Elizabeth I en Mary, Queen of Scots: Cousins, Rivals, Queens

Elizabeth I en Mary, Queen of Scots: Cousins, Rivals, Queens



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Koningin Elizabeth I van Engeland en Maria, koningin van Skotte, was twee van die grootste, mees legendariese teenstanders in die geskiedenis van die geskiedenis - hoewel hulle nooit eers ontmoet het nie. In een kasteel was Elizabeth, die kinderlose 'maagdelike' koningin: skelm, briljant, takties en sinies. In die ander, Mary: vroulik, sjarmant, romanties en roekeloos.

Hulle dekades lange mondelinge boksgeveg oor die Engelse kroon sou eindig met die onthoofding van Mary by Fotheringhay Castle - met Elizabeth se seën - in 1587. Maar die gemartelde verhouding van die twee neefs is lank tevore bepaal, tydens die kinderjare so uiteenlopend en definieerend dat hulle beide sou inlig Queens se karakters - en verseël Mary se tragiese lot.

Elizabeth I se moeilike kinderjare

Elizabeth, dogter van die Mercurial King Henry VIII en sy tweede vrou, Anne Boleyn, is op 7 September 1533 in Greenwich Palace gebore. Alhoewel Anne die koning betower het, was sy verag deur die grootste deel van die hof en die publiek. Haar rooikopdogter word beskou as die 'bastaardkind van 'n hoer'.

Henry VIII het sy universeel gerespekteerde Katolieke vrou, Catherine van Aragon, en hul dogter, Mary, vir Anne opsy gesit. Hy breek ook met die Katolieke Kerk toe die pous weier om sy huwelik met Anne te bekragtig. Maar die onrus sou geregverdig wees as Henry se "byvrou" die manlike erfgenaam sou oplewer waarvoor die koning en die koninkryk lank gebid het.

Dit moes nie wees nie. 'Die meesteres van die koning is van 'n meisie bevry tot groot teleurstelling en hartseer van die koning en van die dame self', het Eustace Chapuys, die vyandige ambassadeur in die Heilige Romeinse Ryk, geskryf, 'en tot groot skande en verwarring van dokters, astroloë, towenaars en hekse, wat almal bevestig het dat dit 'n seun sou wees. "

Hierdie teleurstelling en haar daaropvolgende onvermoë om 'n seun te verwek, het die skouspelagtige val van Anne Boleyn bespoedig. Alhoewel dit onbekend is of die driejarige Elizabeth bewus was van haar ma se teregstelling in 1536, blyk dit dat die voorbarige, waaksaam meisie vinnig die dramatiese verandering in haar stasie raakgesien het. 'Hoe gaan dit met die goewerneur', het sy in 1537 gevra, 'gister my prinses, en vandag, maar my vrou Elizabeth?'

En so is die pasgemaakte Lady Elizabeth onwettig verklaar en koud weggesteek buite die oë van haar vader, met 'n klein huishouding en min inkomste. Dinge het so erg geword dat Elizabeth se goewerneur in die jaar van haar ma se dood om geld pleit en kla dat die kind “geen rok, geen rok of onderrok het nie”.

Elizabeth se kinderjare was nie heeltemal sonder troos nie. Sy het 'n toegewyde klein hofie en 'n koppelaar aan bediendes ontwikkel wat dekades lank by haar sou bly. Goewerneur Kat Ashley sou vir Elizabeth soos 'n ma wees, en "het baie moeite en moeite gedoen om my op te lei in leer en eerlikheid."

Die eensame kind het uitstekende opvoeding ontvang. 'Die samestelling van haar gedagtes is vrygestel van vroulike swakheid', sou haar tutor Robert Ascham skryf. 'Sy het 'n manlike toepassingsvermoë. Geen vrees kan vinniger wees as sy nie, geen geheue meer vasberade nie. ”

Elizabeth is soms na die Engelse hof gebring, waar sy haar verre vader beïndruk het met haar intellektuele vaardigheid. Sy ontwikkel ook 'n verhouding met haar stiefmoeder, Henry se vyfde vrou, Katherine Howard, net om te sien hoe die vlugtige tiener in 1542 deur haar pa tereggestel word. sy sou nooit trou nie.

LEES MEER: Koningin Elizabeth I Biografie

Mary, koningin van Skotte se bederfde kinderjare

Dieselfde jaar is 'n ander gemmerhaar prinses op 8 Desember in die Linlithgow-paleis in Skotland gebore. Die verswakte baba, met die naam Mary Stuart, was die enigste oorlewende kind van die ewe swak koning James V van Skotland en sy formidabele vrou, Mary of Guise. Die kind (die susterskind van Henry VIII) was amper van geboorte af koningin van Skotland, aangesien haar pa dood is toe sy net ses dae oud was. Sy is ook grootgemaak om te glo dat sy die wettige, regmatige erfgenaam van die Britse troon was.

"Mary se gevoel van haarself as koningin was by haar aan die begin van haar bewussyn," skryf biograaf Jane Dunn in Elizabeth en Mary: Cousins, Rivals, Queens. 'Dit is nooit betwis of getoets nie, net soos Elizabeth s'n. Hierdie bewustheid van haar voorrang was haar metgesel deur die lewe, iets wat as vanselfsprekend aanvaar is, die verantwoordelikhede waarop sy nie baie diep gedink het nie, en uiteindelik ook nie veel waarde nie. ''

Die babakoningin het die eerste vyf jaar van die een paleis na die ander in Skotland verskuif om haar te beskerm teen die strydende stamme van die hooglande. In 1548, toe Mary na haar moeder se geboorteland, Frankryk, gestuur is om die verloofde van die Dauphin te word, was sy reeds 'n figuur van romanse en simpatie. Vir die volgende 13 jaar sou die klein Dauphiness-Queen aanbid word deur sowel die Franse koninklike familie as die magtige familie van haar ma.

'Die klein Koningin van Skotte is die mees volmaakte kind wat ek nog ooit gesien het', het koning Henry II van Frankryk verklaar kort nadat hy sy nuwe aanklag ontmoet het (Maria van Guise het in Skotland gebly om haar dogter se domein te regeer). Sy seun, die sieklike, moedelose Francis, het ook sy toekomstige vrou aanbid en elke woord aan haar gehang.

Aangesien Maria reeds 'n gesalfde koningin was, het sy voor enige van die Franse prinsesse geloop, selfs die dogters van die koning. 'Dit is onmoontlik', het die liefdevolle ouma van Mary geskryf, 'dat sy meer geëerd moet word as wat sy is.'

'Terwyl haar neef Elizabeth se jeug grotendeels buite die hof met haar boeke en planne deurgebring het, en 'n af en toe besoeker om na te dink,' skryf Dunn, 'het Mary se lewe vanaf sesjarige ouderdom in die middelpunt van die glansrykste hof geleef. in die Christendom. ”

Mary het haar kinderjare deurgebring omring deur neefs, slaafse bediendes, tutors en troeteldiere. Haar rekeninge toon dat sy 'n luukse klerekas gehad het waarvan die jong Elizabeth net kon droom, asook dans-, perdry- en sanglesse.

"In teenstelling met haar neef Elizabeth Tudor, het Mary Stuart 'n buitengewone jeug geniet," skryf Antonia Fraser in haar biografie Mary, koningin van Skotte. 'Dit word aan die oordeel van die geskiedenis oorgelaat om te besluit of dit haar in werklikheid voldoende voorberei het op die uiterste spanning waarmee die loop van haar latere lewe haar konfronteer.'

