

Teen die middel van die 20ste eeu het Iron Bridge en die omgewing onmiddellik deel daarvan geword UNESCO Wêrelderfenisgebied, wat dit 'n groot toeriste -aantreklikheid maak. Vandag is die grootste deel van die dorp gefokus op toerisme, met baie feeste rondom die brug. Die gewildste jaarlikse geleentheid van die dorp is jaarlikse Coracle Regatta word in Augustus op die rivier die Sever gehou.

Broseley

Broseley is 'n klein stad in Shropshire, Engeland, geleë aan die suidelike oewer van die Ironbridge Gorge, naby die rivier Severn en die plek waar Abraham Darby III en Thomas Farnolls Pritchard die beroemde Iron Bridge opgerig het en in wese 'n Ironbridge -dorp daar rondom geskep het. Die stad Broseley speel 'n belangrike rol in die geskiedenis van Iron Bridge. Die gebied rondom die dorp was baie bekend vir die ontginning van klip, metaal en ander erts, en ystermeesters van daardie streek het baie belanggestel in die bou van beter paaie na die res van die streke van Engeland. Die bedryf was so sterk in hierdie streek dat die stad Broseley nog steeds aanspraak maak op die oudste spoorlyn wat ooit in Engeland vervaardig is.

Die stad was ook belangrik vir ontwikkelinge in die verwerking van ystererts. Ystermeester Abraham Darby I het sy invloedryke proses ontwikkel om yster te smelt met behulp van stooksteenkool in hierdie gebied (wat die opkoms van die Industriële Revolusie aangewakker het), en is daar begrawe na sy dood in 1717. Verder was Broseley ook 'n plek waar die Engelse nyweraar John Wilkinson het die eerste boot ter wêreld uit yster gebou.

Met so 'n sterk nywerheid, is dit nie vreemd dat ystermeesters van Broseley en ander dorpe in die streek beter toegangspunte en paaie gevra het om hul goedere na die res van Engeland te vervoer nie. Abraham Darby III het begin beplan vir die skepping van die Iron Bridge terwyl hy in Broseley gewoon het, en baie van die konstruksie daarvan is onder toesig van hierdie plek af. Nadat die brug gebou is, het die stad steeds gedy, maar in die laaste helfte van die 19de eeu, die groot industriële teenwoordigheid verminder en die hele gebied rondom die stad het 'n finansiële agteruitgang ondergaanen laat talle verlate myne, geboue, putte en steengroewe agter.

Die stad Broseley en die hele streek het eers in die tweede helfte van die 20ste eeu teruggekeer van die moeilike finansiële situasie, nadat die stad Telford oorkant die rivier die Severn gestig is. Hierdie vinnig groeiende stad het die streek herbou, baie nuwe huise is gebou, besighede het ingetrek, wat die stad se bevolking tot byna 5 duisend gestoot het (byna tot die vlak wat dit tydens die hoogtepunt van die industriële revolusie twee eeue gelede was).

Madeley

Iron Bridge het ook 'n groot impak gehad op die ontwikkeling van die stad Madeley, Shropshire, wat vandag slegs 'n deel van die nuut ontwikkelde stad Telford is. Madeley, wat soms voor die 8ste eeu gestig is, was aanvanklik 'n markstad tot in die 14de eeu toe steenkool in 1322 ontdek is, en die ontginning van ystersteen in 1540 begin het. Gedurende die daaropvolgende dekades. Die stad word meer en meer belê in die vergemakliking van handel en mynbou, wat 'n groot hupstoot gekry het met die bou van die beroemde Ysterbrug op die nabygeleë Ysterkloof en die rivier die Sever. Hierdie brug verbind Madeley met Coalbrookdale, wat nie net vinniger reistye moontlik maak nie, maar ook 'n vinnige hupstoot vir die groei van die nuut ontwikkelde Ironbridge -dorp.

Vandag huisves byna 18 duisend mense die Madeley -parogie, en 'n aansienlike deel van die ysterkloof word beskerm deur dit as UNESCO -wêrelderfenisgebied te aanvaar.


FRAMPTON ON SEVERN lê 9 myl suid-wes van Gloucester, op 'n draai in die rivier die Severn. Dit is alombekend vir sy ruim dorpsgroen, genaamd Rosamund's Green na Henry II se minnares, Rosamund Clifford, 'n familielid wat in die 11de eeu tot die 20ste nou verbonde was aan Frampton. Die rivier die Severn vorm een ​​van die ses kante van die parochie, die voormalige loop van die rivierkam dui die suidwestelike grens aan, Wicksters spruit die suidelike, die Gloucester-Bristol-pad in die suidooste, die rivier die Frome die grootste deel van die noordooste, en die Gloucester- en Berkeley-kanaal volg rofweg die noordwestelike grens. (vn. 1) Die oppervlakte van die gemeente, uitgesluit rivieroewer, was 2 365 a., (vn. 2) insluitend 1 a. dit was voorheen 'n losstaande deel van Wheatenhurst en is in 1882 by Frampton gevoeg. (vn. 3) In 1935 43 a. van die gemeente wat 'n klein voorstad oos van die Gloucester-Bristol-pad vorm, is oorgeplaas na Eastington. (vn. 4)

Die land lê plat en laag, meestal onder die kontoerlyn van 50 voet, en styg slegs op 'n punt aan die oostelike grens tot 100 voet. Dit is meestal op die rivierkleie en gruis, en is voorheen afgetap deur die strome hierbo genoem en deur klein voeders, maar menslike werke het die patroon verander. Die loop van die Frome is verander aan die oostelike hoek van die gemeente, deur Fromebridge Mill, en ook, oor 'n langer stuk, 'n kilometer stroomaf. Meer fundamenteel neem die Gloucester- en Berkeley -kanaal al die water wat eens langs die rivier Cam wes van die kanaal geloop het, en dreineringswerke het die kleiner strome tot slote gereduseer. (vn. 5)

Die rivier die Severn het van tyd tot tyd oorstromings in die gemeente veroorsaak, veral in 1606. (vn. 6) Dit het ook die gemeente binnegedring en grond bygevoeg: c. 1615 laat die rivier hoog en droog 30 a. wat bekend geword het as Bromwich's warth, (vn. 7) en in 1791, toe onlangse pogings om inbreuk te maak op die verskuiwing van Severn ondoeltreffend geblyk het, (vn. 8) 15 a. van die landgoed is na bewering weggespoel. (vn. 9) In die Severn het daar blykbaar 'n herinneringsvissery bestaan c. 1225, toe Richard de Clifford 'n plek toegestaan ​​het vir die maak van ses putkers of visvangers naby Buckpool, (vn. 10) en 'n vissery in die Severn in 1315 aan die herehuis behoort het. (Vn. 11) In 1866 het die heer van die herehuis, HC Clifford, het stopnette in die Severn gehad, en alhoewel hy nie daarin kon slaag om sy titel by die Visseryekommissie te registreer nie (vn. 12), het sy opvolger in 1968 verskeie visserye in die rivier gehad. (vn. 13 ) In 1819 het 'n 60-voet. walvis is in die Severn by Frampton doodgemaak. (vn. 14)

