Wat was Nazi -Duitsland se einddoel?

Wat was Nazi -Duitsland se einddoel?



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Dit is iets wat ek altyd gewonder het, maar ek kon my nie voorstel wat die antwoord kan wees nie, en ek het nie veel materiaal elders gevind nie. Nazi -Duitsland, saam met Italië en Japan, het tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog oorlog gevoer teen die wêreld. Duitsland fokus op sy beurt op Europa, Noord -Afrika en later op Rusland.

Maar wat was Nazi -Duitsland se einddoel? Kom ons sê dat die VSA nog nooit betrokke geraak het wanneer en hoe dit gebeur het nie, en laat ons sê dat dit beter gegaan het met die Duitsers in Rusland. Sou hulle aanhou uitbrei? Het hulle probeer om 'n nuwe wêreldorde en oorheersing te vestig?

Daardie plan lyk vir my uiters dom. Daar is geen manier waarop 'n klein land soos Duitsland die hele wêreld in toom kan hou nie. Namate dit uitbrei, verminder dit sy invloed en vermoë om enige gebied te beheer.

Dit lyk asof hul nederlaag ongeag die verloop van sake onvermydelik was. Ten minste sou hulle gevind het dat hulle die Amerikas (veral die Verenigde State) sou aanval en vernietig, selfs met die hulp van Japan, 'n byna onoorkomelike doel, gegewe die groot grootte, bevolking en tegniese/militêre vermoëns. Dus, hoe het Nazi -Duitsland gehoop dat die Tweede Wêreldoorlog sou eindig?


Hoe het Nazi -Duitsland dus gehoop dat die Tweede Wêreldoorlog sou eindig?

U beskou dit moontlik vanuit 'n verkeerde perspektief. Nazi -Duitsland het nooit 'n meesterplan gehad om die wêreld te verower nie. Dit het nooit 'n plan gehad om oorlog op wêreldskaal te voer nie.

Nazi -Duitsland het beslis militêre planne gereed gehad om hul bure te oorwin. Want dit is waarvoor die weermag betaal word. En die planne is uitgevoer nadat die oorlog begin het.

Maar Hitler was geen groot strateeg nie. Hy was 'n slegte strateeg. Hy was 'n dobbelaar. Of Hazardeur. Hy het Rynland, Oostenryk, Sudentenland, die res van Tsjeggo -Slowakye en Memel beset, geannekseer of verower in die hoop dat die groot moondhede nie sou reageer nie. In die hoop dat hulle vrees vir nog 'n groot oorlog hulle sou laat staan ​​deur duime te draai terwyl Nazi -Duitsland aan bewind sou kom. En as nog 'n weddenskap val Hitler Pole aan en vertrou dat die Geallieerdes sal terugval net soos hulle die vyf keer tevore gehad het. Maar hy het nie geluk nie. Brittanje en Frankryk het uiteindelik opgestaan. Nog 'n groot oorlog het begin.

Hitler wou nog nooit daardie groot oorlog hê nie. Hy wou Pole verower en ooswaarts uitbrei om 'Lebensraum im Osten' (kamer om in die ooste te woon) te eis. Waarskynlik deur Rusland aan te val en te verslaan in 'n enkele oorlog.

Hitler se doel was dus om Pole en groot dele van Rusland te verower. Miskien ook die Baltiese state. Brittanje en Frankryk het Duitsland oorlog verklaar. En hoewel die verowering van 'n nasie nie presies 'n verdedigende stap is nie, was Denemarke en Noorweë meer 'n verdedigende stap om The Reich te beskerm en dit is 'n belangrike hulpbronhandel. Joegoslavië en Griekeland was basies 'n groot gemors wat nooit beplan was nie. Die lae lande, België en Luxemburg, was nie juis 'n doelwit op sigself nie, maar 'n maklike weg na Frankryk. En selfs die verslaan van Frankryk, hoewel dit beslis 'n briljante militêre beplande en uitgevoerde stryd was, was nog nooit 'n strategiese doel in die Hitlers -plan nie.

TL; DR

Hitler was nie 'n skelm meesterbrein wat wêreldoorheersing beplan het nie. Hy het geen idee gehad hoe die oorlog teen die grootmagte van die wêreld suksesvol sou eindig nie, want hy wou dit nooit hê nie totaal oorlog. Hy wou 'n reeks van beperk oorloë om 'n duisendjarige Ryk te bou en 'Lebensraum im Osten' te hê.

Disclaimer: net omdat hy nie 'n wêreldoorlog wou hê nie, verminder dit geensins die feit dat hy 'n kriminele, aggressiewe, ekspansionistiese, bose diktator was nie. Ek sê net dat hy dit sou verkies het as hy 'n oorlog gevoer het wat hy die kans gehad het om te wen.


Daar was geen einddoel van Nazi -Duitsland nie, maar daar was 'n einddoel van Hitler vir sy leeftyd. Hy wou Lebensraum van die USSR verower en die gebied met Duitsers vestig. Hy het gesê dat dit 50 tot 100 jaar sal neem voordat Duitsland hierdie gebiede verteer, so dit sal sy eie leeftyd ver oorskry. Die gebied na die verowering sou lyk soos die VSA wat gevestig is deur die Britte of Pruise wat voorheen deur Teutoniese ridders gekoloniseer is. Die inheemse mense sou óf heeltemal uitgeroei, geassimileer of opgesluit wees in voorbehoude soos inheemse Amerikaners sonder die reg om hulle te verlaat, en die Duitsers voorsien van wat die Duitsers sou eis.


In "Mein Kampf" meen Hitler: "As ons vandag van grond in Europa praat, kan ons in die eerste plek slegs Rusland en haar vasale grensstate in gedagte hou."

Hierdie idee is ondersteun deur die Heartland Theory van die Britse HJ Mackinder en die Duitse Karl Haushofer.

Basies, as Duitsland beheer het oor ten minste Oos -Europa (Pole, die Baltiese state, Wit -Rusland en die Oekraïne), sou sy die 'hartland' (Sentraal -Europa, Oos -Europa, Rusland) van 'die wêreld -eiland', die Eurasiese landmassa, oorheers . Die 'hartland' self was die sleutel tot die oorheersing van die wêreld -eiland (hoewel 'n alliansie met Japan ook nie skade sou doen nie), en die beheer van die wêreld -eiland kan lei tot die oorheersing van die wêreld.

Hitler wou ten minste die eerste stap neem, en moontlik al vier die stappe in hierdie volgorde.


Die konsep dat groot sosiale organisasies soos 'n hele moderne nasiestaat en sy apparaat unieke einddoelwitte het, en dat dit doelbewus gekarteer is, word weerlê in die debatte oor NSDAP en die Duitse rassebeleid in die 'intentionalistiese / funksionalistiese' debatte in die historiografie van Duits rassebeleid in die Ooste.

Veral werke soos die van Christopher Browning Gewone mans verwar die idee van 'n sentrale staatsvoorneme, gebaseer op oortuigende argiefbewyse van breë en algemene funksionele doelstellings wat onder gewone Duitsers gedeel word om Jode en Slawiërs en ander minderhede in die daaglikse lewe te straf. Hierdie doelwitte het geen 'einde' gehad nie, maar was eerder 'n proses.

As gevolg van hierdie debatte het volksmoordstudies teruggekeer na 'n meer beperkte enkele insidentvlak van studie.

Ons weet wel dat die funksionele verhoudings van die Duitse staat in die praktyk neig tot rasse -uitwissing, hetsy deur pogrom en bloedbad, opsluiting of teregstellingskamp of doodsmars. Wat ons nie weet nie, is die grens van hierdie gedeelde sosiale doelwitte en prosesse, behalwe soos dit histories beperk is deur die optrede van, hoofsaaklik, die Sowjetunie, die Verenigde State en die Verenigde Koninkryk.

Terwyl daar groot dokumentêre argiewe van fantasie van NSDAP of Junker-General Staff bestaan, was hierdie fantasieë aantoonbaar nie verwant aan die grondprosesse van binnegevegte of moord nie.


Vraag: Wat was Nazi -Duitsland se einddoel?

Kort antwoord:
Hitler het 'n lang geskiedenis van pleit vir verskeie oorloë en het dit in beide sy boeke gesê. Sy topverkoper Mein Kampf en sy ongesirkuleerde onuitgereikte "The Zweites Buch". In albei bespreek hy stapsgewys planne vir die eskalerende oorloë wat uiteindelik wêreldoorlog en volksmoord word. Hitler se eindspel het ten opsigte van die Verenigde State tussen boeke verander en deur die werklikheid verander in die Verenigde Koninkryk. Hitler was konsekwent dat Duitsland 'n groter speler op die wêreldtoneel sou word deur oorlog ten koste van Oos -Europa, die Sowjetunie en Frankryk. Hy was ook konsekwent in beide boeke met betrekking tot volksmoord teen wat hy minderwaardige rasse genoem het.

