Nasionale lughawe - Washington - Geskiedenis

Nasionale lughawe - Washington - Geskiedenis



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In 1931 maak Charles en Anne Lindbergh hul vlug van "Noord na Oos" vanaf Minneapolis-St. Paul. In die veertigerjare is die lughawe vir lugdiens na Asië gebruik. In 1947 begin Northwest Airlines met die "Great Circle Route" wat oor die Arktiese gebied gevlieg het na Japan, China, Korea en die Filippyne het die reis na Asië met 2 000 myl verkort. En in die sewentigerjare het die vlugte oor die Arktiese honderde kilometers gespaar om na Europa te vlieg.

Bestuur Bestuur deur die Metropolitan Airports Commission (MAC), wat in 1943 deur die Minnesota -wetgewer geskep is en bestaan ​​uit 14 'n voorsitter en 14 kommissarisse. Die burgemeesters van St. Paul en Minneapolis is kommissarisse.

Vlugte Non-stop of eenstop dieselfde vliegtuigvlugte na byna 135 Amerikaanse en 15 internasionale bestemmings, met 454 723 vlugte.

Lugrederye 8 groot Amerikaanse lugrederye, 2 internasionale, 7 streeks-, 18 -huur- en 16 vragmotors.

Passasiers 23.164.874 miljoen

Vrag 378.240 ton (vrag en pos)
Werk verskaf 113 000 werksgeleenthede.


Sagte opening van 225.000 vierkante voet vervang Gate 35X, oorgang van American Airlines se streeksbedrywighede met nuwe jetbrûe en waggebiede, ekstra geriewe is oop hierdie somer

Plekke voor sekuriteit bied toegang tot alle passasiers, ongeag die lugredery

Persverklaring: @Reagan_Airport maak 'n nuwe 14-hek-oprit oop wat diens lewer aan @AmericanAir streeksvlugte https://t.co/rE02TDmS69

RT @Reagan_Airport: Die laaste vlug wat ooit uit Gate 35X sou vertrek, verdien 'n spesiale uitstuur! Dankie vir u geduld en die herinneringe. Ons sal sien…

RT @Dulles_Airport: Opgewonde om ons reeks met die vroue #LeadingTheWay van bo af af te rond. Hierdie vroue stel die voorbeeld in die lug ...

RT @ByERussell: EKSKLUSIEF: Reistegnologiefirma Pangiam wed op gesigsherkenning om reisigers deur lughawens te bespoedig met 'n ooreenkoms vir @MWAAHQ ...

RT @Reagan_Airport: Ter ere van #WomensHistoryMonth beklemtoon ons 'n paar vroue agter die skerms wat #LeadingTheWay by die ai is ...

RT @Dulles_Airport: Gedurende die laaste week van #BlackHistoryMonth vier ons FAA se adjunk -administrateur, A. Bradley Mims! 'N DC -inboorling, h ...

RT @Reagan_Airport: Ontmoet Donata Russell Ross, die uitvoerende hoof en eienaar van ons vennoot, Concessions International. Sy het by die familieonderneming aangesluit in ...

RT @Dulles_Airport: Tanisha Lewis, die bestuurder van menslike kapitaalbestuursprestasie en sakegereedheid, het by @MWAAHQ begin as 'n int ...


Geskiedenis

Alhoewel die Washington National Airport (nou Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport) slegs sedert 1941 oop was, het die behoefte aan 'n tweede lughawe om die National Capital Area te bedien kort na die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog duidelik geword. Om aan die groeiende vraag na lughawekapasiteit te voldoen, het die kongres die Washington Airport Act van 1950 goedgekeur (en dit in 1958 verder gewysig) om voorsiening te maak vir ... die bou, beskerming, bedryf en instandhouding van 'n openbare lughawe in of in die omgewing van die District of Columbia. "

Na 'n deeglike studie van baie moontlike plekke in die streek, is 'n terrein van 10 000 hektaar, 26 myl wes van Washington, DC, gekies deur president Dwight Eisenhower in 1958. Die perseel, geleë in Fairfax en Loudoun Counties in Virginia, is omring deur oop landbougrond en was ver genoeg van ander lughawens om voldoende lugruim te bied vir aankom- en vertrekvlugte.

Die enorme omvang van die nuwe perseel het toegelaat dat 'n lughawe, die eerste in die land wat ontwerp is vir kommersiële straalvliegtuie, by sy bure gebuffer word. Slegs 3 000 hektaar van die 10 000 hektaar is ingedeel vir die nuwe lughawe en grense is minstens 8 000 voet van die einde van alle aanloopbane vasgestel. Hierdie beplanning, tesame met die optrede van plaaslike regerings om die grond rondom die terrein behoorlik te soneer, het die nuwe lughawe gehelp om 'n goeie buurman op die platteland van Virginia te wees.

Die terminale gebou

In Mei 1958 is die ingenieursfirma Ammann en Whitney van New York deur die Civil Aeronautics Administration (voorloper van vandag se Federal Aviation Administration) gekies as die hoofkontrakteur vir die beplanning, ontwerp en konstruksie -toesig van die lughawe. Ander professionele ondernemings verbonde aan Ammann en Whitney sluit in: Eero Saarinen en medewerkers van Hamden, Connecticut, argitek vir die ontwerp van die terminale gebou, beheertoring en diensgeboue Burns en McDonnell van Kansas City, vir die ontwerp van die meganiese, elektriese, en nutsinstallasies en Ellery Husted van Washington, DC, as die meesterbeplanningskonsultant.

Argitek Eero Saarinen, wou iets meer as net 'n ander lughawe skep - hy wou "die siel van die lughawe" vind. Hy het die Terminalgebou en die beheertoring in daardie gees ontwerp en dit 'die beste ding wat ek nog ooit gedoen het' genoem. Die Terminal Building is in 1966 deur die American Institute of Architects gekies vir 'n First Honor -toekenning.

Die bou van die lughawe het op 2 September 1958 begin, sewe en 'n half maande na die terreinkeuse. Toe dit vier jaar later, in 1962, oopmaak, het die internasionale lughawe Dulles 'n opvallend mooi eindgebou gehad wat 'n landmerk vir reisigers wêreldwyd sou word. Die terminale was 'n kompakte tweevlakstruktuur van 600 voet lank en 200 voet breed. Alhoewel dit sonder uitbreidings op die vliegveld gebou is om vliegtuie te laai, is dit ontwerp om aan elke kant tot 320 voet uitgebrei te word (hierdie uitbreiding is eintlik 34 jaar later in 1996 voltooi). Die terminale was 'afgewerk' met 'n kenmerkende 193 voet hoë, glasomhulde, toringkajuit wat die lugverkeersleiers vir baie kilometers in alle rigtings 'n onbelemmerde uitsig gegee het.

Toe die lughawe voltooi is (en nadat 11,5 miljoen kubieke meter grond opgegrawe is), het Dulles twee noord-suid parallelle aanloopbane, elk 11,500 voet lank, 150 voet breed, en geskei deur 6,700 voet en 'n derde baan in noordwes-suidooste, 10 000 voet lank en 150 voet breed. Alle aanloopbane het standaard instrumentlandingstelsels (ILS) vir landings, hoë afdraaie om die beskikbaarheid van aanloopbane te verhoog en die modernste beligtingstelsels. Boonop het alle aanloopbane plaveisel skouers, 25 voet breed, wat skoon oppervlaktes verseker om te voorkom dat straalmotors vuil en puin inneem.

Die mobiele sitkamers

In 1962 was die spesiaal ontwerpte mobiele sitkamers wat die nuwe lughawe uniek gemaak het uit die oogpunt van die publiek, wat gebruik is om passasiers tussen die terminalgebou en hul vliegtuie te vervoer, wat op 'n straalhelling op 'n kilometer van die terminal geparkeer was. Die Mobile Lounge is ontwerp deur die Chrysler Corporation in samewerking met die Budd Company.

Die Mobile Lounge is gebou as 'n voertuig van 54 voet lank, 16 voet breed, 17 1/2 voet hoog, wat 102 passasiers, 71 van hulle sit, direk vanaf die terminale na die vliegtuig kon vervoer. Die sitkamers beskerm die passasiers teen weer, straalgeluide en ontploffings en elimineer lang loopafstande. As gevolg van die mobiele sitkamers, het passasiers, net nadat hulle die terminal aangekom het, slegs 'n klein entjie gestap voordat hulle in die sitkamer gesit het vir die kort rit direk na die vliegtuig.

