7 vroue wat hindernisse in sport verbreek het

7 vroue wat hindernisse in sport verbreek het



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1. Janet Guthrie — Deur die glasplafon jaag

Janet Guthrie was nie die eerste vrou wat agter die stuur van 'n renmotor geklim het nie, maar sy het die eerste vrou geword wat deelgeneem het aan NASCAR se Winston Cup -reeks (vandag bekend as die Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series), in die 1976 Wêreld 600 -wedloop. Haar 15de plek was 'n mylpaal in die geskiedenis van vroue in sport, maar Guthrie was nie tevrede met die deurbraak van die geslagsgrens nie. Die volgende jaar het die voormalige ruimtevaartingenieur van die Universiteit van Michigan vorentoe gestoot om die eerste vrou te word wat in die Daytona 500 - NASCAR se weergawe van die Super Bowl deelgeneem het. Later dieselfde jaar skakel sy oor na oop wielrenne en word die eerste vrou wat ooit vir die Indianapolis 500 gekwalifiseer het. Tot op hede het minder as 20 jaers (manlik of vroulik) aan beide Daytona 500 en Indianapolis 500 deelgeneem. vrou om hierdie prestasie te behaal, is Danica Patrick, wat vandag een van die mees herkenbare sterre van wedrenne is.

Guthrie het 12de geëindig in die Daytona 500 en 29ste in die Indy 500 (motorprobleme het haar in albei nie beter afgehandel nie), maar dit neem nie haar prestasies weg nie. Sy is in 2006 opgeneem in die International Motorsports Hall of Fame.

2. Becky Hammon — Eerste vrou -hulpafrigter in die NBA

Op 5 Augustus 2014 onderteken die San Antonio Spurs Hammon as 'n hulpafrigter, wat haar die eerste voltydse vroulike hulpafrigter maak, nie net in die NBA nie, maar in enige van die vier groot Noord-Amerikaanse sportsoorte. 'N Jaar later is die boorling van die Rapid City, Suid -Dakota, aangewys as die hoofafrigter van die span se Summer League -span - die eerste vrou wat ook hierdie pos beklee het. Hammon se basketbalstamboom spreek vanself, en die Spur se ondertekening daarvan was geen publisiteitsstunt nie. Na 'n produktiewe universiteitsloopbaan vir die Colorado State Rams, was sy die vyfde aluin wat hul nommer aftree. Hammond het met die New York Liberty van die WNBA onderteken, ondanks die onttrek na haar senior universiteitsseisoen, waar sy agt seisoene gespeel het voordat sy vir nog agt na die San Antonio Stars verhuis het. Gedurende haar loopbaan van 16 jaar is sy gekies vir ses WNBA All-Star-spanne, was sy twee keer die eerste span in die WNBA en in 2011 is sy gekies as een van die 15 beste WNBA-spelers van alle tye.

Miskien sal Hammon die laaste struikelblok uit die weg ruim en die eerste vroulike hoofafrigter in die NBA word. d.

3. Toni Stone -swaai deur die bofbalversperring

In 1953 teken Toni Stone met die Indianapolis Clowns van die Negro American League, wat haar die eerste vroulike professionele bofbalspeler in 'n top-liga vir mans maak. Stone, gebore as Marcenia Lyle Stone op 17 Julie 1921 in St. Paul, Minnesota, het op 10-jarige ouderdom begin bofbal speel in plaaslike kinderligas. reispan. Toe sy in die veertigerjare na San Francisco verhuis om vir haar sieklike suster te sorg, het haar bofballoopbaan behoorlik posgevat. Sy verander haar naam na Toni, skeer haar tien jaar oud en begin probeer vir manspanne in die omgewing. In 1949 het sy by die San Francisco Sea Lions van die West Coast Negro Baseball League aangesluit. Alhoewel sy teistering en beledigings van ondersteuners en spanmaats moes hanteer wat beswaar daarteen gemaak het dat sy 'n manswedstryd speel, het haar besoek aan die Seeleeus haar 'n broodnodige blootstelling gebied.