LEES MEER: Mary, Queen of Scots Biografie

Elizabeth se tienerjare is deur 'n skandaal geteister

Terwyl die mooi, goedgesproke Maria floreer, veilig in haar majesteit, het die spanning van die koninklike lewe haar neef Elizabeth amper verpletter. Na haar pa se dood in 1547, het Elizabeth se jonger broer, Edward VI, die troon bestyg. Die tiener Elizabeth, wat lank reeds die titel van prinses gekry het, moes 'n relatief goedaardige lot geniet het. Sy is in die sorg geplaas van die geleerde Catherine Parr, haar pa se laaste vrou, met wie sy baie naby was.

Die reëling sou egter op 'n ramp eindig. Parr was minder as 'n jaar na Henry VIII se dood getroud met Thomas Seymour, broer van die Lord Protector of England. Seymour was seksueel onvanpas teenoor Elizabeth, en sy vrou het soms aangesluit.

Elizabeth is in skande weggestuur, en haar verhouding met Seymour het haar steeds agtervolg. In 1549 is die onlangs weduwee Seymour gearresteer weens verraadlike gedrag; baie het geglo dat hy van plan was om met Elizabeth te trou en die troon in haar naam op te eis. Om dit te voorkom, is Elizabeth in kwarantyn geplaas en haar geliefde goewerneur in die tronk gegooi.

Op die dag waarop Thomas Seymour tereggestel is, het sy vermoedelik gesê: "Hierdie dag het 'n man gesterf met baie verstand en baie min oordeel."

Erger was om te kom. In 1553 word Elizabeth se halfsuster, Mary Tudor (Catherine van Aragon se katolieke dogter) die eerste vroulike monarg van Engeland. Elizabeth neem nou die posisie van 'tweede persoon' in die land aan, wat haar suster - wat later bekend staan ​​as 'Bloody Mary' - groot angs veroorsaak het.

Volgens baie het Maria I altyd haar Protestantse halfsuster geminag. In 1554 het die Protestantse Wyatt's Rebellion, wat gefokus het op die beveiliging van die troon vir Elizabeth, Mary uiteindelik die verantwoordelikheid gegee om haar opgekropte woede teen haar familielid los te laat. Elizabeth is in die Tower of London gegooi, waar haar ma Anne Boleyn oorlede is. Toe sy binnekom, het sy uitgeroep na die honderde Londenaars wat gekom het om haar te steun, “Oh Lorde! Ek het nooit gedink dat ek as gevangene hier sou inkom nie! ”

"Die verskrikking van haar opsluiting in die toring was 'n beslissende gebeurtenis wat Elizabeth nooit kon vergeet nie," skryf Dunn. Na drie weke in die tronk is Elizabeth vir amper 'n jaar verban voordat Mary haar begenadig het.

Toe Elizabeth uiteindelik in 1558 koningin word, het sy al verskeie lewens geleef. 'Ek het myself op die skool van ervaring geplaas', het sy dekades later gesê, 'waar ek wou uitvind watter dinge die beste by 'n koning sou wees, en ek het gevind dat dit vier is: naamlik geregtigheid, humeur [ance] grootmoedigheid en oordeel. ”

Baie van Elizabeth se Katolieke onderdane het egter geglo dat Maria, die Koningin van Skotte, die regmatige koningin van Engeland was, aangesien sy die senior afstammeling van Henry VIII se ouer suster was.

LEES MEER: Wat het die grusame bynaam van Queen 'Bloody' van Mary geïnspireer?

Gevangenisstraf en dood van Maria, koningin van Skotte

Drie jaar nadat Elizabeth koningin geword het, keer Mary terug na haar Skotse koninkryk, pas weduwee na 'n kort bewind as koningin van Frankryk.

Die koninklike koninklike was nie voorbereid op die growwe Skotte of die koudheid van haar neef Elizabeth nie. As die 'tweede persoon' in die erfopvolging, het sy verwag dat Elizabeth haar erfgenaam van die Britse troon sou noem. Maar Elizabeth het geweier om die reëling te formaliseer.

Mary se tweede huwelik was met haar eerste neef, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, 'n wedstryd wat Elizabeth I woedend gemaak het, wat nie toestemming vir die huwelik gevra is nie. Na die moord op Darnley trou Mary met James Hepburn, graaf van Bothwell, wat moontlik verantwoordelik was vir die moord op Darnley. Die publiek vind die huwelik skokkend, en Mary word as 'n egbreker bestempel (Bothwell was voorheen getroud, daarom het Katolieke die huwelik met Mary as onwettig beskou) en 'n moordenaar. Binnekort word Mary gedwing om die Skotse troon te ontneem ten gunste van haar eenjarige seun en in die gevangenis te sit.

Vir Mary sou haar 19 jaar in gevangenskap saai en herhalend wees, aangesien sy van een klein Engelse kasteel of herenhuis na 'n ander geskuif is. Vanweë haar rang het Elizabeth geëis dat Mary in relatiewe luukse gehou moes word, met 'n klein aantal getroue bediendes om haar geselskap te hou. Maar haar vervelingsjare het Mary genoeg geleentheid gegee om haar neefbriewe te skryf in die hoop om Elizabeth te oortuig dat hulle vennote in plaas van vyande kan wees.

"Daar is min bekend oor Elizabeth se innerlike gevoelens vir Mary," skryf Fraser, "aangesien die Engelse koningin in die kinderjare geleer het om alle innerlike gevoelens, die gevaarlike verraaiers, in die bors te verberg."

Toe Mary se betrokkenheid by die Babington Plot om Elizabeth te vermoor en die Engelse troon te vind, ontdek het, het Elizabeth egter Mary se doodsbevel onderteken met 'n vlaag ander papiere en wou sy haar neef se teregstelling sonder haar medewete plaasvind.

Dit was niks persoonliks nie: in Elizabeth se gedagtes was haar swaar verowerde kroon-en dus die veiligheid en voorspoed van Engeland self-in gevaar as Mary aan die lewe bly.

Mary, Queen of Scots is skuldig bevind aan verraad op 25 Oktober 1586. Sy is tereggestel deur onthoofding op 7 Februarie 1587 by Fotheringhay Castle, 'n week nadat Elizabeth die doodsbevel onderteken het vir die lastige neef wat sy nog nooit ontmoet het nie.

Sedert haar geboorte is Elizabeth herhaaldelik die belangrikste les vir enige suksesvolle koninklike heerser geleer. Byna alle verhoudings - veral familielede - is uiteindelik slegs polities.


Mary Queen of Scots vs Queen Elizabeth I: Royal Rivals

Elke boek en film en TV -reeks oor Mary, Queen of Scots beland in haar wedywering met haar neef, koningin Elizabeth I. Dit is redelik onvermydelik, aangesien die laaste deel van Mary se lewe basies gedefinieer is deur hierdie verhouding in 'n manier wat dit laat lyk asof elke keuse wat sy gemaak het, 'n stap nader aan 'n onvermydelike botsingskursus met haar neef was. Die twee vroue was van dieselfde ouderdom en het ook 'n morsige vroeë lewe gehad, wat hulle aanvanklik bondige bondgenote gemaak het, maar uiteindelik bitter vyande. Die verdraaide spieëlbeeld wat hulle van 'n ander se lewe en keuses bied Mary Queen of Scots. Maar wie was hierdie vroue werklik, en hoe het hulle sulke bitter vyande opgeëis?

Soos baie ongelukkige lewens in die Tudor-era, soos by baie vroue, kom dit baie neer op a) patriargie, b) almal rondom hulle was voortdurend besig om te dink, en c) die feit dat Henry VIII eintlik 'n gat was. Laat ons dit doen!