Toegangspaaie

Terwyl Dulles ontwerp is, is 'n volledige studie gedoen oor die moontlikheid om planne vir toekomstige staats- en federale snelweë aan te pas sodat die lughawe toegang tot voldoende vervoersale kan kry. Dit was nie haalbaar nie, en daar is besluit om 'n snelweg te bou as deel van die lughawensontwikkelingsprojek. Die Federale Lugvaartadministrasie (FAA), in samewerking met plaaslike gemeenskappe, het vier moontlike roetes gekies, wat die onderwerp van verskeie openbare verhore was. Die finale keuse was 'n roete van 16 myl van die lughawe na 'n punt naby Falls Church, Virginia, waar dit later verbind sou word met die destydse voorgestelde Interstate Route 66 en die Capital Beltway. Die eerste 13,5 myl van die snelweg is gebou ten tye van die oorspronklike lughawebouwerk, wat die lughawe verbind met roetes 495 (die Capital Beltway) en 123 naby McLean, Virginia. Na voltooiing van I-66 deur Arlington, Virginia, vroeg in 1983, is Dulles Airport Access Highway die laaste 2,5 myl verleng om direk met I-66 te skakel.

Groot opening

Dulles Internasionale Lughawe is vernoem na die ontslape minister van buitelandse sake, John Foster Dulles, en is op 17 November 1962 formeel deur president John F. Kennedy toegewy (die lughawe is in 1984 herdoop tot Washington Dulles Internasionale Lughawe). Die seremonie is bygewoon deur voormalige president Dwight D. Eisenhower, lede van die Dulles -familie, baie hooggeplaastes en duisende toeskouers. Die nuwe lughawe was 'n simbool van Amerika se statuur en vordering in die vliegtydperk, en was 'n indrukwekkende toegangspoort tot die land se hoofstad. 'N Eastern Airlines Super Electra, op 'n vlug van Newark, New Jersey, was die eerste kommersiële vliegtuig wat op die nuwe lughawe geland het.

Die stygende skoonheid van die nuwe Terminalgebou en die luukse unieke lounges van die lughawe het indruk gemaak op die talle kykers, reisigers, buitelandse besoekers en diplomate wat na die lughawe gekom het. Dulles was ook een van die eerste lughawens in die land wat die versnelde inspeksiestelsel aangeneem het waar verteenwoordigers van die Amerikaanse doeane -diens, Amerikaanse immigrasie- en naturalisasiediens en die Amerikaanse departement van landbou saamwerk om aankomende internasionale passasiers te verwerk.

Vanaf die groot opening tot einde 1962 het Dulles 52,846 passasiers bedien. Die jaarlikse passasiersverkeer het in 1966 'n miljoen bereik.

Lugrederye in Dulles in 1962

American Braniff Delta Eastern TWA Northwest Orient

Deur die jare

Washington Dulles Internasionale Lughawe, wat in 1962 gebou is om ses miljoen passasiers per jaar te huisves, was een van die modernste lughawens ter wêreld. Namate die aantal passasiers toegeneem het, moes die lughawe ook groei. Die eerste uitbreiding is in November 1977 voltooi met die verbreding van die parkeerhelling. In 1982 is nuwe wagruimtes vir passasiers by die boonste verdieping gevoeg en 'n nuwe bagasie-opruimingsarea is hieronder bygevoeg om die verhoogde lughaweaktiwiteit te hanteer. Midfield Concourses C en D, vyf vraggeboue, 'n hotel op lughawe -eiendom en ekonomiese parkeerterreine is ook deur die 1980's bygevoeg. Die Terminal is uitgebrei in ooreenstemming met die oorspronklike Saarinen -ontwerp in 1996. In 1998 is die eerste permanente baan voltooi en 'n lokaal vir streeksvliegtuie is in 1999 geopen.

Die groeiende jare

Dulles -lughawe bedien jaarliks ​​tussen twee en drie miljoen passasiers jaarliks ​​tussen 1969 en 1983. Toe begin die ware visie van Dulles na vore kom.

Dulles bedien 2,5 miljoen passasiers in 1975, vergeleke met 11,7 miljoen op die meer gevestigde nasionale lughawe. Met meer as vyf miljoen passasiers in 1985 en tien miljoen in 1987, neem Dulles sy plek in tussen die groot lughawens aan die ooskus. 'N Dekade van bestendige, deurlopende groei het die weg gebaan vir stygende getalle in die laaste jare van die 20ste eeu. Van 1996 tot 1999 het die totale aantal passasiers in Dulles met 65%gestyg. In 1999 bedien Dulles 19,8 miljoen passasiers, 'n toename van 26% in vergelyking met 1998. Die lughawe het byna 470,000 vliegtuigoperasies beleef, 'n toename van 23% in vergelyking met net 'n jaar tevore. Dulles het van 1,4 miljoen internasionale passasiers in 1990 bedien na meer as 3,5 miljoen in 1999.

Gedurende hierdie tyd het die lughawe 'n groot kapitaalontwikkelingsprogram onderneem om die groei te akkommodeer. Die Terminal is in 1996 uitgebrei om aan die oorspronklike visie van Eero Saarinen te voldoen. Die uitgebreide terminale bevat 1,1 miljoen vierkante voet vloeroppervlakte, is 1,240 voet lank en herhaal die geboë daklyn en glasgordynmuur van die oorspronklike ontwerp. Passasiers trek nou voordeel uit die uitgebreide bagasie- en kaartjiegebiede en groter aankom- en vertrekpaaie. Die konstruksie het ook 'n nuwe International Arrivals Building in 1991 bygevoeg, verbeterde vlug- en bagasie -inligtingstelsels, nuwe paaie en deurpaaie, nuwe vliegtuighekke en voorskote vir ekstra vliegtuigparkeerplekke, taxibaan- en aanloopbaanverbeterings.

In 1998 is die voltooiing van die eerste permanente baan (Concourse B) voltooi met 442.000 vierkante voet om 20 vliegtuigposisies te bedien. 'N Jaar later is 'n plaaslike straalvlugbaan (Concourse A, Gates 1-6) geopen om 36 streeksvliegtuie te bedien. 'N Hemelbrug wat 'n onverbeterlike uitsig op die vliegveld van Dulles bied, verbind die streekhekke van Concourse A met die Internasionale A -hekke. Concourse B het in 2003 en weer in 2008 uitgebrei, wat die lengte van die Concourse A-B-gebou tot 2,810 voet vergroot het.

Verskeie nuwe vraggeboue is gedurende die middel van die negentigerjare bygevoeg om die dubbelsyfergroei in vrag wat deur die lughawe vlieg, te ontmoet. Boonop het Dulles sy parkeerkapasiteit in slegs twee jaar met 111% vergroot en het dit nou meer as 23 000 parkeerplekke.

Met die aanvang van die 21ste eeu het Dulles na vore getree as een van die vinnigste groeiende lughawens ter wêreld en 'n belangrike poort aan die ooskus vir plaaslike en internasionale reisigers, sowel as vragaktiwiteite. Die lughawe bereik die potensiaal wat sy beplanners in die vooruitsig gestel het, en verder. Die lughawe Dulles was 'n ekonomiese motor vir die omliggende gemeenskappe, wat meer as 15 000 direkte werksgeleenthede en miljarde dollars aan besigheidsinkomste verskaf. Die "Dulles Corridor" is nou sinoniem met groei en toekomstige potensiaal vir die streek.

Die toekoms kom

Net soos dit die visie van Eero Saarinen was dat die terminale van die Washington Dulles Internasionale Lughawe uitgebrei kan word om in toekomstige groei te voorsien, is dit ook die missie van die Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority om te verseker dat die hele lughawe aan die groeiende lugvaartbehoeftes van die omgewing.

In die somer van 2000 het die lughaweautoriteit die Dulles -ontwikkelingsprogram (D2) van stapel gestuur om Dulles nader aan sy volle potensiaal te bring. Die program behels die bou van twee nuwe parkeergarages, 'n vierde aanloopbaan, 'n nuwe oprit, 'n nuwe lugverkeersbeheer toring, voetgangers, die AeroTrain -stelsel en 'n uitbreiding van die International Arrivals Building.