Sy het voordeel getrek uit die bekendheid deur by die Clowns in 1953 aan te sluit. Alhoewel sy gedeeltelik aangestel is omdat die eienaar gedink het dat 'n vrou op die rooster ondersteuners sou lok, verdien sy haar speeltyd met harde werk en toewyding. Sy het mishandeling van ondersteuners, spanmaats en teenstanders verduur - baie van haar het dit geniet om haar te steek terwyl sy in die tweede basis gly toe sy die sak bedek - en meer as haar eie gehou het. Sy het die legendariese werper Satchel Paige raakgeloop en met toekomstige Hall of Famers Willie Mays en Ernie Banks gespeel.

Aan die einde van die seisoen is sy verruil vir die Kansas City Monarchs, die span waarvoor Jackie Robinson gespeel het voordat sy die kleurskerm van die Major League in 1947 verbreek het. Sy is in November 1996 oorlede.

4. Manon Rheaume — Eerste vrou wat 'n NHL -kontrak onderteken het

In 1992 het die uitbreiding van die NHL, Tampa Bay Lightning, die doelwagter Manon Rheaume as 'n gratis agent onderteken. Toe die ink droog was, het die boorling van Beauport, Quebec, die eerste vrou geword wat ooit 'n NHL -kontrak gesluit het. Alhoewel Phil Esposito, hoofbestuurder van Lightning, erken dat publisiteit 'n belangrike faktor was in die besluit om Rheaume in die eerste plek uit te nooi, het hy geglo dat sy genoeg vaardighede het om te speel teen diegene wat op die hoogste vlakke van die spel meeding. Rheaume was nie nuut om die eerste vrou in die spel te wees nie. Die jaar voordat sy professioneel onderteken is, was sy die eerste vrou wat ooit by 'n top junior afdeling span (die Trios-Rivieres Draveurs van die Quebec Major Junior Hockey League) geteken het. In 1992 word sy die eerste vrou wat ooit in een van die vier groot pro -ligas vir mans gespeel het, en het deelgeneem aan 'n NHL -uitstallingswedstryd. Terwyl sy twee doele aangeteken het, het sy sewe houe gered. Sy het in 1993 nog 'n uitstallingswedstryd vir die Lightning gespeel, en het uiteindelik onderteken by die Lightning se IHL -filiaal, die Atlanta Knights. Sy het in verskillende spanne gespeel tot haar aftrede in 1997. Twaalf jaar later het sy uit haar pensioen gegaan om haar laaste professionele hokkie te speel in 'n uitstallingswedstryd vir die IHL's Flint Generals.

Afgesien van haar prestasies op die professionele ys, was sy ook 'n tweemalige goue medaljewenner in die IIHF-vrouekampioenskappe (die toptoernooi in vrouehokkie) en 'n silwer medaljewenner in vrouehokkie tydens die Olimpiese Winterspele 1998 in Nagano.

5. Pat Palinkas - hou dit vas in Pro Football


In 2014 het Jen Welter opslae gemaak deur te teken by die Texas Revolusie van die Indoor Football League. As agteruitgangster het sy die eerste vrou geword wat ooit 'n 'kontak' -posisie in 'n mansvoetbalspan gespeel het, maar sy was nie die eerste vrou wat by 'n professionele manspan aangesluit het nie.

In 1970 teken die Orlando Panthers ('n minderjarige span) Pat Palinkas, 'n plekhouer. Daardie somer het Pat se man, Steve, as 'n skopper vir die Panthers probeer, maar hy het 'n slegte toets gehad en nie geslaag nie. Hy het die Panthers oortuig om hom nog 'n kans te gee, maar ook om hom toe te laat om sy vrou, Pat, as sy houer te bring. Die tweede toets het so goed gegaan met Pat wat die bal vasgehou het dat die Panthers albei kontrakte onderteken het.

Later die somer het Pat en Steve saam hul debuut gemaak in 'n uitstallingswedstryd, en Pat het onmiddellik die bekendste sokkerspeler in die gesin geword. Nadat hulle die eerste hou wat sy gekry het, misgeloop het, het die paar nooit weer 'n skop gemis nie. Na slegs twee wedstryde het Steve sy been beseer en moes ophou, maar Pat het uiteindelik nog drie wedstryde vir die Panthers gespeel. Uiteindelik was dit nie so lekker vir haar sonder haar man daar nie, so sy het ook afgetree. Vroue soos Jen Welter, Julie Harshberger ('n skopper in die Continental Indoor Football League vir sewe seisoene) en Katie Hnida (wat ook in die CIFL in 2010 gespeel het) het Pat Palinkas 'n ere verskuldig.