Bote op die Severn, voor die opening van die Gloucester- en Berkeley -kanaal in 1827, (vn. 15) ingelê by Frampton Pill, die monding van die River Cam met 'n inlaat aan die Frampton -kant wat blykbaar vergroot is as 'n wasbak . (vn. 16) In 1668 is 'n stoorkamer vir die ontvangs en verkoop van steenkool aan die Slimbridge -kant van Frampton Pill gebou (voorn. 17) wat reeds in 1584 gekruis is deur 'n brug genaamd Warth Bridge. (vn. 18) Die pil is in 1770 gebruik om steenkool te land, (vn. 19) en in 1781 moes die brug herstel word nadat 'n groot steenkooldraende vaartuig dit gebreek het. (vn. 20) In 1806 was verdere herstelwerk nodig na skade deur 'n wegbreekskuit, (vn. 21), en dit het moontlik die inwoners van Frampton aangemoedig om 'n brug te bou aan die boonste punt van die landingsplek, waar dit sou minder kwesbaar wees vir bote, maar waar daar in 1806 beweer word dat dit die regte van die inwoners van Slimbridge skend. (vn. 22) In 1815 het die insluitingskommissarisse aan die gemeentelede van Frampton 'n gratis landingsplek op Frampton Pil toegeken, (vn. 23), wat vervang is deur een op die kanaaloewer toe die kanaal gebou is. (vn. 24) Enkele maritieme aktiwiteite deur die inwoners van Frampton word hieronder genoem. (vn. 25)

Woodland in Frampton is aangeteken in 1086, (vn. 26) en in 1315 het die herdenkingsdemne 40 a. van eikehout. (vn. 27) 'n Huurgrond in Woodend, naby Claypits, (vn. 28) in 1320 het ook toestemming gegee om bome te laat val. (vn. 29) Bosveld van 20 a. in Frampton park is aangeteken in 1296, (vn. 30) en die heer se park, genoem in 1434, (vl. 31) is in 1499 verhuur om in weiding omskep te word. Vierhonderd eikebome is toe voorbehou, (vn. 32), net soos 480 in ander huurkontrakte van die park in 1543. (vn. 33) Die heer se park, in die suide van die gemeente, (vn. 34) was anders as die park van c. 50 a. wat later aangrensend was aan Frampton Court in die ooste. (vn. 35) Die gemeenskaplike grond van die gemeente, insluitend oop velde en uitgebreide moerasagtige grasveld, is ingesluit deur 'n geleidelike proses wat uitloop op 'n parlementêre insluiting van 1815. (vn. 36)

Die gruis wat 'n groot deel van die parochiegebied beslaan, is teen 1646 gegrawe. (Vn. 37) Gruisputte, redelik groot in 1879, (vn. 38) is in die vroeë 20ste eeu baie uitgebrei: minerale spoorlyne is suid-oos tot by die hoofspoorlyn gebou en suid-wes na 'n kaai aan die kanaal (vn. 39), waardeur die gruis na Avonmouth vervoer is waar dit gebruik is in die bou van die hawe. (vn. 40) Voormalige werke word gekenmerk deur poele in die middel van die gemeente wat in 1968 gebruik is om te vaar toe ander kuipe naby gewerk is en die gruisonderneming 'n depot in die oostelike hoek van die gemeente gehad het. Die klei van die gemeente is eens gebruik om baksteen te maak. 'N Metselaar wat in 1746 opgeteken is (vn. 41), is vermoedelik geassosieer met 'n plaaslike baksteenwerf, waar bakstene op 6s. 6d. duisend, is verkoop c. 1775 om 8s. (vn. 42) 'n Baksteenwerf en kalksteen lê net wes van die kerk in 1782, (vn. 43) en daar was 'n latere kleigrond verder suid. (vn. 44) In die middel van die 19de eeu is Frampton-baksteenmakers opgeteken (vn. 45). Daar word gesê dat baie huise van die tydperk in naburige gemeentes van Frampton-baksteen is, wat as onbevredigend beskou word vanweë die groot hoeveelheid sout in die klei. (vn. 46)

Die goeie dreinering wat die gruis bied, het Frampton vroeër gevestig. Daar is bewyse van prehistoriese en Romeins-Britse besetting gevind in die gruiswerk (vn. 47) en dit is redelik om aan te neem dat die Saksiese nedersetting van Frampton relatief vroeg was. Die dorpie, in die noordwestelike kwart van die gemeente, vorm 'n lang en smal nedersetting wat 'n kilometer lank bereik en strek oor 'n enkele, kronkelende straat aan die suidelike punt en 'n breë dorp groen aan die noordkant. Aan die begin van die 18de eeu bestaan ​​die dorp uit twee dele, Church End en Frampton of Rosamund's Green. (vn. 48) So 'n verdeling kan verteenwoordig word deur 'n leemte in die ouer huise, op die punt waar 'n spruit, wat eers deur Buckle Bridge oorbrug is, (vn. 49) onder die dorpsstraat loop, maar dit laat die groen punt insluit sommige huise wat eintlik in die straat is.

Church End, met die parochiekerk byna aan die suidelike uiteinde van die dorpsstraat, verteenwoordig waarskynlik die vroeëre nedersetting: die posisie van die kerk, die ligging van die pond aan die suidwestelike kant van die kerkhof, (vn. 50 ) en die oneweredigheid van die grond op sommige van die onbewoonde persele aan die voorkant van die straat dui daarop dat 'n groter deel van die huise van die dorp eens in Church End was. Die oorlewende huise daar bevat verskeie houtraamgeboue, waarvan sommige hul grasdak behou. Dit bevat 'n huis met vyf rakke, wat grotendeels in 1967 herbou is, en daar was 'n paar kothuise met 'n ruit wat in 1966 gesloop is, oorkant Oegrove Farm. (vn. 51) Oegrove Farm is 'n tweeverdiepinghuis wat in die vroeë 17de eeu op 'n reghoekige plan gebou is, met vierkante panele aan die voorkant met 'n massiewe suidelike punt van rommelwerk. 'N Groot skuur van sewe baaie naby die kerk het mure in gewone vierkantige panele waarin die wattle nie gepleister is nie. Twee houtraamhuise van een verdieping met solder is moontlik uit die vroeë 16de eeu, een van hulle het 'n dakkapel, en die ander het ten minste een groot spanstang. In die 1960's is verskeie klein huise onopvallend gebou in gapings tussen ouer huise in Church End en op die persele van gesloopte huisies.