Gedetailleerde antwoord: Hitler het 2 boeke ("Mein Kampf" en "The Zweites Buch") geskryf en in elk bespreek hy die noodsaaklikheid dat Duitsland verskeie oorloë moet voer. In albei boeke gee hy 'n uiteensetting van wat later bekend geword het as Stufenplan ("stadium vir stadium plan") vir verowering en volksmoord in Oos -Europa, en daarna die wêreld.

In die eerste "Mein Kampf" spreek Hitler sy "hartstogtelike oortuiging" uit die jeug uit dat Duitsland 'n groter plek in die son moet verkry met behulp van die swaard wat so doeltreffend deur Pruisiese konings geswaai is. Hitler reageer op mense wat beweer dat 'n tweede Europese groot oorlog die einde van Europa sou beteken, en gesê dat dit slegs 'ewige vrede' was wat mense vernietig het en dat 'die individu nóg die samelewing die natuur se besluit dat die sterkste alleen kan oorleef' kan ontkom.

Drie hooftemas van "Mein Kampf" of My stryd handel almal oor die behoefte aan oorlog.
(1) Om Duitsland te wreek teen Frankryk vir die harde behandeling na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog deur hernieude militêre konflik.
(2) Duitsland se behoefte aan 'leefruimte' en die militêre uitbreiding na die oostelike Slawiese lande.
(3) Die behoefte aan 'n bloedige aanval op Jode en ander groepe wat hy as minderwaardig beskou.

Andersins sinspeel Hitler beroemd op sy planne vir die Verenigde Koninkryk en die VSA. Hy noem die Verenigde Koninkryk 'n "stabiliserende invloed op die wêreld" en eintlik 'n netto positiewe, dus hoef jy dit nie te vernietig nie. Hy verwys na die Verenigde Koninkryk as 'n natuurlike bondgenoot vir Duitsland teen Frankryk. Hy noem die VSA 'n 'land van Mongrels', geen bedreiging vir Duitsland nie en dus nie nodig om die 'Amerikaanse Unie' te vernietig nie.

Hitler se tweede boek, "The Zweites Buch",

Oorlog was beslis in die gedagte van Hitler ...

Hy verminder die koste van oorloë en skilder dit as onvermydelik, begeerlik en noodsaaklik, solank dit nie 'ewig' is nie.

Die Zweites Buch
"Die verliese wat direk uit 'n oorlog voortspruit, is in geen geval eweredig aan die verliese as gevolg van 'n mense se slegte en ongesonde lewe as sodanig nie. Stille hongersnood en boosaardige ondeugde in tien jaar maak meer mense dood as wat oorlog in 'n duisend jaar kon eindig . "

en

"Daarom sal wyse politieke leiers van 'n volk nooit in die oorlog die doel van die lewe van 'n volk sien nie, maar slegs 'n middel om hierdie lewe te behou."

In hierdie boek verdubbel hy die Verenigde Koninkryk as 'n natuurlike bondgenoot en skryf dit saam met Italië as sy bondgenote teen Frankryk en die Sowjetunie in. Ook in hierdie boek verander hy sy standpunt oor die Verenigde State. In hierdie boek merk hy op dat 'n miljoen Duitsers na die Verenigde State geëmigreer het. Dat hulle een van die beste Duitsers was, die risiko's. Diegene wat alles prysgegee het en die risiko loop om die vaderland te verlaat. Hy herklassifiseer dus die VSA as 'n eksistensiële bedreiging vir die toekoms van Duitsland, wat verwyder moet word. Net soos in Mein Kampf, bly die Sowjetunie Duitsland se grootste bedreiging op kort termyn, hier beweer Hitler dat die VSA nou die grootste bedreiging op lang termyn in Duitsland is.

Zweites Buch: Die "vierde fase"
In teenstelling met Mein Kampf, het Hitler in Zweites 'n vierde fase by die Stufenplan gevoeg. Hy het gesê dat daar in die verre toekoms 'n stryd om wêreldoorheersing kan plaasvind tussen die Verenigde State en 'n Europese alliansie wat bestaan ​​uit 'n nuwe assosiasie van nasies, bestaande uit individuele state met 'n hoë nasionale waarde. Zweites Buch bied ook 'n ander perspektief op die VSA as wat in Mein Kampf uiteengesit is. In laasgenoemde verklaar Hitler dat die gevaarlikste teenstander van Duitsland op die internasionale toneel die Sowjetunie was; in Zweites Buch verklaar Hitler dat die Sowjetunie vir onmiddellike doeleindes steeds die gevaarlikste teenstander was, maar dat die Verenigde State op die lang termyn die gevaarlikste teenstander was.

Hitler se eindspel het verander, maar was konsekwent dat Duitsland 'n groter speler op die wêreldtoneel sou word deur middel van verskeie oorloë wat tot wêreldkonflik toegeneem het. Sy belangrikste doelwitte vir uitbreiding sou wees, maar nie beperk nie, ook Oos -Europa, die Sowjetunie en Frankryk.


Hitler se lewensdoel was om die onregte van die gehate Versaille -verdrag reg te stel. Historici en geskiedenisliefhebbers geniet die idee dat Hitler se aanspraak op lebensraum 'n voorvoegsel vir wêreldoorheersing was. U hoef slegs in 1917 na 'n kaart van Europa te kyk nadat die Rooi Leër die Verdrag van Brest-Litosk onderteken het om te sien hoe groot Duitsland nou is. Hitler in Mein Kampf verwys na die duisende Duitse soldate wat gesterf het om die seebesraum van Duitsland in die ooste te beveilig. Kyk nou na die kaart van Europa in 1919 nadat die Verdrag van Versaille, Groot -Duitsland verdwyn het. Die antwoord op die vraag is die Nazi -eindspel: die terugkeer van die groter grense van Duitsland as woonkamer vir die Duitse bevolking.


Maar wat was Nazi -Duitsland se einddoel?

Die militêre doelwit in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog vir Duitsland was die suksesvolle afhandeling van Operasie Barbarossa (die ruggraat van Sowjet-Rusland breek en 'n maklik verdedigbare posisie bereik, soos die Arkhangelsk-Astrakhan-lyn). Dit sou die Sowjetunie as 'n politieke en militêre bedreiging verwyder en die 'Lebensraum' wat Hitler in 1925 in 'Mein Kampf' gepostuleer het, wen.

Dit sou op sy beurt die dreigement verwyder dat Duitsland in die komende magstryd deur vlootblokkades verhonger word, en ook die bedreiging van nog 'n tweefrontoorlog in die toekoms.

Aanvanklik het Hitler geglo dat Brittanje stilsit tydens hierdie Duits -Russiese magstryd. Omdat hulle 'n "Germaanse" volk was, omdat hulle nie wou hê dat die Bolchevisme sou oorneem nie, omdat hulle gelukkig sou wees met hul besittings in die buiteland en 'n blinde oog sou slaan oor die verskuiwing van die magsbalans op die vasteland. Toe (toe Brittanje en Frankryk oorlog verklaar het oor die inval in Pole) het hy geglo dat Brittanje kan wees gedwing uit die oorlog.

Ons weet hoe dit gegaan het, maar dit is agterna.

Die 'einddoel', soos Hitler dit duidelik stel in 'Mein Kampf', sy 'politieke testament', was, en ek parafraseer,

"om nooit 'n tweede militêre mag aan die grens van Duitsland te verduur nie, om die ontwikkeling daarvan te verbied, of - indien dit reeds bestaan ​​- dit te vernietig met die nodige middele, insluitend wapengeweld."

Direk na die paragraaf gaan hy voort (in sy gewone, rondlopende, alles-oor-die-plek-styl) oor hoe slegs Italië en Engeland (!) Waardevolle alliansies sou bied, en hoe 'n alliansie met Engeland Frankryk sou isoleer.


Wat was Nazi -Duitsland se einddoel? - Geskiedenis

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Nazi -motiewe vir volksmoord
Konsentrasiekampe
Uitwissing van Poolse en Sowjet -Jode
Deportasies
Die Wannsee -konferensie

Waarom het die Nazi's uiteindelik ses miljoen Jode doodgemaak? Hierdie vraag is moeilik om te beantwoord. Sommige historici meen dat die Nazi's die uitwissing van die Jode beplan het sedert hulle die oorname van mag in 1933. Ander historici meen dat die uitroeiing van die Jode 'n gevolg was van die spesifieke historiese konteks, en dus nie oorspronklik beplan is nie.