6. Diane Crump — Maak perdgeskiedenis in die derby

Voor 1970 het nog nooit 'n vroulike jockey in die bekendste perderesies ter wêreld, die Kentucky Derby, gery nie. Dit het alles verander op 2 Mei, toe Milford, Connecticut, die inboorling Diane Crump opgesaal het op 'n perd met die naam Fathom en na die beginhek gekom het. Die reis na die lyn was nie maklik nie. In haar eerste wedloop op die Hialeah Park -renbaan in Florida in 1969, uit vrees vir haar veiligheid, het Crump 'n volledige polisiebegeleiding op die terrein nodig gehad. Tydens daaropvolgende wedrenne moes sy veg deur menigtes woedende toeskouers wat haat uitgespoel het teen 'n jong vrou wat hulle glo die perdewedrenne sou verwoes.

Uiteindelik het Crump 15de uit 17 geëindig, maar haar stryd was nie tevergeefs nie. Haar krag en volharding het jare lank vroue -jockeys geïnspireer. Vandag, hoewel hulle nog steeds die minderheid in die 'Sport of Kings' is, maak etlike dosyne vroue hul bestaan ​​as professionele jockeys in Noord -Amerika.

7. Mo’ne Davis — Inspirasie vir die volgende generasie jong atlete

As dit by die Little League World Series (LLWS) kom, sal 2014 vir altyd bekend staan ​​as die jaar van Mo’ne Davis. Die toe 13-jarige van Philadelphia het na die nasionale sporttoneel gegaan terwyl hy vir die Taney Dragons (wat Pennsylvania in die reeks verteenwoordig het) gespeel het. Net deur op die veld te tree, maak sy geskiedenis as die eerste Afro -Amerikaanse meisie wat ooit in die LLWS (18de meisie algeheel) gespeel het, maar sy was daar nie klaar nie. Sy het die skare in haar heel eerste begin bedrieg en 'n volledige afsluiting van die wedstryd geslaan - die eerste wat 'n meisie ooit opgedoen het (dit was ook die eerste oorwinning vir 'n vroulike werper). Sy het net twee binneslaan -treffers opgegee en agt teenstanders geslaan. Sy gooi 70 mph fastballs (waarskynlik die ekwivalent van 93 mph major league fastball) en 'n nare curve ball. Skielik was 'gooi soos 'n meisie' iets wat elke kind, seuntjie of meisie, wou hê dat hulle kon doen.

Die wêreld het kennis geneem, en Davis het Twitter -uitroepe gekry van Mike Trout, Kevin Durant en ander topatlete. Die laaste wedstryd wat sy in die reeks gespeel het, het 'n 3,4 oornag -telling behaal, wat die gemiddelde LLWS -spelgradering meer as verdubbel het en dit die gewildste reekswedstryd van alle tye gemaak het. Ongelukkig het die span van Mo’ne nie 'n LLWS -titel gehad nie, maar die meisie van Philly met 'n vinnige bal wat nie geklop kon word nie, was 'n treffer. Sy was op die voorblad van Sports Illustrated in Augustus 2014 - die eerste Little Leaguer wat ooit verskyn het. Sy het die ESPY -toekenning vir beste deurbraak -atleet huis toe geneem, saam met Mike Piazza, Tiger Woods, Tom Brady en Lebron James. Sy was selfs die onderwerp van 'n mini-dokumentêr onder die regie van Spike Lee genaamd 'Throw Like A Girl'.

Ondanks dit alles, is die sport van Mo'ne eintlik basketbal. Dit kan haar weerhou om die voorspelling van die goewerneur van Pennsylvania, Tom Corbett, te verwesenlik dat sy eendag die eerste vroulike hoofleier sal wees. Ten minste is sy 'n inspirasie vir elkeen wat die prestasie bereik.


