Charlie Chaplin trou met Oona O'Neill

Charlie Chaplin trou met Oona O'Neill



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Oona O'Neill, die dogter van die beroemde dramaturg Eugene O'Neill, is 'n 18-jarige pasgemaakte hoërskool-gegradueerde en jong aktrise toe sy trou met die 54-jarige Charles Chaplin, die internasionaal bekende akteur, filmmaker en Hollywood -legende, op 16 Junie 1943, in Santa Barbara, Kalifornië.

Haar beroemde pa (reeds 'n Pulitzer-pryswenner vir Verby die horison en Anna Christie teen die tyd dat sy gebore is) het haar ma, die skrywer Agnes Boulton, verlaat toe Oona slegs twee jaar oud was, en sy het hom daarna sporadies gesien. As student in Brearley, die gesogte privaatskool vir alle meisies in Manhattan, was Oona bevriend met Gloria Vanderbilt en het hy 'n prominente jong geselligheid geword met JD Salinger en Orson Welles. Na die gradeplegtigheid besluit sy om weswaarts na Hollywood te gaan, waar sy 'n kort poging tot 'n toneelspelloopbaan gemaak het. Oona O'Neill ontmoet Chaplin toe sy aanbeveel word vir 'n rol in een van sy films; die huwelik was sy vierde, en die derde met 'n vrou wat nog in haar tienerjare was. Eugene O'Neill, wat op dieselfde ouderdom as Chaplin was, was so kwaad oor die huwelik dat hy sy dogter onterf het.

Alhoewel naysayers die motiewe van beide partye bevraagteken het en 'n vinnige afsterwe voorspel het vir die onwaarskynlike wedstryd, was hul band buitengewoon sterk en sou die huwelik die res van Chaplin se lewe voortduur. In 1952, nadat Chaplin se visum ingetrek is weens sy betrokkenheid by linkse politieke oorsake, het hy saam met Oona en hul drie kinders in ballingskap gegaan. Oona het later afstand gedoen van haar Amerikaanse burgerskap en het 'n Engelse vak geword soos haar man. Die Chaplins, wat in 'n 18de-eeuse herehuis met uitsig op die meer van Genève, in Corsier-sur-Vevey, Switserland, geleë is, het nog vyf kinders gehad. Die oudste, Geraldine, het 'n bekroonde aktrise geword. Die egpaar sou net een keer saam na die Verenigde State terugkeer, toe Chaplin in 1972 'n ere -Oscar ontvang het.

Na haar man se dood in 1977, op 88 -jarige ouderdom, word Oona O'Neill Chaplin beroemd teruggetrokke. Sy het na bewering nooit van haar hartseer herstel nie en is in 1991, op 66 -jarige ouderdom, aan pankreaskanker oorlede.


Oona O'Neill Chaplin bly 'n geheimsinnige teenwoordigheid

Oona. Wat 'n naam. Dit klink soos die titel van een of ander Suid -Stille Oseaan -avontuur deur Herman Melville. Maar biograaf Jane Scovell (mede-outeur van boeke deur Elizabeth Taylor en Kitty Dukakis) sê Oona is óf ''n verengelsde weergawe van Juno' óf 'dit kom van uan, die Ierse woord vir' lam '. "

Oona O'Neill Chaplin se lewe was meer lam as Juno, gedefinieer deur twee mans: haar pa, dramaturg Eugene O'Neill, en haar man, die filmgenie Charlie Chaplin, 35 jaar ouer as haar.

In die erkennings skryf Scovell: 'In my kinderjare was ek 'n filmmaniak en aanbid in diskriminerende manlike en vroulike filmsterre ... Ek vind Oona O'Neill Chaplin, 'n nie-aktrise, heeltemal interessant... Ek het nie regtig die huwelik van Oona verstaan ​​nie en onthou toe ek na foto's van die Chaplins gestaar het wat ek probeer versoen het met wat ek op my kinderlike manier normaal beskou het vir egpare - 'n man en vrou wat baie nader was. het so gelukkig gelyk en na mekaar gekyk met so 'n ooglopende liefde dat ek besluit het, ietwat ongemaklik, dit was reg. "

Maak nie saak hoe sterk Scovell se aanvanklike inspirasie was nie, sy hou Oona dikwels op 'n afstand. Dit neem 44 bladsye voordat die onderwerp gebore is. Eerstens moet ons deeglik opgevoed word in Oona se 'vaderlike afkoms', al erken die skrywer dit 'is geteken en bestudeer in die talle biografiese en kritiese werke oor haar man en haar vader'.

As Oona uiteindelik die verhoog inneem, verskyn sy as 'n bietjie speler in die lewe van Eugene O'Neill, 'n man met 'vaderlike koelte'. O'Neill het van Oona se ma, Agnes, se egskeiding geskei toe die kind drie was, toe 'per ongeluk kontak met (haar) per pos onderhou'.

Die fokus is uiteindelik op Oona tydens haar latere tienerjare. Dit is die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en Oona het die eienaardige Amerikaanse skepping geword, 'n debutant. Die jong Manhattan -skoonheid, prinses van die Stork Club, is opgestel deur Walter Winchell en gekroon as Debutante van die Jaar van 1942. Haar afwesige pa probeer haar begeerte om 'n filmaktrise te wees, wil hê dat sy 'n verpleegster moet word.

Maar Oona kom na Hollywood, waar sy ontmoet, en trou binnekort met Charlie Chaplin. Die egpaar van Mei-Desember word nou die hoofonderwerp van hierdie biografie.

Dikwels leer ons in biografieë geheime oor die een huweliksmaat wat die ander nie ken nie. Maar die Chaplins word aangebied as 'n verenigde front. Geen geheime nie. Geen gevegte nie. Hulle slaag daarin om agt kinders te produseer, waaronder die toekomstige aktrise Geraldine.

Die enigste tyd wat Oona behalwe Charlie spandeer, kom gedurende 'n paar gespanne weke in 1952, toe sy terugkeer na Hollywood uit Europa, waar haar man in ballingskap gebly het omdat die Amerikaanse prokureur -generaal hom 'n toegangsvisum geweier het. Daar likwideer sy eie bates in kontant, wat sy in die rok van haar jas uit die land smokkel.

Die Chaplins leef dan hul ballingskap in Switserland. Charlie maak twee films, "A King in New York" (1957) en "The Countess From Hong Kong" (1966). In 1972 keer die twee vir die eerste keer in 20 jaar terug na Amerikaanse bodem, sodat Charlie 'n spesiale Oscar kan ontvang vir 'die onberekenbare uitwerking wat hy gehad het op die maak van rolprente tot die kunsvorm van hierdie eeu'. Tydens die Oscar -seremonie dring hy daarop aan dat Oona saam met hom op die verhoog kom: "Charlie het 'n aantal skerp stote in die rigting van (Oona) gemaak, wat duidelik bedoel het, daar is sy, eer haar, sy is die rede waarom ek hier is."

Maar hoewel Charlie sy vrou op die verhoog erken met handseine, hou Scovell Oona gedeeltelik in die skadu, en onderbreek gereeld die gesag van haar stem deur die leemtes in haar navorsing te erken.

Scovell maak staaltjies leeg deur hul egtheid te pik. Byvoorbeeld, Orson Welles het al dan nie Oona se palm gelees en haar huwelik met Chaplin voorspel. 'N Dronk Christopher Isherwood het die Chaplins se bank al dan nie natgemaak nie.

Die skrywer is so versigtig, maar dan som sy die Chaplins se huwelik vrymoedig op deur te skryf: "En wat van Oona? Wat het dit vir haar in? Presies wat sy gesoek het. 'N Vader, 'n minnaar, 'n verskaffer en beskermer wat wou haar altyd by hom hê. Op die foto's wat tydens hierdie tydperk geneem is, kan sy sien hoe sy Chaplin met erediens bekyk.