Volgens laasgenoemde groep historici het die oorlog teen die Sowjetunie, wat in 1941 begin het, in 'n spesifieke historiese konteks plaasgevind, waar dit moontlik was om mense en Jode, Pole en Russe op 'n nuwe en vreeslike manier dood te maak.
Die Nazi -rassebeleid tussen 1933 en 1945 het uit twee elemente bestaan: eugenetika en rasseskeiding (later rasse -uitwissing).

Die Nazi's het dus probeer om hul eie rasse vry van afwykings en siektes (eugenetika) te hou en die Ariese ras gesluit te hou vir ander rdquoinferior en rdquo -rasse (rasseskeiding en uitroeiing).
In die naam van eugenetika het die Nazi's gedwonge sterilisasies van die oorerflike siekes begin en genadedood (noodmoorde) op ongeveer 200,000 verstandelik en liggaamlik gestremde Duitsers uitgevoer.
Die ander deel van die rassebeleid, die rasseskeiding, is begin om alle nie-Ariërs, eerstens Jode, te onderdruk en te vervolg. Later is die rasseskeiding radikaliseer en 'n beleid van rasse -uitsetting geword: Jode is gedwing om te emigreer. Hierdie beleid het in 1938 in Oostenryk baie goed geslaag en is dan in Duitsland self bekendgestel onder die slagspreuk: Duitsland vir Duitsers!

Die beleid van gedwonge emigrasie, wat Pole in 1939 beset het, het vir die Nazi -regime onhoudbaar geword. Dit was eenvoudig onrealisties om meer as 3 miljoen Poolse Jode te laat emigreer. Dit het gelei tot ambisieuse Nazi -planne vir 'n oplossing vir die & rsquoJewish Question & rsquo.

Die rassebeleid bereik sy voorlopige hoogtepunt in die periode 1939-1941. Die Nazi's het begin om Jode uit die Duits-beheerde gebiede na ghetto's in Pole en Rusland te deporteer, begin met die Poolse Jode, maar ook binnekort ook Duitse Jode. Die ghettoisasie van die Jode het plaasgevind terwyl Duitsers wat in die besette gebiede (die sogenaamde Volksdeutsche) gewoon het, in die Derde Ryk ingebring is. Hierdie demografiese beleid pas goed by die algehele doelwitte van die Nazi -rassebeleid: daar is gebiede gemaak en sonder Jode, terwyl Volksdeutsche gehuisves is in gebiede wat deur die Jode prysgegee is.

In 1941 het dit gelyk asof die Nazi -leierskap besluit het oor die toekoms van die Jode. Vanaf 1941 is Jode tereggestel en vermoor op 'n skaal wat tot dusver heeltemal onbekend was. Die massamoorde het begin in verband met die uitroeiingsoorlog teen die Sowjetunie, wat op 22 Junie 1941 begin het. Grootskaalse teregstellings van Jode, Pole en Russe het plaasgevind, meestal deur die vier sogenaamde Einsatzgruppen.
'N Totaal van 1,5 miljoen Jode is in die besette Sowjet-gebiede vermoor en met gretige hulp van plaaslike antisemiete. Byna gelyktydig is massa -teregstellings in ses en ldquokilling -sentrums en rdquo -vernietigingskampe in Pole begin. Minstens 3 miljoen Jode het in hierdie kampe omgekom. Hierby moet nog 1,5 miljoen Joodse slagoffers gevoeg word, wat in die konsentrasiekampe, die ghetto's en elders gesterf het as gevolg van honger, slawe -arbeid en willekeurige teregstellings.

Gevolglik kan die Nazi -rassebeleid gekenmerk word as 'n beleid van uitroeiing wat begin in 1941. Dit is bewysbaar waar dat die Nazi -regime agter die moord op meer as 6 miljoen Jode tussen 1941 en 1945 gestaan ​​het.


Die gebeure wat gelei het tot sy onvermydelike lot

Aan die begin van 1945 het die Duitse militêre magte uitmekaar geval en die land self was omring deur die vyand aan alle kante. Die Sowjetunie het beheer oor Pole verkry om dieselfde met Berlyn te doen, terwyl die Britse en Kanadese troepe die Ryn oorgesteek het en na die industriële sentrum van Ruhr gegaan het, en die Amerikaanse front in die suide het binnegeval opwaarts na Mannheim en Mainz.

Aangesien al hierdie gesamentlike pogings die Duitse offensief gedwing het om te verbrokkel, is daar teen Februarie vergaderings tussen die Geallieerdes om die einde van die oorlog in Europa te bespreek. Teen hierdie tyd was Hitler egter ook reeds besig om voor te berei vir die einde.

In Januarie, toe die Derde Ryk amper ontbind het, het Hitler na syne begin terugtrek Fuhrerbunker, sy veilige hawe in Berlyn. Vanuit sy skuilplek stel hy steeds eise aan sy mede -Nazi -offisiere om operasies uit te voer om die Geallieerdes te weerhou.

Ten spyte van sy beste pogings, kon die blote krag van die mannekrag nie ophou nie. Teen April is instruksies aan die generaal van die SS, Felix Steiner, nooit uitgevoer nie, en Hitler het in 'n byna senuweeagtige ineenstorting geraak vanweë wat hy as onbevoeg beskou het. Op hierdie stadium het Hitler tot die besef gekom dat sy oorlog eintlik verlore was.

Sowjet T-34 tenks in Berlyn

En op dieselfde dag het die Fuhrer reëlings begin tref vir sy selfmoord. Sy plan was om in Berlyn te bly en homself uiteindelik te skiet op die regte tyd.

Hitler het sy dokter, dr. Werner Haase, ingeroep en sy advies gevra oor die beste metode om sy planne vir 'n vroeë dood na te streef. Hasse noem die pistool- en gifmetode, waardeur Hitler 'n kapsule sianied met 'n skoot in die kop sou moes kombineer. Hy het die dokter se advies geneem, en die plan vir sy selfmoord was in plek.


Die konsolidasie van die kragte

Uiteindelik, in 1936, is alle polisiemagte, insluitend tradisionele polisie, die SS, Gestapo - wat 'n nasionale geheime polisiemag geword het - en die SD, gesentraliseer onder Heinrich Himmler, hoof van die SS en hoof van alle Duitse polisie.

"Polisie en SS het in werklikheid begin saamsmelt, met professionele polisiemanne wat nou toenemend by die SS aansluit en SS -manne 'n toenemende aantal poste in die polisiemag beklee," skryf historikus Richard J. Evans in "The Third Reich in Krag. ”

Die polisie was self nuut toegerus met tegnologie om data te versamel, vingerafdrukverdagtes en selfs meer patrolliemotors om meer verkeersoortredings te hanteer, het historikus Michael Burleigh geskryf in "The Third Reich: A New History." En hul geledere en finansiering het saam met die veiligheidsdienste toegeneem.

Die Gestapo het gegroei van 1 300 personeel in 1933 tot ongeveer 7 000 in 1936, volgens Burleigh se bekroonde boek uit 2001. Hul begroting het in dieselfde tydperk toegeneem van 1 miljoen Reichsmarks tot 40 miljoen. Die SD het gedurende dieselfde tyd van 250 lede tot ongeveer 5000 gegroei, volgens Burleigh.

'Hierdie organisasies was moontlik relatief klein en dun versprei buite die hoofstad, maar dit is belangrik om te onthou dat die intelligensie -agente van die SD op die Gestapo kan staatmaak, terwyl laasgenoemde 'n groter aantal polisie- of paramilitêre hulpverleners kan ontplooi wanneer dit nodig is om 'n gebied wat wapens of kommunistiese literatuur soek, af te sluit, 'het Burliegh geskryf.

ORG XMIT: FOS102 LêER - Die foto van 30 Desember 1938 toon die Duitse kanselier Adolf Hitler en sy persoonlike verteenwoordiger Rudolf Hess, regs, tydens 'n parade in Berlyn, Duitsland, op 30 Desember 1938. Minister van Propaganda Dr. Joseph Goebbels kan aan die linkerkant langs Hitler gesien word. Die skeletoorblyfsels van Adolf Hitler se adjunk Hess, is uit hul graf verwyder in 'n klein Beierse stad wat 'n pelgrimstog vir neo-Nazi's geword het. Die administrateur van die begraafplaas in Wunsiedel het op Donderdag 21 Julie 2011 aan The Associated Press gesê dat die bene vroeg Woensdagoggend opgegrawe is. (AP Foto) (Foto: AP)

Voorbeelde van Gestapo -aanvalle in 1935 in Berlyn toon dat die missies betrokke was by 200 gewone polisiemanne, 100 hulpdienste en drie mobiele eenhede bestaande uit gewapende motorfietspolisie, het Burliegh opgemerk.