Die 15: rassegrense wat in sport gebreek word

Daar word gereeld gesê dat sport die samelewing vooruitloop as dit kom by knelpunte soos rasseverhoudinge, soos toe Jackie Robinson die baseball se kleurgrens in 1945 verbreek het. Elke 15 April — die dag waarop Robinson sy eerste speel spel met die Dodgers in 1947 en#8212 Major League Baseball herken hom met 'n spesiale dag. Hier ter ere van Jackie Robinson Day, is hier 'n lys van die mees treffende oomblikke toe rassehindernisse deur die sportgeskiedenis verbreek is, terwyl die tweede baseman van Brooklyn Dodgers die eerste plek behaal het.

1. Jackie Robinson breek die kleurversperring (30 Oktober 1945) — Die president van Brooklyn Dodgers, tak Rickey, se sogenaamde “ puik eksperiment ” bly een van die belangrikste besluite in die geskiedenis wat rasseverhoudinge betref. Toe Jackie Robinson, tweede baseman van Kansas City Monarchs, sy naam op 'n Dodgers-kontrak skryf en sodoende die eerste Afro-Amerikaner word wat by die moderne era by 'n Major League Baseball-span aangesluit het, het hy nie net die weg gebaan vir swartes in bofbal nie, maar hy het ook 'n nasionale simbool van rasse -gelykheid. As dit nie die onverbiddelike karakter van Robinson was nie, te midde van doodsdreigemente deur ondersteuners, boontjiebolle van opponerende kruike en koue skouers waar hy ook al gegaan het, het die plan moontlik misluk.

2. Jesse Owens smash Olympic Records (9 Augustus 1936) Adolf Hitler, bevelvoerder van die Derde Ryk, wou die Olimpiese Spele van 1936 in Berlyn, Duitsland, gebruik om sy idee dat Ariese atlete beter was, te ondersteun. Maar Jesse Owens, 'n Afro-Amerikaanse naelloper uit Alabama, het op Hitler se parade gereën deur drie wêreldrekords te breek en vier goue medaljes te behaal, in die 100 meter (10,3 sekondes), 200 houe (20,7 sekondes), 4-by -100 aflos (39,8 sekondes) en verspring (26-8 1/4 voet).

3. The Human Rights Salute (16 Oktober 1968) — Nadat hulle onderskeidelik eerste en derde geëindig het tydens die 200 meter-stryd tydens die Olimpiese Somerspele 1968 in Mexico City, het Tommie Smith en John Carlos elk 'n swart handskoen vuis gelig terwyl die volkslied van die Verenigde State gespeel het. Die twee, saam met Peter Norman, die Australiese silwermedaljewenner wat die podium gedeel het, het baadjies gedra met menseregte -kentekens. Die gebaar kom tydens 'n tydperk van gespanne burgerlike onrus in die Verenigde State en was 'n openlike verklaring oor die huidige stand van rasseverhoudinge in die Amerikaanse samelewing.

4. Cassius Clay word Muhammad Ali (26 Februarie 1964) — 'n Dag nadat Clay tydens die ontsteltenis van Sonny Liston die swaargewigbokskampioenskap geëis het, verklaar hy dat hy by die Nation of Islam sal aansluit en sy naam na Muhammad Ali sal verander. Drie jaar later het Ali weer politieke nuus gekry toe hy tydens die Viëtnam -oorlog op grond van godsdienstige gronde die konsep teëgestaan ​​het. Daar was ander swart atlete wat voor Ali teen die stelsel geveg het, maar min van hulle het die wêreldwye podium gehad.

5. All-black line-up van Texas Western ’s (19 Maart 1966) Don Haskins, basketbalafrigter van Texas Westerse mans, het in die 1966 -seisoen vyf swartes begin en die eerste afrigter geword. Toe, tydens die 󈨆 NCAA -kampioenskapwedstryd in Maryland se Cole Field House, gebruik Haskins die nasionale verhoog om dit weer te doen. Voor 'n geheel-wit skare, waarvan sommige tydens die wedstryd gekonfedereerde vlae en onwelvoeglike gesange gehad het, het blankes met 'n 72- 65 oorwinning.