Hierdie program sal voortgaan om Dulles te ontwikkel, soos in die hoofplan voorgestel is. By volle opbou sal Dulles 55 miljoen passasiers per jaar hanteer (150 000 per dag) en een van die grootste lughawens ter wêreld word. Die verhaal van Dulles word steeds ontvou terwyl dit aan die passasiers- en vragbehoeftes van die 21ste eeu voldoen.


Geskiedenis

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was die voorsitter van die hoeksteenlegging van die oorspronklike terminale gebou van die Washington National Airport op 28 September 1940. As deel van sy New Deal -regering het president Roosevelt se reaksie op die kommersialisering van lugvaart begin vorm aanneem Die terrein is die eerste keer in Julie 1927 oorweeg. Gravelly Point is uiteindelik gekies op grond van gerief en die teenwoordigheid van regeringsbesit langs die gebied. Die Amerikaanse leërkorps van ingenieurs het 'n monsteragtige stortingstaak voltooi wat die skepping van 527 hektaar baggermateriaal ingesluit het. Boonop moes 'n gedeelte van die Mount Vernon Memorial Highway (nou bekend as die George Washington Memorial Parkway) verskuif word om lughawepaaie te akkommodeer.

Die eerste kommersiële lughawe in die land wat deur die federaal befonds is, het sy deure op 16 Junie 1941 geopen, ten koste van meer as $ 13 miljoen dollar. Die lughawe beslaan agt honderd en sestig hektaar wat aan drie kante begrens word deur water. Van die Civil Aeronautics Authority tot die Federal Aviation Administration tot die Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority van vandag, National het 'n lang pad gevorder. In oorlogstyd het die Washington National Airport Army Air Base ontstaan ​​met 'n militêre passasiersterminal en militêre hangar wat nogal aktief gebly het gedurende die middel van die veertigerjare. Baie byvoegings deur die jare het die lughawe gehelp om die gewildheid van kommersiële lugvaart as reismiddel by te hou.

Die oorspronklike brandweerstasie is in 1941 in gebruik geneem. Hierdie stasie was slegs vir konstruksietoestelle en het drie enjins gehuisves: 'n 530A, 530B en 'n Ward LaFrance 750 gpm. Daar was oorspronklik geen stasie vir die ongelukstoestel nie, sodat hulle in 'n vliegtuighangar gehuisves is totdat 'n vliegveldstasie gebou is.

Die tweede brandweerstasie is in 1943 aan die noordelike punt van die lughawe aangrensend aan die voormalige pendelterminal gebou. Hierdie gebou het drie oorspronklike baaie en het die ongeluksapparaat gehuisves. Twee ekstra baaie is later bygevoeg. 'N Verskeidenheid militêre ongeluksapparate is gebruik, en Walter -vragmotors het later jare die vloot oorheers. In 1969 is die konstruksiestasie gesluit en die enjins na die ongelukstasie geskuif. Hierdie gebou is gebruik tot die winter van 1982, toe die huidige stasie voltooi is.

Die militêre brandweerwaens en Ward LaFrances is uiteindelik vervang met 'n paar Amerikaanse LaFrance -enjins, waarvan een 'n 1971 900 -reeks was. Hierdie enjin wat oorspronklik aangewys is as Rooi-116, het getrou gedien totdat dit in 1990 afgetree het. Dit was later jare bekend as Rooi-327 en enjin-62 en is verkoop aan die Manassas-reddingspan wat die apparaat in 'n reddingspan omskep het. Die tweede Amerikaanse LaFrance is in 1981 vervang met 'n White/Car Mar 1500 gpm -enjin. Die Amerikaanse LaFrance is na die lughawe Dulles gestuur en dit het gereageer op die beroemde bandbrand in Frederick County, Virginia. Daar word berig dat die enjin weke lank getrou gepomp het, en die eienaarskap van die enjin is oorgedra na die Amerikaanse Environmental Protection Agency. Ook in 1981 is 'n 1967 Ford/Howe 750 gpm -enjin van NASA verkry. In die middel van die tagtigerjare is die pomp en tenk verwyder en die apparaat omskep in 'n rampvoorsieningseenheid. In 1990 het die departement 'n Pierce Arrow-motor van 1500 gpm verkry, aangedui as Engine-62, en later Rescue Engine-327. In 1991 het die vragmotor diens by National aangebreek met die aankoop van 'n Pierce Arrow 1500 gpm 75 'agterste lugantenne. Hierdie vragmotor het die 1981 White/CarMar vervang.

Die skofbevelvoerder het eens 'n Willys Jeep bestuur wat 'n droë chemiese stelsel gehad het. Hierdie eenheid is vervang met 'n 1974 Dodge Power Wagon met 'n Ansul Purple K -stelsel wat ook deur die skofbevelvoerder bestuur is. In 1986 is 'n nuwe Chevrolet C30 in diens geneem en Boyertown het die bakkie van die 1974 -eenheid weer opgestel. 'N Pomp en tenk is bygevoeg deur American Fire Equipment Company in 1993. Hierdie eenheid is nou soos benodig, en die Shift Commander bestuur 'n 1996 Ford Club Wagon -bakkie. Ander eenhede wat diens by National gedoen het, sluit in 'n Ford -bakkie met vliegtuigtrappe, 'n sleepwa van 1000 liter en 'n spreilamp.

Die 1980's het 'n nuwe vlootvragmotors na die lughawe gebring. Al die Walter-toestelle is vervang deur Oshkosh-eenhede wat begin het met die aankoop van 'n militêre weergawe Oshkosh P-15 in 1980. Hierdie groot eenheid het twee pompies van 1250 gpm, 6100 liter water en 515 liter skuim. In 1981 is 'n Oshkosh T-6 gekoop. Hierdie eenheid het 'n pomp van 1200 gpm en dra 1585 liter water en 205 liter skuim. 'N Oshkosh T-12 is in gebruik geneem in 1982. Dit het 'n pomp van 1800 gpm en het 3170 liter water en 410 liter skuim gedra. Die P-15 is in 1995 afgetree en vervang met 'n Oshkosh T-3000 met 'n pomp van 2000 gpm, 3000 liter water en 420 liter skuim. 'N Tweede T-3000 het die T-12 in 1997 vervang. Die T-6 bly in diens en is geskeduleer vir vervanging volgende jaar.

'N Ford -bakkie uit 1966 het mediese voorrade vir groot ongevalle gedra en was tot in die vroeë 1980's in diens. Die ramp -eenheid van 1967 is in 1991 vervang met 'n 1993 GMC/Thomas -bus. Hierdie eenheid het tot Februarie 1992 geduur toe dit deur 'n identiese bus vervang is. Die bus is in 1993 omskep in 'n duikreddingsvoertuig toe 'n 1978-vragmotor van Ford in 1978 as 'n spesiale noodhulpvoertuig-329 in gebruik geneem is. Dit bevat voorrade en toerusting vir massa -ongelukke, tegniese reddingsapparatuur, 'n lugkaskadesisteem en 'n kragopwekker van 15 KW.

Mediese nooddienste is oorspronklik deur die polisiedepartement en deur 'n dokter en 'n verpleegster van die lughawe se noodhulpkantoor met 'n geel Cadillac -ambulans hanteer. Die oorspronklike Cadillac -ambulans is in die 1970's na die brandweer oorgeplaas en is kort daarna vervang met 'n depper. 'N Chevrolet/Atlantic Research -ambulans is in 1975 in gebruik geneem en is omstreeks 1980 opgegradeer na 'n gevorderde lewensondersteuningseenheid. Aan die begin van die 1980's het die streek se eerste paramediese motoronderneming ook aangebreek. Die Amerikaanse LaFrance uit 1971 het 'n hartmonitor, medisynekas en intubasietoerusting, sowel as basiese lewensondersteunende toerusting, gehad. 'N Nuwe Chevrolet/Wheeled Coach mediese eenheid is in diens geneem in 1984. In 1989 het die departement 'n Ford E350/Yankee Coach mediese eenheid gekoop. Hierdie eenheid het tot 1996 in diens gebly toe 'n Freightliner/Aero MedicMaster mediese eenheid in diens geneem is.