Dit is waarnemende vermoede. Dit lyk asof Scovell onder Oona se vel kan kom, maar sy doen dit nie gereeld nie. Gevolglik maak haar boek oor Oona O'Neill Chaplin opgewonde en teleurstellend.


Lita Grey

Lita Gray in 1925. (Foto: Studio werk te huur ([2]) [Publieke domein], via Wikimedia Commons)

Chaplin gaan vinnig oor na sy tweede vrou, Lita Gray, in 1924, wat hy in sy film vertolk het, Die Gold Rush. Weereens beweer die 16-jarige aktrise dat sy gedwing is om met Chaplin te trou nadat sy onverwags swanger geword het. Later, in 'n morsige egskeiding van 50 bladsye, onthul Gray die misbruikmaatreëls van Chaplin om hul private aangeleenthede te verberg, insluitend sy eis om 'n aborsie na die swangerskap. Gray het die huwelik drie jaar lank verduur en twee seuns in die wêreld gebring voordat hy uiteindelik weggeloop het. Hul bittere hofgeveg het brandstof bygevoeg, met Gray wat $ 100,000 per kind verdien het en Chaplin in die openbaar as 'n manipulerende playboy beledig het. Hul egskeiding was destyds die grootste openbare Hollywood -skandaal, wat die naam van Chaplin belaster het.


Charlie Chaplin se biografiese tydlyn

16 April 1889 Charlie Chaplin word gebore in Suid -Londen, Engeland, vir Hannah en Charles Chaplin Sr. Albei is musieksaal entertainers.

1899 – Op 10 -jarige ouderdom sluit 'n jong Chaplin aan by 'n groep verstopdansers genaamd The Eight Lancashire Lads. Dit is deur middel van sy pa se vertoningsbesigheidsverbindings dat hy die optrede kry. Hulle toer deur die VK

1903-1905 – Chaplin word in verskillende toneelstukke gespeel, en hy verdien lof vir die speel van Billie the Pageboy in 'n produksie van Sherlock Holmes.

'N Jong Chaplin in Sherlock Holmes.

1906 – Chaplin sluit aan by 'n jeugdige groep Casey's Circus. Hulle voer burleske roetines uit en Chaplin word een van sy sterpresteerders.

1908 – Chaplin se ouer broer, Sydney, wat reeds 'n gevestigde kunstenaar by Fred Karno was, slaag daarin om 'n oudisie vir sy broer by die geselskap te kry. Hulle neem hom aan en hy beleef sukses in 'n dronk in een van hul gereelde produksies.

1910-1913 – Die Karno -onderneming toer deur die Verenigde State. Chaplin kom onder die aandag van die eienaars van die New York Motion Picture Company. In September 1913 bied hulle hom 'n kontrak aan by die Keystone Film Company. Hy verdien $ 150 per week.

1914 - Deur sy tweede film vir Keystone het Chaplin sy nou beroemde "Tramp" -karakter ontwikkel. Mack Sennett, die hoof van Keystone, was vaardig in die vervaardiging van slapstick -komedies met gekke jaagtogte en vla -tertgevegte. In sy jaar by Keystone het Chaplin in 35 komediebroeke gespeel.

1915 - Die gewildheid van Chaplin het eksponensieel toegeneem gedurende sy eerste jaar op die skerm. Chaplin teken met die Essanay Film Company. Dit is hier dat hy sy "Tramp" -karakter begin uitbrei en dit meer dimensie gee.

1916 – Deur 'n kontrak met die Mutual Film Company te aanvaar, word Charlie Chaplin die hoogs betaalde rolprentakteur met 'n jaarlikse salaris van $ 670,000. Hy maak twaalf kort komedies vir die ateljee tydens sy ampstermyn daar, en skep wat baie kritici van sy beste werk beskou.

1917 - Chaplin teken met verspreider Eerste Nasionaal vir een miljoen dollar om 8 films te voltooi. Hy bou ook sy eie ateljee in Hollywood.

1918 - Chaplin trou met sy eerste vrou, die 16 -jarige aktrise Mildred Harris.

1919 – Saam met D.W. Griffith, Douglass Fairbanks en Mary Pickford, Chaplin, stig die verspreidingsmaatskappy United Artists. Dit is 'n onderneming wat volledig besit en bestuur word deur die mense wat verantwoordelik is vir die vervaardiging van sy kreatiewe produksie.

1922 – Chaplin vervaardig sy eerste film onder die vaandel van United Artists, 'N Vrou van Parys. Dit is 'n drama oor twee ongelukkige liefhebbers. Chaplin is nie in die film nie, en gevolglik ly dit in die loket.

1924 - Chaplin trou met sy tweede vrou, die 16 -jarige aktrise Lita Gray. Die huwelik sou slegs twee jaar duur. Saam het hulle twee seuns gehad.

1929 – By die eerste jaarlikse Oscar -toekennings word Chaplin vereer met 'n spesiale trofee vir sy werk aan Die sirkus, 'n film wat hy in 1927 vervaardig het.

1931 – In 'n era van praatprente stel Chaplin die stille funksie vry Stad ligte. Alhoewel daar geen dialoog was nie, het die film klankeffekte en 'n musikale partituur wat deur Chaplin self saamgestel is.

Publisiteitsfoto van Charlie Chaplin op CBS -radio, 1933.

1936 - Chaplin stel die funksie vry Moderne tye. Met die uitsondering van een liedjie wat hy sing, is dit in wese 'n stille film. Weer eens het Chaplin musiek vir die film gekomponeer. Dit was die laaste verskyning van sy "Tramp" -karakter. Na die vrystelling van die film is Chaplin vir die derde keer getroud met die aktrise Paulette Goddard.

1940 – Chaplin stel sy eerste praatjie bekend, die politieke satire Die Groot Diktator. Dit is 'n onbedekte parodie op Adolf Hitler en fascisme. Daarin speel Chaplin 'n dubbele rol as die totalitêre leier Adenoid Hynkel en 'n Joodse kapper. Die politiek het openlik geword toe Chaplin aan die einde van die film deur sy kapperkarakter breek om 'n diatribe teen Hitler en fascisme te lewer. Chaplin se politiek sou sy gehoor teen hom begin draai. Ten spyte hiervan is die film genomineer vir die toekenning vir beste akteur en beste prent.

1943 – Chaplin trou met sy vierde, sy 18-jarige protégé Oona O'Neill, die dogter van die dramaturg Eugene O'Neill. Hy bly die res van sy lewe met haar getroud. In dieselfde jaar lê die aspirant -aktrise Joan Barry 'n vaderskap teen die akteur aan. Dit word baie gewild gemaak deur die media, en dit erodeer Chaplin se gewildheid verder.

1952 –Chaplin stel sy laaste film in Amerika bekend, Kollig. By die reis na Londen vir die première van die film, adviseer die Amerikaanse immigrasiediens Chaplin dat hy geweier sal word om in die Verenigde State terug te keer. Hy was uiterlik krities oor die verhore van die House Un-American Activities Committee en deur die regering beskou kommunistiese neigings. Chaplin besluit om die bande met die VSA te verbreek en verhuis na die stad Corsier-sur-Vevey in Switserland.

1972 – Chaplin keer terug na die Verenigde State om 'n ere -Oscar tydens die Academy Awards te ontvang. Hy kry 'n staande ovasie van 12 minute.

25 Desember 1977 - Met sy gesondheid wat 'n paar jaar agteruitgaan, sterf Charlie Chaplin by sy huis in Switserland.


Chaplin sê die lewe saam met pa was nie pret en speletjies nie

Dit moet baie vreemd wees om jou eie ouma te speel in 'n film oor jou pa.

Geraldine Chaplin, wat die oudste kind van Charlie Chaplin is, beeld haar ouma, Hannah, uit in die film & quot; Chaplin, & quot; wat Vrydag landwyd open.

Sy sê dit was baie meer verstommend om Robert Downey Jr. as haar pa te sien.