6. Suid -Afrikaanse rugbyspan eis 1995 Wêreldbeker (24 Junie 1995) — Vir meer as 40 jaar het Suid -Afrika onder 'n apartheidstelsel gewerk, met minderheidswitte wat die swart meerderheid in die politieke sektor oorheers het. Die land het groot omwentelinge gely, selfs toe apartheid in 1993 geëindig het. Die Wêreldbeker-rugbytoernooi in 1995, waartydens die Suid-Afrikaanse Springbokke die Nieu-Seelandse All Blacks met 15-12 verslaan het, het gehelp om die spanning tussen die twee partye te verlig.

7. The New Home Run King (8 April 1974) Henry Aaron was 'n tekort daaraan om Babe Ruth se rekord van alle tye van 714 jacks gedurende die 1973-seisoen te bind. Voor die seisoen het Aaron doodsdreigemente en haatpos ontvang van aanhangers wat nie 'n Afro-Amerikaner as die koning van die huis kon sien nie. Die vitriol was so erg dat 'n redakteur van die Atlanta Journal die doodsberig van Aaron in daardie seisoen geskryf het, ingeval hy vermoor word. Maar Aaron het die winter oorleef, en hy het huisloop nr. 715, 8 April 1974, voor 53.775 mense in Atlanta gehaal.

8. Louis Knocks Out Schemling (22 Junie 1938) Omdat Nazi-Duitsland aan die bewind gekom het en Hitler se politieke en rasse-oortuigings wêreldwyd bekend geword het, was die stryd tussen Afro-Amerikaner Joe Louis en die Duitse boorling Max Schemling meer as net 'n bokswedstryd. Alhoewel Schemling geen Nazi was nie, het hy die fascisme verteenwoordig, terwyl Louis 'n simbool vir demokrasie geword het. Louis het 124 sekondes geneem om Schemling uit te skakel en het 'n seldsame Afro-Amerikaanse afgod geword tydens 'n era van skeiding.

9. Tiger Woods wen die meesters (13 April 1997) Augusta National, die webwerf van die Masters, het 'n Afro-Amerikaanse speler nie tot 1975 toegelaat nie en het Afro-Amerikaners nie toegelaat om tot 1990 by die klub aan te sluit nie. Maar in April 1997 het 'n 21-jarige Tiger Woods het die jongste speler ooit geword wat die Masters gewen het met 'n 270 — slag van Jack Nicklaus ’ all-time baanrekord. Die oorweldigende oorwinning het Woods in die kollig geplaas en gehelp om sekere idees rondom Afro-Amerikaners in gholf te ontken.

10. Jack Johnson is die eerste swart swaargewigkampioen (26 Desember 1908) Die voormalige Konfederasie het van 1876 af onder die Jim Crow-wette gewerk totdat hulle in 1965 verbied is, wat beteken dat Afro-Amerikaners in die openbare omgewing soos minderwaardige burgers behandel is. Een van die eerste swart atlete wat Jim Crow se wette oortree het, was Jack Johnson, wat die Kanadese Tommy Burns tydens die 14de ronde vir die swaargewigtitel van die wêreld uitgeskakel het. Tot baie blankes se ergernis het Jackson die kampioenskap vir die volgende sewe jaar gehou.

11. Ernie Davis wen die Heisman (6 Desember 1961) — Ernie Davis, 'n driemalige All-American, het in die voetspore van sy mede-Syracuse-alum Jim Brown gevolg deur sy vierjarige loopbaan in die universiteitsvoetbal te loop. Daar was baie goeie swart voetbalspelers voor Davis, maar nie een van hulle is ooit met 'n Heisman geskenk nie. In 1961 het Davis Bob Ferguson, Ohio State, uitgestof vir die toekenning, wat swart atlete hoop gegee het dat hulle ook aanspraak op universiteitsvoetbal en die mees gesogte toekenning kon maak.

12. Alles oor die skoene (Maart 1985) Michael Jordan het nie net 'n bemarkingsverskynsel begin toe hy in 1985 'n ooreenkoms van $ 2,5 miljoen met Nike onderteken het om die Air Jordan-skoenreeks in 1985 te begin nie. Sy meteoriese toename in die advertensiebedryf het getoon dat swart atlete, selfs diegene wat 'n stadsport soos basketbal beoefen het, inderdaad die top van die popkultuurwêreld kan bereik. Na Jordanië het NBA-spelers, soos Allen Iverson, Kevin Garnett, Dwayne Wade en LeBron James, almal voordeel getrek uit produksiedruk-transaksies.