'N Verdraaide stamboom

Tyd vir almal se gunsteling ding, Old Timey English Erfenisreëls !! Die manier waarop hierdie dinge ideaal gegaan het (ideaal vir hulle, nie vir 'n soortgelyke samelewing nie) was basies dat 'n manlike koning sou sterf en sy manlike seun sou oorneem. As die Manlike Seun jonk sterf, sou daar verkieslik 'n jonger Manlike Seun wees om by hom oor te neem. En dan sou die man se seun oorneem, die troon van die manlike seun na die mannetjie oorgee, ensovoorts. Natuurlik het nie almal 'n seun gehad nie, en dan sou die kroon oorgaan na die eerste manlike broer van die koning en dan na die broer se mannetjie.

Die probleem hier is natuurlik dat Henry VIII se seun Edward, as tiener, gesterf het en dat Henry se broer Arthur dekades tevore oorlede is. Die enigste erfgename wat oorgebly het, was óf Henry se dogters, sy susters of sy suster se kinders. Maar die ding is dat albei sy susters net vroulike kinders gehad het. Waar is daar moontlik 'n man in hierdie hele stamboom ?? vra die mans in beheer. Daar was in elk geval nie 'n plek nie, wat beteken dat een van hierdie meisies of vroue die volgende monarg sou word wat hulle almal op 'n egalige speelveld geplaas het, wat 'n menslike skaakbord met baie gawe meisies op elke pionplek gemaak het.

Nou, as deel van Henry VIII se verskillende huweliks-/godsdienstige aanstootlikhede, is albei sy dogters terugwerkend onwettig verklaar. Dit het beteken dat hulle nie die koningin kon word nie, wat beteken dat hulle na Henry ’ se susters en kinders moes gaan kyk. Dit het gewoonlik in ouderdomsvolgorde gegaan, wat beteken dat hulle sou sien wie die erfgename van Henry se ouer suster Margaret Tudor was, MAAR voordat hy sterf, het Henry 'n pik beweeg en Margaret en haar erfgename uitgesluit om dinge te erf. Hoekom? Omdat sy met die Skotse koning en Henry getroud was super gehate Skotland, en ook omdat Margaret se erfgename Katoliek en Henry was super gehate katolieke. Dus, alhoewel die reël gewoonlik was om na die ouer broer of suster te gaan, het die ouens in beheer daarvan na die jonger suster, Mary, en haar erfgename van Henry gegaan, en dit is hoe ons met Lady Jane, Katherine, beland het. en Mary Gray, waarvan nie een se storie vreeslik goed afgeloop het nie.

Gedurende dit alles was die potensiële erfgenaam Margaret Tudor se kleindogter, 'n sekere Mary, koningin van Skotte.

Saoirse Ronan as die titelkarakter in Mary, koningin van Skotte (2018)

Die baas baba

Terwyl Elizabeth 'n paar onstuimige en taamlike moeilike jare beleef het as die buite-egtelike en toe wettige dogter van Henry VIII, het Mary QofS grootgeword as die babakoningin van Skotland. Waarom was sy die babakoningin? Haar pa is dood toe Mary net 'n paar dae oud was, en aangesien daar geen ander broers en susters was om oor te neem nie, was sy eintlik die koninklike koning. NOU, terwyl Mary ’ se voorouers aan die een kant die Skotse koninklike familie was (via Robert “ Chris Pine in Die Outlaw King” the Bruce), aan die ander kant, was sy die kleindogter van Henry VIII se suster Margaret. Onthou jy Margaret? Sy was die een uit 'n paar paragrawe gelede wat Henry vanweë haar Skotse/Katolieke verbintenis (en al haar erfgename) van die Engelse troon geërf het. Maria was dus geneties erfgenaam van die Engelse troon.

Henry het 'n soort liefde/haat met Skotland gehad, net soos hy 'n reeks liefde/haat met sy vele ongelukkige vroue gehad het. Mary was vyf jaar jonger as Henry se seun, Edward, en aanvanklik het Henry probeer om 'n huwelik tussen die twee te reël, en daar is selfs 'n dokument onderteken wat hiermee instem, maar Henry was DIE WORSTE en Mary ’ se ma, Marie de Guise het Henry so gehaat en toe gebeur hierdie hele ding, die War of the Rough Wooing, met Henry soos 'n dogter van my baba -koningin en my seun! baba Queen Mary verloof aan 'n Franse prins. As sodanig is sy oor die waters geseil om in Frankryk groot te word, weg van al die drama wat Engeland en Skotland verswelg. Nou weet ons almal dinge gaan binnekort rommelig word, maar op daardie tydstip, dit het gelyk asof Henry VIII opgevolg sou word deur sy seun Edward en dan deur Edward se seuns en Mary sou die koningin van Frankryk word en daar vir ewig sou bly, en dat dit hulle lewens sou uitloop.

Margot Robbie as Elizabeth in Mary Queen of Scots (2018)

Suster, Suster

Op hierdie punt, ongeveer die jaar 1548, was Elizabeth ongeveer 15 jaar oud en het 'n redelike lewe geleef met haar boetie as koning en die land wat nog steeds protestant was, wat die godsdiens was wat sy ondersteun het. Vir haar het sy op hierdie stadium waarskynlik gedink dat sy binnekort met 'n willekeurige koninklike ou sou trou en 'n soort onbeskryflike aristokratiese dame sou wou hê. Maar toe verander ALLES toe haar broer/koning siek word en baie jonk sterf, en hy noem Lady Jane Gray sy erfgenaam. Jane was nege dae lank koningin voordat Elizabeth se groot suster, Mary, met 'n leër ondersteuners die stad binnegeval het en in 'n gloed van FUCK YOU -heerlikheid oorgeneem het (meer hieroor).

Elizabeth het haar suster glimlaggend en vir die skare gewaai, terwyl twee rooikoppies net wonderlik saam was. Maar kort daarna het haar lewe nogal kak geword toe Mary vermoed dat Elizabeth die troon van haar wou steel en haar in die tronk gegooi het. Soos Elizabeth, het sy skaars haar ma, Anne Boleyn, geken, 'n vrou wat sy grootgeword het deur haar aaklige pa. Haar boetie het koning geword, daarna gesterf, en toe word haar neef Jane koningin en daarna tereggestel. Nou, Elizabeth se suster was die koningin, het weer Engels Katoliek geword, en Elizabeth se protestantse maniere was onder aanval. En toe raak dinge nog meer deurmekaar omdat Mary beweer het dat sy twee keer swanger was, en miskien was sy dit, maar daar is nooit vir haar lewende babas gebore nie (meer oor daardie hier). Mary het net vyf jaar regeer voordat sy aan verskeie siektes oorlede is. Alhoewel sy daaraan gedroom het om 'n verre Katolieke familielid haar erfgenaam te noem, het sy die 25-jarige Elizabeth as haar opvolger as koningin genoem.