Die departement het 'n baie uitgebreide geskiedenis van mariene eenhede, gebaseer op die nabyheid van die lughawe aan die Potomacrivier. Na berig word is die eerste boot 'n 32 'veselglas -kajuitvaartuig wat deur die DEA in beslag geneem is by Kubaanse dwelmhandelaars. Dit is in die vroeë sewentigerjare in diens geneem. Hierdie boot het later in die ou boothuis gesink. Later in die sewentigerjare is 'n vliegtuigboot en twee 17 'veselglas -reddingsvaartuie in diens geneem. In 1981 is 'n 22 'Panther -lugboot aangeskaf. 'N Lugboot van 22' Air International uit 1982 is kort ná die ongeluk van Air Florida Flight 90 in gebruik geneem. In reaksie op hierdie ramp is 'n reddingspan onder water gestig met 'n kombinasie van brandbestryders en polisiebeamptes. 'N Nutsboot van 40' is vroeg in die 1980's by die Amerikaanse kuswag aangeskaf. 'N Soortgelyke boot van die kuswag het die oorspronklike 40' -boot vervang en dit is in 1991 vervang met 'n nuwe Seahawk van 29'. Bykomende bote was 'n Boston Whaler van 16 'uit 1974 en 'n 19' Hovertronics -sweeftuig wat later vervang is. Die huidige mariene vloot bestaan ​​uit die 29 'Seahawk, 'n Boston Whaler van 1982', 'n 22 'Alumtech -lugboot uit 1995, 'n 1996' Boston Whaler 'en' 22 'Airgator -lugboot uit 1996. Die duikspanbus van 1983 is vervang met 'n 1997 Chevrolet/Lynch Display Vans -eenheid. Die rivierreddingspersoneel maak ook gebruik van twee Chevrolet Suburbans.

In 1980 word die nasionale en Dulles -lughawens gekonsolideer tot een organisasie wat bekend staan ​​as die Metropolitan Washington -lughawens. Dit het weer voorsiening gemaak vir die stigting van een brandweer. Hierdie stelsel word steeds deur die federale regering beheer tot 1987. Gedurende die sewentiger- en tagtigerjare was dit duidelik dat National dringend opknapping en verbetering nodig gehad het en dat Dulles lank uitbrei moes word. Die lughawe verdien inkomste uit groter verkeer, maar die inkomste kan nie aangewend word vir verbeterings nie, aangesien dit direk in die federale algemene fonds aangegaan is. Na 'n lang politieke debat, is die Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority gestig en die oordrag van beide die Nasionale en Dulles -lughawens van die federale regering met 'n huurperiode van vyftig jaar is goedgekeur deur die Metropolitan Washington Airports Act van 1986. Die nuutgestigte Owerheid neem die beheer oor beide lughawens op 7 Junie 1987. Hierdie gesag is 'n samewerkingspoging tussen die Statebond van Virginia en die District of Columbia, bestuur deur 'n dertien lid Raad van Direkteure wat deur die goewerneur van Virginia, die burgemeester van die District of Columbia, en die goewerneur van Maryland en die president van die Verenigde State.

Byna onmiddellik het vordering begin met verbeterings aan geboue, paaie en passasiersdienste. Die hoogtepunt van die kapitaalontwikkelingsprogram by National was die nuwe terminale gebou, wat op 27 Julie 1997 vir sake oopgemaak is. President William Clinton onderteken wetgewing op 6 Februarie 1998 wat die naam van die lughawe verander het na Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport.

Die brandweer op albei lughawens is verantwoordelik vir 'n groot verskeidenheid noodbedrywighede wat nie net noodgevalle in vliegtuie insluit nie, maar ook strukturele brandbestryding, mediese nooddienste, tegniese redding, reaksie op gevaarlike materiaal, waterredding en reaksie op voorvalle met die Metrorail -vervoerstelsel. . Die uiters suksesvolle kliëntediensprogram is 'n topprioriteit gemaak deur inisiatiewe soos KPR, noodhulp en opleiding vir brandblussers vir lughawepersoneel, en gereeld bloeddrukondersoeke in die terminale.

Die huidige brandweerstasie van die nasionale lughawe beskik oor vyf rit deur baaie, woonkwartiere, kantore, 'n kommunikasiesentrum en 'n oefenkamer. Personeel bevat een -en -vyftig skofpersoneel, plus 'n dag -onderhoof. 'N Derde skof is in 1987 bygevoeg met die instelling van die Owerheid. Elkeen van hierdie drie skofte bestaan ​​uit 'n bataljonhoof, kaptein, twee luitenante, drie paramedici, assistent -brandmaarskalk en nege brandbestryders. Alle skofwerkpersoneel is gesertifiseer tot 'n minimum van EMT-B. Hulle volg die skofskedule van Noord -Virginia, gebaseer op 'n werksweek van ses en vyftig uur.

Personeel van die hoofkwartier bevat 'n vise -president vir openbare veiligheid, brandweerhoof, assistenthoof, een hoof van die brandmaarskalkbataljon, een opleidingsbataljonhoof en drie opleidingskapteins.

In reaksie op die groter uitdagings van spesiale reddingsituasies, is die Technical Rescue Team verlede jaar saamgestel om situasies met 'n hoë hoek en beperkte ruimte te hanteer. Die departement het baie geld vir opleiding en die aankoop van toerusting aangewend om hierdie span vir diens voor te berei. Die reaksie op massa -ongelukke is steeds die primêre missie van die departement. Die spesiale noodreaksie -voertuig het voorrade en toerusting wat meer as 150 pasiënte kan hanteer. Daar is baie beplanning en werk gedoen in hierdie eenheid met funksies soos 'n suurstofstelsel wat verskeie spruitstukke verskaf vir die toevoer van suurstof aan pasiënte wat ernstig siek is, spesiale voorrade om kinder trauma te hanteer, uitgebreide beskerming teen biogevaar en opruimingsmateriaal en 'n groot verskeidenheid basiese benodigdhede vir trauma bestuur.

Van 'n beskeie fasiliteit wat slegs een miljoen passasiers in 1946 bedien het, wat gevorder het tot die nuutste moderne fasiliteit wat jaarliks ​​meer as sestien miljoen passasiers bedien, het die nasionale lughawe baie struikelblokke oorkom. Die brandweer en reddingspersoneel op die Ronald Reagan Washington Nasionale Lughawe, wat trots is op die beskerming van die reisende publiek in die hoofstad, is gereed om die uitdagings van die nuwe millennium die hoof te bied.


Nasionale lughawe - Washington - Geskiedenis

Washington National Airport Terminal in Julie 1941, ongeveer 'n maand nadat dit oopgemaak is. Die ligging van die lughawe is 12 jaar in die kongres bespreek. (Bron: Library of Congress)

Die vroeë 20ste eeu word gekenmerk deur die vinnige opkoms van lugreise. Slegs twee dekades het verloop tussen die Wright Brothers se eerste vlug in 1903 in Noord -Carolina (en daaropvolgende oefenvlugte in Arlington, Virginia en College Park, Maryland) en vliegtuie wat genoeg gevorderd was om oor die Lincoln Memorial -toewyding in 1922 te vlieg. 'N Paar jaar later , Het Charles Lindbergh die aandag van die wêreld getrek toe hy oor die Atlantiese Oseaan vlieg.

Met die wêreld in beweging, het 'n moderne, toeganklike lughawe vinnig 'n noodsaaklikheid geword vir enige groot stad, en Washington was geen uitsondering nie.

Reeds in 1926 skryf die Burgervereniging 'n brief aan Major US Grant, 3de uitvoerende beampte van die National Capital Park and Planning Commission, waarin hy waarsku dat ''n stad wat nalaat om 'n lughawe te voorsien, hom eintlik afsonder van ander, in die mate dat lugverkeer na en deur die stad nie sal ontwikkel nie. ” [1]

Alhoewel daar 'n algemene ooreenkoms was oor die noodsaaklikheid van 'n lughawe om die hoofstad van die land te bedien, is die pad - letterlik - om die doel te bereik, was daar vertragings en struikelblokke.

In 1926 het Hoover Field naby die huidige Pentagon -terrein geopen. [2] 'n Jaar later het die Washington-lughawe in privaat besit langsaan oopgemaak. Toe die besigheid tydens die Groot Depressie verlangsaam het, het die twee lughawens saamgesmelt tot die Washington-Hoover-lughawe.