13. Yao Ming Bridges The Gap (26 Junie 2002) — 'n Voorbestemde Hall of Famer voordat die Houston Rockets hom gekies het met die algehele keuse tydens die NBA-konsep van 2002, Yao Ming het nie die hype gestand gedoen as 'n sensasie van 7 voet-6 uit China nie. Tog het Ming se blote teenwoordigheid in die NBA Yao -manie in die Volksrepubliek aangespoor, wat 'n totaal Amerikaanse spel gewild gemaak het in die oostelike koninkryk. Boonop het die opkoms van Ming ’ hoop gegee vir jong Chinese atlete, wat eendag ook in die NBA wou speel.

14. Gibson Is Jackie Robinson Of Tennis (1956) Athea Gibson was die eerste Afro-Amerikaner wat sterstatus in tennis behaal het, en in 1956 het sy die eerste swart geword om 'n Grand Slam te wen toe sy die Franse Ope-titel verower het. Sy is twee keer aangewys as die vroulike atleet van die jaar van die Associated Press en het 11 Grand Slams gewen, beide in enkelspel en dubbelspel. In 1971 word sy verkies tot die International Tennis Hall of Fame. Gibson het die deure vir Afro-Amerikaners in tennis oopgemaak en was 'n inspirasie vir toekomstige swart vroulike sterre soos Venus en Serena Williams.

15. Ichiro neem MLB by Storm (1 April 2002) Ander Japannese bofbalspelers was geskik in die Verenigde State voor die aankoms van Ichiro Suzuki in 2002 in Seattle, maar hulle het nie soveel sukses behaal nie. Ichiro het rekords gebreek vir die meeste treffers gedurende 'n enkele seisoen (262) en opeenvolgende seisoene met minstens 200 treffers (10). Hy het die teorie dat Japanse spelers nie in die Major League Baseball kon uitblink nie, weerlê, en gevolglik het baie MLB -spanne meer tyd en geld in Asiatiese bofbal begin belê.

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16 ongelooflike vroue wat hindernisse in die wye wêreld van sport afgebreek het

In 'n wêreld waar stereotipes hoogty vier, word vrouens tipies as swakker, stadiger en minder atleties beskou as die meeste mans. Dit is opgeteken in die hele geskiedenishandboeke en vroue in die geskiedenis is beperk tot 'n leeftyd om koeke te bak en vir hul kinders te sorg terwyl die mans besig is om die spek huis toe te bring.

Gelukkig is die tye dat dit a-changin is en#8217. Nou kan vroue die broodwinner wees en die wenner van die spel. Ons is 'n deel van hierdie vordering te danke aan 'n handjievol onbevreesde vroue wat nie bang was om hierdie stereotipes af te breek deur die deur mans gedomineerde sportwêreld te betree nie. Hulle het geweier om net binne te bly om met Barbie -poppe te speel en hul naels te verf toe hulle jonk was, omdat hulle die lewenslange voordele van 'n sport as meisie besef het.

2016 vorm reeds 'n groot jaar vir sulke kinders in die sportwêreld. In Januarie het Kathryn Smith sportgeskiedenis gemaak toe sy aangestel is as die eerste voltydse vroulike afrigter in die NFL vir die Buffalo Bills. Smith het meer as 'n dekade se professionele voetbalervaring onder die knie, en ons is vol vertroue dat sy die vrou genoeg sal wees vir die taak.

Ter ere van die vorige en huidige vordering wat gemaak is, het ons 'n groep vroue saamgestel wat naam gemaak het in sport, wat gebreekte geslagsgrense agtergelaat het. Hulle is wonderlike rolmodelle en in die algemeen net slegte mense, want hulle was nie bang om die seuns te wys dat hulle net so goed (en miskien selfs beter) as hulle kan gooi, skop, hardloop en slaan nie. Stap eenkant, mans, want hierdie vroue kan jou waarskynlik iets of twee oor sport leer.