En so het Elizabeth, 'n dogter van 'n tereggestelde verraaier/heks, die tot onlangs onlangs onwettige dogter van 'n growwe gat van 'n koning die koning geword van 'n mooi, onstabiele land vol mans wat gedink het vroue is geneties onbekwaam om te lei. As sodanig het 'n nie-onbeduidende hoeveelheid mense gevoel dat sy nie in beheer moes wees nie. Is daar nie êrens 'n man wat koning kan wees in plaas van haar nie? Hulle het gevra, maar die antwoord was steeds: nee. Al die afstammelinge van elke tak van hierdie stamboom was meisies of vroue. En so het die Katolieke vyande van Elizabeth besluit dat Mary Queen of Scots 'n beter keuse sou wees as hulle 'n vroulike monarg moes hê. Mary QofS was immers die afstammeling van Henry VIII se ouer suster en was nog nooit buite -egtelik nie, en die belangrikste vir haar ondersteuners: sy was Katoliek. Mary woon ongelukkig tans in Frankryk as die verloofde van die kroonprins, maar dit het haar ondersteuners nie gekeer om in die geheim te fluister oor hoe sy regtig die koningin moet wees nie, en om te wag vir 'n goeie geleentheid om die troon in te neem haar.

'N Jaar nadat Elizabeth koningin geword het, sterf Mary QofS ’ se skoonpa in 'n onrustige ongeluk, en daarom het sy en haar man na die troon gegaan om koning en koningin van Frankryk te word. As ek dit ook hier uitgooi dat Mary QofS so iets soos 5 󈧏 ” lank was, wat deesdae lank is vir 'n vrou in ons era van kalsium in melk en fluoried in tandepasta, sou sy 'n ongelooflike treffende figuur getref het . Elizabeth was nie so klein soos haar ouer suster Mary I nie, maar was nêrens so beeldskoon nie. Weet jy wie nog regtig lank was? Die moeder van Mary, die onnosel Marie de Guise, wat ongeveer ses voet lank ingeklim het. Sy het haar bes gedoen om al die gat te weerstaan, wat Skotland gelei het by Mary se afwesigheid. Skotland was te midde van sy eie stryd teen koninklikes teen die koninklikes, maar hul koningin was sestien jaar oud en woon in Frankryk en was nie deel van die hele saak nie.

Marie de Guise is in 1660 oorlede, en 'n paar papierwerk is ongetekend gelaat, en 'n paar van die grappe gaan na Mary in Frankryk, soos jou moeder dood, maar sal jy hierdie verdrag onderteken waarin jy sê dat jy Elizabeth as die monarg van Engeland aanvaar? ” En sestienjarige, 5 󈧏 ” Mary QofS was soos, “Basically: hel, nee. ”

Ronan as Mary in Mary Queen of Scots (2018)

Mededingende Matchmaking

Die man van Mary is in 1661 oorlede aan 'n oorinfeksie, wat haar nie meer die koningin van Frankryk gelaat het nie, maar ook 'n willekeurige persoon in 'n land sonder 'n plek vir haar. Daarom besluit sy om terug te keer na Skotland, die land van wie sy koningin was en waar sy in meer as 'n dekade nie 'n voet sou sit nie. Terwyl sy weg was, het die land politieke en godsdienstige omwentelinge ondergaan, en sy was 'n totale buitestaander met haar Franse uitrustings en Franse aksent en Katolieke godsdiens. Die Protestante was soos: “Ons wil nie 'n Katolieke Koningin hê nie, en die Skotse mense was soos “Ons wil nie 'n Franse Koningin nie, en die vrouehaatsprekers was soos “Ons wil nie 8217 wil nie 'n vroulike koningin hê nie, en sy was dus van die begin af redelik ongewild, want die wêreld is nie regverdig nie.

Maar! Mary het al haar 5de rondgedwaal en haar bes gedoen om na albei kampe te speel. Sy het Protestante aangestel in belangrike rolle in die regering om aan te toon dat sy bereid was om saam met hulle te werk, en het haar Katolieke godsdiens behou om aan haar Katolieke ondersteuners te wys dat sy dit werklik hou. Sy het ook beduidend 'n boodskapper na Elizabeth in Engeland gestuur om basies te sê: "Sies, aangesien ek jou neef en ook 'n koningin is, sal dit gaaf wees as jy my op hierdie stadium jou erfgenaam noem." , was redelik behep met nooit onthul wie haar erfgenaam sou wees nie want sodra sy dit sou doen, sou daardie persoon ondersteuners begin kry en haar sou probeer omverwerp. Sy antwoord dus basies: Hoi meisie, hoor, lekker om van u te hoor! Laat ons ontmoet en 'n mimosa -brunch of 'n wildsvleis eet, of wat mense ook al eet in hierdie eeu, ens. & Quot; Soos, Elizabeth het nie Mary se eis afgevee nie, maar sy het ook nie noodwendig ingestem om neer te skryf nie op papier dat Mary haar erfgenaam sou wees. Maar ek is so hartseer om jou te vertel dat die mimosa -brunch nooit gebeur het nie, want hulle skedules het nooit opgestel nie.

Elizabeth het 'n plan beraam om Mary vir haar 'n bedreiging te maak, naamlik: om 'n huwelik vir Mary te reël met 'n ou wat sukkel omdat niemand 'n koningin wil hê nie, met 'n man wat suig. Mary het geweet dat dit ook haar sterkste stap was om 'n man te vind om haar in die helfte van 'n powerpaar te maak, en daarom het sy ook voelers gestuur om 'n Awesome Man te vind. Dit was soos die mees beleefde, etiketbelaaide manier om koninginryk te veg: net albei probeer aggressief vir Mary 'n man vind wat by hul eie doeleindes pas. Elizabeth het op 'n stadium haar jarelange aan/af sidepiece Robert Dudley as 'n bruidegom aangebied, en Mary was soos LOL nee. Mary het probeer om haar eie huwelik met Don Carlos, die geestelik onstabiele broer van Philip van Spanje, te reël, maar Phil (wat daarop gemik was om met Elizabeth te trou, is soos Skinder meisie mense se vlakke met ander mense) was soos LOL nee.

Sidenote: Mary was so lank en pragtig en ongelooflik dat mans letterlik oor hulself val om haar te probeer oortuig om met hulle te trou. Een so 'n verloorder was 'n digter met die naam Pierre wat onder haar bed weggekruip het (!!) omdat sy plan was om uit te spring as sy alleen was (.) Om sy liefde vir haar te verklaar (.). Maria het Pierre, korrek en duidelik, vir ewig uit Skotland verban. Maar net soos die hoofrolspeler in 'n romantiese komedie uit die 1990's, sou Pierre nie 'n antwoord aanvaar nie, en net twee dae later dwing hy terug in haar kamer toe sy besig was om uit te trek (.). Mary skreeu, en haar halfbroer kom in om haar te verdedig en sy skree op hom om HIERDIE CREEPY WEIRDO POET REEDS TE STAK, maar in plaas daarvan word Pierre tereggestel weens verraad en is hy onthoof. Was Pierre net 'n vreemde rankplant? Of is iemand deur hom betaal om so op te tree om die reputasie van Mary te verwoes? Soos in hierdie tyd, was dinge in hierdie kasteel so gek niemand weet nie, elke ding is ewe moontlik.

Ronan as Mary, met Jack Lowden as Lord Darnley, in Mary Queen of Scots (2018)

Die liefde is 'n slagveld

Mary het uiteindelik haar eie man gekies en haar keuse nogal soort haar lot verseël omdat dit was nogal soort 'n oorlogsverklaring. Die man wat sy gekies het, was haar neef, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Darnley was ook 'n afstammeling van Henry VIII se ouer suster Margaret, wat hom ook deel van Tudor maak. Hy was ook meer as ses voet lank, wat vir iemand van Mary's hoogte waarskynlik aantreklik was. Die twee saam was soortgelyk aan een volle Tudor, wat hulle as 'n magspaar 'n lewensvatbare bedreiging vir die heerskappy van Elizabeth in Engeland gemaak het. En as hulle kinders gehad het? Daardie kinders sou wees uiters moontlike mededingers tot Elizabeth se aanspraak op die troon.