Vliegtuig wat oor die lughawe Washington-Hoover vlieg in 1932. Senator Pat McCarran noem dit "een van die gevaarlikste lughawens in die land, indien nie die wêreld nie." (Bron: Library of Congress)

Washington-Hoover was 'n vreemde plek. Die lughawe was "in die ooste grens aan snelweg 1, met sy meegaande hoëspanning elektriese drade, en belemmer deur 'n rookstapel op 'n aanpak en 'n rokerige stortingsterrein daar naby." [3] Military Road, wat oorspronklik gedien het as die grens tussen Hoover Field en die Washington -lughawe, het die verenigde vliegveld in twee gesny en verkeers- en veiligheidsnagmerries op die grond en in die lug veroorsaak. [4]

Ligte en wagte is opgestel om motors te voorkom om die pad te gebruik terwyl 'n vliegtuig die veld gebruik. [5] Volgens die bestuurder van die lughawe, Samuel J. Solomon, "is motoriste egter nie gehoorsaam aan die ligte nie. Hulle het byna ons wagte afgehardloop, doelbewus deur seine en ligte gery, hulself in gevaar gestel en lugreise." [6]

Selfs as motorverkeer wel die seine gehoorsaam, het die uitleg van die vliegveld 'n gevaarlike situasie veroorsaak. Die Aandster berig oor 'n besonder dramatiese byna-mis op 13 Februarie 1936:

"Die vliegtuig, 'n tweemotorige motor van Eastern Air Lines, gelaai met passasiers wat deur Florida gebind is, het gistermiddag omstreeks 01:00 vir 'n vertrek gery, maar kon nie van die ysbedekte veld afklim voordat hy die Militêre pad bereik het nie. die pad is effens laer as die veld en toe die vliegtuig in die holte afrol en op die gladde pad val, gly dit skerp na links deur 'n grenslig en oor die pad deur die heining na die proefplaas. Gelukkig het alle motorverkeer stilgehou, want die rooi ligte by die aanloopbaan wat die pad oorsteek, was duidelik toe die groot skip oorskuif. ” [7]

Na die ongeluk het die kongres 'n noodwetsontwerp goedgekeur wat die polisie verplig het om Military Road te bewaak. Almal wat die ligte of die wagte geïgnoreer het, moet 'n boete van $ 500 betaal en kan tot ses maande tronkstraf opgelê word. [8]

Voorvalle soos die Eastern Airlines -vlug het daartoe gelei dat wetgewers - waarvan baie waarskynlik die lughawe self gebruik het - van naderby gekyk het. In 'n poging om steun vir 'n nuwe lughawe in Washington byeen te bring, noem die senator, Pat McCarran, die lughawe Washington-Hoover 'een van die gevaarlikste lughawens in die land, indien nie ter wêreld nie', en voeg by dat 'die feit dat dit nie 'n groot doel gehad het nie. ramp is bloot 'n kwessie van geluk. " [9]

Lugfoto van die Gravelly Point -terrein. Voordat die lughawe gebou kon word, is 20 miljoen kubieke meter sand op die terrein gepomp. (Bron: Library of Congress)

Verskeie moontlike plekke is oorweeg, waaronder Camp Springs, Maryland en Gravelly Point in Noord -Virginia. [10] Maar, soos baie dinge in Washington, het die debat in die politiek gewikkel geraak.

In 1938 word 'n wetsontwerp op die bou van die lughawe in Camp Springs in die Senaat aanvaar, maar sterf in die Huis na 'n stemming van 133 tot 69. [11] During the vote, Democrat Byron Scott of California accused three representatives of colluding with the owners of the Camp Spring site to get a monetary "kickback" if the site was chosen.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt sent the Speaker of the House a letter prior to the vote warning him that if the bill did not pass and a serious accident took place in the airport, "the blame will fall, I fear, on the Congress itself." [12] The President became very involved in the airport debate after having nightmares "of accidents and crashes" in the Washington-Hoover airport during his first term in office. [13]

After Congress failed to get anything done, Roosevelt stepped in. He asked the chairman of a new agency, the Civil Aeronautics Authority, to “treat the local airport matter as one of the first emergency items facing his organization.” [14]

A month later, on September 27, 1938, Roosevelt announced that he was tired of waiting for Congress to fix the problem because "human lives were at stake," and that the airport would be built in the Gravelly Point site. [15]

President Roosevelt looking over the plans for the new airport in Gravelly Point. Roosevelt announced that the airport would be built in 1938, ending 12 years of debate. (Source: Library of Congress)

The Gravelly Point site was chosen because it was close to the Mount Vernon Memorial Highway (now the George Washington Memorial Parkway), it provided easy access to/from Capitol Hill across the Potomac, future expansion was possible, and the site was surrounded by land already controlled by the government. [16]

Even with those advantages, however, there were still engineering challenges. Most notably, the fact that the majority of the site was underwater. So, the first step in building the airport was to make a dike around the site and fill it with material. From November 1938 to December 1939, about 20 million cubic yards of sand and gravel were pumped into the site. [17]

By 1940, this process was finished and the field was ready for use. Next came building the actual terminal. On September 28, Roosevelt dedicated the airport, and laid the cornerstone of the terminal building amidst great fanfare. [18]

The Evening Star captured the scene as an armada of 400 planes flew overhead:

"In a single thrilling minute, the military planes converged over the airport from seven different directions and at as many altitudes. They came with such headlong speed and at so many angles that many a spectator held his breath lest they crash. But the breath-taking maneuver was managed perfectly." [19]

The act was a demonstration of the U.S. air might. In his speech, Roosevelt said the planes were there on a "peaceful mission," but that they were symbolic of "our determination to build up a defense on sea, and on land and in the air that is capable of overcoming any attack against us.” [20]

On Roosevelt's signal, the first plane landed on the field, it was an American Airlines plane. The company won the honor in a straw draw held a day prior to the event. [21] The second plane was from Eastern Airlines. Planes representing the Army, Navy and Coast Guard also landed on the field.

The day after the dedication, Die Washington Post highlighted how the D.C. community felt about finally getting the airport their city deserved:

"It is a source of great satisfaction to Washingtonians that the city is soon to have one of the finest airports in the world. The excellent terminal now being rushed to completion at Gravelly Point will be more keenly appreciated because the city has been for so long without a first-class landing field." [22]

Howard Lovewell Cheney was chosen to design the airport's terminal. He wanted to build a modern airport, but the Interdepartmental Engineering Commission, which was in charge of the project, preferred a more colonial design. [23] The project would end up costing about $15,000,000. [24]

The National Airport officially opened for operation on June 16, 1941 at 12:01 a.m. No celebration was held to mark the historic moment. According to Die Washington Post, "there will be no speeches, no air show and no movie cameras. The three airlines which fly into Washington will simply start using the field regularly and stop using the old terminal. That's all.” [25]

Airplane taxiing out of Washington National Airport. The airport continues to be popular and has undergone a couple of expansions. (Source: Library of Congress)

Though there was no formal program, several thousand onlookers showed up to see the first planes land at what became known as Washington National Airport. [26]

The first plane to officially land in the airport was an Eastern Airlines plane that was traveling from New York to Tampa, Florida. The first male passenger to enter the new airport was B. E. Chapman from Dallas, Texas, and the first female passenger was a New York showgirl named Hilda Ferguson. [27]

They would be the first of many, and reviews of Washington’s new airport were positive. Soos The New York Times put it, "few large metropolitan airports enjoy such pleasant land and air approaches as this one.” [28]

We can’t argue with that! There is something magical about looking out the airplane window to see the Washington Monument, the Capitol Building and the mighty Potomac River welcoming you to the Nation's capital.


Building of the Week: Terminal A at National Airport

The ceiling decoration of the satellite is reminiscent of that in the TWA Flight Center at New York's JFK airport. Image by the author.

The majority of travelers through Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport pass through the much admired Cesar Pelli-designed Terminal B/C, with its Jeffersonian domes and sweeping views of the Potomac River and Washington, DC. However, the concourse in often-less appreciated Terminal A offers passengers a 1960s jet-age modernist backdrop to their flights.

The nine-gate satellite in Terminal A, often referred to as the “banjo” for its comparable shape, is located on the southern end of the terminal complex at National. Built by Northwest Airlines and Trans World Airlines (TWA) for their own use in 1970, it houses four airlines today, including the airport's second busiest Southwest Airlines.

A Northwest map of the Terminal A banjo in 1992. Image by the author.

A terminal to keep up with growth

Northwest and TWA built the Terminal A facilities in response to the growing passenger numbers at National during the 1960s. Traffic more than doubled to 9.8 million passengers in 1970 from 4.7 million in 1960, Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) data shows.