Frampton Green, of Rosamund's Green, soos dit vanaf 1651 bekend geword het, (vn. 52) is byna ½ myl lank. Aan die suidekant, waar die dorpsstraat na die kerk lei, word die huise gekonsentreer. Aan die begin van die straat, tussen die kothuise van die 18de en 19de eeu, is daar verskeie geboue met 'n houtraam: Tudor Cottage, met 'n sykant aan die straatkant, is moontlik uit die 15de eeu en Greycroft het 'n kruisraam-gewelkant met geblokkeerde openinge op twee vlakke. Verder in die straat is Buckholt House 'n redelike groot 18de-eeuse baksteenhuis met twee verdiepings en dakkamers, met 'n boog tot op die volle hoogte in die suide en langsaan, verskuif van die westekant van die huis, 'n deur met waaierlig, pediment en Doriese pilasters. Baie van die groter huise van die dorp is langs die twee kante van die setperk goed geplaas. Dit sluit in Frampton Court en die Grange aan die oostekant en Manor Farm aan die westekant, wat hieronder bespreek word (vn. 53) en 'n paar huise uit die laat 17de en 18de eeu in baksteen waarvan die grootste, Frampton Lodge by die noordoostelike hoek van die setperk, bestaan ​​uit drie verdiepings en het 'n rits kroonlyste, lang en kort quoins en 'n deuropening. Daar is ook 'n paar houthuisies en rietdakhuise rondom die setperk, insluitend een naby die suidelike punt met 'n kruisbalk.

Die setperk behou die 'lug van netheid en verbouing' wat aan die einde van die 18de eeu opgemerk is. Richard Clutterbuck, wat die setperk in 1731 gedreineer het (vn. 54) en 'n nuwe pad daarlangs gebou het, het oor die algemeen die krediet gekry om dit uit die moerasstaat te verlos, (vn. 55), maar die setperk is beskryf as 'n baie aangename plek '20 jaar vroeër. (vgl. 56)

Frampton-on-Severn c. 1800

Die dorpie was relatief groot en het op 'n klein manier as sentrum gedien vir 'n gebied wat buite die gemeentegrense strek. In die Middeleeue het Frampton 'n mark en 'n beurs gehad. (vn. 57) 'n Poging in die vroeë 14de eeu deur die heer van die herehuis, Robert FitzPain, om 'n stad Frampton (vn. 58) te skep, het op niks uitgeloop nie. Geen burgerskapstermyn word aangeteken nie (vn. 59). Die enigste moontlike aanduidings wat gevind is van 'n oorlewende tradisie van stadstatus, is in die vroeë 17de eeu 'n beskuldiging van die gebruik van die voorregte van 'n stad (vn. 60) en verwysings tussen 1683 en 1718 aan huise as in die stad. (vn. 61) Die hoë persentasie nie-landbouberoepe in Frampton in meer onlangse tye (vn. 62) kan die gevolg wees van die aantreklikheid van die dorp as woonplek, nie net vir die meer onafhanklike handelaars nie, maar ook vir die professionele mense wat ander handelaars daarheen sou trek om vir hulle te sorg. Thomas Daniel, in 1643 gelisensieer om medisyne te beoefen, (vn. 63) is die vroegste bekende van baie dokters en chirurge in Frampton. Die inwoners in 1798 het 'n rekenmeester, 'n chirurg, twee kabinetmakers en 'n 'kerwer' ingesluit. Die kerwer was John Pearce (vn. 65) en begrafnismonumente deur hom en deur twee later Frampton -messelaars, Wilkins en Bennett, is te sien in die kerke van die distrik. (vn. 66) Vier geestelikes, van wie die predikant nie een was nie, woon in Frampton in 1842, (vn. 67) en vanaf 1856 het die groot aantal private inwoners werk verleen aan ambagte soos apteker, meulenaar, musiekonderwyser , klavierstemmer en wynhandelaar. (vn 68)

Die voortgesette geskiktheid van die dorp het gelei tot die bou van verskeie moderne huise daar en die omskakeling van kothuise en klein plaashuise in middelklashuise. Die grootste uitbreiding van die dorp was egter die gebou deur die landelike distriksraad van 'n landgoed van c. 200 huise noord van die setperk was daar 'n paar klein huise aan die einde van die 19de eeu en 'n ry raadshuise is voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gebou, maar die meeste huise is in die 1960's gebou. Van die buitelike nedersettings is die meeste enkelplaashuise. Park's Farm, in die suidoostelike hoek van die gemeente, is in die 17de eeu gebou, 'n huis met twee verdiepings met 'n houtraam wat grotendeels agter latere baksteen versteek is en 'n reghoekige plan met 'n sentrale skoorsteenstapel tussen die voordeur aan die een kant en aan die ander kant 'n nuwe trap na die eerste verdieping en solder. Walk Farm, in die noordelike hoek van die gemeente, is moontlik in dieselfde tydperk gebou, 'n vierkantige gebou wat op 'n lae klipplank staan ​​en in die vroeë 19de eeu met baksteen omhul is. Nastfield (voorheen Field) Farm, 1 myl oos van die kerk, is kort voor 1777 (vn. 69) in baksteen gebou op 'n hoë asker -sokkel en het 'n simmetriese ingangsfront wat onder 'n voorkant met 'n leë bullseye vorentoe breek. die middelste hakies van die gelyke kroonlys en die platband is van terracotta. Townfield Farm, tussen Nastfield Farm en die dorp, en twee plaashuise in die oostelike hoek van die gemeente in Netherhills is laat in die 18de of vroeë 19de eeu van baksteen gebou. Oos van Netherhills is Fromebridge Mill, (vn. 70) met 'n 18de-eeuse meulhuis van baksteen wat na bewering 'n herberg was in die middel van die 19de eeu, 'n paar kothuise van miskien dieselfde tydperk en 'n ry van sewe kothuise met twee kamers gebou c. 1800. Daar was ook eens 'n plaashuis of huise met die naam Woodend en Puddiford's, naby Claypits (vn. 71) die naam Puddiford's herinner aan 'n gesin met grond in Frampton in die 13de eeu, (vn. 72) en daar was 'n stuk monumentale afval genaamd Woodend Green, met een huis daarby, in 1782. (vn. 73) By Oatfield, op die pad na Wheatenhurst, was daar teen 1879 vyf huise, nog twee is teen 1920 gebou (vn. 74) en daar was altesaam 11 in 1968. Suidoos van die noordelike punt van die setperk is ses klein huisies uit die 19de en 20ste eeu.