Sidenote: Darnley was DIE VERNIERENDSTE. Soos, as hy miskien selfs 10% minder was, DIE ERGSTE, sou dit moontlik anders gewees het vir die hele geskiedenis van Skotland en Engeland en Mary en Elizabeth. Maar helaas, Darnley? WAS DIE ERGSTE.

Maar in elk geval, niemand het nog geweet hoe aaklig Darnley sou wees nie. Vir Mary was hy 'n manier om haar bewind in Skotland te versterk en 'n kragmeting vir Engeland te maak. Vir Elizabeth het die genetika van Darnley alleen hom 'n bedreiging gemaak. Dus het hul huwelik wenkbroue in albei lande laat lig, soos selfs Mary's se adviseurs in Skotland was: 'Weet u seker dat u met hierdie lang Katolieke persoon wil trou?' soos, “Maar soos jy seker?” En sy was soos, “Ja, hou op om my te vra !! ” En hulle was soos, “Maar soos … rerig?” En sy was soos, “I ’M IN LIEFDE MET HOM !! Ek gee dit nie om as niemand dit goedkeur nie en dit hou van 'n verklaring van oorlog! HY TEL EN EK HET HOM LIEF. ”

En so het hulle getrou. Elizabeth het haar kak verloor omdat sy gedink het hulle moes haar toestemming gevra het, maar dit was nie 'n belediging vir haar nie en het haar paranoia verder verhoog dat die huwelik 'n bedreiging vir haar was. Die halfbroer van Mary het ook sy kak verloor, want onthou hy was die leier van die Protestante en sy het pas met 'n katoliek getrou, en daarom het hy 'n rebellie teen haar gelei (!!), maar Mary het weer weggery. die feit dat sy 5 󈧏 ” was, laat dit in my verbeelding nog baie erger lyk en#8220 Gaan weg, JAMES. ” En James het trouens weggegaan. Mary skrik hom heeltemal uit Skotland uit, tot op die punt dat James na Engeland gevlug het om 'n paar Protestante te vind om sy vriende te wees.

Dinge was dus wonderlik, behalwe vir die deel waar DARNLEY die ergste was, want hy het vir Mary gepla om hom as haar mede-monarg te noem. Dit sou beteken dat as en wanneer Mary sterf, Darnley as koning sou oorneem. Mary was soos ek, ek is bekend met moordmisteries en ek weet as ek dit doen, vermoor jy my waarskynlik, en Darnley was soos, “AGGHGHHGHGHG ” en toe steek hy haar beste vriend 56 keer voor haar om 'n miskraam te probeer maak (omdat sy nou swanger was) en Darnley kon oorneem. Maria het nie net 'n miskraam gehad nie, maar sy kon ook Darnley oortuig om van kant te verander en haar te ondersteun EN het hom gehelp om haar baie swanger self uit 'n kasteel te sluip vol mense wat haar probeer vermoor.

Ek bedoel, laat almal 'n blaaskans neem om 'n paar mimosas te drink ter nagedagtenis aan die brunch wat Mary en Elizabeth nooit kon deel nie, want hierdie stuk van die verhaal is BAIE.

Ronan as Mary in Mary Queen of Scots (2018)

Wat is die Skotse woord vir Telenovela?

Mary's ry na veiligheid saam met Fuckbag Darnley, wat besluit wat in die middel van die ontsnapping is, en hy wil liewer nie meer met haar kuier nie, en daarom word hy rustig en laat haar alleen en swanger en het haar bff net 56 keer getuig. VOOR HAAR DEUR 'N KLEIN MENSE WAT PROBEER OM HAAR TROON TE STEEL. So, wat doen ons ma? Eintlik (en jy kan 'n meer volledige verslag in hierdie opstel lees) loop Mary weg met 'n man met die naam Bothwell*, die huis van Darnley word ontplof en die gewurgde liggaam van Darnley word buite aangetref, en almal is soos “Um, Mary, dit lyk asof jy en Bothwell saamgesweer het om Darnley en sy huis op te blaas?

* Mary is moontlik deur Bothwell ontvoer, ons weet nie hoekom sy en hy saam weggehardloop het nie, maar toe trou hulle vinnig, sy word swanger met 'n tweeling, dan mis die tweeling, en dan hardloop Bothwell weg na Denemarke waar sy en #8212 verrassingsdraai — VROU LEWE REEDS, dat dit reg was, hy was reeds getroud toe hy met Mary getroud was, hy was VREKLIK en hy was vasgevang in 'n kerker deur die gesin van sy vrou en het kranksinnig geword en daar word gesê om tot vandag toe in die kerker te spook. Die feit dat hierdie klompie inligting 'n sidote is, wys regtig hoe onnosel die hele sage is.

SO! Terwyl dit alles aan die gang is, terug in Engeland, skryf Elizabeth 'n brief aan Mary soos: “Girl, wat doen jy, het jy Darnley doelbewus opgeblaas? Jy laat jouself net sleg lyk. Ek sal jou seker nooit nou my erfgenaam maak nie, jy lyk soos 'n moordenaar xoxo Liz ”

EN toe terug in Skotland is Mary gevange geneem en as koningin laat abdikeer. Haar babatjie, die een wat sy tydens die steek-scenario nie 'n miskraam gehad het nie, is die nuwe koning van Skotland genoem en sy naam was James en op 'n dag word hy 'n deurmekaar heksebrande vreemdeling wat met 'n gawe vrou getroud is Anne van Denemarke genoem en wie die hele Stuart -dinastie sou begin, maar dit is alles in die toekoms. WHAT’S HAPPENING NOW IS, Mary was sent away to be a prisoner in a place called Loch Leven and you can learn more about what happened to her there in this recent children’s picture book which is really, really good. But basically, she escapes from the prison-island disguised as a washerwoman, rallies up some troops, but loses a battle and has to flee AGAIN. Her whole life is basically just FLEEING at this point.

Robbie as Elizabeth in Mary Queen of Scots (2018)

The Beginning of the End

Elizabeth was just hanging out in England at this point, like “Amazing, my main rival Mary QofS is self-immolating her life via terrible boyfriend decisions, I’ll just chill out here and watch it happen with my toxic on/off sidepiece Robert Dudley who will shortly secretly marry my own lookalike niece.” And then one day, surprise! It turns out Mary has fled herself all the way down to England, where she’s hoping her cousin Elizabeth will do her a favour and help her regain the throne of Scotland. Elizabeth was like “I think not, you hot mess,” and put her on trial for the murder of Darnley.

The trial was a three-ring circus, and the most important evidence was a set of probably very likely forged documents that the prosecutors alleged Mary had written that were like, “Ha ha ha! I am going to kill Darnley! Ha ha ha! xoxo Mary!” At the end of it, Elizabeth was like, “Well, she’s a Queen, so I don’t want to say she’s guilty, but I can’t say she’s not guilty, so let’s just like… keep her under house arrest for the foreseeable future.” And this is the part of the story where Mary is sent to live with Bess of Hardwick, and she quite skilfully ruins Bess’s marriage and makes some very nice embroidered tapestries.

After so much FLEEING and DRAMA, once Mary was in Bess’s house, things finally calmed down for her somewhat. Elizabeth had now been Queen for eleven years, so she’d really begun to settle into the role and mostly everyone was used to her being there. The whole Mary QofS scenario had been mostly quashed, and seemingly Elizabeth’s plan was to keep her cousin out of sight and out of mind and just let her sort of waste away in house arrest.