Chaplin was 55 toe sy gebore is, so sy kan nie met Chaplin se vroeë jare verband hou nie. "As 'n ouer man lyk hy [Robert] presies soos my pa," sê sy.

Haar pa het af en toe gepraat oor Hannah, wat kranksinnig was en 'n groot deel van haar volwasse lewe in asiel deurgebring het.

En hoewel daar films in die Chaplin -huis was, was dit altyd Charlie se films. Ons kon eintlik nie ander films sien nie. Ons het gedink dat ander films eers bestaan ​​toe ek en my broer 'Quo Vadis' gaan kyk het en dit was in kleur. En daar is leeus en Christene wat deur leeus geëet word en ons het gedink dit is regtig films!

Daar was geen reël dat ons nie ander films mag sien nie, maar die films wat in ons huis vertoon is, was Charlie Chaplin -films. En mens het nie gepraat van ander komediante soos Laurel en Hardy nie. Ek dink hy het dit gedoen omdat hy baie onseker was en nie kon verdra dat iemand anders se film goed sou wees nie. & Quot

Haar pa wou hê dat sy kinders dokters of prokureurs of ingenieurs moes wees, onthou sy. & quot Ongelukkig het arme man, agt kinders en niemand iets ingegaan waarvan hy sou goedgekeur het nie. & quot

Alhoewel hy haar optrede nie goedgekeur het nie, het hy 'n 'voorwaardelike fan' geword sodra sy haarself gevestig het, sê sy. & quotHy het geen raad gegee nie, hy sou net sê: 'Doen net wat jy doen.' Ek wens hy het meer leiding gegee. & Quot

Charlie se halfbroer, Sydney, was baie snaaks in die regte lewe, sê me. Chaplin. Maar haar pa was nie. En hy was nogal streng, sê sy.

Sy dink hierdie gevoel van onveiligheid waaraan hy gely het, het homself vertoon nadat Chaplin Sophia Loren en Marlon Brando in "The Countess of Hong Kong" geregisseer het, waarskynlik een van die ergste films in die geskiedenis. Dit sou sy terugkeerfliek wees en is in Engeland met Amerikaanse geld geskiet.

Dit het sulke slegte resensies gekry. Hy het blykbaar altyd slegte resensies gekry. Altyd. Maar hy wou werk en kon nie werk nie, want hulle sou hom nie verseker nie. Hy was te oud. Hy was bitter. & Quot

Dit was moeilik vir Chaplin om te verstaan ​​toe die toejuiging verdwyn, sê me. Chaplin, 'n internasionale aktrise wat waarskynlik beter bekend is aan die ander kant van die Atlantiese Oseaan. Hy het soveel erkenning en soveel applous gehad. Hy was soos die Beatles, net meer. En dan in Switserland was dit rustig en waar was die toejuiging? & Quot

Chaplin verhuis na Switserland nadat die VSA geweier het om hom 'n herbetredingspermit te verleen toe hy vertrek om sy geboorteland Engeland te besoek.

Eintlik was daar jare gelede kontroversie rondom die Chaplin -stam. Chaplin se ma het drie seuns by drie verskillende vaders gehad. Sy trou met slegs Charlie se pa, 'n alkoholis. Chaplin het self 'n voorliefde vir nimfe gehad en was betrokke by 'n skandalige vaderskap.

Hy was drie keer getroud toe hy met me. Chaplin se ma, Oona O'Neill, wat die dramaturg was, Eugene O'Neill se dogter, getroud was. Die ouer O'Neill maak beswaar teen die wedstryd. Oona was 18 en Chaplin was 54.

Me. Chaplin sê dat 'n suster en 'n broer albei beswaar daarteen gemaak het dat die film oor hul pa gemaak word. My suster wat so voel, is 'n towenaar. Sy voel dit is soos om te wys hoe die truuk gedoen word. & Quot


Oona O'Neill en Charlie Chaplin


Foto: Charlie Chaplin met vrou Oona O'Neill. Alhoewel Oona O'Neill (1925-1991) van plan was om aktrise te word, staan ​​sy bekend as die dogter van Eugene O'Neill, wat die gesin verlaat het terwyl Oona nog 'n kleuter was, en die vrou van Charlie Chaplin, wat self geskep het sommige van die mees skandalige verhale van die tydfilm -era. Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977) word onthou as 'n komediant van stille films, maar skandalige gedrag het sy persoonlike lewe gevul.

Ongevraagde materiaal

Ongevraagde draaiboek deur Alan Nafzger 'n Karaktergedrewe "Hollywood" -verhaal. LEES DIE SKERMSPEL - & gt Ongevraagde materiaal Ongevraagde materiaalomgewing: Los [lees draaiboek]

Hy was vermoedelik die eerste seksmaat van aansienlik minderjarige meisies, wat hy gereeld professioneel begelei het.

Daar word beweer dat sy fetisj vir jong tienermeisies ontstaan ​​het as gevolg van sy herinnering aan verlore tienerliefde Hetty Kelly. Elkeen van sy eerste twee vroue, Mildred Harris en Lita Gray, was sestien toe hulle troue 'n aansienlike ouer Chaplin trou, wat net elkeen getrou het weens swangerskap.

Foto: Thomas Ince. Beide egskeidings het oorgegaan in sensasionele mediasirkusse wat seksuele skandale rapporteer. Chaplin het berugte talle aangeleenthede gehad en het dus verband gehou met die raaisel van die dood van Thomas Ince in 1924 omdat daar vermoed is dat Ince per ongeluk vermoor is deur William Randolph Hearst, wat moontlik bedoel het om Chaplin te vermoor na 'n vermeende verhouding met Hearst se minnares .

Chaplin se reputasie word bedreig deur sy lewe saam met die jong aktrise Paulette Goddard, wat een en twintig jaar jonger was. Jare later het 'n ander voormalige minnares 'n hoogs gepubliseerde vaderskapgeding teen Chaplin ingedien.

Chaplin ontmoet Oona toe sy vir hom 'n oudisie doen. Hulle trou toe sy pas agtien was en hy vier-en-vyftig.

Omdat Chaplin van kommunisme beskuldig word, het die egpaar verban

self na Switserland, en Oona het afstand gedoen van haar Amerikaanse burgerskap, volgens die lêers van Classic Films.


Charlie Chaplin trou met Oona O'Neill - GESKIEDENIS


Charlie Chaplin se vrouens

Mildred Harris, Lita Gray, Paulette Goddard, Oona O'Neil

Deel 1 - Charlie's Ideal Deel 2 - Chaplin's Wives Deel 3 - Chaplin se familie

Kopiereg November 2003-2016

Chaplin was vroeg in 1918 by 'n partytjie toe hy Mildred Harris ontmoet. Mildred was 'n kinderster vanaf die ouderdom van 10 en was 16 toe sy Chaplin ontmoet het. Die jong, enkellopende en suksesvolle Chaplin was 'n goeie vangs vir enige opkomende sterretjie.

Mildred het haar deur Chaplin opgemerk, en Charlie kon haar skoonheid nie miskyk nie. Hulle het etlike maande uitgegaan en gerugte oor 'n huwelik het gedurende die somer die plaaslike pers getref. Ontkennings is uitgereik, maar hulle het op 23 Oktober 1918 rustig getrou. Mildred het aan Chaplin gesê sy is swanger, maar sy was regtig nie. Maar Mildred sou nog steeds Charlie se eerste kind hê.

Om mevrou Chaplin te wees, het wel nuwe filmkontrakte vir Mildred gesluit. Vir Chaplin het dit sy werk beïnvloed. Tydens die verfilming van Sunnyside het hy die meeste vertragings gehad met die afronding van 'n film. Hy het probleme ondervind in sy nuwe huwelikslewe, en Mildred het probleme gehad met Chaplin se 'eensgesindheid' met sy werk.