Die dorpie Frampton is verbind met Arlingham, waar daar 'n ou kruising van die Severn was, en met die Gloucester-Bristol-pad deur Perry Way, wat die lyn van 'n Romeinse pad volg (vn. 75) en met die naam in 1302 aangeteken is ( 76) dit was 'n draaipad van 1726 tot 1874, onder dieselfde vertroue as die Gloucester-Bristol-pad. (vn. 77) Die pad, wat die suidoostelike grens gemerk het, was gedeeltelik herstelbaar deur die gemeente. (vn. 78) Dit steek die Frome oor met 'n brug genaamd Frome -brug in 1328, (vn. 79) wat in 1378 deur die here van die herehuis en die manne van Frampton herstel moes word. (vn. 80) Daar was planne vir die herbou van die brug in 1740 (vn. 81) en c. 1867, (vn. 82), toe dit 'n graafskapbrug was. (vn. 83) Padverbeterings in die middel van die 20ste eeu het beide Frome Bridge en Wickster's Bridge heeltemal verander, waardeur die pad Wickster se spruit 2 myl suidwes oorgesteek het. Wickster's Bridge, opgeneem c. 1363 as herstel, (vn. 84) is in 1675 (vn. 85) en 1759, (vn. 86) herstel en teen 1859 'n landbrug geword. (vn. 87) Buckle Bridge en Warth Bridge word hierbo genoem.

In 1086 is 27 mense in Frampton opgesom, (vn. 88) en in 1327, hoewel slegs 12 mense vir belasting beoordeel is, het Frampton die hoogste aanslag in Whitstone honderd gehad. (vn. 89) Frampton het 85 name, een meer as Stonehouse, op die opstel van 1542, (vn. 90) en daar word gesê dat daar 329 volwassenes in 1603 was. (vn. 91) Daar was moontlik 'n afname in die middel van die 17de eeu: terwyl 105 gesinne in die opgawe van 1650 gegee is, (vn. 92) in 1672 is slegs 47 huise beoordeel vir haardbelasting, (vn. 93) en die aantal volwassenes was na bewering 249 in 1676 . (vn. 94) Van 500 mense wat in 100 huise woon, c. 1710 (vn. 95) het die bevolking gegroei tot 600 c. 1775 (vn. 96) en 860 in 1801. Dit het steeds gegroei tot 1831, en het dan gedaal van 1 055 tot 730 in 1911. Daarna was daar 'n bestendige styging tot 1 066 in 1961, (vn. 97), maar in 1968 was daar verdere bouwerk die totaal ver bo die syfer geneem.

Twee ongelisensieerde wonings is in 1595 aangebied (vn. 98) en die 'Boar's Head' is in 1643 aangeteken. (Vn. 99) Daar was twee ongelisensieerde alehuise in 1667, (vn. 100) en in 1689 het Kwartaalsessies bepaal dat alle alehuise in Frampton word onderdruk, behalwe die Old Inn en die 'Crown'. Ses maande later het 'n soortgelyke bestelling slegs die 'Nag's Head' en die 'Golden Heart' uitgesluit, maar daar is ook gesê dat die alehouse naby die brug (vermoedelik Buckle Bridge) gelisensieer moet word. (vn. 101) Daar was vier oorwinnaars in 1755, (vn. 102) waarvan een die Bell Inn aan die noordelike punt van die setperk gehou het, wat in 1740 opgeteken is, (vn. 103) wat in die 19de eeu herbou is en bestaan ​​het in 1968. Voor 1807 was daar 'n alehouse genaamd die 'Old Swan' (fn. 104) en in 1838 was daar 'n openbare huis (die 'Bell') en 7 bierwinkels. (vn. 105) Afgesien van die 'Bell' was daar in 1939 drie openbare huise, (vn. 106) waarvan die 'Three Horseshoes' in 1968 oorgebly het.

Die Frampton -vrywilligers is in 1798 grootgemaak onder Nathaniel Winchcombe van Frampton Court, en het ongeveer die helfte van hul getal uit nege buurgemeentes getrek. Hulle is êrens na 1806 ontbind. (Vn. 107) 'n Vriendelike vereniging was aktief van 1816 tot 1843 of later, (vn. 108) en in 1842 is die klubdag op Frampton Feast Monday gehou. (vn. 109) Frampton Feast, om te oordeel vanaf die datum waarop dit gehou is, was 'n oorlewing van die Middeleeuse kermis. (vn. 110) 'n plesierbeurs op die setperk is gehou tydens die fees, (vn. 111) en hoewel die fees tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gestaak is, het die plesierbeurs oorleef en die fees in 1966 herleef. (vn 112) 'n Instituut vir letterkunde en meganika, gestig in 1852, (vn. 113) het opgehou c. 1890. (vn. 114) Sommige van sy aktiwiteite is onderneem deur 'n Parish Institute, wat 'n saal in 1907 laat bou het deur 'n anonieme weldoener. (vn. 115) Die saal bly in 1968 aktief in gebruik.

In 1643-4 het 'n parlementêre garnisoen in Frampton die royalistiese magte in Berkeley onder beheer gehou. (166) In 1662 het 'n buitengewone hewige storm die dorp baie skade aangerig, 'n huis en 12 skure vernietig en 357 bome ontwortel. (vn. 117) In 1631 en 1650 het teenstanders van insluiting 'n mate van onrus in die gemeente veroorsaak (vn. 118) en in 1766 het 'n oproerige skare van 50 begin om John Sansum se huis af te trek. (vn. 119)

Die geskiedenis van Rosamund Clifford (d. c. 1176), (vn. 120) Henry II se 'Fair Rosamund', is vanaf die 14de eeu geborduur met baie ingevoerde legende (vn. 121) en het baie bladsye gevul wat die verhaal van Frampton wou vertel. (vn. 122) Sy word slegs outentiek met die gemeente verbind deur haar vader Walter se heerskappy oor die herehuis en deur sy toekenning aan Godstow Abbey, waar Rosamund begrawe is, van die meul in Frampton ten bate van die siele van sy vrou Margaret en sy dogter Rosamund. (vn. 123) John Clifford († 1684) het moontlik die Rosamund -verhaal plaaslik bevorder: hy het een van sy dogters Rosamund genoem, (vn. 124), sy stamboom laat kopieer met die oorspronklike Rosamund ingesluit, (vn. 125) en die eerste gebruik wat die naam Rosamund's Green (vn. 126) aangeteken het, was in die jaar nadat hy sy landgoed in Frampton gekoop het. (vn. 127) Hy was moontlik verantwoordelik vir die oortuiging dat Rosamund gebore is in Fretherne Lodge, (vn. 128) waar sy voorouers gewoon het, maar na die sloping van daardie huis (vn. 129) Frampton Court (vn. 130 ) en later word die deel van die herenhuis, Rosamund's Bower (vn. 131), as haar geboorteplek beskou.