But then!! In 1569, a group of rebel Catholics had an uprising with the goal of freeing Mary and putting her on the throne in place of Elizabeth. (Their plan was also to marry her to another Tudor relative named Thomas Howard). Elizabeth’s troops defeated the rebels, and then she ordered the execution of more than 700 people involved in the uprising, including Thomas Howard. But meanwhile, the Pope published a thing like “Queen Elizabeth is a heretic! All good Catholics should turn against her!” which just made even more Catholics want to free Mary and get rid of Elizabeth, so everything was basically chaos yet again.

In the midst of all of this was Mary, who had by now been kicked out of Bess’s house and was staying in a different manor/prison. Sometimes the people scheming would send her secret letters telling her about their plots to get rid of Elizabeth, which they wrote in secret codes. Elizabeth’s team of spies were on top of this, for the most part, and began secretly keeping a file of all of Mary’s alleged complicity in the various plots. When Elizabeth was presented with all the evidence she was like, “Right, but I don’t want to doodmaak her because she’s a Queen and also my cousin so like… that’s not cool.” Finally, she sort of vaguely told one guy, “I guess you can do… whatever.” And that guy took that to mean they should behead Mary, and so on February 8, 1587, Mary was beheaded.

After the fact, Elizabeth was like, “Wait, that’s not what I meant!! You misunderstood me!! But also I possible spoke vaguely so I could claim innocence after the fact, for political reasons!!” And so we don’t know if Elizabeth bedoel to have Mary put to death or not. We do know that years later, when Elizabeth was on her deathbed, she claimed to have visions of Mary, to whom she expressed regret for how things turned out between them.

Ronan as Mary in Mary Queen of Scots (2018)

Nalatenskap

Mary and Elizabeth were both born into lives that were dramatic and unpredictable from basically day one. They’re often paired up in histories because their stories are such intriguing parallels to each other: Mary strove for power through strategic marriages and was undone Elizabeth avoided marriage and emerged victorious. Both were Queens, but were constantly being used as pawns by the ridiculously ambitious and ruthless men who surrounded them. It’s a story with so many possibilities for a sliding doors happy ending — what if Mary had married Henry VIII’s son in the first place? What if the two had met for that initial mimosa brunch? What if Mary had married literally anyone else in the world other than Darnley??

Ultimately, Elizabeth would be remembered as one of England’s longest-serving and most consequential and powerful monarchs, a Queen who oversaw England’s shift from minor kingdom to international power player. As she had no children, though, it was Mary’s son James who would succeed Elizabeth. James was the first Stuart monarch, though he was also a Tudor by ancestry. His descendants, including Anne of Great Britain, are the ancestors of the current British royal family. Mary, Queen of Scots is the great-grandmother 11 times of Queen Elizabeth II, and therefore a direct ancestor of Prince Charles, Prince William, Princess Charlotte, and the other current generation of British royals.

Verdere leeswerk

There are zillions of great books and films about Mary and Elizabeth and all of this drama, notably the new film Mary Queen of Scots which stars Saoirse Ronan as Mary and Margot Robbie as Elizabeth. One book I’ll recommend on the topic is The Betrayal of Mary, Queen of Scots: Elizabeth I and Her Greatest Rival by Kate Williams, which digs into all of this bonkers, juicy, messy, tragic story. Another great book on the topic of these two women is Elizabeth and Mary: Cousins, Rivals, Queens by Jane Dunn.


Elizabeth and Mary : Cousins, Rivals, Queens

"Dunn demythologizes Elizabeth and Mary. In humanizing their dynamic and shifting relationship, Dunn describes it as fueled by both rivalry and their natural solidarity as women in an overwhelmingly masculine world." -Boston Herald

The political and religious conflicts between Queen Elizabeth I and the doomed Mary, Queen of Scots, have for centuries captured our imagination and inspired memorable dramas played out on stage, screen, and in opera. But few books have brought to life more vividly the exquisite texture of two women’s rivalry, spurred on by the ambitions and machinations of the forceful men who surrounded them. The drama has terrific resonance even now as women continue to struggle in their bid for executive power.

Against the backdrop of sixteenth-century England, Scotland, and France, Dunn paints portraits of a pair of protagonists whose formidable strengths were placed in relentless opposition. Protestant Elizabeth, the bastard daughter of Anne Boleyn, whose legitimacy had to be vouchsafed by legal means, glowed with executive ability and a visionary energy as bright as her red hair. Mary, the Catholic successor whom England’s rivals wished to see on the throne, was charming, feminine, and deeply persuasive. That two such women, queens in their own right, should have been contemporaries and neighbours sets in motion a joint biography of rare spark and page-turning power.

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LibraryThing -oorsig

Not nearly finished but, man, what a great book, and the narrator is awesome. Read with enough pause between sentences that you can really take in and think about what was just said. excellent . Читать весь отзыв

LibraryThing -oorsig

This is a well written (sometimes boring) inclusive book about Elizabeth I and the rivalry for the English Crown against her delusional, conniving, presumptuous, arrogant, murderous, and slutty cousin . Читать весь отзыв


Mary Queen of Scots: The Tragic True Story of Royal Cousins Separated by Scheming Men

Clockwise from left, Saoirse Ronan stars as Queen Mary, a portrait of Mary, Queen of Scots, Margot Robbie stars as Elizabeth I, portrait of Elizabeth I. Clockwise from left, by Liam Daniel/Focus Features, from VCG Wilson/Corbis/Getty Images, by Liam Daniel/Focus Features, by DeAgostini/Getty Images.

Mary Queen of Scots, the spirited 16th-century monarch played by Saoirse Ronan in the new biopic, Mary Queen of Scots, has been as much “a victim of the pen as the executioner’s ax,” according to British historian Dr. John Guy. During exhaustive research for his 2004 biography, also titled Mary Queen of Scots, Guy realized how false her centuries-old reputation was. She was not “a femme fatale and manipulative siren who ruled from passion,” but a forward-thinking female ruler entrapped by the impossible circumstances of the 16th-century patriarchy.

When the young monarch asserted her claim on the British throne—then occupied by her cousin, Elizabeth I—Mary and Elizabeth, both in childbearing years, were in similarly tricky predicaments. Their monarchies would, in theory, only be secured if they married and produced heirs or named successors. Elizabeth, whose father Henry VIII had her mother Anne Boleyn executed, understandably chose to pass on these options. Mary, meanwhile, opted for marriage and a baby. But her husband Lord Darnley—still in serious contention for worst husband of the millennium—slept with her male secretary (more on that later) murdered said secretary in front of Mary while she was pregnant and then attempted to wrest control from her. The inept power maneuver set into motion an ugly sequence of succession-related events involving murder, scandal, abdication, imprisonment, and execution.

Guy recently explained to Vanity Fair that Mary’s reputation—which persisted for the approximately 400 years before his book’s publication—was built from “‘alternative facts,’ as we would say today, designed to destroy her reputation and to encourage Queen Elizabeth I to kill her.” Elizabeth succumbed to evidence fed to her by advisers and sentenced her cousin to execution in 1587.

Ahead, Guy takes us through the real-life events that informed the film—describing the traumatic events of Elizabeth’s adolescence that turned her against marriage the love triangle between Mary’s husband Lord Darnley and her sexually-fluid secretary David Rizzio and why Elizabeth I and Mary never actually ended up meeting face-to-face.

Queen Elizabeth I’s Traumatic Backstory

Elizabeth, played in the film by Margot Robbie, “was absolutely forged in the fire of the tribulations of her adolescence,” said Guy, recounting how Elizabeth’s father had her mother executed. When Henry VIII re-married Jane Seymour, he stripped Elizabeth of her princess title—decreeing that she should be known as “Lady Elizabeth.”

