Immigrasie na die VSA 1820-1920

Immigrasie na die VSA 1820-1920



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LandTotaal
Duitsland5,500,000
Ierland4,400,000
Italië4,190,000
Oostenryk-Hongarye3,700,000
Rusland3,250,000
Engeland2,500,000
Swede1,000,000
Noorweë730,000
Skotland570,000
Frankryk530,000
Griekeland350,000
Turkye320,000
Denemarke300,000
Switserland258,000
Portugal210.000
Holland200,000
België140,000
Spanje130,000
Roemenië80,000
Wallis75,000
Bulgarye60,000

Die referaat sal aspekte met betrekking tot kuns en kultuur, besigheid en ekonomie, boeke en letterkunde en immigrasie en migrasie (Barney) ontleed. 1820-1830: Hierdie dekade is uiters belangrik omdat dit die begin van 'n nuwe era in die politiek was. Dit was die dekade van groei as 'n land en vooruitgang in die politiek. Die dekade het tot stand gekom van die demokratiese en die nasionale republikeinse partye. Verder was dit ook bekend omdat dit die tyd was toe die eerste vrou vir die presidentskap genomineer is.

Daar was ook gedurende hierdie tydperk vooruitgang op die gebied van kuns, letterkunde en die ekonomie. Ekonomiese en besigheidsaktiwiteite: Die federale grondwet is in 1820 aangeneem, wat gelei het tot uitbreiding na nuwe gebiede, aangesien setlaars nou 80 hektaar grond vir $ 1,25/akker kon koop. Enorme vordering in handelsroetes, insluitend spoorlyne en rivierroetes, het die uitbreiding van handel en handel tussen nuwe gebiede en gevestigde gemeenskappe gehelp. Die dekade het ook gegroei dat gateway -stede soos Cincinnati, New Orleans en Chicago stedelike markte bied wat die nuwe gebiede aan die Atlantiese state verbind.

Kuns en argitektuur: In die 1820's begin die herlewing van die Amerikaanse Griekse styl en federale kunsstyl. Die standbeeld van George Washington is deur 'n Italianer genaamd Antonio Canova gemaak. Die wydverspreide vraag na portretkuns het gehelp om Amerikaanse kuns te handhaaf. Die rykes het portrette waardeer en bedrae geld daaraan bestee. Sommige van die begunstigdes van hierdie uitgawe was Gilbert Stuart en Thomas Sully (Barney). Boeke en letterkunde: Irving en Cooper was die mees vereerde literêre individue van die dekade.

Die lesers het gedurende die dekade in trots gegroei, wat 'n belangrike rede was waarom Cooper se literatuur gewild geword het. 'N Goeie illustrasie van die liefdesverhouding vir die vorm van letterkunde is die roman American Hero wat Amerika as 'n individuele land stel, kultureel anders as Engeland. Die romantiese behandeling van Indiërs was nog 'n bekende en geliefde literêre tema van die dekade (Jones). Immigrasie en migrasie: In die provinsie Tejas in Mexiko het die eerste Anglo -Amerikaanse nedersetting ontstaan ​​na die paniek van 1819.

Die federale regering het begin met die versameling van immigrasie -statistieke teen 1820 en ramings dui daarop dat 151,000 nuwe inwoners gedurende die dekade die Verenigde State binnegekom het. Die meerderheid van hierdie inwoners kom van die Britse Eilande, gevolg deur individue uit Duitsland. Die toename in buitelandse inwoners het 'n impak op die Amerikaanse politiek gehad. Die demokrate, wat as vriendelik teenoor immigrante beskou is, het dieselfde oorhand gekry (Jones). 1830-1840: Hierdie dekade het wette aangeneem wat getroude vroue die reg op eiendom besit.

Boeke met groot bekendheid en nalatenskap is gedruk, insluitend die Boek van Mormon en die natuur. Texas het onafhanklikheid van Mexiko verkry en verskeie ander gebeure het plaasgevind wat hierdie dekade een van groot belang in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis (Rozek) gemaak het. Kunste en argitektuur: Die kunstenaars van die Hudsonrivier het bly groei. Hierdie kunstenaars sluit in Thomas Cole, George Innes en Thomas Doughty. Die luukse stoele het ook verskyn toe 8200 Amerikaanse vervaardigers luukse stoele in Robert Adam-, Sheraton-, Directoire- en Empire -style geskep het.

Die dekade het ook die idee van die Grace Church deur James Renwick (Athearn) begin. Ekonomie en besigheid: Die stoombote is gedurende die dekade bekendgestel soos goedere wat na die weste van St.


Akkulturasie en assimilasie

Gedurende die belangrikste era van Nederlandse immigrasie, 1621-1970, het godsdienstige en ideologiese standpunte die karakter van openbare instellings in Nederland gestruktureer. In die Nederlandse Republiek (1580-1795) beheer Gereformeerde Protestante die regering, skole, openbare liefdadigheidsorganisasies en die meeste aspekte van sosiale gedrag. Alhoewel beide Katolieke en Jode hul geloof onbelemmerd beoefen het, kon hulle nie openbare ampte beklee nie. Toe, in die 1850's, toe die nasionale grondwet 'n veelpartystelsel toegelaat het, het politieke partye gegroei uit kiesafdelings wat met spesifieke kerke of ideologieë geïdentifiseer is. Die Gereformeerde, die Katolieke en die Sosialistiese groepe het elk een of meer partytjies gereël. Boonop het elke groep aparte skole, vakbonde, koerante, ontspanningsklubs en selfs 'n skedule van televisieprogramme gestig om kiesafdelings te bedien. Nederlands -Amerikaners herskep dele van die struktuur waar hulle ook al in genoegsame groepe saamgevoeg is om etniese kerke, skole en ander instellings te onderhou. Sedert die 1960's het hierdie toegewyde groepe die hoofstroom Amerikaanse instellings vinniger begin omhels en het hulle die doelwitte van hul private organisasies verander om 'n multikulturele kiesafdeling aan te trek en te dien.

Godsdienstige en kulturele skeiding floreer hoofsaaklik in die etnies digte bevolkingsentrums van gereformeerde protestante. Nederlandse Katolieke, behalwe dié in die Green Bay -omgewing, was nie in groot getalle gekonsentreer nie. In plaas daarvan het hulle by ander Katolieke gemeentes in Cincinnati, St. Louis, New York City en elders aangesluit. Selfs in Groenbaai trou Hollandse Katolieke maklik met Katolieke van ander etnisiteite. Omdat daar nie groot en saamhangende enklawe was nie, was Nederlandse Katolieke nie in staat of geneig om etniese instellings in Amerika te hervestig nie. Net so vestig Nederlandse Jode hoofsaaklik in stede soos New York, Philadelphia en Boston, waar hulle die

Tans fragmenteer die belangrikste vestings van die Nederlandse Amerikaanse separatisme vinnig. Gereformeerde kerke, skole, kolleges, teologiese skole en selfs aftree-fasiliteite vir bejaardes beywer hulle vir 'n volledige spektrum van nie-Nederlandse kliënte. Huwelike buite die etniese groep het algemeen geword en die media-gedrewe populêre kultuur het tradisionele gedrag onder alle ouderdomsgroepe verander. Kortom, die hoofstroomkultuur het óf die Nederlandse etniek uit hul enklawe gelok, óf die omliggende kultuur het die etniese gemeenskappe so verander dat hulle nie meer op etniese eksklusiwiteit kan floreer nie.