The Terminal A satellite, built in 1970, is primarily used by Southwest Airlines today. Image by the author.

“During the past 15 years, there has been virtually no increase in passenger facilities at Washington National. Those facilities have reached the saturation point,” said George Spater, an executive vice-president at American Airlines, in the Washington Post in July 1966. American opened its own concourse &mdash since demolished &mdash at National in 1968.

An aerial view of the Terminal A satellite in the 1980s. Image by MWAA.

The Northwest/TWA unit terminal &mdash which included its own curbfront, check-in, and baggage claim lobby as well as the concourse &mdash was built as an “interim” extension of the historic main terminal that opened in 1941, the National Capital Planning Commission (NCPC) says in the minutes of its March 1967 meeting approving the project.

A jet-age concourse

The banjo is described as a “long unfenestrated concourse (with some relief) and a generously glazed satellite,” in the nomination of the historic Main Terminal to the National Register of Historic Places in 1995. “The pier/satellite configuration of this terminal is one of National's most notable features.”

The rotunda of the Terminal A satellite. Image by the author.

The concourse is built out of concrete and glass in the jet-age modern style characteristic of the 1960s. It includes elements reminiscent of the iconic Eero Saarinen-designed TWA Flight Center at New York JFK International Airport that opened in 1962, including the terminal connector and satellite ceiling.

The concourse's nine aircraft gates are connected to the satellite by hulking pylon-like concrete protrusions that, from the exterior, recall many of DC's brutalist federal buildings.

Aircraft gates are connected to the Terminal A satellite with pylon-like concrete structures. Image by the author.

“Its striking design, incorporating skylights and a circular boarding area, features lots of things to make your travels easier,” Northwest said on the banjo in an ad in The Evening Star newspaper in 1972.

A Northwest ad touting its new terminal at National airport in 1972. Image by The Evening Star.

Giuliani & Associates designed the concourse, MWAA documents show. The firm later designed the Interim Terminal in hanger 11 that was used during construction of Terminal B/C in the 1990s.

Continued use

MWAA continues to invest in Terminal A and the satellite. The check-in lobby was renovated in 2010, and a new security checkpoint and concourse concessions were completed in 2014.

The Terminal A check-in lobby was remodeled by JetBlue in 2010. Image by the author.

These investments, and the fact that Washington National needs all of the aircraft gates it has, ensure that this jet age modernist gem will continue to serve air travelers to the region for years to come.

Continue the conversation about urbanism in the Washington region and support GGWash’s news and advocacy when you join the GGWash Neighborhood!

Edward Russell is an air transport reporter by day with a passion for all things transportation. He is a resident of Eckington and tweets frequently about planes, trains and bikes.


National Airport- Washington - History


the southern boundary of the District of Columbia is at Jones Point, and today the Woodrow Wilson Bridge is divided between three jurisdictions
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

In 1632, Charles I issued a charter to the Calverts. When he gave them the new colony of Maryland, the king defined Virginia's new northern boundary as the southern shoreline (not the middle) of the Potomac River. The charter granted all of the Potomac River to Maryland, from the northern side to the "further Bank of the said River" on the Virginia side.

Creation of the District of Columbia in 1801 altered the Virginia-Maryland boundary Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison had negotiated a deal in 1790 to put the Federal capital in Philadelphia for a decade, then relocate it to a new site on the Potomac River.

In the 1790 Residence Act, Congress gave President Washington authority to choose the specific location for a 100-square mile Federal district upstream of the Anacostia River. Maryland and Virginia passed legislation that permitted the Federal government to select up to 10 square miles of each state for the new District of Columbia. 1


Thomas Jefferson sketched the plan for the new capitol on the Potomac River
Source: Library of Congress, Residence Act (drawing by Thomas Jefferson)

Washington ignored the requirement to locate all of the capital upstream of the Anacostia River. Instead, he chose to locate the southern tip of the new District of Columbia at Jones Point.

That decision included Alexandria within the district, even though the town was downstream of the mouth of the Anacostia River. Congress quickly amended the Residence Act on March 3, 1791 to ratify George Washington's decision.

President Washington shaped the boundaries of the District so Virginia would contribute one-third of the land and Maryland would contribute the other two-thirds of the land. Both Maryland's port town of Georgetown and Virginia's port town of Alexandria were included in the new District.


George Washington, portrayed with his hand on a map, chose the site for the District of Columbia
Source: Library of Congress, George Washington and his family by George Edward Perine

To define the exact boundaries of the 100-square mile district, Andrew Ellicott and his hired assistants (including Benjamin Banneker) surveyed four straight lines. Each was 10 miles long, running straight to right-angle intersections with other boundary lines.


the boundary between Virginia-DC, surveyed by Andrew Ellicott after the 1790 Residence Act, cut straight lines across the Potomac River and across topographic features
(note that north is to the upper left of the map, as indicated by the rosette)
Source: Library of Congress, Territory of Columbia

The 10-mile long lines met at 90° angles to create a square. The survey lines defining the southeast and southwestern edges of the district cut straight across the Potomac River.

On a map oriented north-south, the new Federal district resembled a diamond. At the southern tip at Jones Point, lines went 45° to the northeast and 45° to the northwest. The surveyors erected stone markers one mile apart to document the boundary lines, with 14 stones used to mark the Virginia-District boundary. Over 230 years later, 36 of the 40 original boundary stones remain. 2


most boundary milestones of the District of Columbia could still be found in 1906
Source: Library of Congress, Chart showing the original boundary milestones of the District of Columbia (Fred E. Woodward, c.1906)


the portion of Virginia ceded to the District of Columbia was carved out of Fairfax County
Source: Library of Congress, Plan of the city of Washington (1800)

Maryland transferred jurisdiction over its portion of the new District of Columbia to the Federal government on December 19, 1791. In addition to the land, Maryland transferred all of the Potomac River inside the surveyed square. All of the Potomac River outside the District's surveyed boundary continued to be owned by Maryland. Virginia owned none of the Potomac River after 1632, so Virginia never transferred any part of the Potomac River to the District.

For a decade after the survey, Virginia transferred nothing to the District. That portion of the district Virginia committed to transfer, about one-third of the total, remained under Virginia jurisdiction. From the Federal government's perspective, it controlled land and water to the "further Bank of the said River" between 1791-1801, but did not control the land which Virginia planned to cede.

Ceding a slice of Maryland to the Federal government resulted in the first Virginia-District of Columbia boundary. It was on the southern edge of the Potomac River, stretching north from Jones Point towards Little Falls for roughly 13 miles.

The Virginia General Assembly agreed to cede its portion in 1789, but did not actually transfer the land until after the Federal government moved from Philadelphia to the District of Columbia. Virginia's legislators wanted the Federal government to establish some form of local government before ending Virginia's jurisdiction, to ensure that the territory would never be lawless. Even as late as 1801, the General Assembly passed laws that applied to the Virginia portion of the not-yet-established District. 3

Later in 1801, the Virginia General Assembly formally transferred jurisdiction of a slice of Fairfax County to the Federal government. That slice of Virginia transferred into the District, including the town of Alexandria, was given the name "Alexandria County."

The Virginia cession in 1801 altered the Virginia-District of Columbia boundary that had been created in 1791. Instead of running along the edge of the Potomac River, two straight lines surveyed by Ellicott now separated Fairfax County, Virginia, from the new Alexandria County, District of Columbia.


the Virginia portion of the District of Columbia was Alexandria County
Source: Library of Congress, District of Columbia (by Thomas Gamaliel Bradford, 1835)

That Virginia-District of Columbia boundary lasted intact for 46 years. In 1846, the Federal government "retroceded" the Virginia portion of the District of Columbia. Jurisdiction of Alexandria County, including the town of Alexandria, was returned to Virginia.

That shift became effective in 1847, once the Virginia General Assembly concurred with the decision by the US Congress and assumed jurisdiction. Almost 25 years after retrocession, Georgetown, Washington City, and Washington County were unified into one government in the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1871. 4

With retrocession, Alexandria County became a new county in Virginia. The land ceded from Fairfax County in 1801 was not incorporated back into Fairfax County in 1847. As a result, Fairfax County was no longer the Virginia jurisdiction located adjacent to the District of Columbia.

In 1847, the new Virginia-District of Columbia boundary became the approximately 13-mile stretch along the "further Bank" of the river again. The straight lines separating the two jurisdictions, based on Ellicott's survey, were replaced with a new boundary - the irregular shoreline of the south bank of the Potomac River.