Volgens die Holocaust -museum het die 'Nazi -staat die polisie' saamgesmelt met die SS en SD, 'twee van die mees radikale en ideologies toegewyde Nazi -organisasies'.

'Nazi -ideologie het deel geword van alle polisie -aktiwiteite', volgens die museum. 'Die polisie was nie net 'n sentrale figuur in die handhawing van die openbare orde nie, maar ook in die stryd teen die sogenaamde rasse-vyande wat deur die Nazi-staat aangewys is. Dit was in hierdie konteks dat 'voorkomende polisie -optrede' sulke verskriklike gevolge gehad het. Die SS, SD en die polisie was een van die primêre oortreders van die Holocaust. ”

Die Nazi -regime het meer as 6 miljoen Jode saam met ander groepe vermoor, waaronder gestremdes, gay mense en politieke en ideologiese teenstanders.

'Dit is absoluut standaardkennis onder Duitse historici. Ter herinnering aan die Derde Ryk onder ouer Duitsers, sê hulle dikwels: 'Sê wat u van Hitler hou, maar die strate was ten minste veilig. 'N Vrou kon alleen in die straat loop, daar was nie meer fietsdiefstalle nie,' 'het Blackbourn gesê. 'En daar is 'n mate van waarheid in. Dit was 'n wreed onderdrukkende regime, onderdrukkend teenoor gewone misdadigheid sowel as politieke teenstanders. "


20 Minder bekende feite oor Nazi-Duitsland

Sedert die opkoms van Nazi -Duitsland in 1933 was Hitler en sy regering onder intense internasionale bespiegeling. Die verregaande opvattings van Hitler en die diktatuur van 12 jaar het die toekoms van die hele wêreld verander. Onder sy bewind was Duitsland 'n land van uiters bevooroordeelde oordele. Maar wat die meeste mense nie weet nie, is dat Hitler nie altyd 'n negatiewe persoon was nie. Voor die oorlog het hy selfs probeer om vredesonderhandelinge aan te bied. Maar toe sy pogings verwerp word, het oorlog onvermydelik geword. In hierdie artikel bring ons 'n paar soortgelyke minder bekende feite oor Hitler se Nazi-Duitsland.

1. Nazi-Duitsland het die eerste veldtog teen rook gehou en soldate kon nie rook nie. Hulle was ook die eerste mense wat rook met longkanker verbind het.

Beeldbron: www.sott.net

Nazi -Duitsland was die eerste land ter wêreld wat 'n openbare rookverbod ingestel het. Dit het gebeur nadat Duitse dokters die eerste geword het wat die verband tussen rook en longkanker geïdentifiseer het. Nazi's het ook 'n veldtog teen die gebruik van alkohol en tabak gevoer. Hulle het mense in Duitsland aangemoedig om volgraanbrood en ander voedsel, wat ryk is aan vitamiene en vesel, te eet vir 'n beter gesondheid en 'n lang lewe.(bron)

2. Hitler het Engeland talle kere vrede voor die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog aangebied.

Beeldbron: www.historicnewspapersandcomics.co.uk

Voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het Adolf Hitler en ander Duitse leiers talle pogings tot vrede in Europa aangewend. Hulle het baie ernstige voorstelle gelewer vir die vermindering van wapens en beperkings op die ontplooiing van wapens. Een so 'n voorbeeld is die toespraak van Hitler as kanselier op 17 Mei 1933. In daardie toespraak het hy 'n pleidooi vir vrede, gelyke regte en wedersydse begrip tussen nasies ingesluit. Hierdie voorstelle is egter verwerp deur Brittanje, Frankryk en ander moondhede. Dit was omdat hulle dit as 'n bluf of opregte voorgee beskou het.(bron)

3. In Auschwitz was daar 'n gebied waar die besittings van gevangenes geneem en gesorteer is. Hierdie webwerf is genoem “Canada ” omdat dit as die land van oorvloed beskou is.

Beeldbron: commons.wikimedia.org

“Canada ” was 'n slengnaam wat 'n plek in die konsentrasiekamp Auschwitz gegee is. Hierdie perseel het bestaan ​​uit 'n groot, oop verbinding met 'n aantal skure en onderdakgebiede. Dit is gebruik om die klere en besittings te stoor van die gevangenes wat Auschwitz binnekom. Die naam Kanada is gebruik omdat dit die land van oorvloed was. Hierdie goedere is deur die gevangenes vir die Nazi's uitgesorteer.(bron)

4. Die Ou Joodse stad in Praag is heeltemal onaangeraak deur die Tweede Wêreldoorlog omdat Hitler wou hê dat dit die Museum van die Uitgestorwe Ras moes wees.

Beeldbron: www.praguecityline.com

Toe Duitsland in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog verslaan is, blameer Hitler Jode vir die verlies. In 1942, tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, het Hitler gedink dat Duitsland as oorwinnaar sou kom, en dan sou alle Jode uit Europa uitgewis word. Terselfdertyd het hy beplan om die Ou Joodse stad in Praag onaangeraak te laat. Hy het besluit dat hulle na die oorwinning in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog die Joodse Museum in Praag die “Exotic Museum of an Exinct Race ” kan noem.(bron)

5. Tydens die Derde Ryk was daar 'n program genaamd Lebensborn, waar rassistiese ’ vroue by SS -offisiere geslaap het in die hoop om Ariese kinders te produseer. Na raming is 20 000 kinders gedurende 12 jaar gebore.

Beeldbron: www.historyextra.com

Lebensborn was 'n program wat tydens die Nazi -bewind begin is met die doel om die aantal Ariese kinders met blond hare en blou oë te verhoog. Slegs die vroue wat minstens 'n Ariese afkoms gehad het tot hul grootouers, kon aansoek doen vir hierdie program. Hulle moes ook 'n statutêre verklaring aflê dat daar nooit 'n geval van oorerflike siektes, dipsomanie of onbeholpenheid in hul familie was nie. Vroue wat in albei kriteria geskik geag is, is na 'n luukse kasteel geneem waar hulle met OSS -offisiere ontmoet en gemeng het. Na 10 dae is elke vrou toegelaat om 'n beampte te kies om by te slaap.

Toe 'n vrou swanger raak, is sy vir die volgende nege maande na die kraamhuis oorgeplaas. Nadat hy gebore is, word die kind as die eiendom van state beskou. Toe word die kind grootgemaak in spesiale instellings wat daarop gemik was om die ideaal van absolute lojaliteit aan die Nazi's in hulle te plaas. Daar word vermoed dat ongeveer 20 000 babas gedurende die 12 jaar van Nazi -bewind onder hierdie program gebore is, veral in Duitsland en Noorweë.(bron)


Die Nazi -party: agtergrond en oorsig

Die National Socialist German Workers ' Party (NSDAP), meer algemeen bekend as die Nazi Party, was tussen 1920 en 1945 'n politieke party in Duitsland.

Oorsprong in die Duitse werkerpartytjie

Die National Socialist German Workers & rsquo Party (Duits: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei & ndash verkorte NSDAP), algemeen bekend as die Nazi Party, was 'n verregse politieke party in Duitsland wat tussen 1920 en 1945 aktief was, wat die ideologie van die Nasionaal-Sosialisme geskep en ondersteun het

In 1919 het Anton Drexler, Gottfried Feder en Dietrich Eckart die German Worker & rsquos Party (GPW) in München gestig. Drexler, 'n ywerige Duitse nasionalis, was 'n slotmaker wat tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog lid was van die militaristiese Vaderlandsparty en was bitter gekant teen die wapenstilstand van November 1918 en die revolusionêre omwentelinge wat gevolg het. Drexler volg die standpunte van militante nasionaliste van destyds, soos om die Verdrag van Versailles teë te staan, antisemitiese, anti-monargistiese en anti-marxistiese standpunte te hê, sowel as om te glo in die superioriteit van Duitsers wat hulle beweer dat hulle deel uitmaak van die Ariese en ldquomaster -ras en ldquo (Herrenvolk). Hy het ook geglo dat die internasionale kapitalisme deur die Jode oorheers word en kapitaliste veroordeel het vir oorlogswins in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. klasse. Drexler beklemtoon die behoefte aan 'n sintese van v & oumllkisch nasionalisme met 'n vorm van ekonomiese sosialisme om 'n gewilde nasionalisties-georiënteerde werkersbeweging te skep wat die opkoms van kommunisme en internasionalistiese politiek kan uitdaag

Die Duitse weermag was bekommerd dat dit 'n linkse revolusionêre groep was en het Adolf Hitler, een van sy onderwysbeamptes, gestuur om die organisasie te bespied. Hitler het ontdek dat die politieke idees van die party soortgelyk is aan sy eie, en hy het Drexler en die Duitse nasionalisme en antisemitisme goedgekeur en was beïndruk met die manier waarop die party georganiseer is. Hoewel hy daar as spioen was, kon Hitler hom nie in toom hou as 'n lid 'n punt maak waarmee hy nie saamstem nie, en hy staan ​​op en hou 'n passievolle toespraak oor die onderwerp.