Daar is geen aggressief gemene of vernederende stereotipes van Nederlandse Amerikaners nie. Hulle word reg beskou as eiendom waardeer, geneig tot ondernemings vir klein ondernemings en kultureel konserwatief met volgehoue ​​lojaliteit aan hul kerke, kolleges en ander instellings. Die persepsie dat hulle buitengewoon stamagtig is, is ook akkuraat, maar die kenmerk word veral onder gereformeerde protestante gedemonstreer. Ander etniese stereotipes - finansiële boete, neiging tot drank en tabak en algemene humorloosheid - weerspieël individuele eienskappe eerder as groepe.

KUIKER

Die vroeëre immigrante se gewone dieet (aartappels, kool en ertjiesop met min vleis buite wors en spek) kon nie met Amerika se vleisgerigte spyskaart meeding nie. Oor die algemeen is Nederlandse kosse nie ryk of eksoties nie. Aartappels en groente gekombineer met vleis in 'n Nederlandse oond, vis en sop is tipies. Die Indonesiese rystafel, wat nou baie gewild is in die Nederlandse Amerikaanse kombuise, kom uit Nederlandse kolonialiste. Vakansiegebak gegeur met amandelpasta is 'n belangrike komponent van Nederlandse gebak. Sosiale byeenkomste floreer op koffie en koekies met brandewyn-geweekte rosyne gedurende die Kerstyd.

TRADISIONELE KOSTUMS

In Nederland wissel tradisionele kostuums van streek tot streek, wat plaaslike lojaliteite toon, wat eens die belangrikste was, wat die Nederlandse lewe nog steeds smaak. Mans het dikwels 'n swart broek en kleurvolle hoede met 'n breë rand aangetrek, terwyl vroue groot swart rokke, kleurvol geborduurde lyfies en kantkoffies gedra het. Sulke kostuums is in Nederland deur moderne klere vervang. In die Verenigde State word tradisionele klere vir spesiale geleenthede voorbehou.

VAKANSIE

Nederlandse Jode en Christene vier oor die algemeen die vakansiedae wat verband hou met hul spesifieke godsdienstige affiliasie. Baie naoorlogse immigrante het egter 'n kenmerkende patroon van kersviering behou wat geskenkuitruilings op Sint Nikolaasdag (6 Desember) van die godsdienstige vieringe van 25 Desember skei.

GESONDHEIDS PROBLEME

Daar is geen spesifiek Nederlandse verwante mediese probleme of toestande nie. Gesondheids- en lewensversekering, hetsy privaat of uit institusionele bronne, het lankal die behoefte aan immigrantehulpkoöperasies vervang wat eens beskeie doodsvoordele gebied het. Gereformeerde kerke het gereeld weduwees, weeskinders en chronies afhanklike mense bygestaan ​​voor die sosiale sekerheidstelsel. In geïsoleerde gevalle word kerklike fondse steeds gebruik om die inkomste van veral behoeftige persone aan te vul of om mense met katastrofiese behoeftes by te staan. Vir geestesiektes het 'n groep gereformeerde denominasies die Pine Rest Psychiatric Hospital in 1910 gestig, maar die instelling dien nou die algemene publiek. Ander instansies, die Bethany Christian Home -aannemingsagentskap en die Bethesda tuberculosis sanitorium, is ook getransformeer om 'n multikulturele kliënte te bedien.


Joodse immigrasie uit die 20ste eeu

Alle Amerikaanse handboeke oor die geskiedenis dek die groot immigrasiegolf wat ongeveer 25 miljoen mense van 1880 tot 1924 na Amerika gebring het. Hierdie immigrante kom van baie plekke en om baie redes, en die meeste verhale bied voldoende dekking oor die stoot- en trekfaktore agter besluite om te emigreer, die moeilike reis en die stryd om aan te pas by 'n nuwe land. Handboeke bied 'n redelik standaard weergawe van kettingmigrasie, die skepping van etniese stedelike woonbuurte, die Amerikaniseringsbeweging en die uiteindelik suksesvolle nativistiese veldtogte vir beperkende immigrasiewetgewing. Deur 'n nadere ondersoek van een groep gedurende hierdie tydperk kan die oorsake en gevolge van immigrasie dieper ondersoek word. Oos -Europese Jode word gereeld in handboekverslae genoem as voorbeelde van die nuwe godsdienstige groepe wat die VSA binnekom, as gereelde deelnemers aan die arbeidsaktivisme wat industriële ontwikkeling gekenmerk het, en as belangrike bydraers tot die populêre Amerikaanse kultuur, veral deur musiek en films. Verskeie ander belangrike elemente van die ervaring van die Joodse immigrant geniet egter min aandag. 'N Nader kyk werp lig op die ingewikkelde aard van die immigrasie na die begin van die eeu na Amerika.

Toe die byna 2,5 miljoen Oos -Europese Jode (saam met 'n groot aantal Sentraal- en Wes -Europese Jode en 'n paar Sefardiese Jode uit die Ottomaanse Ryk) in die VSA aankom, het hulle aangesluit by 'n bevolking van ongeveer 250 000 Jode wat reeds in Amerika woon. Sommige van hierdie gesinne het dekades en selfs geslagte lank in Amerika gewoon. Alhoewel die hoofsaaklik Jiddiese kultuur, groter neiging tot radikale politiek en 'n bietjie meer tradisionele godsdienstige oriëntasie van baie van die nuwelinge die karakter van die Amerikaanse Jood sou verander, het interaksie tussen die groepe dit ook gedoen. In 'n opregte, massiewe poging om hul mede-Jode te help en 'n poging om toenemende antisemitisme af te weer, het die gevestigde Joodse gemeenskap 'n ongekende netwerk van welwillende samelewings, nedersettingshuise, opvoedingsfasiliteite en liefdadigheidsorganisasies geskep om die nuwe Joodse immigrante te help . Die gevolglike netwerk van gemeenskaplike agentskappe het gedurende die progressiewe era en daarna modelle geword van die nuwe gebied van maatskaplike werk vir alle Amerikaners. Joodse vroue het 'n sleutelrol gespeel in hierdie pogings deur organisasies soos die National Council of Jewish Women en sinagoge susterskappe (sien Primary Source National Council of Jewish Women [1926]). Daar was aansienlike spanning tussen diegene wat onmiddellike Amerikanisering van alles, van rituele praktyk tot foodways, eis en diegene wat aandring op 'n geleidelike akkulturasie, maar 'n gedeelde bron van godsdienstige en kulturele tradisies het gehelp om selfs die mees omstrede elemente van die Amerikaanse Joodse gemeenskap ineengevleg te bly 'n paar maniere.

Een voorbeeld is die 1910 -vredesprotokol wat 'n nasionaal beduidende staking in die swaar Joodse kledingbedryf in New York beëindig het (sien Primary Source The Protocol of Peace [1910]). Hierdie ooreenkoms is onderhandel en onderteken deur Joodse kommunale leiers en prokureurs wat beide Joodse kledingvervaardigers en fabriekeienaars en Joodse werkers en arbeidsaktiviste verteenwoordig het. Die Amerikaanse Joodse geskiedenis bied dus 'n toets vir die vraag hoe anders die ervarings van die "ou" en "nuwe" immigrante eintlik was, met 'n groeiende aantal historici wat oortuig is dat die tydperk tussen 1820 en 1924 as 'n deurlopende eeu beskou moet word van Amerikaanse Joodse migrasie met meer strukturele ooreenkomste as diskontinuïteite.


Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante

Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante
Theodore Roosevelt was die 26ste Amerikaanse president wat van 14 September 1901 tot 4 Maart 1909 in die amp gedien het. Een van die belangrike gebeurtenisse tydens sy presidentskap was die Immigration Act van 1907 wat die Dillingham -kommissieverslag opgestel het wat die kwessie van Old Immigrants vs. Nuwe immigrante.