Hoe die eerste Severn -brug vir ewig die bruggebou verander het

Elke jaar gebruik miljoene bestuurders die Severn -brug sonder om daaroor na te dink.

Maar toe dit 51 jaar gelede gebou is, waaroor daar al dekades lank gepraat is, het dit die ontwerp van die hangbrug vir ewig verander.

Michael Parsons is die oudste ingenieur wat nog oorleef het aan die graad I -struktuur wat die M4 vir 30 jaar gedra het.

"Dit gaan terug op die mislukking van die Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Amerika, wat misluk het as gevolg van 'n verskynsel genaamd fladdering," het die 89-jarige gesê.

'Toe ons begin bou aan die Forth en Severn Bridges, het ons besef dat ons die probleem sal moet oplos.

Bekende beeldmateriaal toon hoe die staatsbrug in Washington in 7 Puget Sound ineengestort het op 7 November 1940. Dit was destyds die derde langste hangbrug ter wêreld.

Dit het 'n slagoffer geword van winde van 40 km / h binne enkele maande na die opening op 1 Julie 1940, en die ingenieurs hier het geweet dat, gegewe die hewige winde oor die riviermonding van Severn, hulle nie 'n soortgelyke mislukking kon bekostig nie.

Die plan vir die Severn -brug was om 'n oop vakwerkontwerp te gebruik wat die rybaan versterk.

Dit is wat op die Forth -brug in Edinburgh gebruik is. Dit was die dominante ontwerp in die VSA, waar dit op die Golden Gate -brug van San Francisco en die Brooklyn Bridge in New York gesien kan word.

Dinge het nie volgens plan verloop nie.

Michael het gesê: 'Tydens die toets het my baas, Gilbert Roberts, na my kantoor gekom en gesê:' Parsons, ek gaan na die National Physical Laboratory, want die model wat hulle getoets het, het gebreek en gebreek. '

'Dit was die model wat ek vir sir Gilbert op 'n vlak kappie ontwikkel het.

Binnekort moes die projek, wat deur Freeman Fox & amp Partners en Mott, Hay & amp; Anderson bestuur word, tender.


Gloucestershire

Op 25 Oktober 1960 het twee tenkwaensbakke in sterk mis naby Sharpness aan die rivier Severn gebots.

Hulle het die gety betrap, beheer verloor en in een van die brug se pilare geslaan.

Die brug het gedeeltelik ineengestort en een van die bote wat petrol vervoer het, het aan die brand geslaan en ontplof.

Die ander vaartuig het 'n vrag swart olie gedra wat etlike ure aan die brand gesteek en gebrand het.

Vyf mans het in die ramp hul lewens verloor.

Nou het navorsing getoon dat dit moontlik 'n gevaarlike sywaartse stroom was wat veroorsaak het dat die Wastdale H en die Arkendale H bots.

In 'n voorheen ongesiene verslag van 'n vertroulike voorlopige ondersoek na die ramp word beweer dat een van die kapteins 'ongeskik' was in die hantering van sy vaartuig.

In die formele openbare ondersoek wat in Mei 1961 gevolg het, is nie een van die boot se skippers die skuld vir die ongeluk gegee nie.

By die ondersoek na 'n radiodokumentêr ter viering van die 50ste herdenking van die ramp, het BBC Radio Gloucestershire -verslaggewer Andy Vivian 'n nuwe stel verklarings en geskrewe bewyse oor die voorval by die National Archives in Kew ontdek.

Die vertroulike lêer wat deur die Afdeling Marine Safety of the Board of Trade versamel is, wat verantwoordelik was vir die voorlopige ondersoek na die ramp, het tot dusver nog nooit die lig gesien nie.

Die amptenaar wat aangestel is om die ondersoek uit te voer, was P. W. Burgess, wat die senior landmeter vir die hawe van Bristol was.

Die verklarings wat hy versamel het, gee meer inligting van George Thompson en James Dew, die twee betrokke skippers, oor die besluite wat hulle daardie nag geneem het, in die minute nadat hul vaartuie gebots en saamgevoeg het.

In response to this report officials at the Board of Trade were fairly complementary about Thompson's handling of the Arkendale H but issued some tempered criticism of the decisions made by Dew on the Wastdale H.

The report to a superior of the Marine Safety Division of the Board of Trade, Capt J H Quick, from his inferior Capt A C Manson states: "Since the distance to the bridge was something less than half a mile they had thus a maximum period of six minutes in which to extricate themselves and regain control.

"Being able to sit calmly after the event and weigh up the circumstances, I am of the opinion that the best chance of getting out of this situation would have been given had the Wastdale gone full astern and the Arkendale full ahead on port helm.

"This would have brought them apart and helped to bring them head to tide. I believe that an anchor underfoot might also have assisted.

"The Arkendale's master did in fact go ahead on port helm but his efforts were nullified by Wastdale's full ahead on starboard helm.

"To the extent that he went ahead on starboard helm to "push the other vessel off" I consider that the master of the Wastdale displayed ineptitude in the handling of his vessel, but this was by no means culpable negligence."

Another factor which has not been highlighted before has also come to light, and suggests that a natural phenomenon peculiar to the stretch of river where it occurred may have contributed to the accident.

Dense fog on the night of the incident meant the vessels both dropped past the entrance to Sharpness harbour and found themselves further upstream than they should have been, having to battle against an incoming tide to regain the harbour entrance.

The area they found themselves in was half a mile upstream, near the entrance to Sharpness old dock, which had long since been blocked off.

The shore here juts out into the river and is known as Sharpness Point, and the tide runs much faster here.

Prior to the collision, both vessels were travelling roughly in parallel, with the Wastdale on the shore side.

The Arkendale may have been making more progress since Thompson talks about the Wastdale dropping back out of the fog.

Captain Thompson said that the Wastdale then sheered round to starboard and hit the Arkendale near the bow.

Up until now this collision has been put down to the difficulties caused by the fog.

Fred Larkham from Newnham, who is probably the most experienced river man on the Severn today, and who understands better than anyone the tides on this stretch of the river, says the tanker skippers would have been unfamiliar with a dangerous current which occurs north of Sharpness:

"At the old dock there is a strong tide and also the back eddy which causes problems. This is caused by the tide rushing by the pier and it takes a starboard turn and comes back into the shore and then back down the gully and runs out by the pier.