Charlie en Mildred het een seun, Norman Spencer Chaplin, gehad. Norman is gebore op 7 Julie 1919, maar die kind sterf drie dae later.

Dit was tydens die produksie van 'The Kid' dat Mildred en Charlie se huwelik uitmekaar val. Die egpaar skei op 13 November 1920, net voor ‘ The Kid ’ is vroeg in Februarie 1921 vrygelaat.

Harris sou nog 'n paar jaar in die vermaaklikheidsbedryf voortgaan, maar drank het haar gesondheid beïnvloed en haar lewe was nie goed in haar latere jare nie. Sy is op 20 Julie 1944 oorlede.

Lillita McMurray, beter bekend as Lita Gray, was die flirterige engel in ‘The Kid '. Sy speel ook Edna ’ se diensmeisie in ‘The Idle Class ’. (Lita se ma het saam met Lita as 'n diensmeisie in dieselfde film gespeel.)

Lita het in haar eerste boek geskryf dat sy en haar ma Chaplin die eerste keer ontmoet het toe sy baie jonk was, terwyl hulle in 'n restaurant was. Charlie en die bemanning was op 'n middagete, toe Lita se ma Chaplin gewaar en hulself voorstel.

In 1920 is Lita weer aan Chaplin voorgestel tydens die maak van 'The Kid' deur Charles Riesner, Chaplin se assistent -regisseur, wat die vader was van 'Dinky' Dean Riesner. Die Riesners en McMurrays was bure. In die boek van Lita het Chaplin tydens die maak van hierdie film belanggestel in juffrou Lita. Hy het 'n kunstenaarsvriend beveel om 'n portret van Lita te skilder.

In 1924 het Lita weer die aandag van Chaplin getref tydens die voorbereiding van ‘The Gold Rush. Lita nooi haar vriendin, Merna Kennedy, die toekomstige leidende dame van die 'The Circus', om Chaplin's Studios te besoek. (Merna het 'The Circus' werk gekry deur Lita wat haar voorgestel het vir die rol.)

Charlie en Lita het twee kinders tydens die huwelik gehad, Charles Chaplin Jr. op 5 Mei 1925 en Sydney Chaplin op 30 Maart 1926. Maar die huwelik was van die begin af gedoem om te misluk.

Einde November 1926 het die reeds rotsagtige huwelik tot stand gekom en 'n lang, nare openbare egskeiding vir Lita en Charlie geword. Die egskeiding het baie letsels aan beide kante gelaat wat nooit genees het nie. Chaplin was nog steeds so emosioneel oor die hele saak, dat hy nie eers in 1964 in sy eie boek daaroor kon skryf nie, behalwe 'n baie kort vermelding. Die hoofrede vir die stilte was ten opsigte van sy seuns.

Na die egskeiding kon die egpaar hul seuns afsonderlik grootmaak.

Lita sou baie moeilike jare na die egskeiding beleef. Op die laagste vlak het Charlie haar gehelp deur met haar te praat en 'n oortuiging in te boesem, soos sy in haar eerste boek opgemerk het.

Sy het herstel en daarin geslaag om in haar latere jare 'n suksesvolle talentagentskap te begin. Sy het twee boeke oor haar lewe saam met Chaplin geskryf. Die eerste een was ‘My Life with Charlie Chaplin ’ in 1966, en die tweede ‘Wife of the Life of the Party ’ wat in 1998 gepubliseer is.

Wat hul kinders betref, speel Charlie Jr. saam met sy pa in die film ‘Limelight ’ as een van die narre in die ballet toneel. Hy het sy eie boek geskryf oor die lewe saam met sy pa genaamd ‘My Father, Charlie Chaplin 'in 1960. Charlie Jr. is op 20 Maart 1968 oorlede.

Charlie se seun Sydney, vernoem na sy oom, het 'n hoofrol gespeel in ‘Limelight ’ as die komponis Neville. Sydney speel ook as Harvey Crothers in die film ‘A Countess From Hong Kong ’. Sydney Chaplin woon steeds in Kalifornië. Hy woon spesiale feesgeleenthede by ter ere van sy vader en kan gesien word in dokumentêre films soos ‘The Unknown Chaplin - The Great Director '.

Die feit is dat dit 'n gelukkige vakbond was tydens die vroeë deel van hul verhouding in die dertigerjare. Daar is selfs berig dat Lita Gray Chaplin self baie bly was om Paulette in die lewe van Charlie te sien. Paulette het stiefma geword vir Sydney en Charlie Jr., en sy was die perfekte een vir daardie tyd! (Lita en Paulette het een keer op 'n verjaardagpartytjie ontmoet en na berig word het hulle goed oor die weg gekom.) Charlie Jr. en Sydney was mal oor hul stiefma. Sy was daar toe Charlie nie was nie, aangesien hy laat by sy ateljee gewerk het.

Tydens hul huwelik het Paulette se sukses in 'Modern Times' gelei tot ander rolprente gedurende die 1930's, waaronder 'The Women'. Sy was selfs aan die rol in die rol van Scarlet O'Hara, in 'Gone With the Wind', maar die huweliksvraag het haar agtervolg om die rol te kry. (Paulette se Scarlet -filmtoets kan nog gesien word in programme oor 'Gone With the Wind'). Vivien Leigh het die rol eerder gewen.

Paulette se laaste rolprent met Charlie was ‘The Great Dictator ’ in 1940. Dit was tydens die verfilming dat vriende rondom die egpaar kon sien dat die verhouding misluk. Alhoewel hierdie huwelik langer geduur het as die eerste twee huwelike van Chaplin, sou dit ook nie blywend wees nie.

Daar is berigte dat Chaplin probeer om die huwelik te red, en hy het selfs Paulette as 'n vrou voorgestel tydens 'n spraakgeleentheid in New York. Dit was glo die eerste keer dat Chaplin in die openbaar na Paulette as sy vrou verwys. Kort daarna het Paulette vrae in die pers beantwoord en gesê dat dit inderdaad Charlie Chaplin se vrou was. Maar nie veel langer nie.

Paulette het op 4 Junie 1942 in Mexiko haar egskeiding van Chaplin ontvang. Paulette sou tot in die 60's in films voortgaan. Vir 'n kort rukkie trou sy selfs met Burgess Meredith.

Paulette en Charlie het deur die jare verre vriende gebly, maar het mekaar selde gesien. Sy het selfs getrou en uiteindelik in Switserland gewoon, maar het Chaplin nooit ontmoet terwyl sy daar gewoon het nie. Maar soos in al die ander gevalle, sou elke opvolgende vrou die vorige ontmoet. Sy het Charlie en Oona toevallig in Parys ontmoet en hulle het heerlik saam geëet. Die laaste keer dat sy Chaplin sou sien, was blykbaar in 1972 in New York. Charlie en Oona was vir die laaste keer, sedert 1952, in Amerika vir Chaplin om sy spesiale Oscar -toekenning te ontvang. Sy slaag daarin om deur 'n skare te druk om 'n paar minute met hom te praat, maar hulle tyd was kort.

Paulette Goddard is op 23 April 1990 oorlede op 75 -jarige ouderdom. Van al sy vroue het sy die suksesvolste filmloopbaan gehad en is sy onthou vir haar werk, en miskien meer as om mev Charles Chaplin te wees.

Paulette wou uiteindelik 'n loopbaan hê, Chaplin wou 'n vrou hê. Hy sou die vrou vind terwyl hy nog 'n leidende dame soek om Paulette te vervang.

Oona se besoek met haar pa, die beroemde dramaturg Eugene O ’Neill, het nie goed gegaan nie. Die verhouding was van die begin af swak. Haar filmloopbaan het ook nie ontwikkel nie. In plaas daarvan sou sy opslae maak om die vierde vrou van Charlie Chaplin te word.

Baie mense het hierdie huwelik laat afskryf nog voordat dit begin het, maar hulle het Oona O 'Neill nie geken nie.