Drexler was beïndruk met die vaardighede van Hitler en lsquos as redenaar en nooi hom uit om by die partytjie aan te sluit. Aanvanklik was Hitler huiwerig, maar deur sy bevelvoerder, kaptein Karl Mayr, het hy daarop aangedring. Hy was slegs die vier-en-vyftig persoon wat by die Duitse Worker & rsquos Party aangesluit het. Hitler is onmiddellik gevra om by die uitvoerende komitee aan te sluit en is later aangestel as die party & rsquos propaganda bestuurder.


Hitler se lidmaatskapkaart in die DAP (later NSDAP)

In die volgende paar weke het Hitler verskeie lede van sy leër in die party ingebring, waaronder een van sy bevelvoerders, kaptein Ernst R & oumlhm. Die aankoms van R & oumlhm was 'n belangrike ontwikkeling, aangesien hy toegang tot die weermag se politieke fonds gehad het en 'n deel van die geld in die GWP kon oordra. Ander vroeë lede was toekomstige Nazi -leiers Rudolf Hess, Hans Frank en Alfred Rosenberg.

Adolf Hitler was dikwels die hoofspreker tydens partytjievergaderings, en gedurende hierdie tydperk het hy die tegnieke ontwikkel wat 'n oortuigende redenaar gemaak het. Sy reputasie het gegroei en dit het gou duidelik geword dat hy die hoofrede was waarom mense by die party aansluit. Dit het Hitler geweldige mag in die organisasie gegee, aangesien hulle geweet het dat hulle dit nie sou kon bekostig om hom te verloor nie.

Die party kry 'n nuwe naam

In April 1920 pleit Hitler dat die party sy naam moet verander na die National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). Hitler was nog altyd vyandig teenoor sosialistiese idees, veral dié wat rasse- of seksuele gelykheid behels. Sosialisme was egter 'n gewilde politieke filosofie in Duitsland na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Dit word weerspieël in die groei in die Duitse Sosiaal -Demokrate Party (SDP), die grootste politieke party in Duitsland.

Hitler het sosialisme herdefinieer deur die woord & lsquoNational & rsquo voor dit te plaas. Lede van die party het na hulself verwys as Nationalsozialisten (National Socialists), rarely as Nazis. The word &ldquoNazi&rdquo was in use before the rise of the party as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backward peasant, an awkward and clumsy person. References to &ldquoNazi Germany&rdquo and the &ldquoNazi regime&rdquo were popularized by anti-Nazis and German exiles abroad.

The Nazi Program

In February 1920, the NSDAP published its first program which became known as the &ldquoTwenty-Five Points.&rdquo The party refused to accept the terms of the Versailles Treaty and called for the reunification of all German people. To reinforce their ideas on nationalism, equal rights were only to be given to German citizens. Hitler claimed he was only in favor of equality for those who had &ldquoGerman blood.&rdquo Jews and other &ldquoaliens&rdquo would lose their rights of citizenship, and immigration of non-Germans should be ended. That year, the party announced that only persons of &ldquopure Aryan descent&rdquo could become party members and if the person had a spouse, the spouse also had to be a &ldquoracially pure&rdquo Aryan. Party members could not be related either directly or indirectly to a so-called &ldquonon-Aryan.&rdquo Even before it had become legally forbidden by the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, the Nazis banned sexual relations and marriages between party members and Jews.

To appeal to the working class and socialists, the program included several measures that would redistribute income and war profits, profit-sharing in large industries, nationalization of trusts, increases in old-age pensions and free education.

On February 24, 1920, the NSDAP held a mass rally where it announced its new program. The rally was attended by over 2,000 people, a great improvement on the 25 people who were at Hitler&rsquos first party meeting.

Adolf Hitler knew that the growth in the party was mainly due to his skills as an orator and he challenged Anton Drexler for the leadership of the party. At a special party congress on July 29, 1921, he replaced Drexler as party chairman by a vote of 533 to 1. Hitler was granted nearly absolute powers as the party&rsquos sole leader. He would hold the post for the remainder of his life.

Hitler soon acquired the title Führer (&ldquoleader&rdquo). He saw the party as a revolutionary organization, whose aim was the overthrow of the Weimar Republic, which he saw as controlled by the socialists, Jews and the &ldquoNovember criminals&rdquo who had betrayed the German soldiers in 1918.

His leadership was briefly interrupted in September 1921 when he was sent to prison for three months for being part of a mob that beat up a rival politician.

When Hitler was released, he formed his own private army called Sturm Abteilung (Storm Section). The SA (also known as stormtroopers or brownshirts) were instructed to disrupt the meetings of political opponents and to protect Hitler from revenge attacks. Captain Ernst Röhm of the Bavarian Army played an important role in recruiting these men, and Hermann Goering, a former air-force pilot, became their leader.

Hitler&rsquos stormtroopers were often former members of the Freikorps (right-wing private armies who flourished during the period that followed the First World War) and had considerable experience in using violence against their rivals.

The SA wore grey jackets, brown shirts (khaki shirts originally intended for soldiers in Africa but purchased in bulk from the German Army by the Nazi Party), swastika armbands, ski-caps, knee-breeches, thick woolen socks and combat boots. Accompanied by bands of musicians and carrying swastika flags, they would parade through the streets of Munich. At the end of the march Hitler would make one of his passionate speeches that encouraged his supporters to carry out acts of violence against Jews and his left-wing political opponents.

As this violence was often directed against Socialists and Communists, the local right-wing Bavarian government did not act against the Nazi Party. However, the national government in Berlin were concerned and passed a &ldquoLaw for the Protection of the Republic.&rdquo Hitler&rsquos response was to organize a rally attended by 40,000 people. At the meeting Hitler called for the overthrow of the German government and even suggested that its leaders should be executed.

The Party Grows

The Nazi Party grew significantly during 1921 and 1922, partly through Hitler&rsquos oratorical skills, partly through the SA&rsquos appeal to unemployed young men, and partly because there was a backlash against socialist and liberal politics in Bavaria as Germany&rsquos economic problems deepened and the weakness of the Weimar regime became apparent. The party recruited former World War I soldiers, to whom Hitler as a decorated frontline veteran could particularly appeal, as well as small businessmen and disaffected former members of rival parties. Nazi rallies were often held in beer halls, where downtrodden men could get free beer. The Hitler Youth was formed for the children of party members.

The party also formed groups in other parts of Germany. Julius Streicher in Nuremberg was an early recruit and became editor of the racist magazine Der Stürmer. In December 1920, the Nazi Party had acquired a newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter, of which its leading ideologist Alfred Rosenberg became editor. Others to join the party around this time were World War I flying ace Hermann Göring and Heinrich Himmler.

Hitler was impressed by Himmler&rsquos fanatical nationalism and his deep hatred of the Jews. Himmler believed Hitler was the Messiah that was destined to lead Germany to greatness. Hitler, who was always vulnerable to flattery, decided that Himmler should become the new leader of his personal bodyguard, the Schutzstaffel (SS).

In 1922, the Italian National Fascist Party came to power under Benito Mussolini. The Fascists used a straight-armed Roman salute and wore black-shirted uniforms. Hitler was inspired by Mussolini and the Fascists and adopted both for use by the Nazis.

On November 8, 1923, the Bavarian government held a meeting of about 3,000 officials. While Gustav von Kahr, the leader of the Bavarian government was making a speech, Adolf Hitler and armed stormtroopers entering the building. Hitler jumped onto a table, fired two shots in the air and told the audience that the Munich Putsch was taking place and the National Revolution had begun.

Leaving Hermann Goering and the SA to guard the 3,000 officials, Hitler took Gustav von Kahr, Otto von Lossow, the commander of the Bavarian Army and Hans von Lossow, the commandant of the Bavarian State Police into an adjoining room. Hitler told the men that he was to be the new leader of Germany and offered them posts in his new government. Aware that this would be an act of high treason, the three men were initially reluctant to agree to this offer. Hitler was furious and threatened to shoot them and then commit suicide: &ldquoI have three bullets for you, gentlemen, and one for me!&rdquo After this the three men agreed.