"This could push the bow off. It would spin you into the main flood tide. Maybe one or two round turns in the tide and you'd be up to the area where the collision occurred."

To mark the 50th anniversary of the disaster two memorial stones have been unveiled on the banks of the Severn.

One is situated at Lydney Docks and a second is located at Purton.

Relatives and friends of the crew who lost their lives were there at the unveiling.

The plaques and their dedication ceremonies were organised by Paul Barnett, chairman of Friends of Purton.

There is also a special exhibition about the disaster currently showing at the Dean Heritage Museum until 16 January 2011.

You can find out more about the Severn Bridge Disaster by listening to Andy Vivian's six-part documentary on BBC Radio Gloucestershire all next week (25-30 October 2010), and for seven days afterwards on the BBC iPlayer, on Chris Baxter's mid-morning programme and on Faye Hatcher's programme .

The Severn Bridge Disaster will also feature on BBC1's Inside Out (West) on Monday, 25 October, 2010. The programme will be available on the BBC iPlayer for 7 days after broadcast.


Design and Contract Preparations

Initial Design – Contract Preparations

Design work on the new crossing included further detailed studies, a hydraulic model to test pier positions, mathematical modelling, a bathymetric survey, and geotechnical and topographical surveys for the route corridors. Extensive research was carried out into wind shielding and also into climate change issues, which indicated a potential rise in sea levels. The viability of engineering concepts and innovations were confirmed, together with the buildability and quality of the scheme.

Extensive consultations were undertaken with all those affected to ensure that concerns were fully understood and positively addressed in the development of the scheme. Wide ranging studies were carried out into the existing environment, potential impacts were identified and removed where feasible, and proposals were developed for reducing remaining adverse impacts. The consultations also included navigation interests, industry, landscape advice, and the Royal Fine Arts Commission regarding the main bridge and other structures.

A series of public exhibitions was held in England and Wales in areas affected by the proposals, initially showing the results of the study and then the changes adopted as the design was developed to take account of local concerns and the results of surveys

Contract Arrangements

In April 1989, tenders were invited for the main crossing and toll Plaza. The tender details included highly detailed technical requirements, contractual/financial issues, constructional aspects, and environmental monitoring. Separate bids were sought for two possible scenarios:
(a) to design, construct and finance the crossing, and to assume responsibility for operating and maintaining both it and the existing Severn Bridge during a concession period, in return for the toll revenue from both bridges during that period, and
(b) to design and construct the new crossing in return for staged payments from the government.

In 1990, following a rigorous assessment of the tenders, the Government accepted, in principle, the proposal of Severn River Crossing plc to design, construct, finance and operate the second crossing. Severn River Crossing plc was a consortium set up specially to bid for the project. It included major investment banks, a British contractor, John Laing plc, and a French contractor, GTM Entrepose.

Obtaining Parliamentary Approval 1990 to 1992

Authority to build the scheme was obtained through Parliament. A hybrid Bill was used to seek the powers required to construct the estuary crossing and the approach roads, to compulsorily purchase the land, and to charge tolls. The Severn Bridges Bill was lodged in November 1990 and, after thorough examination of the scheme by Parliamentary Committees, Royal Assent was granted in early 1992. The immense value of the extensive and detailed consultations, with over 40 affected parties, was shown by the small number of formal objections that were presented against the Bill. A Concession Agreement, between the Government and Severn River Crossing Plc, was signed and construction was started in Spring 1992.

Final Design for the Second Crossing. 1992 to 1993

The Second Crossing is comprised of a cable stayed bridge spanning the main navigation channel, with a two kilometre length of approach viaduct on either side. At 5 kilometres, it was the longest river crossing of this type in the country.

The Viaducts.

There are 20 spans of approach viaduct on either side of the main bridge and each span is made up of 27 separate units of hollow concrete box girder, tensioned together using high tensile steel strands.

The Shoots Bridge.

The centre-piece of this crossing of the Estuary is the cable stayed bridge over the main navigation channel, known as the Shoots. The main channel resembles a steep sided trench at this location and, although it is only about 300m wide at the base, the pylon legs had to be set back, well away from the top edge of the trench, to ensure stability. After careful consideration, a main span of 456m was agreed upon. At the time of its design, there were no cable stayed bridges operating anywhere in the world with a longer span, although the Pont de Normandie in France was well under construction with a span of 856m.

Other Works

Outline of the Second Bridge

In parallel with these activities, the detailed design of the motorway approach roads was undertaken and tender documents were prepared. This work included the resolution of many issues affecting areas local to the roads, dealing with environmental, landscaping and community issues, and incorporating a wide range of mitigation measures.

Tenders for the approach roads were invited in October 1992 and contracts were awarded in time for construction to start in Spring 1993. The challenge was to construct the second crossing and the approach roads in time for an opening in 1996.

Next Page


Short but fascinating walk, mainly along the Severn flood defences. Iconic views of the two Severn Bridges dominate the landscape.

The first Severn Bridge is a suitably impressive place to begin a journey around the British coastline. Completed in 1966, it is 1.6 km long, and spans 888m between the two towers. Each tower is 168m high and bears the weight of almost 12,000 tonnes. The bridge took two years and £8m to build. It is a breathtaking piece of engineering.

Contrary to widespread belief, the land you can see on the far side of the bridge is not Wales, but part of Gloucestershire.

From the Bridge, we descended the footpath towards Aust. A short path to the left crossed the top of the motorway toll booths to reach Severn View motorway service station, but we continued to the river’s edge, briefly visiting the village of Aust on the way.

We reached the Severn at Old Passage. At first glance, this seems an inconsequential collection of a few houses, but there is more history here than meets the eye.

On the bend by the Severn is Old Passage House. It stands out from the rest of the buildings, and its size and elevation suggest it may have been a hotel serving the ferry that ran from here in earlier times. The building, parts of which date from the sixteenth century, and the ferry are depicted in an eighteenth century painting (below). But just how ancient is this ferry service?

We know that a rival ferry, at New Passage (a few miles downstream) , was in existence in 1727. This was the year that Daniel Defoe, author of Robinson Crusoe, published his Tour Thro’ the Whole Island of Great Britain, in which he expressed a clear preference for the newer ferry,

“There is also a little farther, an ugly, dangerous, and very inconvenient ferry over the Severn, to the mouth of Wye namely, at Aust the badness of the weather, and the sorry boats, at which, deterr’d us from crossing there.”