Die egpaar het baie tyd saam deurgebring. Selfs Charlie se seuns is baie aangeneem deur hul nuwe stiefma. Sy was miskien 18, maar sy was baie volwasse vir haar ouderdom en het 'n kalmte oor haar gehad wat haar gehelp het in hierdie nuwe huwelikslewe.

Die egpaar sou deur die moeilikste tye gaan wat Chaplin in die Verenigde State beleef het. Die Joan Berry-regsgeding, die afkeer van die publiek oor die nuwe rigtings van sy films en die linksgesinde politiek van Chaplin het hom in die openbaar agtervolg. Daarteenoor kon sy privaat lewe nie beter gewees het nie.

'Limelight' in 1952 word 'n familie-aangeleentheid vir Charlie, aangesien sy oudste en jongste kinders almal in die film was, waaronder sy halfbroer, Wheeler Dryden as dokter. Daar word selfs berig dat Oona kortliks verskyn het, wat vir Clarie Bloom verdubbel het in 'n toneel wat geneem moes word nadat die produksie afgehandel is.

Met die film gemaak het Chaplin besluit om 'Limelight' in Londen in première te bring en vir die eerste keer 'sy London' aan sy vrou en jong gesin te wys. Chaplin het al die nodige papiere gekry vir die reis en die regeringsamptenare wens hulle 'n wonderlike reis toe!

In September 1952 vertrek Charlie, Oona en die drie kinders uit New York na Londen. Maar twee dae op die see het die nuus op die skip gekom dat Chaplin geweier word om terug te keer na die Verenigde State.

Volgens die New York Times -berigte uit 1952 was die gesin gereed om die Amerikaanse regeringsbesluit te beveg, maar die gesin het die res van 1952 in hotelle gewoon en by vriende gebly. Januarie 1953. Oona wou veral genader wees vir die geboorte van hul vierde kind.

Die volgende paar maande was die lewe baie stil by die huis van die Chaplin -gesin. Charlie gemaak was soms nie die perfekte pa nie, maar hy het goed vir al sy kinders gesorg. Om eerlik te wees, moes dit moeilik gewees het om 'n pa te wees gedurende die 1950's, 60's en 70's, toe jy in 1889 gebore is. En dit moes ook moeilik gewees het vir die kinders.


Gedurende Chaplin se lewe het hy 11 kinders gebore tussen 1919 en sy jongste in 1962. Twee is dood tydens sy leeftyd. Die meeste van sy kinders het gedurende die 50's en 60's grootgeword.

Vir sy kinders was hy pa, maar vir die wêreld was hy nog steeds 'The Little Tramp'. Hierdie rolprentfiguur uit die stille era was 'n bietjie te ver vir die kinders, en Charlie het nie veel oor sy vroeë filmdae met sy kinders gepraat nie. Miskien was dit die verlies van die lewe, soos hy gedoen het, net te seer om te herleef.

Baie bekende mense sou deur die jare hul huis besoek, 'n ware wie is wie. Maar selfs in Switserland moes sake nog afgehandel word met hul Hollywood -huis en ateljee -eiendom. Hiervoor was Oona 'n groot hulp, en ons moet haar bedank dat sy gehelp het om Chaplin se leeftyd aan filmwerk te red.

Op haar solo -reis terug na Amerika het Oona hul Hollywood -huis en die Chaplin Studios gesluit. Sy hele leeftyd by die ateljee is opgepak en gestuur na hul huis in Switserland, met die hulp van die Chaplin Studio -werknemers, wat nog vir hom gewerk het. Hul Hollywood -huis is verkoop met hul besittings, óf bewaar en gestuur of weggegooi. Oona het die reis deurgemaak sonder dat amptenare haar ondervra het, selfs nadat hulle uitgevind het dat ander deur die FBI ondervra is, waaronder die voormalige Chaplin se vrou, Lita Gray Chaplin, wat trots niks vir hulle te sê het nie. Chaplin was 'n senuwee -wrak gedurende die hele beproewing en was baie bly toe Oona se terugkeer en sy werk gered word.

Charlie het 'n spesiale filmkluis by hul huis in Switserland gemaak om al sy waardevolle filmvoorraad te bêre. Hierdie kluis is die hoofbron vir al die films van Chaplin se kopiereg wat ons vandag so geniet.

Later het Oona selfs haar Amerikaanse burgerskap prysgegee. Sy het min bande met die Verenigde State gehad, maar sou terugkeer om haar gesin te help wanneer dit nodig was. Sy het haar ma en broer gehad met wie sy kontak gehou het.

Wat Charlie betref, sou hy in 1972 slegs een keer na die Verenigde State terugkeer om sy spesiale Oscar -toekenning met Oona aan sy sy te ontvang. Al die mense wat saam met Chaplin gewerk het, het in New York of Los Angeles opgedaag om hom te sien, insluitend sy voormalige mede-sterre Jackie Coogan, Clarie Bloom en Georgia Hale. Edna Purviance sou ook daar gewees het as sy gelewe het. (Sy is 24 jaar tevore in 1958 oorlede.)

Toe hy die aand die Oscar ontvang, het hy Oona aan sy sy, soos sy was van die begin van hul huwelik. Hy beduie haar in gebaar dat dit Oona is wat dit vir hom moontlik gemaak het om daardie aand daar te wees. Oona gee hom sterkte, waar syne misluk.

Die Amerikaanse reis was vir beide 'n baie emosionele reis. So emosioneel vir Chaplin, hy kon nie weer op sy ou Chaplin Film Studio -terrein loop nie. Hy is op 'n Sondag na die ateljee en het by die oorspronklike hek -ingang gestop. Hy kyk by die hekke in, maar die menings moes baie gewees het. Al sy vroue en sy eerste naaste liefde, Edna, was almal daar in die 34 jaar wat hy daar gewerk het, maar daardie tyd was verby. Al wat oorgebly het, was die gebou en menure wat hy op film gemaak het.

Dit was die laaste keer dat Chaplin sy ateljee gesien het.

Chaplin het nuwe energie gekry uit hierdie Amerikaanse reise en is terug na Switserland, waar hy sy tweede boek 'My Life in Pictures' geskep het. Hy kon meer oor sy tweede huwelik in hierdie boek praat, maar veral in foto's.

Oona was there in London to see him receive his English knighthood in 1975. A great honor! But his old energy was gone. He asked not be photographed while struggling to enter his car. The man who once could move with great ease, was no more.

In 1976, he restored the last of his classics and one of his favorite films 'A Woman of Paris' . It was Edna Purviance's first starring role. Chaplin and Edna got great reviews, but in the end, it was the little fellow people wanted to see, not the great director. He created a music score for it too, like all his other classics. His health was failing a great deal by this time, and the music does show it, for it does not have the same voice as his earlier work.

As always, Oona was never far away. Sitting in a corner knitting she would be asked by Charlie about this scene or that. She became his personal advisor, and he always listened. Charlie would even look for her, even if she left the room for even a short while. She was his energy, his youth. She was everything he wanted in a wife, and more. It has been said, that Oona would laugh loudly at his jokes, whether she heard it before, or not. If he was looking to find his first love he lost with Hetty Ketty, he found her in Oona.

His last year with Oona was as quiet as the first months in Switzerland. He would watch films, take drives, do walks, see visitors and attend family outings. But by November 1977, Chaplin stayed home for good. Oona worked hard on caring for him, until her health was called into question by their own children.

But the end was nearing for 'the little fellow'.

It is rather irony that Chaplin would die in the early morning hours of the one holiday that was the saddest from his childhood. During the annual family holiday gathering in 1977, Charlie died on Christmas Day.

In Los Angeles, flowers were left at the gates of the former Chaplin Film Studios and even on Chaplin's mother's gravesite. (Charlie's mother lived her last years in the 1920's in a house Chaplin brought for her in the Los Angeles area.)