Definisie en opsomming van die ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante
Opsomming en definisie: Die Immigration Act van 1907 het die Dillingham -kommissie geskep om die Amerikaanse immigrasiebeleid te hersien. In 1911 het die Dillingham -kommissie 'n verslag opgestel wat die verskille tussen ou immigrante en nuwe immigrante beklemtoon en die uitwerking op die sosiale, kulturele, fisiese, ekonomiese en morele welsyn van die land. Die Dillingham -kommissieverslag bevoordeel die 'immigrant' wat uit Noordwes -gebiede van Europa gekom het, in teenstelling met die 'nuwe immigrant' wat uit Suidoos -gebiede van Europa en ander dele van die wêreld gekom het. Die argument van Old Immigrants vs New Immigrants het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat immigrasie uit Suid- en Oos -Europa 'n ernstige bedreiging vir die Amerikaanse samelewing inhou en daarom baie moet verminder word.

Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante vir kinders: etniese groepe
Etniese groepe hou gewoonlik verband met gedeelde kulturele erfenis, geskiedenis, taal en afkoms en sluit gedeelde aspekte in soos godsdiens, rituele, gebruike, kookkuns en soortgelyke kledingstyle. Raadpleeg Push and Pull Factors of Immigration vir baie bykomende feite en inligting.

Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante grafiek

Ou immigrantekaart - nuwe immigrantekaart

Oorsprong: Noord- of Wes -Europa - Suid- of Oos -Europa of Asië

Oorspronglande: Holland, Duitsland, Frankryk, Engeland, Ierland, Skotland, Wallis en Skandinawië - Rusland, Slowakye, Hongarye, Rusland, Pole, Kroasië, Italië, Griekeland, Litaue, Serwië, China, Japan en Korea

Verbindings: Vriende of familie is dikwels in Amerika gevestig - geen verbindings met Amerika of bestaande Amerikaners nie

Godsdiens: Die meerderheid ou immigrante was protestantse - die nuwe immigrante was Joodse, Katolieke of nie -Christelike godsdienste

Simbole en tradisies: Gedeelde godsdienstige simbole, rituele en tradisies - Verskillende simbole, rituele en tradisies

Geletterdheid: Geletterd en vaardig - ongeletterd en ongeskool

Fisiese kenmerke: Lang en mooi met soortgelyke haarstyle - Kort en donker met verskillende haarstyle

Doeane en lewenstyl: Soortgelyke voedsel en werk vir bestaande Amerikaners - anders as bestaande Amerikaners

Kultuur: Soortgelyke smaak in letterkunde, musiek en kuns - Verskillende smake in letterkunde, musiek en kuns

Klere: Soortgelyke klere - verskillende klere

Politiek: hou by demokrasie - was gewoond aan outokrasie of radikale politiek

Welvaart: Baie het met geld na Amerika gekom - die meeste was sonder geld en het 'n behoefte

Aanpasbaarheid: in staat om vinnig 'in te pas', aan te pas en die maniere van 'n ander kultuur aan te pas - stadiger om te verander

Ou immigrantekaart - nuwe immigrantekaart

Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrantekaart vir kinders

Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante vir kinders: die verslag van die Dillingham -kommissie
Die Dillingham -kommissie was polities gemotiveer om immigrasie na Amerika te beperk. Die Dillingham -kommissie het 'n verslag opgestel wat 41 volumes bevat oor die onderwerp immigrasie in die Verenigde State en die debat rondom 'Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante' in die Verenigde State begin. Die verslag van die Dillingham -kommissie van 1911 bevat gedetailleerde inligting oor immigranteberoepe, lewensomstandighede en opvoeding.

Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante vir kinders: die 'Dictionary of Races of People'
Een deel van die verslag van die Dillingham -kommissie bevat 'A Dictionary of Races of People' wat immigrante in rasse -terme ingedeel het in 'n poging om te ontdek of hulle dit wil ontdek:

& quot, of daar nie sekere rasse is wat minderwaardig is as ander rasse nie. om aan te toon of sommige beter pas
vir Amerikaanse burgerskap as ander. & quot

Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante
In die Dillingham -verslag is onderskeid getref tussen die 'immigrant' en die meer onlangse 'nuwe immigrant'. Die verslag bevoordeel die 'immigrant' wat uit Noord- en Wes -Europa gekom het en was gekant teen 'nuwe immigrant' wat uit die ooste en suide van Europa en ander dele van die wêreld gekom het.

Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante vir kinders: die 'ou immigrant'
Die 'Ou immigrant' is soos volg gedefinieer:

Hulle was afkomstig van Angelsaksiese of Nordiese rasse
● ● Hulle kom uit die Wes -Noordelike gebiede van Europa, soos Brittanje, Ierland, Skotland, Holland, Duitsland, Frankryk en Skandinawië
● ● Hulle het soortgelyke etniese en kulturele agtergronde gehad, en dit was hierdie mense wat Amerika aanvanklik bevolk het
● ● Die fondament van Amerika is gebou op die idees, vaardighede en kultuur wat hulle saamgebring het

Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante vir kinders: die 'nuwe immigrant'
Die & quotNew immigrant & quot is soos volg gedefinieer:

Dit het Asiatiese, Slowaakse en Joodse rasse ingesluit
Hulle kom uit lande in Asië en Suidoos -Europese lande, soos China, Japan, Korea, Slowakye, Hongarye, Rusland, Pole, Kroasië, Italië, Griekeland, Litaue, Serwië en Rusland
● ● Hulle het geen verbintenis met Amerika of bestaande Amerikaners gehad nie
● ● Baie het totaal verskillende fisiese eienskappe en was maklik identifiseerbaar as & quotNuwe immigrante & quot
● ● Baie het nie-Christelike godsdienste gehad en het verskillende oortuigings gevolg en het 'n totaal vreemde omgewing beleef
● ● Hulle het heeltemal ander klere gedra, verskillende haarstyle gehad, vreemde tale gepraat, verskillende musiek en kuns smaak en verskillende kosse geëet

Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante: 'n ernstige bedreiging vir die Amerikaanse kultuur en samelewing
Die verslag van die Dillingham -kommissie van 1911 het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die 'New Immigrants' na Amerika minderwaardige, ongeskoolde en onopgevoede werkers was wat nie met Amerikaners kon integreer nie. Die verslag van die Dillingham -kommissie het verder tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die 'New Immigrant' ''n ernstige bedreiging vir die Amerikaanse kultuur en samelewing inhou. Dit het aanbeveel dat immigrasie na Amerika beperk moet word.

Druk en trek faktore
Vir besoekers wat belangstel in die onderwerp van immigrasie, verwys na ons webwerf oor Push and Pull Factors of Immigration, wat inligting gee oor hoekom mense hul huise in verskillende lande verlaat en na die Verenigde State verhuis het.

Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante - Video van president Theodore Roosevelt
Die artikel oor die ou immigrant vs nuwe immigrant bevat gedetailleerde feite en 'n opsomming van een van die belangrike gebeurtenisse tydens sy ampstermyn. Die volgende video gee u bykomende belangrike feite en datums oor die politieke gebeure wat die 26ste Amerikaanse president beleef het wie se presidentskap van 14 September 1901 tot 4 Maart 1909 strek.

Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante vir kinders

Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante - grafiek - immigrasie - Amerikaanse geskiedenis vir kinders - feite - opsomming - grafiek - definisie - immigrasie - geskiedenis - definisie - Amerikaans - VS - VSA - immigrasie - geskiedenis - Amerika - datums - Verenigde State - kinders - kinders - Skole - Huiswerk - Grafiek - Belangrik - Feite - Geskiedenis - Opsomming - Definisie - Immigrasie - Geskiedenis - Interessant - Immigrasie - Grafiek - Verslag van Dillingham Commission - Info - Inligting - Amerikaanse geskiedenis - Grafiek - Feite - Histories - Grafiek - Ou immigrante vs nuwe immigrante


Agtergrond

Ingevolge die immigrasiewette van die Verenigde State, moet 'n vreemdeling wat 'n immigrantvisum in die buiteland aanvra, of die status wil aanpas by 'n permanente inwoner in die Verenigde State, inentings ontvang om die volgende siektes te voorkom:

  • Pampoentjies
  • Masels
  • Rubella
  • Polio
  • Tetanus en Difteria Toxoids
  • Kinkhoes
  • Haemophilus influenzae tipe B
  • Hepatitis B
  • Enige ander entstof-voorkombare siektes wat deur die Advieskomitee vir Immuniseringspraktyke aanbeveel word

Die Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices (ACIP) is 'n advieskomitee vir die Departement van Gesondheid en Menslike Dienste (HHS)/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) wat immunisering aanbeveel vir die algemene Amerikaanse bevolking. Vanaf 14 Desember 2009, wanneer die ACIP nuwe entstowwe vir die algemene Amerikaanse bevolking aanbeveel, sal CDC gereeld bepaal of hierdie entstowwe gereeld vir immigrasiedoeleindes benodig moet word volgens spesifieke kriteria wat deur CDC gestel is.

CDC is verantwoordelik vir die publikasie van die tegniese instruksies vir die mediese ondersoek van vreemdelinge in die Verenigde State. Hierdie dokumente stel die vereistes vir die immigrasie mediese ondersoek en is bindend vir burgerlike chirurge. Die tegniese instruksies bevat 'n inentingskomponent wat spesifiseer hoe die burgerlike chirurg die inentingsbeoordeling moet uitvoer. Die burgerlike chirurg teken die resultate van die mediese ondersoek, insluitend die resultate van die inentingsbeoordeling, op USCIS-vorm I-693, Verslag van mediese ondersoek en inentingsrekord op.

As 'n vreemdeling 'n immigrasievisum in die buiteland aanvra, moet die persoon die mediese ondersoek ontvang deur 'n paneldokter wat deur die Amerikaanse departement van buitelandse sake (DOS) aangewys is. CDC gee afsonderlike instruksies aan paneelgeneeshere wat deur DOS aangewys is om mediese ondersoeke in die buiteland te doen. Raadpleeg DOS se webwerf by http://travel.state.gov/visa/immigrants/info/info_3739.html vir meer inligting oor paneelgeneeshere.


Vierde immigrasiegolf, na 1965

In 1965 het die aanvaarding van die federale wet op immigrasie en nasionaliteit 'n einde gemaak aan die stelsel van kwotas gebaseer op nasionaliteit. In hul plek was 'n nuwe, baie minder beperkende kwotastelsel gebaseer op halfronde. Die nuwe stelsel het 120 000 immigrante per jaar van die Westelike Halfrond en 170 000 van die Oostelike Halfrond toegelaat. In 1978 is selfs hierdie kwotas vervang deur 'n enkele wêreldwye kwota van 290,000 immigrante per jaar uit alle dele van die wêreld. Van 1992 tot 1994 is hierdie syfer verhoog tot 700 000 immigrante voordat dit in 1995 tot 675 000 verminder is. Nie een van hierdie kwotas het 'n beperking gelê op die aantal onmiddellike familielede van Amerikaanse burgers wat die land kon binnekom nie. Gevolglik was die werklike getal immigrante wat wettiglik die Verenigde State binnegekom het hoër as die kwotasyfers.

Gedurende die eerste dekade van die een-en-twintigste eeu was die Verenigde State nog steeds te midde van die grootste immigrasiegolf in sy geskiedenis. Een miljoen immigrante het elke jaar wettig die land binnegekom. Teen die eerste dekade van die een-en-twintigste eeu was ten volle 'n tiende van alle inwoners van die Verenigde State gebore uit die buiteland. Benewens hierdie ongeveer 30 miljoen wettige immigrante in die land, het die Amerikaanse sensus beraam dat ongeveer 8,7 miljoen immigrante onwettig in die land was. Die meeste nuwe immigrante, wettig en onwettig, was Spaans uit Mexiko, die Karibiese Eilande en Sentraal -Amerika. Tussen 1990 en 2000 het die Spaanse bevolking van die Verenigde State met 63 persent toegeneem - van 22,4 miljoen tot 35,3 miljoen inwoners. Die grootste en langste volhoubare beweging van arbeiders tussen twee lande ter wêreld was inderdaad van Mexiko na die Verenigde State.

Foner, Nancy. Van Ellis -eiland na JFK: New York se twee groot immigrasiegolwe. New Haven, Conn .: Yale University Press, 2000. Vergelyking van die groot golf Joodse Russiese en Italiaanse immigrante na New York omstreeks 1900 met die laat twintigste -eeuse golf immigrante uit Asië, Latyns -Amerika en die Karibiese Eilande.

Katz, Michael B., en Mark J. Stern. Een nasie deelbaar: wat Amerika was en wat dit word. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2006. Ondersoek die uitwerking van grootskaalse immigrasie op die Amerikaanse samelewing en die ekonomie.

Lippert, Dorothy en Stephen J. Spignesi. Inheemse Amerikaanse geskiedenis vir dummies. Hoboken, N.J .: Wiley, 2007. Ondanks die titel bied hierdie bundel 'n baie intelligente bespreking van die immigrasie van die vroegste Amerikaners.

Waters, Mary C., en Reed Ueda, red. The New Americans: A Guide to Immigration Sedert 1965. Cambridge, Mass .: Harvard University Press, 2007. Versameling beskrywende opstelle oor die verskillende immigrantegroepe wat die immigrasiegolf na 1965 uitgemaak het en oor die belangrikste onderwerpe rakende hierdie golf.

Sien ook: Ekonomiese gevolge van immigrasie Groot-Ierse hongersnood Geskiedenis van immigrasie, 1620-1783 Immigrasiegeskiedenis, 1783-1891 Immigrasiegeskiedenis na 1891 Wet op onwettige immigrasie Immigrasie en nasionaliteit van 1965.


Immigrasie na die VSA 1820-1920 - Geskiedenis

Hierdie interaktiewe kaart toon waar die 79 miljoen mense wat van 1820 tot 2013 na die VSA geïmmigreer het, vandaan kom. In die verlede was inkomende inwoners uit Kanada, Italië, Duitsland en Ierland algemeen, maar meer onlangs het Mexiko, China en die Filippyne die voortou geneem.

Wat ek veral interessant vind oor immigrasie na die VSA, is dat elke gas wat uit 'n spesifieke land kom, 'n storie daaragter het en dat hy gewoonlik vervolging kan ontsnap (bv. (bv. die Ierse aartappelhongersnood, die ineenstorting van Suid -Italië na die Italiaanse eenwording).

Daar is baie donker kolle in die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State, maar die rol wat dit as 'n heiligdom gespeel het vir mense in die wêreld, is 'n geskiedenis waaraan ek baie trots is.

Die grafiek van inkomende immigrante as 'n persentasie van die totale Amerikaanse bevolking is veral leersaam. Alhoewel dit hoër was as in die 60's en 70's, is die relatiewe immigrasiekoerse nog baie laer as wat die land in die 1920's en voorheen gesien het.


Vrae om te vra

Waarom immigreer mense na die Verenigde State en waar kom hulle vandaan?

Hoeveel mense is in die program Uitgestelde aksie vir kinderaankoms (DACA) vir onwettige inwoners wat as kinders na die Verenigde State gekom het?