Perhaps his disdain is justified, for we know that at least three ferries from Old Passage were lost with all hands, in 1839 and 1844 and 1855.

Manorial records show that the ferry was in use as far back as the 1100s. It is also known that the Romans shipped men across the Severn somewhere along this section of coast, and it has been suggested, very plausibly, that the name Aust derives from Augustus, the Roman emperor. It is possible that Old passage, as a ferry site, has a very long history indeed.

Unable to compete with the new railways, the ferry closed in the 1860s. It gained a new lease of life, however, with the rise of the motor car, and reopened in 1926. It served as the only car ferry across the Severn for nearly forty years, until finally closing on 8th September, 1966, the day before the Severn Bridge opened.

Bob Dylan at Aust ferry, 1966

There are many photographs of the Aust car ferry available, including several in the Francis Frith collection. One of the more famous photographs is the one used to publicise Martin Scorcese’s 2005 documentary film of Bob Dylan, No Direction Home. If you look carefully at the photo, just above the car, you can see the Severn Bridge, which opened about three months after this photograph was taken.

After possibly two thousand years as a crossing-point, the remains of Aust ferry today seems quite poignant:

At low tide, it is possible to walk along the beach from here under the Severn Bridge, and beyond towards Gloucester. We walked as far as the Bridge. There was lots of mud. Midge likes mud.

Behind the beach rises Aust Cliff. Although not particularly high, the cliff is remarkable for the different strata of rock visible as horizontal bands across the face. The lowest red mudstones are around 250 million years old, and are evidence of dry conditions, when wind-blown red dust was deposited on sun-baked mudflats. The white layer near the bottom of the cliff is gypsum, created when salt-rich lakes, trapped in this desert, evaporated. Later, around 205 million years ago, huge volcanic activity split the single continental plate apart, and the red mudstones of Aust were flooded by the Jurassic Sea. Over the next few million years, debris on the sea-bed formed into the layer of white limestone near the top of the cliff. Thousands of fossils of marine animals have been found in this layer this was, after all, the Jurassic era, the age of the dinosaurs, when there was an explosion of new life-forms on our planet.

Everything on this fascinating section of coastline seems to have a story, or deserve mention. Electric pylons are not normally noteworthy on a walk that is not the case here. At 148m high, the pylons to the west of the Severn Bridge are not quite the tallest in the country, but they carry the longest powerline span anywhere in the UK. They are more than a mile apart.

Walking back through Old Passage, we resumed our walk westwards. A stretch of quiet road led to a footpath along the top of the bank that forms the flood defences for this part of Gloucestershire. To our right was the large expanse of the Severn floodplain, a haven for birds. Beyond, as a backdrop, was the Second Severn Crossing.

Not unexpectedly, because of the birdlife it attracts, part of the saltmarsh has been granted special protection. The Pilning Wetland Reserve is a Ramsar site, as well as a Site of Special Scientific Interest. According to a noticeboard, over 240 species of birds have been recorded here, including curlews, dunlin, turnstones, and bar-tailed godwit.

Since Old Passage, we had been following the Severn Way, a 220-mile long-distance footpath that I walked some years go. It is a brilliant path, following the River Severn from its source high in the Plynlimon Hills, through Llanidloes, Shrewsbury, Worcester, Tewkesbury, and Gloucester, until eventually reaching the Bristol Channel. It used to end at Severn Beach, but has since been extended to the centre of Bristol. Being of similar length and similar focus, it invites comparison with the Thames Path National Trail. I think the Severn Way is the superior trail, but others may disagree. You can get to know the Severn Way by visiting Paul & Pam’s blog they have been walking the trail from its start, and will soon be finished!

The boat depicted on the Severn Way waymarks is a Severn trow, a cargo vessel unique to the River Severn. These craft were specially designed for river use, with flat bottoms and wide bilges. Despite a long history, they have not been used for almost a century, and today it is more common to see small hovercraft on the lower reaches of the Severn.

The pleasant path alongside the marshes led to New Passage, consisting of a few modern houses. Anders as Old Passage, there is no sign of the ferry which used to run from here. It closed shortly after the Severn Railway Tunnel was opened in 1886, and we have only an eighteenth century painting to suggest its whereabouts. The hotel in the picture was demolished in the 1970s.

Just beyond New Passage is the Second Severn road bridge, built between 1992 and 1996 to relieve pressure on the first Severn Bridge. At 3¼ miles, it is the longest bridge in the UK. Personally, though, I don’t find it as graceful a structure as the original Severn Bridge. It carries approximately 20 million vehicles a year, three times as many as the older Bridge.

Unseen, the Severn railway tunnel runs beneath Severn Beach. Part of the Great Western Railway, it was the longest railway tunnel in the UK for more than a century, until the Channel tunnel link was built under London in 2007. It is over 4 miles long.

We followed the flood wall beneath the motorway bridge, which shortly led to the village of Severn Beach. Severn Beach has an unusual history, in that it was created in 1922, from sratch, as a seaside resort conveniently located near the railway. It was popular with Bristolians for many years, although has recently declined. Most of the attractions have closed, and the village is now little more than a commuter village for Bristol.

Having reached Severn Beach railway station, this was the end of our first, rather short, day of walking the coast. We had not actually planned to begin walking until tomorrow, but took advantage of a glorious evening to begin the journey. The railway goes no further east than Severn Beach, and we had no accommodation, so there was little alternative but to turn around and re-trace our steps. However, in this warm evening, the sky was coloured with pastel shades of yellows and pinks, and the walk back was no hardship.

Distance = 6½ miles Ascent = 16 metres

Tomorrow, we have a full day for walking, and it is a section I am looking forward to. Initially following the coast to Avonmouth, we will then head south to follow the River Avon into the heart of Bristol. This walk will be the subject of my next blog.


Gloucestershire

On the night of 25th October 1960 - a Tuesday - 16 vessels, many carrying cargos of oil from Swansea or petrol from Avonmouth, were heading up the Severn aiming to enter Sharpness Harbour on the late tide.

At 9.15pm, about a mile before Sharpness they encountered a very dense fog, rolling off the Berkeley bank.

Trying to find the harbour entrance while avoiding collision with other vessels, two of the tankers drifted past Sharpness and found themselves half a mile upstream where the river narrows and the tide flows faster.

They were the Arkendale H and the Wastdale H, both owned by John Harker Ltd. The Wastdale was carrying a cargo of 350 tons of petrol, the Arkendale a similar quantity of heating oil.

It was now gone 10pm and both vessels were battling against the strong tide to regain the harbour entrance. The fog was so dense that they were just yards apart when they saw each other.