Soon afterwards Eric Ludendorff arrived. Ludendorff had been leader of the German Army at the end of the First World War. He had therefore found Hitler&rsquos claim that the war had not been lost by the army but by Jews, Socialists, Communists and the German government, attractive, and was a strong supporter of the Nazi Party. Ludendorff agreed to become head of the German Army in Hitler&rsquos government.

While Hitler had been appointing government ministers, Ernst Röhm, leading a group of stormtroopers, had seized the War Ministry and Rudolf Hess was arranging the arrest of Jews and left-wing political leaders in Bavaria.

Hitler now planned to march on Berlin and remove the national government. Surprisingly, Hitler had not arranged for the stormtroopers to take control of the radio stations and the telegraph offices. This meant that the national government in Berlin soon heard about Hitler&rsquos putsch and gave orders for it to be crushed.

The next day Adolf Hitler, Eric Ludendorff, Hermann Goering and 3,000 armed supporters of the Nazi Party marched through Munich in an attempt to join up with Röhm&rsquos forces at the War Ministry. At Odensplatz they found the road blocked by the Munich police. As they refused to stop, the police fired into the ground in front of the marchers. The stormtroopers returned the fire and during the next few minutes 21 people were killed and another hundred were wounded, included Goering.

When the firing started Adolf Hitler threw himself to the ground dislocating his shoulder. Hitler lost his nerve and ran to a nearby car. Although the police were outnumbered, the Nazis followed their leader&rsquos example and ran away. Only Eric Ludendorff and his adjutant continued walking towards the police. Later Nazi historians were to claim that the reason Hitler left the scene so quickly was because he had to rush an injured young boy to the local hospital.

After hiding in a friend&rsquos house for several days, Hitler was arrested and put on trial for high treason. If found guilty, Hitler faced the death penalty. While in prison Hitler suffered from depression and talked of committing suicide. However, it soon became clear that the Nazi sympathizers in the Bavarian government were going to make sure that Hitler would not be punished severely.

At his trial Hitler was allowed to turn the proceedings into a political rally, and although he was found guilty he only received the minimum sentence of five years. Other members of the Nazi Party also received light sentences and Eric Ludendorff was acquitted.

The Nazi Party was banned on November 9, 1923.

Hitler was sent to Landsberg Castle in Munich to serve his prison sentence. While there he wrote Four Years of Struggle against Lies, Stupidity, and Cowardice. Hitler&rsquos publisher reduced it to My Struggle (Mein Kampf). The book is a mixture of autobiography, political ideas and an explanation of the techniques of propaganda. The autobiographical details in Mein Kampf are often inaccurate, and the main purpose of this part of the book appears to be to provide a positive image of Hitler. For example, when Hitler was living a life of leisure in Vienna he claims he was working hard as a laborer.

In Mein Kampf Hitler outlined his political philosophy. He argued that the German (he wrongly described them as the Aryan race) was superior to all others. &ldquoEvery manifestation of human culture, every product of art, science and technical skill, which we see before our eyes today, is almost exclusively the product of Aryan creative power.&rdquo

Adolf Hitler warned that the Aryan&rsquos superiority was being threatened by intermarriage. If this happened world civilization would decline: &ldquoOn this planet of ours human culture and civilization are indissolubly bound up with the presence of the Aryan. If he should be exterminated or subjugated, then the dark shroud of a new barbarian era would enfold the earth.&rdquo

Although other races would resist this process, the Aryan race had a duty to control the world. This would be difficult, and force would have to be used, but it could be done. To support this view, he gave the example of how the British Empire had controlled a quarter of the world by being well-organized and having well-timed soldiers and sailors.

Hitler believed that Aryan superiority was being threatened particularly by the Jewish race who, he argued, were lazy and had contributed little to world civilization. (Hitler ignored the fact that some of his favorite composers and musicians were Jewish). He claimed that the &ldquoJewish youth lies in wait for hours on end satanically glaring at and spying on the unconscious girl whom he plans to seduce, adulterating her blood with the ultimate idea of bastardizing the white race which they hate and thus lowering its cultural and political level so that the Jew might dominate.&rdquo

According to Hitler, Jews were responsible for everything he did not like, including modern art, pornography and prostitution. Hitler also alleged that the Jews had been responsible for losing the First World War. Hitler also claimed that Jews, who were only about 1% of the population, were slowly taking over the country. They were doing this by controlling the largest political party in Germany, the German Social Democrat Party, many of the leading companies and several of the country&rsquos newspapers. The fact that Jews had achieved prominent positions in a democratic society was, according to Hitler, an argument against democracy: &ldquoa hundred blockheads do not equal one man in wisdom.&rdquo

Hitler believed that the Jews were involved with Communists in a joint conspiracy to take over the world. Like Henry Ford, Hitler claimed that 75% of all Communists were Jews. Hitler argued that the combination of Jews and Marxists had already been successful in Russia and now threatened the rest of Europe. He argued that the communist revolution was an act of revenge that attempted to disguise the inferiority of the Jews.

In Mein Kampf Hitler declared that: &ldquoThe external security of a people in largely determined by the size of its territory. If he won power Hitler promised to occupy Russian land that would provide protection and lebensraum (living space) for the German people. This action would help to destroy the Jewish/Marxist attempt to control the world: &ldquoThe Russian Empire in the East is ripe for collapse and the end of the Jewish domination of Russia will also be the end of Russia as a state.&rdquo

To achieve this expansion in the East and to win back land lost during the First World War, Hitler claimed that it might be necessary to form an alliance with Britain and Italy. An alliance with Britain was vitally important because it would prevent Germany fighting a war in the East and West at the same time.

Hitler was released from prison on December 20, 1924, after serving just over a year of his sentence. The Germany of 1924 was dramatically different from the Germany of 1923. The economic policies of the German government had proved successful. Inflation had been brought under control and the economy began to improve. The German people gradually gained a new faith in their democratic system and began to find the extremist solutions proposed by people such as Hitler unattractive.

On February 16, 1925, Hitler convinced the Bavarian authorities to lift the ban on the NSDAP and the party was formally refounded on the 26th with Hitler as its undisputed leader. The new Nazi Party was no longer a paramilitary organization and disavowed any intention of taking power by force.

Hitler attempted to play down his extremist image and claimed that he was no longer in favor of revolution but was willing to compete with other parties in democratic elections. This policy was unsuccessful and in the elections of December 1924 the NSDAP could only win 14 seats compared with the 131 obtained by the Socialists (German Social Democrat Party) and the 45 of the German Communist Party (KPD).

In an attempt to obtain financial contributions from industrialists, Hitler wrote a pamphlet in 1927 entitled The Road to Resurgence. Only a small number of these pamphlets were printed, and they were only meant for the eyes of the top industrialists in Germany. The reason that the pamphlet was kept secret was that it contained information that would have upset Hitler&rsquos working-class supporters. In the pamphlet Hitler implied that the anti-capitalist measures included in the original twenty-five points of the NSDAP program would not be implemented if he gained power.

Hitler began to argue that &ldquocapitalists had worked their way to the top through their capacity, and on the basis of this selection they have the right to lead.&rdquo Hitler claimed that national socialism meant all people doing their best for society and posed no threat to the wealth of the rich. Some prosperous industrialists were convinced by these arguments and gave donations to the Nazi Party, however, the vast majority continued to support other parties, especially the right-wing German Nationalist Peoples Party (DNVP).

In the 1928 German elections, less than 3% of the people voted for the Nazi Party. This gave them only twelve seats, twenty fewer than they achieved in the May 1924 election. However, the party was well organized, and membership had grown from 27,000 in 1925 to 108,000 in 1928.

The Propagandist

The party&rsquos nominal Deputy Leader was Rudolf Hess, but he had no real power in the party. By the early 1930s, the senior leaders of the party after Hitler were Heinrich Himmler, Joseph Goebbels and Hermann Göring. Beneath the Leadership Corps were the party&rsquos regional leaders, the Gauleiters, each of whom commanded the party in his Gau (&ldquoregion&rdquo). Goebbels began his ascent through the party hierarchy as Gauleiter of Berlin-Brandenburg in 1926. Streicher was Gauleiter of Franconia, where he published Der Stürmer. Beneath the Gauleiter were lower-level officials, the Kreisleiter (&ldquocounty leaders&rdquo), Zellenleiter (&ldquocell leaders&rdquo) and Blockleiter (&ldquoblock leaders&rdquo). This was a strictly hierarchical structure in which orders flowed from the top and unquestioning loyalty was given to superiors.

One of the new members was Joseph Goebbels. Hitler first met him in 1925. Both men were impressed with each other. Goebbels described one of their first meetings in his diary: &ldquoShakes my hand. Like an old friend. And those big blue eyes. Like stars. He is glad to see me. I am in heaven. That man has everything to be king.&rdquo

Hitler admired Goebbels&rsquo abilities as a writer and speaker. They shared an interest in propaganda and together they planned how the NSDAP would win the support of the German people.