Hoeveel mense is mettertyd by die grens tussen Amerika en Mexiko aangekeer?

Hoeveel mense het die VSA mettertyd na ander lande teruggekeer?

Wat sê die gegewens oor migrante wat asiel in die Verenigde State soek?


Immigrasie na die VSA 1820-1920 - Geskiedenis

DIE VIER GOLWE VAN AMERIKAANSE IMMIGRASIE

Eens het ek gedink om 'n geskiedenis van die immigrante in Amerika te skryf. Toe ontdek ek dat immigrante 'n Amerikaanse geskiedenis was. ” -Oscar Handlin

DIE EERSTE GOLF : 1607-1830

Totale immigrante: ongeveer 1,2 miljoen

Vanaf die eerste koloniale nedersettings in Jamestown en Plymouth, het Amerika vinnig gegroei van 'n geskatte bevolking van 250 000 in 1700 tot 'n geskatte 2,5 miljoen in 1775, toe die rewolusie begin het, tot 'n bevolking van 9,6 miljoen in die sensus van 1820.

Die vroeë immigrante was hoofsaaklik Protestante uit Noordwes-Europa, soos blyk uit die etniese ineenstorting van die Amerikaanse bevolking in die eerste sensus van 1790: Engels 49%, Afrikaans 19%, Skots-Iers 8%, Skotse 7%, Duits 7% , Nederlands 4%, Frans 3%, ander 3%.

As gevolg van 'n tekort aan arbeid in die kolonies en die vroeë republiek, was daar geen beperkings of vereistes vir immigrasie nie. Die eerste federale wet wat vereis dat skepe rekord moet hou van immigrasie, is eers in 1819 goedgekeur. Dus was die eerste vlaag immigrante almal 'ongedokumenteerde vreemdelinge'.

Die simboliese Ingangshaven want die eerste vlaag immigrante was Plymouth Rock, waar die pelgrims in 1620 geland het. Namate later immigrantegroepe na Amerika gekom het, sou ouer Engelse Amerikaners Plymouth Rock as die geboorteplek van Amerika gedenk, en sodoende 'n Angelsaksiese stempel op die Americna-karakter bevestig. In werklikheid het die vroeë immigrante natuurlik oor die verskillende hawens langs die ooskus gekom.

Redes vir immigrasie
Die vroeë immigrante het hierheen gekom om verskillende redes:

  • Ekonomiese geleentheid: Europa het die meeste mense min geleentheid gebied om ekonomies te vorder gedurende hierdie periode van aristokratiese beheer van rykdom en mag. So het baie mense na Amerika gekom om 'n kans te kry om hul lot te verbeter. Die grootste enkele groep in die beginjare was bediendes, arm mense, skuldenaars en klein misdadigers wat nie vir hul deurgang kon betaal nie, maar 'n kontrak aangegaan het om vir 4-7 jaar by 'n meester te werk in ruil vir deurgang. Bediende was tot 1750 die helfte van die arbeidsmag, maar het daarna afgeneem namate die ekonomiese toestande in Engeland verbeter het.
  • Slawerny: Namate bediende by hul kontrakte afgehandel het, het eienaars van die suidelike plantasies hulle toenemend vervang met Afrikaanse slawe wat in die Driehoekse handel oorgebring is. Alhoewel Afrikaners reeds in 1619 in Virginia was, was die slawehandel in die 18de eeu eksponensieel. Na raming is 800 000 Afrikane teen 1808 as slawe na Amerika gebring, byna almal het voor 1780 aangekom. Een uit elke vyf Amerikaners was tydens die eerste sensus in 1790 slawe.
  • Politieke vryheid: Immigrante soos Thomas Paine wou hiernatoe kom omdat Amerikaners veel meer regte gehad het as die gemiddelde Europeër van hierdie tydperk, wat nog onder die beheer van konings en aristokrate geleef het. Af en toe bloedige opstande soos die Engelse burgeroorlog van die 1640's, die Franse rewolusie van die 1790's en ander oorloë soos die 30 -jarige oorlog en die Napoleontiese oorloë, het veroorsaak dat ander vlugtelinge na Amerika gevlug het.
  • Godsdiensvryheid: Gedurende hierdie tydperk het die meeste Europese regerings amptelike staatskerke gehad. Die vervolging van andersdenkendes het daartoe gelei dat sommige na Amerika gekom het om godsdiensvryheid te soek, waaronder die Puriteine ​​("Pelgrims"), Vriende ("Kwakers"), Mennoniete, Franse Hugenote, Spaanse Jode en Engelse Katolieke.

Behalwe vir die verslaafde Afrikane, was die eerste golf immigrante oor die algemeen makliker om verskeie redes as Amerikaans aanvaar te word:

  • Eerstens was hulle relatief geneig homogeen (almal dieselfde), deel 'n godsdiens (Protestantse Christendom) en ras (wit). As America was a British colony and the majority of both the population and incoming immigrants were British, there were few cultural conflicts.
  • Secondly, it was understood that immigrants who spoke other languages (German, French) must learn English and conform to Anglo-American cultural norms.
  • Thirdly, as the rapidly expanding country needed labor, immigrants posed little threat to American workers.
  • Finally, the rate of immigration over the first 200 years was steady but small: never more than 10,000 immigrants in one year, who quickly dispersed throughout the country.

Yet even this first wave met some resistance. In 1755, the Pennsylvania Assembly criticized recent German arrivals (the “Pennsylvania Dutch” or Deutsch) as “a great mixture of the refuse of their people.” The usually enlightened Benjamin Franklin claimed immigrants were “generally among the most stupid of their own nation.” Catholics, Jews, and free African-Americans found religious and racial prejudice common. In 1798, the first anti-immigrant laws were passed by the Federalist Party. The Naturalization Act increased the eligibility requirement for citizenship from 5 years residence to 14. The Alien Enemies Act gave the President the power to arrest or expel all aliens “dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States.” When Thomas Jefferson’s Democratic Republicans took over, they let these laws expire.

THE SECOND WAVE: 1830s-1880s

Total Immigrants: 15.3 million.

As the population of the United States exploded from 13 million to 63 million between 1830 and 1890, a second wave of immigrants landed in America. The port of entry for the vast majority of these people was New York City. From 1855 on, arrivals were processed at Castle Garden, the first immigration center established by New York State.

Second-Wave immigrants were primarily Irish and German. Because they arrived in large numbers and differed from the existing Anglo-American society in religion and culture, they became the first immigrant groups to experience widespread hostility and organized opposition.

Until 1830, immigrants had never arrived in large numbers in the USA, averaging only 6,000 per year and totaling only about 1.5% of American society. Then, beginning in 1832, there was a sudden increase to 50,000 immigrants, with a peak year of 428,000 in 1854. Following a lull during the Civil War, immigration surged again in the late 19 th century, with 5.2 million arriving in the 1880s alone. By 1890, nearly 14% of Americans were foreign-born.

Reasons for Increased Immigration

  • Transportation Improvements: The development of clipper ships and railroads speeded travel and lowered the cost of the fare to America.
  • European strife: War, famine, revolution, and industrialization drove many Western Europeans from their homelands in search of a chance for something better in America.
  • The “American Dream”: The growing reputation of the USA as a safe haven for immigrants and a land of opportunity for those willing to work hard drew people like a magnet. In 1886, the Statue of Liberty was erected on an island in New York harbor, seemingly as a welcome to each new boatload of arriving immigrants. On her base was a poem by Emma Lazarus:

Give me your tired, your poor,

Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free

The wretched refuse of your teeming shore,

Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me.

I lift my lamp beside the golden door.

The immigrants spurred economic growth in America by providing a steady supply of cheap labor and an increased demand for mass-produced consumer goods.