At about 10.20, their bows touched and the two vessels were immediately sucked together along their entire length. Unable to draw apart, they were spun clockwise and driven upriver by the tide where, minutes later, they collided with the 17th pier of the Severn Railway Bridge, sending it flying into the river.

The two spans supported by the pier, crashed onto the tankers below. A spark ignited the petrol that was now pouring from the damaged Wastdale and soon the whole river was a mass of flames as oil from the Arkendale added to the conflagration.

Fortunately, the last train of the day had passed over the bridge just a few minutes before the accident. It was a close run thing.

By the time the train reached Sharpness, the bridge was no longer intact. The two tankers, dragging several hundred feet of railway line were brought to a halt on a sandbank just above the bridge.

In the water the crew were swept upstream by the tide and their cries for help could be heard from both banks. Disoriented by the swirling waters it was over an hour before one of them, George Thompson - captain of the Arkendale, managed to swim to the bank at Awre.

About an hour later, carried back downriver by the ebbing tide, a second, Jim Dew - captain of the Wastdale, reached the Forest shore near the bridge and presented himself naked at a local pub.

Several local boatmen told the police it was too dangerous to launch a dinghy and more substantial rescue craft were trapped inside harbour gates by the falling tide. But despite the dangers, on each bank there were brave men who launched small rowing boats in search of survivors.

On the Forest side, father and son Walter and Mike Cadogan from Awre, searched in vain. But Tommy Carter and Charles Henderson, setting off from the eastern bank, rowed right across the river to a point below the bridge where they heard the cries of Jack Cooper, the engineer on the Arkendale, whom they rescued and carried safely to Lydney harbour.

The five other crew members did not survive and it was many days before all their bodies were retrieved.

For two years there was a plan to rebuild the bridge and school children from Sharpness and Berkeley continued to attend Lydney grammar school thanks to a special train via Gloucester laid on by British Railways. But this was the era of Beeching and sometime after 1962 the plans were quietly dropped, bringing to a close the link between the communities of Lydney and Sharpness which had lasted for over 80 years since the bridge was completed in 1879.

It was several years before the bridge was finally demolished one firm went bust in the process. Now just the stone tower which supported the swing section over the canal remains and, of course, the two wrecks are still to be seen at low tide resting in their sandy grave.


7 Iconic Bridges of England

The best of England’s magnificent bridges span the ages standing strong, connecting communities and creating vital access across our waterways.

Here we take a look at seven of England’s finest bridges, and what makes them special:

1. Humber Bridge, Hull, Grade I listed

At 1,410 metres long, the Humber Bridge was the longest single-span suspension bridge in the world when it was built in 1981, a record it maintained for 16 years. It remains in the top ten longest spans worldwide and is the longest that you can walk across.

The bridge is supported by massive cables – almost enough cable to go round the earth twice. Despite its enormous size and strength, the Humber Bridge has an elegance that is in harmony with the landscape. The sandy concrete towers and muted deck, echo the colours of the reeds, grass, pebbles and sand of the shores and muddy brown of the Humber it crosses.

2. Clifton Suspension Bridge, Bristol. Grade I listed

Spanning the Avon Gorge in Bristol, the Clifton Suspension Bridge is famously known to be based on a design by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. However, little is reported about the contribution by a woman who was one of the foremost engineering, inventing and designing minds of the Georgian era.

Sarah Guppy was a prolific inventor, patenting a design for safe foundations for bridges ‘whereby the danger of being washed away by floods is avoided.’ This patent for piling foundations came into being in 1811 and formed the blueprint for the iconic bridge that Brunel would design 19 years later.

Before the bridge was completed in the 1850s, intrepid passengers could cross the gorge in a basket slung from an iron bar. It has been the location of the first bungee jump in 1979 and the last ever Concorde flypast in 2003.

3. Severn Bridge, Gloucestershire, Grade I listed

A physical embodiment of the near 500 year union between England and Wales, the 1966 Severn River Crossing is granted the highest level of protection by listing. It was the first bridge in the world to use the revolutionary concept of a streamlined deck and inclined hangers, and an early example of a fully welded steel deck. The structure is a symbol of the industrial heritage of South Wales which it is the gateway to, and where some of the country’s wealth was quite literally forged, providing infrastructure for the whole British Empire.

Before the bridge opened in 1966, people waited in their cars for the jeopardous trip on the car ferry in Aust, to avoid a 60 mile round trip to Gloucester. A promotional image for Martin Scorsese’s film No Direction Home, about the life of Bob Dylan, features an image of Dylan standing in front of the ferry terminal in May 1966, not long before it closed for good. The Severn bridge can be seen almost complete in the background.

4. Tees Transporter Bridge, Grade II* listed

The Tees Transporter or Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge has become a landmark that embodies the town it which it stands. It was the largest bridge of its kind when it was finished in 1911 and remains the longest existing transporter bridge in the world at 851 feet long.

The bridge is one of only six known operational transporter bridges remaining in the world, three of which are in Britain. During World War II the superstructure of the bridge was hit by a bomb but despite this, the gondola and The Transporter Bridge are still running in perfect order.

5. Iron Bridge, Telford, Shropshire, Grade I listed

The Iron Bridge in Shropshire is a symbol of the dawn of the industrialised age – the world’s first bridge made from cast iron.
It was built by Abraham Darby III to join the towns of Coalbrookdale and Broseley across the River Severn. The Darby family had produced iron goods like cooking pots and tram rails for some time, and perfected the technique of smelting iron with coke, allowing for cheaper production.

The bridge itself was cast at Darby’s ironworks in Coalbrookdale, a venture that would put Abraham Darby III in debt for the rest of his life. The bridge was opened to traffic in 1781 and was in use until 1934. It now stands as a monument to the industrial revolution.

6. Tyne Bridge, Tyneside, Grade II* listed

The defining symbol of Tyneside, the Tyne Bridge was the biggest single-span bridge in the UK when it was opened by George V in 1928. The structure was built using shipbuilding techniques with rivets and panels welded together. It was a mammoth task and the workmen risked their lives to construct the crossing – working up to 200 feet above the river without safety harnesses or ropes. Despite the dangers of the job, only one worker died during construction.

The bridge and nearby structures are used as a nesting site by a colony of around 700 pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, the furthest inland in the world.

7. Tower Bridge, London, Grade I listed

One of the most recognisable bridges in the world, Tower Bridge takes 61 seconds to open, which it does around 1,000 times a year. When it was built in 1886, it was the largest and most sophisticated bascule bridge (a bridge with a section which can be raised and lowered using counterweights) ever completed.

Originally, the hydraulics used to open the bridge were powered by steam, then in 1976 they were replaced by ones powered by electricity and oil.


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