'N Verkenner het 'n videoband van Rheaume na die Tampa Bay Lightning gestuur, sy is uitgenooi om te kamp en het haar debuut gemaak in 1992 teen die Blues. 'Dit het my lewe basies verander en my lewe in 'n ander rigting geneem as wat ek wou gaan,' het Rheaume gesê, wat silwer vir Kanada gewen het tydens die 1998 Olimpiese Winterspele.

Aan boord van Colonial Affair by die Belmont Stakes in 1993, het sy die eerste vroulike jockey geword wat 'n Triple Crown -wedloop gewen het. Sy het 3 704 oorwinnings behaal en was die eerste vrou wat in die National Museum of Racing en Hall of Fame opgeneem is. Krone het 'n gebreekte knieskyf verduur (in 'n wedloop het sy gewen), enkelbreuk, 'n val waarin sy albei hande gebreek het en 'n arm gebreek het.


Ida B. Wells

Ons verbind die name Elizabeth Cady Stanton en Susan B. Anthony dikwels met vroue wat stemreg kry, maar die bydraes van Ida B. Wells moet nie oor die hoof gesien word nie. Ida, wat veral bekend is vir haar werk in die vroeë burgerregtebeweging, het ook die Alpha Suffrage Club van Chicago begin, wat die eerste Afro-Amerikaanse vrouestemregsorganisasie was, volgens die Washington Post. In 1913 woon sy die Women & rsquos Suffrage Parade in Washington, DC by, ondanks die feit dat blanke organiseerders vir haar en ander swart vroue gesê het om agter in die ry te marsjeer. Sy het geweier en het op pad gegaan om aan die voorkant van haar afvaardiging van die staat te marsjeer.


15 baanbrekende vroue wat die afgelope 150 jaar hindernisse afgebreek het

Die afgelope 150 jaar het 'n groot verskuiwing in vroueregte regoor die wêreld plaasgevind.

Susan B. Anthony het gehelp om vroue stemreg te kry.

Rosa Parks het 'n simbool geword van die burgerregtebeweging vir haar werk.

In die afgelope 150 jaar het vroue se rolle wêreldwyd dramaties verander.

Met baanbrekers soos Susan B. Anthony en Rosa Parks wat vir gelykheid veg, kan vroue vandag omtrent alles wees waarna hulle hulself wil toespits.

Alhoewel daar steeds gewerk word aan gelyke regte vir almal, is hier 'n paar van die vroue wat groot hindernisse verbreek het:

Shirley Chisholm het as die eerste Afro -Amerikaanse vrou in die kongres vir ras- en geslagsgelykheid geveg.

Shirley Chisholm het struikelblokke in die Amerikaanse politiek gebreek as die eerste Afro -Amerikaanse vrou in die kongres tydens 'n tyd van uiterste diskriminasie in die Verenigde State.

Sy begin haar loopbaan as kleuterskoolonderwyseres en behaal haar meestersgraad in elementêre onderwys aan die Universiteit van Columbia in 1951.

In 1969 het Chisholm gehardloop en 'n setel in die kongres verower, waar sy uiteindelik sewe termyne uitgedien het en die bynaam 'quoting Fighting Shirley' gekry het vir haar passievolle werk vir ras- en geslagsgelykheid.

Sy was in 1972 die eerste vrou en Afro -Amerikaner wat as president van die Verenigde State onder 'n groot politieke party verkies het.

Malala Yousafzai veg steeds vir die reg van meisies om skool toe te gaan.

Malala Yousafzai het grootgeword in Pakistan, waar die Taliban beheer oorgeneem het. Meisies mag nie meer skoolgaan nie, en baie van die instellings is vernietig.

Op net 11 -jarige ouderdom het Yousafzai op 'n blog teen die Taliban begin spreek en haar ervarings gedokumenteer. Nadat sy erkenning gekry het vir haar werk, op 15 -jarige ouderdom, is sy in 2012 op pad huis toe van die skool af deur 'n lid van die Taliban in die kop geskiet.

Na haar herstel in die Verenigde Koninkryk, het Yousafzai die Malala -fonds begin, 'n liefdadigheidsorganisasie wat veg vir meisies en onderwys. In 2014 het sy op 17-jarige ouderdom die jongste Nobelpryswenner geword.