Oona never got over the death of Charlie. She tried to start a new life and even lived in New York City for a while. But her whole life centered around Charlie, and life without him just didn't seem possible for her. Living with Charlie was never easy for Oona, but living without him was agonizing. If there was one fault in the marriage, it maybe that Oona didn't develop more of her own personally outside of the marriage. If she had, maybe she would still be with us and her children today.

Oona died from cancer on September 27, 1991. It was just before the release of the film ‘Chaplin’ for which she gave permission to use Charlie's book as source material for the film.

The couple had eight children: Geraldine, Eugene, Victoria, Annette, Josephine, Michael, Jane and Christopher Chaplin. While all the children went on to lead successful lives of their own, to most people, Geraldine Chaplin is the best known in the acting world. Her first major role was in 'Dr. Zhivago' . She even got to play her own grandmother (Charlie's mother, Hannah) in 1991 movie 'Chaplin' .

The Chaplin family is currently creating a lasting tribute to their parents by turning the family home in Switzerland into the Chaplin Heritage Center . (The final name of the center is still being decided.) They plan to have it open to the public in the future.

After three marriages that didn't work out, Charlie's final marriage realized his ideal girl and love of his life in Oona O'Neill. While Edna was Chaplin's ideal girl on the silver screen, it was Oona who became his ideal girl in real life.

And it will always be Oona Chaplin who will always be remembered as Mrs. Charles Chaplin.

For more information about Chaplin's Family, continue to:


Copyright November 2003 - 2010 - Linda Wada
Editing - Wes Wada
ednapurviance.org

Special knowledgement to the books 'Chaplin, His Life and Art' by David Robinson, 'My Autobiography' by Charles Chaplin, 'My Life in Picture' by Charlie Chaplin, 'My Life with My Father' by Charles Chaplin Jr. and 'My Life With Charlie Chaplin' by Lita Grey Chaplin.

And to Garen Ewing's - 'A Woman of Paris' - Charlie Chaplin first United Artist Film starring Edna Purviance.

A complete list and photos of all of Chaplin's leading ladies!


Book at ednapurviance.com!
The Sea Gull "A Woman of the Sea"
Published by Leading Ladies
By Linda Wada - Design by Wesley Wada


Over 100 photos, including 50 never published production stills from The Sea Gull
from the personal collection of Edna's family - Hill Family Collection!

"I sometimes decry the decline of professionalism in various disciplines
—including publishing—but I can&rsquot think of a better argument for
breaking down the barriers of traditional publishing. & quot
- Leonard Maltin, Film Critic and Author

2009 San Francisco Examiner "Best Recent Film Book List"

"THE SEA GULL is an important contribution to film history,
and worth buying for the stills alone. The look of the film,
revealed in these marvellous photographs, makes it all
the more tragic that it was destroyed."
- Kevin Brownlow

"It is beautiful, informative and edifying all at once." - David Toll, Nevada Writer

"I congratulate you on a very interesting and attractive book. & quot - Kate Guyonvarch, Association Chaplin

First book to feature Edna Purviance and about Charlie Chaplin's lost film production
Directed by Josef von Sternberg. Available for ordering at our shop
at ednapurviance.com
. Also learn more at Edna's Place

PLUS! Check out the following:



Garen Ewing's Charlie Chaplin UK DVD and VIDEO Guide!!


ALSO! My first interview with Garen Ewing, about The Rainbow Orchid
AND! Garen's release of The Rainbow Orchid from Egmont UK!


A R T L▼R K

… There is a Great Woman. One such woman, Oona O’Neill, was born on the 14 of May 1925, in Warwick Parish, Bermuda, to talented parents, the prize-winning playwright Eugene O’Neill and writer Agnes Boulton. We can only assume that this saying must have been true in Oona’s case, as her true character remained an enigma till the end of her life, which she, paradoxically, lived at the side of one of world’s most famous men. Oona became the fourth and last wife of British comic and filmmaker Charlie Chaplin , shortly after she met him as an 18-year-old Brearley graduate and emerging actress. Her career never took off, partly because of her exclusive dedication to her future family, partly because of her reserved character. Here is a clip from one of her very early Hollywood auditions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=comtYS3eQwg .

The couple’s 36 year old age difference, Chaplin’s political convictions and their elopement infuriated her father (same age as Chaplin) to such extent, that he disinherited Oona. Her childhood had been tormented by her mother’s alcoholism, her father’s temper flares and the inconsistent time she spent with him following her parents bitter divorce, which she had to go through aged only 2. It seemed that Oona had survived her difficult childhood relatively unscathed, unlike her older brother, Shane, and half-brother, Eugene O’Neill Jr. who both committed suicide. It may be that she learned to be self-guarded one of her best friends from Brearley, Gloria Vanderbilt, once said of her fellow debutante that she possessed “a wonderful quality of oriental objectivity about life.”

“Cast as a penumbrated figure in the lives of an illustrious father and a celebrated husband, Oona O’Neill Chaplin actually had a complex and compelling story of her own—a life which differs from the one depicted in the superficial headlines of her youth, the deferential captions of her maturity, and even the scandalous suggestions advanced since her death. Rejected and abandoned by her father, she attached herself to another genius and was absorbed by him. Did she give up everything to marry a much older man whose reputation was—to say the least—tarnished, just to spite her father? Or just for money? Was her marriage really perfect? Was she really happy? Was she good to the children, and were they good to her? What about her widowhood? Did she actually hide away? Were there other men? Most crucial, was she able to handle the severance from her father well enough to escape the family strains of alcoholism and melancholia? Oona’s life was a fairy tale without a happy ending, said one of her closest friends, and just like the heroine of a fairy tale, Oona was threatened by an ogre and rescued by a Prince Charming.” (Jane Scovell, Oona: Living in the Shadows , 2000).

Oona found in Chaplin a father figure, but also a genuine love match. Some videos of their appearances as a couple survive: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6SEWbfyi20 . Chaplin found in Oona a steady, reliable companion who adored him, and happily took on the house and family. Oona and Chaplin moved to Switzerland in 1953 after Hollywood blacklisted the comic for Communist leanings. They lived quietly with their eight children at the Manoir de Ban, a huge 18th-century mansion overlooking a village above Lake Geneva.

It is said that they did little entertaining, and Chaplin once told an interviewer that “my wife and children are more important to me than all the publicity in the world.” Oona always told friends and interviewers that she was content to remain a wife and mother. It seemed that the union with Charlie, the stability of family life with him, healed the past instabilities of her childhood. Reminiscing about her marriage, the former teenage bride said round her 20 th wedding anniversary: “People seem to think of Charlie as my father, but age counts for nothing in this house. To me he seems younger every day. There certainly is no father fixation about my feeling for him. He has made me mature and I keep him young. When you’re happy you don’t go in for self-analysis. I never consciously think of Charlie’s age for 364 days of the year. Only his birthday is the annual shock to me. But I can feel the way some people stare at me with puzzlement and then at him wondering how we have kept it up whether it is just a façade. Well, my security and stability with Charlie stem not from his wealth, but from the very difference in years between us. Other young women who have married mature men will understand what I mean… Charlie has given me one great gift that I had not known before. My childhood was not a very happy one and what he has brought to me is the gift of laughter. And that is beyond price.” (Van Chaplin: A Life by Stephen B. Weissman). So, including Oona, three of Chaplin’s wives were teenagers. Commenting on his often debated attraction to young girls, Chaplin later confided to a friend (Harry Crocker): “I have always been in love with young girls, not in an amorous way—just as beautiful objects to look at. I like them young because they personify youth and beauty. There is something virginal in their slimness—in their slender arms and legs. And they are so feminine at that age—so wholly, girlishly young. They haven’t developed the ‘come on’ stuff or discovered the power of their looks over men.” Oona’s presence insured that youth never left Charlie’s side and made the transition to old age bearable.