After Henry VIII died, his final wife Catherine Parr took Elizabeth into her household. “Catherine Parr married her true love Thomas Seymour, who was incredibly ambitious, swashbuckling, and brazen. He imagined that, if Catherine Parr died in childbirth, which she eventually did, he would perhaps marry Elizabeth himself. While Catherine Parr was still alive and the three were in the household together . . . Thomas Seymour would come into Elizabeth’s bedroom early in the morning and he would touch her up and make up to her a bit. This reached the point where Catherine Parr sent Elizabeth away to a safe house in Hertfordshire.” After Parr’s death, Seymour was executed for treason for scheming to marry Elizabeth and assume power. A 15-year-old Elizabeth was interrogated but exonerated. Some historians believe that the public nature of the scandal made Elizabeth more determined to protect her sexual reputation.

Queen Elizabeth I’s Own Imprisonment

As if Elizabeth had not endured enough trauma in her adolescence, the reign of her half-sister, Mary Tudor (“Bloody Mary”), was just as problematic. “Elizabeth was sent to the tower for about a week, suspected or accused of being involved in a plot to overthrow her half-sister,” explained Guy of Elizabeth’s imprisonment. “And then she was sent to Woodstock, where she was put under house arrest for almost a year. She feared for her life.”

Mary Queen of Scots, meanwhile, had been largely “sheltered,” living in the court of France between the ages of 5 and 18—when her first husband, the Dauphin of France, died, and she returned to Scotland. “She was not exposed to risks and plots and conspiracies,” said Guy, explaining that Elizabeth, by her teenage years, was already seeing treacherous power grabs all around her.

Naming a Successor

As depicted in the film, Elizabeth refused to name a successor—a savvy move that could have been her saving grace. By the time Elizabeth took the throne, according to Guy, “she was more realistic where men were concerned. She had learned by the way she was treated by men as an adolescent. She knew what men were like and how dangerous they could be. My own personal view is that she had decided that she would never marry, because she had foreseen what would happen—and what could well happen is exactly what happened to Mary.

“Although she in her heart regarded Mary Queen of Scots as her true heir should she die without having married or having had children, [Elizabeth] would never name a successor because she feared the kinds of plots and conspiracies she had seen in her adolescent years.”

Queen Mary’s Love Triangle with David Rizzio and Lord Darnley

In Mary Queen of Scots, the titular ruler has a close relationship with her male secretary David Rizzio. Rizzio has a sexual encounter with Mary’s second husband, Lord Darnley. And, when Queen Mary is pregnant with Lord Darnley’s child, the monarch is forced to watch while Darnley and rebels stab Rizzio to death—after it is claimed Rizzio impregnated the queen. As outrageous as this story line seems, it is very much based in history.

“Rizzio was Northern Italian, and had been brought up in courts in France,” explained Guy. “The vogue in France, among young hedonistic courtiers, was essentially that they were bisexual. And they were looking back to ancient Greece and Rome . . . the idea of men and sexuality then was very different from what it is now. Straight and gay were not so clearly defined in those days. It was not frowned on as much . . . and Mary was also a very tolerant person.”

Rizzio was a crucial fixture in Mary’s court. “He was very good at organizing masks and courtly games,” explained Guy. “He was often alone with her and her ladies-in-waiting, or alone with her in her private chambers. Some of those games [they played] were quite intimate, and, because in the Renaissance this courtly life didn’t necessarily mean that you were having a relationship, you imagined and pretended to be in love with the Queen and with each other. You wrote each other verses and that sort of thing. It was the same in Henry VIII’s court. Rumors did spread that [Rizzio] was too close to Mary, but of course they would—they were in Scotland among these more Protestant laws where it was more of a Puritanical sort of society.”

“The friendship was used against Mary”—even by Darnley, who had his own relationship with Rizzio. “They absolutely had a sexual relationship,” said Guy. “There is absolutely no doubt in history because they were found in bed together. As far as Darnley is concerned, for a man in the 16th century, he was effeminate and bisexual.”

Lord Darnley and Mary’s Downfall

“The challenge that all female rulers faced in this male-dominated, patriarchal society was the minute they marry and choose a husband, then he wants to become king,” explained Guy. “The way patriarchy works is that they then try to push their wife aside and govern as king and make their wife some sort of subordinate. And that’s exactly what Darnley was trying to do. The effect of that is two-fold—in the first place, husband and wife fall out. The second difficulty is that the courtiers and nobles around the court who had gotten used to a woman ruler were faced with a man they now found objectionable, as they did with Darnley.”

By marrying, Mary did what a monarch ought to do “because she settled succession in her country,” said Guy, noting that even Mary’s enemy—Elizabeth’s adviser, William Cecil—acknowledged that Mary acted properly. “But the difficulty as a woman ruler in this time period was, you’re damned if you do and damned if you don’t. Because if you do marry and you have a son, as Mary does—paradoxically that now means that there is a male heir in the picture—and the nobles can turn against the woman ruler. In this film and in history, they try to make a brief alliance with Darnley, who they promise [would be] king if he will basically do what they want. Darnley then falls out with them so basically the nobles get rid of both of them.”

Mary and Elizabeth’s Fictional Meeting

In spite of the secret meeting depicted in the film, Mary never actually met her cousin Elizabeth face-to-face. “After Mary returned to Scotland to take her throne, there was a lot of talk of a meeting,” explained Guy. “It very nearly happened near Nottingham. They had sent food and supplies up there. They had gotten as far as setting up an exchange bureau, where people could change their Scottish money into English money. But it was canceled because of events in France related to the outbreak of the wars of religion.”


Elizabeth and Mary: Cousins, Rivals, Queens

While everyone else is spending quarantine binging Die kroon on Netflix and obsessing over the life of the current Queen Elizabeth (no disrespect intended your Majesty), I decided to read up on the royals of the mid-1500s. Elizabeth and Mary: Cousins, Rivals, Queens by Jane Dunn is not the mundane text you vaguely remember from your high school world history class.

While looking for a historical non-fiction book to read during the month of April, I came across this title and realized I knew surprisingly little about these women. Rather than providing a bland overview of historical facts, I appreciated Dunn’s in-depth look at these two famous queens. Dunn does an excellent job connecting the historical dots, demonstrating cause and effect, and foreshadowing without being repetitive.

The entire narrative is fascinating, artfully presented, and almost too crazy at times to believe. After reading this book, I can affirm that history really is stranger than fiction. Whether it’s Elizabeth I playing mind games with every royal suitor in all of Europe, or Mary, Queen of Scots, riding at the head of her army into battle… while PREGNANT (True Story, Folks!), you just can’t make this stuff up.

Probably the most surprising thing about this famous game of tug of war for the Crown of England, was the fact that these two women actually never met. Despite this, Dunn makes it very clear they had a major impact on one another.

Dunn also gives the reader an excellent compare and contrast of the two queens.

Elizabeth, as the daughter of Anne Boleyn, was born heir to the throne, then disinherited and proclaimed illegitimate, and later reinstated. Her path to the throne was precarious and at times dangerous. At one point she was even imprisoned in the Tower of London and was one of the rare individuals to leave the notorious prison with her head still attached to her body.

The uncertainty of her youth made Elizabeth painfully aware of the fragility of her station. In order to remain in power, she was willing to sacrifice personal desires.

Sometimes considered difficult to deal with among the nobility, Elizabeth was extremely popular with her subjects. After her ascension to the throne, she made sure to always maintain the appearance of the divinely appointed monarch, while still connecting with the crowd.