Propaganda cost money and this was something that the Nazi Party was very short of. Whereas the German Social Democrat Party was funded by the trade unions and the pro-capitalist parties by industrialists, the NSDAP had to rely on contributions from party members. When Hitler approached rich industrialists for help he was told that his economic policies (profit-sharing, nationalization of trusts) were too left-wing.

The Great Depression Fuels Nazism

The fortunes of the NSDAP changed with the Wall Street crash in October 1929. Desperate for capital, the United States began to recall loans from Europe. One of the consequences of this was a rapid increase in unemployment. Germany, whose economy relied heavily on investment from the United States, suffered more than any other country in Europe.

Before the crash, 1.25 million people were unemployed in Germany. By the end of 1930 the figure had reached nearly 4 million. Even those in work suffered as many were only working part-time. With the drop in demand for labor, wages also fell and those with full-time work had to survive on lower incomes. Hitler&rsquos message, blaming the crisis on the Jewish financiers and the Bolsheviks, resonated with wide sections of the electorate.

In the general election that took place in September 1930, the Nazi Party won 18.3% of the vote and increased its number of representatives in parliament from 14 to 107. Hitler was now the leader of the second largest party in Germany.

The German Social Democrat Party was the largest party in the Reichstag, it did not have a majority over all the other parties, and the SPD leader, Hermann Mueller, had to rely on the support of others to rule Germany. After the SPD refused to reduce unemployment benefits, Mueller was replaced as Chancellor by Heinrich Bruening of the Catholic Centre Party (BVP). However, with his party only having 87 representatives out of 577 in the Reichstag, he also found it extremely difficult to gain agreement for his policies. Hitler came to be seen as de facto leader of the opposition and donations poured into the Nazi Party&rsquos coffers.

The inability of the democratic parties to form a united front, the self-imposed isolation of the Communists and the continued decline of the economy, all played into Hitler&rsquos hands and he used this situation to his advantage, claiming that parliamentary democracy did not work. The NSDAP argued that only Hitler could provide the strong government that Germany needed. Hitler and other Nazi leaders travelled round the country giving speeches putting over this point of view.

What said depended very much on the audience. In rural areas he promised tax cuts for farmers and government action to protect food prices. In working class areas, he spoke of redistribution of wealth and attacked the high profits made by the large chain stores. When he spoke to industrialists, Hitler concentrated on his plans to destroy communism and to reduce the power of the trade union movement. Hitler&rsquos main message was that Germany&rsquos economic recession was due to the Treaty of Versailles. Other than refusing to pay reparations, Hitler avoided explaining how he would improve the German economy.

Hitler Runs for President

With a divided Reichstag, the power of the German President became more important. In 1931 Hitler challenged Paul von Hindenburg for the presidency. Hindenburg was now 84 years old and showing signs of senility. However, a large percentage of the German population still feared Hitler and in the election Hindenburg had a comfortable majority.

In August 1931 the Nazi Party decided to have its own intelligence and security body. Heinrich Himmler therefore created the SD (Sicherheitsdienst). Richard Heydrich was appointed head of the organization and it was kept distinct from the uniformed SS (Schutzstaffel).

Heinrich Bruening and other senior politicians were worried that Hitler would use his stormtroopers to take power by force. Led by Ernst Röhm, it now contained over 400,000 men. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles the official German Army was restricted to 100,000 men and was therefore outnumbered by the SA. In the past, those who feared communism were willing to put up with the SA as they provided a useful barrier against the possibility of revolution. However, with the growth in SA violence and fearing a Nazi coup, Bruening banned the organization.

Hitler now had the support of the upper and middle classes and ran for president against the incumbent Paul von Hindenburg in March 1932, polling 30.1% in the first round and 36.8% in the second against Hindenburg&rsquos 49% and 53%. The NSDAP won 230 seats, making it the largest party in the Reichstag however, the German Social Democrat Party (133) and the German Communist Party (89) still had the support of the urban working class and Hitler was deprived of an overall majority in parliament.

The SA had engaged in running street battles with the SPD and Communist paramilitaries, which reduced some German cities to combat zones. Although the Nazis were among the main instigators of this disorder, Hitler convinced the frightened and demoralized middle class that he would restore law and order. Germans voted for Hitler primarily because of his promises to revive the economy (by unspecified means), to restore German greatness and overturn the Treaty of Versailles and to save Germany from communism.

In May 1932, Paul von Hindenburg sacked Bruening and replaced him with Franz von Papen. The new chancellor was also a member of the Catholic Centre Party and, being more sympathetic to the Nazis, he removed the ban on the SA. The next few weeks saw open warfare on the streets between the Nazis and the Communists during which 86 people were killed.

In an attempt to gain support for his new government, Franz von Papen called another election, which was held on July 20, 1932. This time the NSDAP won 37.4% of the vote and became the largest party in parliament by a wide margin. Combined with the Communists, the Nazis had a blocking majority that made the formation of a majority government impossible.

Hitler demanded that he should be made Chancellor but von Hindenburg refused and instead gave the position to Major-General Kurt von Schleicher. Hitler was furious and began to abandon his strategy of disguising his extremist views. In one speech he called for the end of democracy a system which he described as being the &ldquorule of stupidity, of mediocrity, of half-heartedness, of cowardice, of weakness, and of inadequacy.&rdquo

The behavior of the NSDAP became more violent. On one occasion, 167 Nazis beat up 57 members of the German Communist Party in the Reichstag. They were then physically thrown out of the building.

The stormtroopers also carried out terrible acts of violence against socialists and communists. In one incident in Silesia, a young member of the KPD had his eyes poked out with a billiard cue and was then stabbed to death in front of his mother. Four members of the SA were convicted of the crime. Many people were shocked when Hitler sent a letter of support for the four men and promised to do what he could to get them released.

Chancellor von Papen called another Reichstag election in November, hoping to find a way out of this impasse. The electoral result was the same, with the Nazis and the Communists winning 50% of the vote between them and more than half the seats, rendering this Reichstag no more workable than its predecessor. However, support for the Nazis had fallen to 33.1%, suggesting that the Nazi surge had passed its peak as the worst of the Depression had passed, Nazi-instigated violence increased and some middle-class voters who had supported Hitler in July as a protest now feared putting him into power.

The Nazis interpreted the result as a warning that they must seize power before their moment passed. Had the other parties united, this could have been prevented, but their shortsightedness made a united front impossible.

The German Communist Party made substantial gains in the election winning 100 seats. Hitler used this to create a sense of panic by claiming that German was on the verge of a Bolshevik Revolution and only the NSDAP could prevent this happening.

A group of prominent industrialists who feared such a revolution sent a petition to Paul von Hindenburg asking for Hitler to become Chancellor. Hindenburg reluctantly agreed to their request and at the age of forty-three, Hitler became the new Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. As the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum notes:

Hitler was not appointed chancellor as the result of an electoral victory with a popular mandate, but instead as the result of a constitutionally questionable deal among a small group of conservative German politicians who had given up on parliamentary rule. They hoped to use Hitler&rsquos popularity with the masses to buttress a return to conservative authoritarian rule, perhaps even a monarchy. Within two years, however, Hitler and the Nazis outmaneuvered Germany&rsquos conservative politicians to consolidate a radical Nazi dictatorship completely subordinate to Hitler&rsquos personal will.

Consolidating Power

The Reichstag fire on February 27, 1933, gave Hitler a pretext for suppressing his political opponents. The following day he persuaded von Hindenburg to issue the Reichstag Fire Decree, which suspended most civil liberties.

The NSDAP won the parliamentary election on March 5, 1933, with 43.9% of the vote but failed to win an absolute majority. After the election, hundreds of thousands of new members joined the party for opportunistic reasons, most of them civil servants and white-collar workers. They were nicknamed the &ldquocasualties of March&rdquo or &ldquoMarch violets.&rdquo To protect the party from too many non-ideological turncoats who were viewed by the so-called &ldquoold fighters&rdquo with some mistrust, the party issued a freeze on admissions that remained in force from May 1933 to 1937.

On March 23, the parliament passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which gave the cabinet the right to enact laws without the consent of parliament. In effect, this gave Hitler dictatorial powers. He subsequently abolished labor unions and other political parties and imprisoned his political opponents. In 1933, the Nazis opened Dachau, which initially housed political prisoners before becoming a concentration camp for Jews.