It seemed that the couple were dependent on each other on levels which exceeded romance and touched upon psychological balancing. After Chaplin’s death in 1977, Oona, overwhelmed by grief and despair, descended into alcoholism, just like her mother had done. She died of pancreatic cancer in 1991, aged 66. Whether her attachment to Chaplin was ideal or tragic is a dilemma which neither feminists nor psychologists should attempt to answer, as it is an issue as private as Oona herself was.


Filmmaking

Invloede

Chaplin believed his first influence to be his mother, who entertained him as a child by sitting at the window and mimicking passers-by: “it was through watching her that I learned not only how to express emotions with my hands and face, but also how to observe and study people.” [333] Chaplin’s early years in music hall allowed him to see stage comedians at work he also attended the Christmas pantomimes at Drury Lane, where he studied the art of clowning through performers like Dan Leno. [334] Chaplin’s years with the Fred Karno company had a formative effect on him as an actor and filmmaker. Simon Louvish writes that the company was his “training ground”, [335] and it was here that Chaplin learnt to vary the pace of his comedy. [336] The concept of mixing pathos with slapstick was learnt from Karno, [note 26] who also used elements of absurdity that became familiar in Chaplin’s gags. [336] [337] From the film industry, Chaplin drew upon the work of the French comedian Max Linder, whose films he greatly admired. [338] In developing the Tramp costume and persona, he was likely inspired by the American vaudeville scene, where tramp characters were common. [339]

Method

A 1922 image of Charlie Chaplin Studios, where all of Chaplin’s films between 1918 and 1952 were produced

Chaplin never spoke more than cursorily about his filmmaking methods, claiming such a thing would be tantamount to a magician spoiling his own illusion. [340] Little was known about his working process throughout his lifetime, [341] but research from film historians – particularly the findings of Kevin Brownlow and David Gill that were presented in the three-part documentary Unknown Chaplin (1983) – has since revealed his unique working method. [342]

Until he began making spoken dialogue films with Die Groot Diktator, Chaplin never shot from a completed script. [343] Many of his early films began with only a vague premise – for example “Charlie enters a health spa” or “Charlie works in a pawn shop.” [344] He then had sets constructed and worked with his stock company to improvise gags and “business” around them, almost always working the ideas out on film. [342] As ideas were accepted and discarded, a narrative structure would emerge, frequently requiring Chaplin to reshoot an already-completed scene that might have otherwise contradicted the story. [345] From A Woman of Paris onward Chaplin began the filming process with a prepared plot, [346] but Robinson writes that every film up to Modern Times “went through many metamorphoses and permutations before the story took its final form.” [347]

Producing films in this manner meant Chaplin took longer to complete his pictures than almost any other filmmaker at the time. [348] If he was out of ideas he often took a break from the shoot, which could last for days, while keeping the studio ready for when inspiration returned. [349] Delaying the process further was Chaplin’s rigorous perfectionism. [350] According to his friend Ivor Montagu, “nothing but perfection would be right” for the filmmaker. [351] Because he personally funded his films, Chaplin was at liberty to strive for this goal and shoot as many takes as he wished. [352] The number was often excessive, for instance 53 takes for every finished take in Die kind. [353] For The Immigrant, a 20 minute-short, Chaplin shot 40,000 feet of film – enough for a feature-length. [354]

“No other filmmaker ever so completely dominated every aspect of the work, did every job. If he could have done so, Chaplin would have played every role and (as his son Sydney humorously but perceptively observed) sewn every costume.” [340]

Describing his working method as “sheer perseverance to the point of madness”, [355] Chaplin would be completely consumed by the production of a picture. [356] Robinson writes that even in Chaplin’s later years, his work continued “to take precedence over everything and everyone else.” [357] The combination of story improvisation and relentless perfectionism – which resulted in days of effort and thousands of feet of film being wasted, all at enormous expense – often proved taxing for Chaplin who, in frustration, would lash out at his actors and crew. [358]

Chaplin exercised complete control over his pictures, [340] to the extent that he would act out the other roles for his cast, expecting them to imitate him exactly. [359] He personally edited all of his films, trawling through the large amounts of footage to create the exact picture he wanted. [360] As a result of his complete independence, he was identified by the film historian Andrew Sarris as one of the first auteur filmmakers. [361] Chaplin did receive help, notably from his long-time cinematographer Roland Totheroh, brother Sydney Chaplin, and various assistant directors such as Harry Crocker and Charles Reisner. [362]

Style and themes

Speel media

A collection of scenes from Die kind (1921), demonstrating Chaplin’s mixture of slapstick, pathos, and social commentary

While Chaplin’s comedic style is broadly defined as slapstick, [363] it is considered restrained and intelligent, [364] with the film historian Philip Kemp describing his work as a mix of “deft, balletic physical comedy and thoughtful, situation-based gags”. [365] Chaplin diverged from conventional slapstick by slowing the pace and exhausting each scene of its comic potential, with more focus on developing the viewer’s relationship to the characters. [65] [366] Unlike conventional slapstick comedies, Robinson states that the comic moments in Chaplin’s films centre on the Tramp’s attitude to the things happening to him: the humour does not come from the Tramp bumping into a tree, but from his lifting his hat to the tree in apology. [65] Dan Kamin writes that Chaplin’s “quirky mannerisms” and “serious demeanour in the midst of slapstick action” are other key aspects of his comedy, [367] while the surreal transformation of objects and the employment of in-camera trickery are also common features. [368]

Chaplin’s silent films typically follow the Tramp’s efforts to survive in a hostile world. [369] The character lives in poverty and is frequently treated badly, but remains kind and upbeat [370] defying his social position, he strives to be seen as a gentleman. [371] As Chaplin said in 1925, “The whole point of the Little Fellow is that no matter how down on his ass he is, no matter how well the jackals succeed in tearing him apart, he’s still a man of dignity.” [372] The Tramp defies authority figures [373] and “gives as good as he gets”, [372] leading Robinson and Louvish to see him as a representative for the underprivileged – an “everyman turned heroic saviour”. [374] Hansmeyer notes that several of Chaplin’s films end with “the homeless and lonely Tramp [walking] optimistically … into the sunset … to continue his journey”. [375]

“It is paradoxical that tragedy stimulates the spirit of ridicule … ridicule, I suppose, is an attitude of defiance we must laugh in the face of our helplessness against the forces of nature – or go insane.” [376]

The infusion of pathos is a well-known aspect of Chaplin’s work, [377] and Larcher notes his reputation for “[inducing] laughter and tears”. [378] Sentimentality in his films come from a variety of sources, with Louvish pinpointing “personal failure, society’s strictures, economic disaster, and the elements.” [379] Chaplin sometimes drew on tragic events when creating his films, as in the case of The Gold Rush (1925), which was inspired by the fate of the Donner Party. [376] Constance B. Kuriyama has identified serious underlying themes in the early comedies, such as greed (The Gold Rush) and loss (Die kind). [380] Chaplin also touched on controversial issues: immigration (The Immigrant, 1917) illegitimacy (Die kind, 1921) and drug use (Easy Street, 1917). [366] He often explored these topics ironically, making comedy out of suffering. [381]

With Edna Purviance in The Immigrant (1917)

Social commentary was a feature of Chaplin’s films from early in his career, as he portrayed the underdog in a sympathetic light and highlighted the difficulties of the poor. [382] Later, as he developed a keen interest in economics and felt obliged to publicise his views, [383] Chaplin began incorporating overtly political messages into his films. [384] Modern Times (1936) depicted factory workers in dismal conditions, Die Groot Diktator (1940) parodied Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini and ended in a speech against nationalism, Meneer Verdoux (1947) criticised war and capitalism, and A King in New York (1957) attacked McCarthyism. [385]