Changes in Virginia jurisdictional boundaries altered the names on the Virginia side of its boundary with the District of Columbia, but not the location. After 1870, legislation based on the new state constitution defined Alexandria (incorporated in 1852 as a city) as an independent jurisdiction from Alexandria County. That created the City of Alexandria-DC boundary and reduced the length of the County of Alexandria-DC boundary.

The City of Alexandria expanded by annexation in 1915, incorporating land that was formerly within Alexandria County. As a result, the City of Alexandria-DC boundary became longer and the County of Alexandria-DC boundary became shorter. In 1920, Alexandria County was renamed Arlington County, but the location of the county's boundary with the District of Columbia remained unchanged.

A final annexation by the City of Alexandria in 1929 incorporated a portion of Arlington County, extending the city's boundary to Four Mile Run. That annexation, together with the independence of cities and counties in Virginia, reduced the length of the Arlington-DC boundary and increased the length of the Alexandria-DC boundary. 5


the City of Alexandria - District of Columbia border, from Jones Point to Four Mile Run, since 1929
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online


Alexandria annexed portions of Alexandria County in 1915 and Arlington County in 1929
Source: A History of the Boundaries of Arlington County, Virginia (Map IV)

Exactly where was the "shoreline" remained unclear until 1922. Virginia and Maryland had agreed in an 1877 arbitration, the Black-Jenkins Award, that the low-water mark would define the boundary between those two states. The 1877 arbitrators decided that Virginia had acquired prescriptive rights to the land between the high-water mark and the low-water mark, and Maryland accepted the low-water mark as part of the deal.


marshland developed upstream of the causeway to Analostan Island, and downstream on the southern bank
Source: Library of Congress, Potomac River at Washington, D.C., map showing progress of work: June 30, 1890

In 1921 in Marine Railway & Coal Co. v. US, the US Supreme Court stated "that the title of the United States embraces the whole river bed." In 1922 the Court of Appeals (District of Columbia Circuit) ruled in Herald v. United States that the Virginia-Maryland deal did not apply to the District of Columbia. The court ruled that the Virginia-District of Columbia boundary was the high-water mark on the Virginia shoreline. Virginia had prescriptive rights against Maryland, but not against the District of Columbia.

In 1931, the US Supreme Court adopted the same reasoning. It ruled in Smoot Sand & Gravel Corporation v. Washington Airport, Inc. that the high-water mark was the boundary. The boundary line between the District of Columbia and Virginia, at the time of Maryland's cession in 1791, was not affected by the 1877 Black-Jenkins Award in 1877 between Maryland and Virginia. 6

The court decisions did not define the actual location of the high-water mark. Washington Airport was expanded by dumping fill on Potomac River mudflats in 1929. National Airport was created in 1941 by dredging the Potomac River and dumping fill on mudflats at Gravelly Point, downstream from Alexander Island.


the boundary between Virginia-District of Columbia became the low water mark on the Virginia shoreline after retrocession in 1847
Source: Library of Congress, Map of Washington D.C. and vicinity (1860)


the land known as Analostan, Mason's, or Theodore Roosevelt Island became part of Maryland in 1632 and part of the District of Columbia in 1791
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

At Alexandria, new land were created on the Alexandria waterfront by filling in the shoreline. The location of the "further Bank," referenced in the 1632 charter and in existence in 1801, was literally buried.

The edge of the Potomac River in 1791, when Maryland ceded its territory, was one or two blocks inland from the shoreline in 1847. In 1749, John Carlyle had purchased lot 41 for 30 pistoles (32 pounds, 5 shillings), and it was on a bluff overlooking the shoreline. He purchased Lot 42 for only 16 pistoles (17 pounds, 4 shillings), reflecting its reduced access to the waterfront. Lots 46 and 47 purchased by separate buyers, and lots 51 and 52 purchased by Lawrence Washington, showed a similar discrepancy in price. 7

Today the Carlyle House is two blocks inland from the Potomac River.


John Carlyle purchased Lot 41 in 1749, when it was a waterfront parcel on the edge of the Potomac River - and inland lot 42 for just 20% of the cost
Source: Library of Congress, A plan of Alexandria, now Belhaven (by George Washington, 1749)


today the Carlyle House is two blocks inland from the Potomac River shoreline
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

The changed shoreline forced courts and the US Congress to define the location of the District of Columbia-Virginia border at Alexandria. The edge of the Potomac River was legally moved to its present location, adding two blocks of artificially-created land to Virginia.

Key court decisions were Marine Railway & Coal Co. v. US by the US Supreme Court in 1921, Herald v. United States by the Court of Appeals (District of Columbia Circuit) in 1922, and Smoot Sand & Gravel Corp. v. Washington Airport, Inc. by the US Supreme Court in 1931.

The court rulings established that the high-water mark on the southern bank of the Potomac River marked the Virginia-District of Columbia boundary downstream into Alexandria.

However, within the boundaries of Alexandria, from Second Street downstream to Jones Point, Congress decided that the boundary would be defined by the "pierhead" line. In 1939, the US Army Corps of Engineers surveyed a line marking how far the structures on the waterfront of downtown Alexandria extended into the river channel. Their greatest extent marked the pierhead line.

In 1945, Congress declared that the pierhead line upstream to Second Street, and the high-water line as of 1945 upstream to the edge of the District of Columbia, defined the legal boundary between Virginia and the District of Columbia. The US Coast and Geodetic Survey surveyed that boundary in 1947. 8


the 1749 shipping channel of the Potomac River was separated from the shoreline by a zone of shallow water which was later filled in with earth
Source: Library of Congress, Plat of the land where on stands the town of Alexandria (by George Washington, 1749)

Alexandria

Arlington County

Cession and Retrocession of the District of Columbia

Is the Pentagon in Virginia?

Locating a Boathouse on the Potomac River at Rosslyn

Potomac River and the Virginia-District of Columbia Boundary


the boundary stones marking the District-Virginia and District-Maryland boundaries reveal the diamond pattern established by George Washington's decision to locate the southern tip at Jones Point
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online (with DC Boundary Stones layer)

Skakels


Boundary Channel at Pentagon, with red line showing border between DC and Arlington County

Verwysings


George Washington (on horse) chose the site of the new national capital, Pierre Charles L'Enfant (showing sketch to Washington) prepared the initial city plan, and many unnamed slaves and free black laborers (such as the unidentified man holding the horse) built the structures such as the US Capitol
Source: Architect of the Capitol, Capitol Site Selection, 1791


Survey: Locals still can’t agree on Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport nickname

The Washington Post did the research and found that D.C.-area residents can’t seem to come to an agreement on the nickname for Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport.

The Washington Post’s Express conducted an online survey in December, and more than 42,000 people responded with differing responses for the name of the airport, which was formerly named Washington National and changed its name in 1998.

The survey found one major group that avoids the “R-word” is D.C.-area Democrats. In the survey posted online Wednesday, only 35 percent of Democrats call the airport “Reagan” or “Reagan National,” compared to 72 percent of Republicans.

The airport’s name has a divisive history, which has led to disparities in nicknames.

In 1998, then-President Bill Clinton signed legislation to rename the airport to honor the former Republican president. The legislation passed in Congress although the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority opposed it, as did local political leaders.

After the named changed, Metro and the National Park Service were forced to revise signs at the agencies’ own expense, The Washington Post reports. The sign changes cost hundreds of thousands of dollars.

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“I’m still mad about the name, because of how it got passed. It got forced upon all the people here by a small group of powerful men in Congress,” Jason West, 57, told the Post.

Chris Sloan, a 50-year-old who identifies himself as a Republican, said he calls the airport “Reagan.”

“I don’t call it Reagan because of my political affiliation. I call it Reagan because that’s the name of the airport,” Sloan told The Post.

The survey found younger generations — regardless of political affiliation — are more likely to use “Reagan” when referring to the airport.

The Post notes it may be because to millennials, “Reagan” literally means “the airport” and doesn’t conjure memories of the former president — just as “Dulles” may literally mean “the airport in Loudoun County” as opposed to “John Foster Dulles.”

“I think he was president before I was born,” 25-year-old Denzel Thomas said of Ronald Reagan.

Still Thomas tell The Post he says “DCA” when talking about the airport, “because that’s easiest to text.”