Where Second-Wave Immigrants Came From

  • Irish Catholics were the single largest ethnic group in the Second Wave. With Ireland under British rule, they long been denied self-government and persecuted for their religion. But the main spur to Irish immigration was neither political nor religious, but economic. The Potato Famine of 1847 cut the population of Ireland in half by a combination of starvation and emigration. Most Irish immigrants to America settled in Eastern cities such as New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. Irish men built the Erie Canal and railroads, while Irish women worked as domestic servants. Later, the urban Irish-Americans took over many political machines, like Tammany Hall, and dominated the American Catholic priesthood and many police forces.
  • Germans, the second largest immigrant group in the Second Wave, left their homeland after the failure of the democratic revolutions of 1848 and in search of economic opportunity. They settled on farms and in the cities of the Midwest and Northeast. They came to dominate the American brewing industry.
  • Scandinavians from Sweden, Norway, and Denmark settled in the upper Midwest after the Civil War to work small farms.
  • Chinese: By the 1880s, over 100,000 Chinese immigrants had come to the West Coast of the United States due to poverty and war. Many worked on construction of the Transcontinental Railroads. Others were cooks, launderers, or miners.

Nativism: Anti-Immigrant Backlash

The surge in immigration led to America’s first organized anti-immigrant backlash in the 1850s. The ideology favoring those born in America and opposing immigrants was known as NATIVISM.

Opposition to immigrants was influenced by many differences between the existing US population and the newcomers:

  • Godsdiens: Most Americans were Protestant and strongly prejudiced against the Catholicism of most new immigrants. Many Protestant Americans still saw the Pope as the Antichrist and viewed Catholics as religious terrorists out to subvert American democracy. A popular children’s game was “Break the Pope’s Neck.” The requirement that all public school students say Protestant prayers led to the creation of Catholic parochial schools in the United States.
  • Racialism: With Britain supplying only a minority of new immigrants, differences of language, culture, and ethnicity set the new immigrants apart. Many Americans were ethnocentric, believing their own culture the best, and not wanting it “polluted” by foreign ways. Under 19 th -century racial theories, many saw the new immigrants as belonging to a separate and inferior race.
  • Radicalism: Significant numbers of Second and Third Wave immigrants were socialists or attracted to forming labor unions. Both these political tendencies were taboo during the nineteenth century.
  • Rural Resentment: Most nineteenth-century Americans lived on farms in the country and disliked the growth of cities that accompanied the entrance of immigrants. They shared Thomas Jefferson’s belief in a rural ideal for America, and looked on cities and poor immigrants as alien and threatening to American social order.
  • Economic Resentment: Immigrants were seen as stealing jobs from “real Americans,” driving down wages, and increasing unemployment. Large and frequent riots between Nativist Protestant and Irish Catholic workers in East Coast cities in the middle 19 th Century resulted in the creation of the first professional police departments.

The most influential 19 th -century nativist group was the American Party, popularly known as the “Know Nothing Party” because its members pledged secrecy and responded to questions about their party by saying, “I know nothing.” The Know Nothings purported to defend Protestantism against Catholicism. They sought to limit elective office to the native-born, require 21 years of naturalization to achieve citizenship, and greatly restrict immigration.

The Know Nothing Party successfully elected six governors and several congressmen. In 1856, the party ran former U.S. President Millard Fillmore as its presidential candidate, winning 22% of the vote.

The popularity of the Know Nothing Party faded with the Civil War, as Irish-Americans displayed valor fighting for the Union.

Although Asian-Americans only comprised 0.002% of the US population by 1900, a strong nativist backlash portrayed them as a growing threat. Widespread anti-Chinese prejudice in the West led to riots and mob violence by the 1880s. Despised for their “foreign ways” and different race, the Chinese were also resented for being used as “scabs” during strikes.

State and local laws were passed discriminating against Chinese workers and shopkeepers. In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which stopped Chinese immigration. Racial prejudice against Chinese-Americans kept them from being allowed to become U.S. Citizens until 1943.

THE THIRD WAVE: 1890s-1920s

Total Immigrants: 22.3 million

The population of the USA increased from 63 million in 1890 to 106 million in 1920, as immigration hit its peak. For three decades after 1890, an annual average of 580,000 immigrants arrived on American shores, and 1907 set a record of 1.3 million newcomers in a single year. On the eve of World War I, the foreign-born had swollen to 15% of the US population. With 75% of Third Wave immigrants coming through the Port of New York, the old state immigration center, Castle Garden, was overwhelmed. This led to the construction of the first federal immigration center, Ellis Island, which served as the main port of entry for American immigration from 1898 to 1924.

Where Third Wave Immigrants Came From

The character of immigration also changed with the Third Wave. Whereas in 1880, 87% of immigrants had been from Northwestern Europe (the British Isles, Germany, and Scandinavia), by 1900, over 80% were from Southern and Eastern Europe (Italy, Russia, Austro-Hungary). The size and greater cultural diversity of the Third Wave would give rise to a great new Xenophobia (fear and hatred of foreigners) that would slam the door to new arrivals in the 1920s.

The Third Wave: The “New Immigrants”

Many factors increased the numbers and diversity of immigrants after 1890:

“Push” Factors drove Southern and Eastern Europeans to leave their native countries:

  • High population growth in Southern and Eastern Europe.
  • Lack of jobs and food.
  • Scarcity of available farmland.
  • Mechanization of agriculture, which pushed peasants off the land.
  • Religious persecution of Russian Jews, who fled their villages after pogroms.

“Pull” Factors attracted immigrants to the USA:

  • Democracy.
  • Freedom of religion.
  • Available land.
  • Other forms of economic opportunity.
  • Booming industries like steel and railroads advertised for workers in Hungary and Poland. These new immigrants helped build new railroads and took jobs in steel mills.

Transportation improvements sped immigration:

  • By the late 19 th century, regularly scheduled steamships replaced sailing ships, cutting what had been a 3-month voyage across the Atlantic to a mere 2 weke.

Crossing the Atlantic

Most poor immigrants traveled in 3 rd class or steerage, the open area bellow decks with no private cabin or bed. There, they slept on rough metal bunks and often got seasick. During the day, passengers crowded the deck to breathe fresh air, away from the foul smells of steerage.

Arriving in America: Welcome to Ellis Island!

While First and Second-Class passengers disembarked at Hudson River piers directly into New York City, the Third-Class passengers in steerage had to be processed at Ellis Island, the new federal immigrant processing center. There they waited in long lines clutching their few belongings, their papers that proved they were entitled to gain admittance to the land of liberty. Most only spent a few hours there showing their papers and passing through a barrage of medical and psychological tests to prove they were worthy (no illiterates, no anarchists, no contagious disease carriers) to gain legal enter to America. About 20% of Ellis Island immigrants were detained for some period on the island (usually for a medical condition) and released in less than 2 weeks), but ultimately, 98% passed through and gained entry to the USA. By 1970 nearly half the population of the US was descended from an immigrant who came through Ellis Island.

2/3 of Ellis Island immigrants traveled to the NJ Central Railroad Terminal (still located in Jersey City’s Liberty State Park) to get on a westbound train heading somewhere in America. Most settled in cities, which grew from having 25% of the US population in 1870 to over 50% by 1920. Most 3 rd Wave immigrants settled in poor urban neighborhoods with the cheapest housing, usually among others of their own ethnic group (“Little Italy, “Little Poland”‘). They set up their own businesses, churches and restaurants.They were subject to discrimination from landlords who refused to rent to them (often there were specific clauses put into deeds guaranteeing the new owner would never sell to a Catholic, Jew or black) and employers who refused to hire “their kind”. Jews suffered restrictions on their membership in many civic organizations and were kept out of many colleges due quotas that limited the number of Jews admitted. The government provided immigrants no aid, but they could get help from Immigrant Aid Societies of churches or ethnic organizations such as the Sons of Italy or Polish National Alliance.