Several of Chaplin’s films incorporate autobiographical elements, and the psychologist Sigmund Freud believed that Chaplin “always plays only himself as he was in his dismal youth”. [386] Die kind is thought to reflect Chaplin’s childhood trauma of being sent into an orphanage, [386] the main characters in Kollig (1952) contain elements from the lives of his parents, [387] and A King in New York references Chaplin’s experiences of being shunned by the United States. [388] Many of his sets, especially in street scenes, bear a strong similarity to Kennington, where he grew up. Stephen M. Weissman has argued that Chaplin’s problematic relationship with his mentally ill mother was often reflected in his female characters and the Tramp’s desire to save them. [386]

Regarding the structure of Chaplin’s films, the scholar Gerald Mast sees them as consisting of sketches tied together by the same theme and setting, rather than having a tightly unified storyline. [389] Visually, his films are simple and economic, [390] with scenes portrayed as if set on a stage. [391] His approach to filming was described by the art director Eugène Lourié: “Chaplin did not think in ‘artistic’ images when he was shooting. He believed that action is the main thing. The camera is there to photograph the actors”. [392] In his autobiography, Chaplin wrote, “Simplicity is best … pompous effects slow up action, are boring and unpleasant … The camera should not intrude.” [393] This approach has prompted criticism, since the 1940s, for being “old fashioned”, [394] while the film scholar Donald McCaffrey sees it as an indication that Chaplin never completely understood film as a medium. [395] Kamin, however, comments that Chaplin’s comedic talent would not be enough to remain funny on screen if he did not have an “ability to conceive and direct scenes specifically for the film medium”. [396]

Composing

Chaplin developed a passion for music as a child, and taught himself to play the piano, violin, and cello. [397] He considered the musical accompaniment of a film to be important, [171] and from A Woman of Paris onwards he took an increasing interest in this area. [398] With the advent of sound technology, Chaplin began using a synchronised orchestral soundtrack – composed by himself – for City Lights (1931). He thereafter composed the scores for all of his films, and from the late 1950s to his death, he scored all of his silent features and some of his short films. [399]

As Chaplin was not a trained musician, he could not read sheet music and needed the help of professional composers, such as David Raksin, Raymond Rasch and Eric James, when creating his scores. Although some critics have claimed that credit for his film music should be given to the composers who worked with him, Raksin – who worked with Chaplin on Modern Times – has stressed Chaplin’s creative position and active participation in the composing process. [400] This process, which could take months, would start with Chaplin describing to the composer(s) exactly what he wanted and singing or playing tunes he had improvised on the piano. [400] These tunes were then developed further in a close collaboration among the composer(s) and Chaplin. [400] According to film historian Jeffrey Vance, “although he relied upon associates to arrange varied and complex instrumentation, the musical imperative is his, and not a note in a Chaplin musical score was placed there without his assent.” [399]

Chaplin’s compositions produced three popular songs. “Smile“, composed originally for Modern Times (1936) and later set to lyrics by John Turner and Geoffrey Parsons, was a hit for Nat King Cole in 1954. [399] For Kollig, Chaplin composed “Terry’s Theme”, which was popularised by Jimmy Young as “Eternally” (1952). [401] Finally, “This Is My Song“, performed by Petula Clark for 'N Gravin uit Hong Kong (1967), reached number one on the UK and other European charts. [402] Chaplin also received his only competitive Oscar for his composition work, as the Kollig theme won an Academy Award for Best Original Score in 1973 following the film’s re-release. [399] [note 27]


Charlie Chaplin

Charlie Chaplin was a British-born actor, considered to be one of the pivotal stars of Hollywood`s early days. He was often associated with his popular Little Tramp character, with a toothbrush mustache, bowler hat, cane, and funny walk. An early career start Charles Spencer Chaplin was born in London, England, on April 16, 1889. His parents were stage actors and singers. His father was Charlie Chaplin Sr. and his mother was Hannah Harriette Hill, stage name: Lily Harley. His father died when Charlie was 10 years old, and his mother suffered from bouts of severe mental illness. As a result, Charlie and his half-brother, Sydney, moved in and out of charity homes and workhouses. The brothers inherited talent from their parents and took to the stage. Charlie made his professional debut at the age of eight as a member of The Eight Lancashire Lads, and became an outstanding tap dancer. When Charlie was 18, he began to tour with Fred Karno`s Vaudeville troupe, and traveled with it to the United States in 1910. In 1913, he joined the Keystone Film Company his weekly salary was $150. Given his virtually overnight success, Charlie initiated negotiations for his services from other producers. At the end of his contract with Keystone, he signed with the Essanay Company in 1915, with a large salary increase. Sydney moved over from England and took Charlie’s old place at Keystone. A career flourishes In 1916, Chaplin signed with Mutual Film Corporation for an even larger salary, to make 12 two-reel comedies. Some of them were The Vagabond, One A.M., in which he was virtually the only character for the entire two reels and Easy Street, considered to be his greatest production up to that time. Chaplin entered an agreement with First National Studios in 1917, to build Chaplin Studios. His first film under the new deal was A Dog’s Life. He then turned his attention to a national tour on behalf of the World War I effort, followed by a film, The Bond, which he made for the U.S. government to popularize the Liberty Loan drive. In 1919, Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, and D.W. Griffith formed United Artists (UA). Chaplin was obligated to complete his contract with First National before he could take on responsibilities with United Artists. He came out with Die kind (1921), a six-reel masterpiece that introduced Jackie Coogan, one of the world`s greatest child actors. Under his agreement with United Artists, Chaplin created eight full-feature films from 1923 to 1966. Woman of Paris was the first (1923). Chaplin only had a cameo role, but wrote, directed, and produced that film. In 1940, he played a dual role and talked for the first time on screen in Die Groot Diktator, a parody of Adolf Hitler. In 1947, a new Charlie emerged without his mustache, baggy pants and wobbly cane in Meneer Verdoux. In 1966, he produced 'N Gravin uit Hong Kong, his last picture, starring Sophia Loren and Marlon Brando.

Chaplin resided in the United States from 1914 to 1952, but retained his British nationality. Like other Hollywood personalities, he became a suspected communist, and FBI director J. Edgar Hoover initiated what became an extensive file on the actor. When Chaplin left on a trip to England, Hoover negotiated with the Immigration and Naturalization Service to revoke his re-entry permit. Chaplin and his family then took up residency in Vevey, Switzerland. He briefly returned to the States in 1972, to receive an honorary Oscar for "the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century." Queen Elizabeth II bestowed a knighthood upon Chaplin on March 4, 1975. The veteran actor/producer displayed other talents, including musical scores he composed for many of his films. He also wrote two books, My Autobiography in 1964, and My Life in Pictures in 1974. A tumultuous private life Chaplin was married four times and had 11 children. His first marriage was to Mildred Harris in 1918. She was 12 years younger than he. The union produced one son who died in infancy. They divorced in 1920. Chaplin married Lita Grey in 1924, after she became pregnant. He was 35 she was 16. They had two sons, then went through a bitter divorce in 1928. Following the divorce, Chaplin announced that he had secretly married Paulette Goddard in 1936 the marriage ended in 1942.* Oona O’Neill wedded Chaplin in 1943. She was 17 he was 54. That long and happy marriage produced three sons and five daughters. The end Charlie Chaplin died of natural causes at his home in Switzerland, on December 25, 1977. He was interred in the cemetery of Corsier-Sur-Vevey, Vaud canton, Switzerland. On March 1, 1978, Chaplin`s body was stolen in an attempt to extort money from his family. The robbers were captured, and the body was recovered 11 weeks later, near Lake Geneva. His remains were re-buried in a vault surrounded by cement. Charlie Chaplin was considered to be one of the greatest film makers in the history of American cinema, whose movies continue to be popular throughout the world.

*Around that time, Chaplin briefly dated actress Joan Barry, but ended the relationship when she began to harass him and display signs of severe mental illness. In 1943, she filed a paternity suit against him. Blood tests proved Chaplin was not the father, but such tests were inadmissible evidence at the time. He was ordered to pay $75 a week until the child turned 21.


Kyk die video: Smile - Charles Chaplin u0026 Oona ONeill Nat King Cole