After the death of President Hindenburg on August 2, 1934, Hitler merged the offices of party leader, head of state and chief of government in one, taking the title of Führer und Reichskanzler. The Chancellery of the Führer, officially an organization of the Nazi Party, took over the functions of the Office of the President, blurring the distinction between structures of party and state even further. The SS increasingly exerted police functions under the leadership of Himmler.

The gradual descent into war began when Hitler withdrew Germany from the League of Nations in 1933. He began to rebuild the German armed forces beyond what was permitted by the Treaty of Versailles and subsequently began the first stages of his plan for the conquest of Europe by reoccupying the German Rhineland in 1936, annexing Austria in 1938 and invading Czechoslovakia in 1939. World War II began when Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939.

Anticipating the Holocaust

To protect the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews, Romani, Poles and most other Slavs, along with the physically and mentally handicapped. They disenfranchised and segregated homosexuals, Africans, Jehovah&rsquos Witnesses and political opponents. The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state set in motion the Final Solution, which resulted in the murder of six million Jews and millions of other targeted victims.

Denazification

Following the defeat of the Third Reich, the party was declared illegal by the Allied powers on October 10, 1945. The Allied Control Council carried out denazification in the years after the war both in Germany and in territories occupied by Nazi forces. Trials also began for the Germans accused of war crimes.

The use of any symbols associated with the party is now outlawed in many European countries, including Germany and Austria.


How Did Hitler Die? Inside His Decision To Kill Himself

National Archives Hitler and his Axis ally, the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, in June 1940.

With Braun by his side, Adolf Hitler learned about Benito Mussolini’s execution — and how his corpse was defiled by angry citizens. Vowing to avoid the same fate, the Nazi dictator was determined to die on his own terms. He would die by suicide, and his remains would be burned.

On April 29, Hitler began preparing for his death. He ordered his bodyguards to destroy his personal papers. He also told a doctor to test a cyanide capsule out on his “beloved” dog Blondi to make sure it worked.

Not only would killing her confirm the pill’s efficacy for Hitler’s suicide, but it would also ensure that Blondi would not fall into the hands of the Soviets after Hitler was gone. Still, after the dog died, Hitler was “inconsolable.”

The next morning, April 30, a staff member overheard Braun crying, “I would rather die here. I do not want to escape.” By that point, escape would’ve been nearly impossible anyway — the Red Army was nearly on top of the Führerbunker. Hitler ate his final meal – pasta with tomato sauce – as Goebbels tried to convince the Führer not to kill himself.

“Doctor, you know my decision,” Hitler said to Goebbels. “There is no change! You can of course leave Berlin with your family.” Goebbels would not — and neither would his family. Not long after Hitler’s suicide, Goebbels and his wife would kill themselves — and their own children — as well.

Hitler assembled his personal staff and shook everyone’s hand. Braun also said her goodbyes. To one of Hitler’s secretaries, Braun said, “Please do try to get out. You may yet make your way through. And give Bavaria my love.”


72 Years Ago, The US Army Blew Up A Giant Swastika In Nazi Germany

On April 22, 1945, a victorious U.S. Army destroyed one of the greatest symbols of Germany’s Nazi regime: a giant marble swastika that overlooked the Zeppelintribüne, Adolf Hitler’s most powerful pulpit, at the heart of the Nazi party rally grounds.

In 1934, Nazi architect Albert Speer constructed Zeppelinfeld stadium as part of the Nazi party rally grounds southeast of Nuremberg, Germany. Located east of the Great Road, it was built to resemble the Pergamon Altar in Ancient Greece. At the front of the stadium was the famous Zeppelintribüne grandstand, atop it sat that massive swastika.

Just three days prior, the Army’s Third Division marched onto the stadium’s field, where five men were given the Medal of Honor for actions of valor in World War II, and the American flag was draped over the swastika.

It’s hard to overstate the symbolic nature of the demolition. “There is no more hideous spot today than Nuremberg, shrine city of the Nazis,” the New York Times’ Richard H.J. Johnson wrote in a first-hand account of the city’s deliberate destruction by the Allies:

There was not a single building in the center of the town that had not suffered heavy damage either from United States artillery and bazooka shells or from Allied bombings before the final battle. All the ancient, historical monuments and buildings, as well as the later structures put up by the Nazis, are in complete ruins.

That swastika wasn’t the only piece of Nazi symbolism American troops destroyed — there’s even a whole supercut of German surrender, for some strange reason.


What was Nazi Germany's end goal? - Geskiedenis

The German Workers’ Party, otherwise called the DAP, was the predecessor of the German “Nazi Party” (NSDAP). It was founded in the Furstenfelder Hof, which was a hotel located in Munich. Anton Drexler, who was a member of the Thule Society, established the DAP. The group developed and branched out from the Free Workers’ Committee, which was another group led and founded by Drexler.

About the DAP and Its Members

Among the first members of the DAP were Drexler’s colleagues that were from the rail depot in Munich. Drexler was motivated to organize the DAP by Dr. Paul Tafel, which was also his mentor. Tafel was the leader of the Pan-Germanist Union, and a Thule Society member. His main goal was to create a group that would be in touch with the nationalist and the masses, which were not carried out by the middle-class parties. Initially, there were only 40 members in the group.

Karl Harrer joined the DAP on March 24, 1919. He was also a Thule Society member, as well as a thriving sports journalist. He wanted to increase the group’s influence over the activities of the DAP. Eventually, the group was renamed “Political Workers’ Circle,” and there were only a few members in this party. Furthermore, the meetings of members were held at local beer houses in Munich.

Progress of the DAP

Adolf Hitler was a former corporal who served in the German army, and he was tasked to spy on one of the meetings of the DAP. The gathering was held at a beer hall on September 12, 1919. When he came to that place, he was caught in a violent discussion with one of the guests. After this incident, Drexler was amazed with the excellent oratory skills shown by Hitler. Eventually, Hitler was invited to become a guest in the party, and he left the army when he joined the DAP.

During that time, anyone can become a member even without being issued a card or number. It was only in 1920 when there was an issuance of numeration, and Hitler was assigned the membership number 555. In reality, there were only 55 members of the party, which included Hitler. He also claimed that he was the 7th member of the group, and that would give him the title as a founding member, yet this concept was refuted. It was only because of his original work called Mein Kampf that he received the group’s membership card that was labeled with the number 7. Moreover, his highly impressive speech delivered at one of the party’s meetings gave him the opportunity to rise to fame and made him a prominent figure in the group.

Growth and Branching Out of the Group

Several party members were enlightened by the political beliefs of Hitler, and more individuals have decided to join the group. In 1920, the German Workers’ Party was founded, and it was a term borrowed from another Austrian party that was rather popular at that time. Hitler, however, wanted the name “Social Revolutionary Party,” yet Rudolf Jung encouraged him to consider NSDAP as a better name for the party.


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In his will, Hitler tapped his successors for the cabinet. He appointed the head of the German navy, Admiral Karl Dönitz, as his heir and president of Germany. He passed over party leaders like Heinrich Himmler and Herman Göring, who were seen as traitors for having tested the possibility of surrender to the Americans and the British. Hence the appointment of Dönitz, who had been unflaggingly loyal.

Dönitz indeed hastened to set up a government, working for four days on the task, though he didn’t necessarily follow Hitler’s instructions meticulously. Dönitz saw two options. One was full victory by the Allies, entailing the eradication of the Nazi regime, the dismantling of the German armed forces and the enslavement of the German people for centuries.

Marshal Montgomery, right, reads the surrender terms. From left, Rear Admiral Gherard von Wagner, war reporter Chester Wilmot (standing), Admiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg, Luneburg, May 4, 1945. Mondadori Portfolio via Getty Images

The other, the one Dönitz hoped to achieve, was the Nazi government cooperating with the West and possibly with the Soviet Union, with the Wehrmacht perhaps cut back severely but not taken apart. Of course, the option that Dönitz feared is what happened, other than the subjugation of the German people, of course.

Throughout, Dönitz thought he had bargaining chips. As May began, parts of Norway and Denmark were still under Nazi occupation he thought he could use them in negotiations to preserve the Nazi regime. Astonishingly, certain high-ranking Nazis who hadn’t fled or committed suicide, but who weren’t named to Dönitz’s cabinet, tried to nab portfolios.

From the start of May, the new Nazi cabinet met every day, its members slave to the illusion that they still wielded influence. It was dubbed the Flensburg Cabinet after the town in northern Germany where it met.

In the end, the Nazis surrendered to the Western Allies on May 8 and to the Soviet Union on May 9, with zero bargaining power. Even so, the Allies let the Dönitz cabinet remain in place, even tapping certain civilian ministers to be the ministers of food and transportation and help the Americans manage the new situation. But on May 23, 1945, the Allies arrested Dönitz and others, formally bringing Nazi Germany to an end.

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