Opposition and Restrictions

As the Third Wave grew in numbers, there was a new nativist backlash against immigration. Some Americans disapproved of the “new immigrants whom they saw as different from those who had come before them.

Third Wave immigrants were accused of:

  1. Taking jobs away from “native” Americans (ie WASPS, white Protestants).
  2. Being difficult to Americanize due to their lack of education, their tendency to cluster in urban ethnic ghettos, and their attachment to their own languages and customs.
  3. Being racially inferior, according to the theory of Nordic Supremacy that argued Northwestern Europeans were mentally and physically superior.

In 1894, the Immigration Restriction League was formed, and only President McKinley’s veto prevented them from enacting an English language literacy requirement. Standards were tightened at Ellis Island in the 1910s when Anarchists were officially banned from entry to America. Japanese immigration was ended in 1907 and all immigration from Asia soon after.

When World War I began, immigration greatly declined, but nationalist xenophobia increased and German immigrants were persecuted, some even lynched a new anti-immigrant fear was growing.

The End of the Third Wave: Closing the Gates

European economic collapse after WWI led to another surge in immigration, from 110,000 in 1919 to over 800,000 in 1921. Americans strongly rejected this new wave. Xenophobia exploded in reaction to the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and the Red Scare bombings of 1919. At the same time, the US economy sank into a deep depression, making foreigners seem a threat to US workers’ jobs. A revived Ku Klux Klan grew all over the country opposing not only blacks but Catholics and Jews as well. The Klan demanded strict new restrictions on immigration.

In 1921, the Republican congress passed the first of a series of new restrictions on immigration. die 1921 Immigration Quota Act capped annual immigration at 350,000 and set National Origins Quotas to limit each country’s total. Further revisions of the law in 1924 and 1929 eventually brought the total of immigrants allowed in the US down to 150,000 per year. Moreover, the details of the law reflected widespread prejudice against southern and eastern Europeans, whom most Americans considered to be racially inferior in those bigoted times.

These National Origins Quotas sounded fair on the surface, but were deliberately written to restrict southern and eastern Europeans. Quotas were based on 2% of the 1890 population of each nationality in the US. As there were hardly any Italians or Poles in the US in 1890, their quotas were miniscule, thus keeping out the people who most wanted to migrate to America. Thus, hundreds of thousands of poor Italians wished to migrate to the USA, but only 3,800 were allowed in, while the quota for British immigration was theoretically 65,000 per year (of which only 3,000 was used). The law also changed the racial complexion of the country, banning all immigrants from Asia, while exempting western-hemisphere immigrants from any quotas. So Canadians and Mexicans freely came into the US, while Asians, the majority of humans on the planet, were completely barred.

These laws caused a dramatic decline in immigration to America. Whereas 22.3 million people immigrated to America between 1891 and 1930, only 4.1 million immigrated between 1930 and 1960. Southern and Eastern European immigration declined by nearly 90% (87.3%). The foreign-born represented 15% of the population in 1930, but only 4.7% in 1960. Thus the middle of the 2oth century became the low tide of American immigration history.

THE GREAT INTERNAL MIGRATION: 1900 -1970

Total migrants 10 million+

As the gates closed on new immigrants from outside the USA in the middle of the 20 th century growing businesses had to look inside America for new sources of labor. They found it in the American South, still rural and dirt poor in the early 20 th century. Over the course of the century southern farms that had been labor intensive gradually modernized and mechanized throwing millions of poor share croppers, both black and white, out of work. In WW1 and WW2 millions of jobs opened up at defense plants transforming small cities like Los Angeles and Detroit into boom towns. The postwar booms of the 1920s, 50s and 60s only increased the migration from South to North. Even during the Great Depression of the 1930s “Okies” who lost their farms in the Dust Bowl streamed to California to work as migrant laborers.

Although 3 million white southerners moved north, primarily to the West and Midwest the Great Internal migration is primarily a story of African Americans it is estimated that over 70% of these migrants were black. This would greatly alter the racial makeup of America. In 1900 92% of the black population of the US was concentrated in the South while today only about 47% lives there.

For both races a lack of economic opportunity in the South was the biggest reason for leaving. For blacks Jim Crow segregations’ denying of basic freedoms (voting, legal protections, access to good schools) and intense southern racism (the revival of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1910s and the widespread practice of lynching) were major additional reasons.. As a result the black population of the South declined dramatically from 32% in 1900 (including black majorities in the states of South Carolina and Mississippi) to approximately 19% since 1980.

The North was where jobs and opportunity were. Blacks were willing to take the jobs at the bottom that whites didn’t want anymore. They worked in stockyards, slaughterhouses, as railroad porters and as domestic servants. Like the 3 rd wave before them they settled into ethnic neighborhoods (Harlem and Bedford Stuyvesant in NYC, the south side of Chicago) where they established their own restaurants, businesses and churches. They suffered widespread discrimination in living housing and employment (legal until the late 1960s) and racial resentment from the much of the white majority. Major race riots broke out in northern cities after WW1 and again in the 1960s.

The African American population outside the South grew from 740,000 in 1900 to 10.6 million in 1970. Many northern cities that had been virtually all-white in 1900 developed large black populations and in some cases majorities (Detroit, Newark, Washington, DC).Whites began to flee cities for the suburbs in the 1950s and 60s as blacks and other minorities moved in. The poorest inner city neighborhoods evolved into dangerous slums with few opportunities for their residents as low skill jobs fled America or were replaced by technology. Blacks with education meanwhile created a growing African American middle class that was able to take advantage of the 1960s civil rights revolution and climb the ladder of success. The new northern African American voting bloc became key swing vote in elections from the 1940s to the 60s. The desire of both Republican and Democratic politicians for those votes helped push through the civil rights laws of the 1960s. In recent decades as the South has grown more tolerant and prosperous the migration has begun to reverse with slightly more African Americans moving South than North.

THE FOURTH WAVE: 1965-Today

Total Immigrants: estimated 30+ million

US Population: 315 million+

The current wave of immigration is by far the largest in American history in absolute numbers: over 30 million legal immigrants have entered over the last four decades, supplemented by an illegal immigration of anywhere from 8 to 20 million. Primarily from Latin America and Asia,

The Fourth Wave is revitalizing and reshaping American society. As in the past, as the number of immigrants has grown it has produced a new anti- immigrant backlash and a debate about our immigration laws.

1924 1964: Low Tide for Immigration

From the onset of restrictive immigrant quotas in the 1920s, immigration to the US declined greatly. Between 1930 and 1960, there were a mere 4 million arrivals, fewer than had come during the decade of the 1920s alone. The shrinking of the foreign-born to a mere 5% of the population probably helped Third Wave Italian , Jewish and Slavic immigrant groups assimilate into American society during this “low tide” of immigration as did their patriotic service in World War I and World War II. Ellis Island was closed down and abandoned in 1954. Millions around the world wanted to emigrate to America, but were kept out by the quota system, while fewer chose to emigrate from the western European countries that were eligible due to rising standards of living after WWII.

The 1965 Immigration & Naturalization Act: How the Fourth Wave Began

In the 1960s, America finally confronted the issue of race and challenged its long-accepted system of racial segregation. Almost as an afterthought to the struggle for civil rights for African-Americans, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Immigration and Naturalization Act (INA) on October 3, 1965, ending what Johnson called "a cruel and enduring wrong," the old racist National Origins quota system that favored immigrants from Northwestern Europe. The new law made family reunification (76%), individual talents and skills (20%), and refugee status (6%) the new criteria for admittance. It also raised the total number of immigrants allowed to about 300,000 per year, a number that has gradually been increased to the present one million per year.