Mary, in contrast, was only six days old when she officially became Queen of Scotland. By the age of five, she was sent to France to be raised in the most extravagant court in all of Europe. She was spoiled and completely unprepared to rule. She took for granted the station and privilege she was born into.

Dunn makes it very clear that Mary’s counselors and confidants and even her love interests were not always the best of influencers on the young queen. Mary was ambitious to a fault and unsatisfied with her own kingdom. She was also unwilling to bridle her personal passions, which may have been one of the most significant contributing factors to her eventual downfall.

I have to admit I felt a little bad for Mary while reading. To a degree, she was a product of her lavish upbringing. On the other hand, she did plot to assassinate Elizabeth and take over as Queen of England. In the end, it was Mary who lost her head and Elizabeth who kept the crown.

Jane Dunn unquestionably demonstrates that both women were impressive individuals. Elizabeth was revolutionary as a queen ruling without a king by her side, and Mary’s charm and magnetism became the stuff of legends.

Overall, I thoroughly enjoyed this book, and I’d say it deserves a modern two-thumbs-up and a hearty renaissance “Huzzah!”



Elizabeth I and Mary, Queen of Scots: Cousins, Rivals, Queens - HISTORY

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We’re excited to announce that our new exhibition Elizabeth and Mary: Royal Cousins, Rival Queens will now open to the public in 2021.

Published date: 18 September 2020

Queens. Cousins. Rivals.

Step back into a dangerous world of plots, espionage and treachery to explore the turbulent relationship between Elizabeth I and Mary, Queen of Scots in their own words.

In an England and Scotland engulfed in religious turmoil and with civil wars raging on the continent, this major exhibition follows the storm that threatened these two powerful women as they struggled for control of the British Isles.

They never met but their fates were intertwined. From their shared beginnings, facing the challenge of ruling in a man&rsquos world, feel the tension escalate as handwritten letters between the queens show how paranoia turned sisterly affection to suspicion.

With the threat of conspiracy ever present, communications written in code reveal how Elizabeth used a network of spies to trap and destroy her rival, bringing the dramatic story to a swift and bloody conclusion.

Encounter some of our most exceptional 16th-century manuscripts and printed works on display: Elizabeth&rsquos stirring &lsquoheart and stomach of a king&rsquo speech the papal bull excommunicating Elizabeth Mary&rsquos 10-page plea for freedom.

These sit alongside haunting objects which reveal the complex story behind the two queens&rsquo reigns. Tales of imprisonment and escape. Elizabeth&rsquos speech to Parliament on her cousin&rsquos fate. Eye-witness accounts of Mary&rsquos execution.

Enter the dark side of the 16th century. Meet the real Elizabeth and Mary.

Tickets will go on sale in 2021. Sign up to our emails for future updates.


Warm letters gave way to soured relations

Elizabeth finally succeeded the throne after years of family turmoil. Her sister, also named Mary (there wasn't much originality in naming princesses then) was an unpopular queen and died without an heir. Elizabeth was next in line by default.

Elizabeth was pressured to name an heir since she was famously unmarried. The next person in line for the throne? Her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots.

Despite recent movies portraying a meeting between the two, Smithsonian Tydskrif says the cousins never laid eyes on each other. But they did write letters. These letters were warm and the two queens even floated the idea of actually meeting. Elizabeth toyed with the idea of naming Mary her heir but she was troubled over the power her cousin could have over her reign.

Things soon changed when Mary married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Elizabeth was angry — her cousin had not asked for permission and she felt the marriage was a threat to her reign in England.


Elizabeth I and Mary, Queen of Scots: Cousins, Rivals, Queens - HISTORY

Elizabeth and Mary

Beskrywing

"Superb. A perceptive, suspenseful account." -Die New York Times Book Review

"Dunn demythologizes Elizabeth and Mary. In humanizing their dynamic and shifting relationship, Dunn describes it as fueled by both rivalry and their natural solidarity as women in an overwhelmingly masculine world." -Boston Herald

The political and religious conflicts between Queen Elizabeth I and the doomed Mary, Queen of Scots, have for centuries captured our imagination and inspired memorable dramas played out on stage, screen, and in opera. But few books have brought to life more vividly the exquisite texture of two women&rsquos rivalry, spurred on by the ambitions and machinations of the forceful men who surrounded them. The drama has terrific resonance even now as women continue to struggle in their bid for executive power.

Against the backdrop of sixteenth-century England, Scotland, and France, Dunn paints portraits of a pair of protagonists whose formidable strengths were placed in relentless opposition. Protestant Elizabeth, the bastard daughter of Anne Boleyn, whose legitimacy had to be vouchsafed by legal means, glowed with executive ability and a visionary energy as bright as her red hair. Mary, the Catholic successor whom England&rsquos rivals wished to see on the throne, was charming, feminine, and deeply persuasive. That two such women, queens in their own right, should have been contemporaries and neighbours sets in motion a joint biography of rare spark and page-turning power.

Prys vir Elizabeth and Mary: Cousins, Rivals, Queens& hellip

“A perceptive, suspenseful account of complex English history. . . . By the end of this satisfying book, one feels sympathy for both women, brave queens in an age when ‘no one considered that a woman could effectively rule alone.’ ” —Die New York Times Book Review

“Elegant. . . . Dunn demythologizes Elizabeth and Mary. In humanizing their dynamic and shifting relationship, Dunn describes it as fueled by both rivalry and their natural solidarity as women in an overwhlemingly masculine world.” --Boston Herald

“A balanced, nuanced, and eminently clear account. . . . Brilliantly conceived, elegantly executed, and compellingly readable.” --Richmond Times-Dispatch

“A wholly engrossing and sumptuous retelling of a tale that entered legend even before its protagonists were dead.” --Nuusdag


Elizabeth I and Mary, Queen of Scots: Cousins, Rivals, Queens - HISTORY

Edited by Maggie Pierce Secara

These texts are transcribed (with updated spelling and paragraphing) from the History of the Life of Mary Queen of Scots , printed in 1681, microfilmed in 1976 and stored at Ann Arbor, MI. As far as we can tell, it is otherwise unpublished. The text appears to be in part drawn from Camden's Annals and the relevant calendar of state papers, which provides a more complete transcript of the trial and narrative of the execution. The History also includes a rather long introduction I have chosen to give you just the letters and other documents, and spared you the polemic. (It also includes the trials of the Duke of Norfolk and Philip, Earl of Arundel, which I may get to at another time.)

Why 1681? The publication a hundred years after the events was evidently prompted by the political issues of the late 17th century, when serious pressure was being brought on King Charles II to prohibit his brother, the crypto-Catholic Duke of York (eventually James II), from inheriting the throne. In this interest, mining relatively recent history for examples of Catholic perfidy produced numerous popular&mdashand best selling&mdashbooks and pamphlets. The History is one of those books.

Given these circumstances, it should come as no surprise to the reader that the tone of these documents and reports is neither romantic, as in the Victorian mode, nor what we might call balanced reporting. The documents are nevertheless fascinating as a look at both familiar events and the world that reported them.

For a complete timeline of Mary's life and death, you may want to look at http://www.marie-stuart.co.uk

For a more complete collection of the Scottish queen s letters, you may be interested in Agnes Strickland's 1842 work, Letters of Mary, Queen of Scots, and documents connected with her personal history , available at Google Books


Kyk die video: Queen Elizabeth I Vs Mary Queen of Scots. Two Golden Queens. Channel 5 #RoyalFamily