The Post notes the survey sample is made up of those who cared enough to take the online survey. Of the 42,082 respondents, 62 percent were Democrats, 18 percent were Independents, 12 percent were Republicans and 8 percent were other.

Of the respondents, here are the breakdowns of what they call the airport:

  • National — 41 percent
  • Reagan — 31 percent
  • DCA — 13 percent
  • Reagan National — 12 percent

“Those numbers are probably slanted by the underrepresentation of Republicans and out-of-towners in our sample,” the Post notes.

Kopiereg en kopie 2021 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Hierdie materiaal mag nie gepubliseer, uitgesaai, geskryf of herversprei word nie.


United will soon be flying the biggest jets at D.C.'s National Airport

United Airlines plans to begin flying 213-seat Boeing 757-300s on its existing routes between Washington Reagan National Airport (DCA) and its hubs in Denver and San Francisco.

That report comes from Flightglobal’s Edward Russell, who writes “flying the 757-300 to Washington National will give United the title of operating the largest regularly scheduled aircraft at the airport.” Currently, slightly smaller 757-200s flown by American and Delta are the largest aircraft flying regular flights at DCA.

United confirmed its change to Today in the Sky. It makes the switch on its DCA-Denver route March 3, upgauging from a mix of 150-seat Airbus A320 and 166-seat Boeing 737-800s. United’s move on the DCA-San Francisco route comes March 23 when it changes from 166-seat Boeing 737-800s.

DCA, of course, is one of the few big U.S. airports subject to capacity controls. A capped number of "slots" are available, with one slot allowing a takeoff or landing. To add additional flights at DCA, a carrier would have to acquire more “slots.” That prevents carriers from growing their flight schedules at DCA unless they can find another airline willing to relinquish slots, which rarely happens voluntarily.

Even more rare at DCA is a federal “Perimeter Rule” that restricts regularly scheduled flights to distances 1,250 statute miles or less. However, Congress has sporadically whittled away at those restrictions during the past decade, approving a series of “beyond-perimeter slot exemptions” that have allowed longer flights.

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Thanks to Congress' action -- or meddling, depending on one's viewpoint -- there are now 20 regularly scheduled round-trip flights beyond DCA's 1,250-mile "perimeter." United has won rights to two of those 20 flights it flies one daily round-trip to Denver and one to San Francisco. It cannot add additional flights on either route.

The only way for United to grow its presence on those two DCA routes is to go to a larger aircraft on existing flights. Flightglobal's Russell notes United's change on the DCA-Denver and DCA-San Francisco routes comes after its revenue chief said in January that United was "shifting capacity away from Houston and into other growing markets, like Denver and San Francisco.” Houston, San Francisco and Denver all are hubs for United.

As for DCA, regional aircraft and narrowbodies like the 737 or A320 family are by far the most common planes operating at the airport. But DCA is able to handle larger jets – a Vietnam Airlines Boeing 787 "Dreamliner" widebody landed there in July 2015 while on a promotional tour.

Vietnam Airlines shows off first 787 at D.C.'s National Airport

Nonetheless, there are restraints at the hemmed-in airfield that sits just across the Potomac River from downtown Washington, D.C.

“We do have design constraints associated with this group of aircraft and larger, meaning that certain gates at Reagan National are designed for certain classes of aircraft and not all gates can accommodate a 757,” Washington airports spokeswoman Kimberly Gibbs says in a statement to Today in the Sky. “On occasion 767 and larger-class aircraft have flown into DCA but this is definitely not the norm.”

But as airlines face obstacles to growing at the popular D.C. airport, they’ve increasingly resorted to bigger planes to boost passenger numbers. Flightglobal’s Russell notes passenger traffic at DCA had surged more than 11% through November 2015, pushing DCA’s passenger numbers past metro Washington’s much larger Dulles International Airport.

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The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, which runs both airports, has launched a series of upgrades for DCA in an effort to handle the growing crowds.

“Upgauging isn't new at Reagan National, we’ve seen a number of airlines do it in recent years, contributing to record passenger numbers, a strain on airport facilities and added congestion for passengers,” Gibbs says in a statement to Today in the Sky. “The recently announced $1 billion construction program is to help alleviate these issues.


National Airport- Washington - History

After son Michael Reagan urged Congress to "win just one more for the Gipper," the House and Senate voted yesterday to put Ronald Reagan's name on Washington National Airport.

The votes were hurried so the measure would be ready before Reagan's 87th birthday tomorrow, and passage came in spite of strong opposition from Washington area political and business leaders. Local officials argued that Congress was interfering in control of the airport, which sits along the Potomac River in Arlington County.

The Senate voted 76 to 22 to change the name to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport. The House version of the bill, passed 240 to 186, did not include "Washington" in the title, but House leaders said they expect to make their bill conform to the Senate's and send it on to the president.

A White House spokesman said President Clinton will sign the legislation into law. Reagan would join former presidents George Bush and John F. Kennedy in having his name attached to a major U.S. airport.

As word of the congressional action spread yesterday, the renaming didn't go over well with everyone at the airport, which recently opened a new $450 million terminal.

"There's a big building being built for Reagan [in the District] and that should be sufficient," said Edie Jones, of Reston, a volunteer who works at the information booth in Terminal B. "He is a wonderful person, and he was a wonderful president. But this should remain Washington National Airport."

"It's neither Republican or Democratic. It's a nonpartisan airport. It shouldn't be one side or the other," said a Delta flight attendant, who asked that his name not be used because he didn't have authorization to comment from the airline.

For all the passion it engendered on Capitol Hill, the change will have scant practical effect immediately.

Officials said the designator "DCA," which identifies the airport on luggage tags, tickets and global tracking systems, would not have to change. Last April, Houston Intercontinental Airport officially changed its name to George Bush Intercontinental/Houston to honor the former president, but its code remained IAH.

As for on-board announcements when planes land, airlines can script their own messages, a spokeswoman for the Association of Flight Attendants said. For many passengers, Jill Gallagher said, the old name is a sure indication of where they have landed. "Some foreign passengers might not even know who Ronald Reagan is," she said.

Rep. Thomas M. Davis III (R-Va.), who voted to change the airport name, said the action is symbolic. "Most of my constituents won't stop calling it Washington National," he said.

Although the battle over the airport name became partisan, the fiercest opposition came from the Washington area. Alexandria and Arlington leaders urged Congress to leave the name alone, as did the Greater Washington Board of Trade and former Virginia governor A. Linwood Holton Jr., who is a Republican.

Opponents argued that Congress was intruding on a 50-year lease it had granted to the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, which runs National and Dulles International Airport and raised millions of dollars for the airports' new terminals.

Many members of Congress, particularly Republicans, said they viewed the airport as a "national treasure" that belongs to the whole country, not just people for whom it is the local airport.

"Millions of visitors to Washington each year will see Ronald Reagan's name -- a fitting symbol for the man who initiated the concept of a responsive, smaller government, as well as a worldwide movement of freedom," said House Speaker Newt Gingrich (R-Ga.).

Opponents pointed out that the new $800 million International Trade Center on Pennsylvania Avenue will be dedicated in April in Reagan's honor and that the next Nimitz-class aircraft carrier will be christened the U.S.S. Reagan. They also said imposing a name change on reluctant local officials violated Reagan's penchant for turning power over to local governments.

Rep. James P. Moran Jr. (D-Va.), whose district includes the airport, complained about the example being set by a bill that removed the name of one president, George Washington, and replaced it with another president's name. In part, the move to keep "Washington" in the airport name was seen as an effort to mollify some critics.

But Moran said he still viewed the action as an "arrogant abuse of power" by majority Republicans, and he warned that it could become a bad precedent for future Congresses.

Moran also argued that businesses arrayed around the airport could be forced to spend thousands of dollars to change signs, printed promotional materials and other records because of the name change.

The House vote to honor Republican Reagan broke down largely along party lines, with only 18 Democrats supporting the bill and three Republicans opposing it.

Rep. Constance A. Morella was the only Maryland Republican to vote against the measure, joining the state's four Democratic House members.

All House Republicans from Virginia, including Davis and Frank R. Wolf, voted for the bill. Moran and the other Virginia Democrats voted against it.

Sens. John W. Warner (R-Va.) and Barbara A. Mikulski (D-Md.) supported the bill. Sens. Charles S. Robb (D-Va.) and Paul S. Sarbanes (D-Md.) voted against it.

Staff writers Sylvia Moreno and Lena H. Sun contributed to this report.


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