In 1965, no one predicted the long-term effects of the new immigration law for its full impact would take some time to be felt. Legal immigration increased to 3.3 million in the 1960s, 4.5 million in the 1970s, 7.3 million in the 1980s, and 9 million in the 1990s. However, in the 2000s, it declined significantly to an estimated 5 million.

Reasons for Increased Immigration

“Push Factors” that drove Fourth Wave immigrants from their native countries included:

  • rising population pressures,
  • the intense poverty of Third World countries, and
  • government repression.

These forces combined with the pull of US economic opportunity and freedom to spur the Fourth Wave of immigration. At the same time that America began opening its doors to immigrants again the introduction of jet aircraft which could cross oceans in a few hours greatly decreased the cost and difficulty of travel: a far cry from the terrifying weeks spent on cramped boats by the early immigrants.

Contemporary immigration has increased steadily because it is mostly "chain immigration," in which recent immigrants use the family preferences in the immigration law to sponsor other members of their families the more immigrants who come here the more family members become eligible and the overall quota is increased. As of 2006, the US accepts more legal immigrants as permanent residents than the rest of the world combined.

Port of Entry: Anywhere USA

Unlike past waves, there is no one central entry point for today's immigrants, who arrive at airports all over America in record numbers, or in other cases simply walk across the border.

The arrival experience of today's immigrant is far different than in the days of Ellis Island. On its busiest day, Ellis Island processed 11,000 people, whereas Newark Airport, only the fifth most common arrival point in the US today, averaged over 15,000 arrivals per day as of 2005.

All time-consuming medical tests and visa application screening is done in the country of origin, long before an immigrant's journey begins. Most foreign travelers now only spend 1-2 minutes going through US Customs on arrival at the airport.

Since September 11, 2001, new security measures have been implemented. Today, all arrivals are digitally fingerprinted and photographed for a huge federal database of all entry and exit records so that visitors to America may be kept track of

Where Fourth Wave Immigrants Come From

The Fourth Wave is the most diverse ever, with over 80% of immigrants coming from Latin America and Asia, bringing with them a veritable kaleidoscope of cultural traditions.

Fourth Wave Immigrants have come to the US to escape Communist dictatorships (Cubans, Vietnamese, and Chinese) and civil wars (Salvadorans). Most have come in search of economic opportunity (Filipinos, Dominicans, and Indians). All these groups, together with the Irish (the only traditional source that continued to supply large numbers of immigrants) today have more than a million of their countrymen now living in the US, along with an estimated nearly 10 million Mexicans.

A major difference between the Fourth Wave and early eras of immigration is the large group of illegal or undocumented immigrants among them. Many come over legally on temporary visas, but stay after the visas expire. Others walk in without visas, mostly over the Mexican border.

Most illegal immigrants are desperately poor, unskilled workers who come to America to take the lowest-paying jobs in our economy( just like the Irish in the mid 1800s). They are the farm workers, construction workers, housekeepers, dishwashers, gardeners, and meat processors.

As the number of illegal immigrants swelled to an estimated 5 million in 1986, a new Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) was passed to deal with the problem.

  • The IRCA attempted to halt the influx of new illegals, while granting amnesty to existing illegal immigrants who wanted a chance to become legal US residents.
  • It imposed fines of up to $10,000 on employers for every illegal immigrant they employed.

The IRCA succeeded in legalizing over two million immigrants but failed in its other goals. Due to easily available fake IDs and inadequate funding for the Immigration and Naturalization Service to inspect workplaces, the IRCA did not deter employers from hiring illegals, whom they could hire more cheaply than US citizens or legal immigrants. The number of illegal immigrants has skyrocketed in the last 20 years to an estimated 11 million people.

In the 2000s, as in past eras, high US unemployment combined with a rising number of immigrants produced a nativist anti-immigrant backlash. Vigilante groups such as the “Minutemen” patrolled the southwestern border. Anti-immigrant legislation included a controversial Arizona law requiring police to check people’s immigration status.

Despite widespread agreement that immigration laws needed updating, a bipartisan effort to pass reform under President Bush collapsed in 2007. Instead, the Republican-led Congress opted to increase border security, constructing a multibillion-dollar fence on the Mexican border and doubling the size of the border patrol. They also vastly increased the number of immigration agents. As a result the Bush and Obama administrations vastly increased deportations and cracked down on employers who hire illegal immigrants.

This crackdown on illegal immigrants, combined with demographic changes in Mexico, and the downturn in the US economy since 2008 have contributed to a drop in illegal border-crossings from an estimated 600,000 per year in 2005 to a mere 85,000 by 2011. But the crackdown also brought new problems— dividing families, depriving businesses of employees for low-paying jobs — without ending the problem of having an estimated 11 million illegal immigrants already living in the US.

New Immigration Reform Proposals

Today, President Obama and a bipartisan group of senators are trying again to resolve the problem of illegal immigration. Early in 2013, a bipartisan group of 8 senators (including NJ’s Sen. Menendez and NY’s Sen. Schumer) proposed a new reform bill, the “ Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act of 2013,”This measure passed the senate but was never given a vote in the Republican led House of Representatives. The act contains the following provisions:

  1. Before other provisions take effect, an independent panel would have to declare the border secure, and a new exit system for tracking departures of foreigners would be put in place.
  2. After that, a new legalization process would allow undocumented immigrants to legalize their status and become permanent residents. Applicants would be required to pass a security check and pay fines and back taxes. They could then begin a fourteen-year process that could ultimately lead to US citizenship.
  3. A new guest worker program would allow laborers to temporarily live and work in the US to help fill labor shortages.

These and other proposals are sure to be subject to much revision and debate as they proceed through Congress. Immigration reform is strongly supported by President Obama and most Democrats. It is also gaining support among Republicans hoping to improve their popularity with Latino voters, who voted heavily Democratic in recent elections. Because the number of Latino voters is expected to increase from 24 million in 2012 to an estimated 40 million in 2030, politicians in both parties can no longer ignore this growing portion of the population.

The Impact on America

The Fourth Wave has primarily settled in 7 states: Kalifornië, Florida, Texas, Illinois, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey have over 70% of the immigrant population.

The new immigrants have revitalized many of America's cities, moving into depressed neighborhoods and made them thrive again.

The Fourth Wave brought an astounding new ethnic and religious diversity. Now the US has more Muslims (4%) than Jews (3%) and an increasing number of Buddhists (nearly 1%). Mexican, Chinese, Indian, and Middle Eastern restaurants have sprung up all over.

The new immigration is drastically altering the ethnic demography of the Untied States. As recently as the 1970s, the US was still about 85% white, but that figure has dropped to about 60% today. If present trends continue, the percentage of Americans who are white will drop below 50% before 2050.

Long split on lines of black and white, America is fast becoming a "rainbow society" composed of all the different peoples on earth. Latinos have now overtaken African-Americans as the largest US "minority group," and may well comprise 1 in 4 Americans by 2050. Asian immigrants, a miniscule percentage of the US population before the Fourth Wave, may comprise nearly 10% of the population by mid-century.

AMERICA: A NATION OF IMMIGRANTS

The importance of immigration to our nation’s growth and success has slowly permeated our national consciousness after years of denial. Ellis Island, left to rot in New York harbor for a half century, was restored in time for its hundredth birthday in 1992 and reopened as a museum of US immigration history from colonial times to the present. Its 2 million annual visitors come from all four waves the American immigration experience. Four hundred years after its beginnings America is still a land of immigrants.