So onlangs as 2018 was daar nog meer as 130 miljoen meisies wat nie op skool was nie, en Yousafzai gaan voort om deur te breek met haar werk oor die hele wêreld.

Die baanbrekende ontdekkings van Marie Curie het gelei tot die gebruik van bestraling om siektes te behandel.

Marie Curie het 'n wêreldbekende fisikus geword in 'n tyd toe vroue nie vir hierdie tipe rolle beskou is nie.

Curie, gebore in Pole, verlaat Warschau in 1891 om fisika en wiskunde aan die Sorbonne in Parys te studeer. Daar ontmoet sy haar man Pierre Curie, en saam begin hulle ondersoek instel na die skeiding van radium van radioaktiewe residue.

Hulle werk oor radioaktiwiteit het aan hulle die Nobelprys vir Fisika besorg.

Nadat haar man in 1906 oorlede is, het Curie haar in haar loopbaan gewerp en die eerste vrou geword wat by die Sorbonne onderwys gegee het. Sy verdien later 'n tweede Nobelprys, hierdie keer in Chemie vir haar werk om suiwer radium te isoleer.

Curie was die eerste vrou wat 'n Nobelprys gewen het.

Haar baanbrekerswerk het die gebruik van bestraling vir die behandeling van siektes bevorder en navorsing oor kernfisika bevorder.

Junko Tabei het geslagstereotipes verbreek as die eerste vrou wat na die berg van Everest geklim het.

Die Japannese bergklimmer, Junko Tabei, was nie net die eerste vrou wat ooit na die berg van Everest getrek het nie, maar sy was ook die eerste wat die Seven Summits voltooi het - die hoogste berg op elke kontinent.

Tabei stig in 1969 die Ladies ' Climbing Club, 'n bergklimgroep vir alle vroue wat uiteindelik in 1975 saam die berg Everest sou opdraf.

Alhoewel Tabei se prestasie om Mount Everest te beklim op sy eie groot was, het haar Ladies ' Climbing Club hindernisse in Japan gebreek, waar destyds geglo is dat vroue net vir hul gesinne moet sorg.

Frida Kahlo se kuns vier die vroulike vorm en die Mexikaanse kultuur.

Nadat hy 'n uitmergelende besering en onstuimige huwelik oorkom het, het Frida Kahlo een van die beroemdste skilders in Mexiko geword.

In 1925 was sy in 'n busongeluk wat vereis het dat sy gedurende haar leeftyd meer as 30 operasies moes ondergaan, maar sy het tydens haar herstel geleer om te skilder.

Teen die dertigerjare het die huwelik van Kahlo swaar gekry. Haar man het 'n verhouding met haar suster gehad, terwyl Kahlo ook buite -egtelike verhoudings met mans en vroue gehad het, so die egpaar is geskei.

Kahlo het bekend geword vir haar surrealistiese selfportrette wat beide die vroulike vorm en die Mexikaanse kultuur vier.

Vandag word sy aangekondig as 'n feministiese en LGBTQ -ikoon.

Valentina Tereshkova was die eerste vrou in die ruimte.

Valentina Tereshkova was die eerste vrou wat ooit na die ruimte gegaan het.

Terwyl sy in 'n tekstielmeul gewerk het, het Tereshkova by 'n valskermklub aangesluit, waar sy 150 spronge gemaak het. Met hierdie ervaring het sy 'n brief aan die ruimtesentrum geskryf waarin sy gevra het of sy kon deelneem.

Die Sowjet -ruimte -amptenare het reeds 'n groep vroue saamgestel vir die volgende ruimtevaarderspan. In 1961 besluit hulle dus om Tereshkova te kies om by die volgende klas mense aan te sluit om na die ruimte te gaan.

Na streng opleiding is sy in die ruimte gelanseer vir 'n vlug van 70 uur en 50 minute wat tot 45 omwentelinge om die aarde gelei het.

Katherine Johnson se kranige wiskundevaardighede het gehelp om mense in die ruimte te plaas.

Wiskundige Katherine Johnson het haar uitsonderlike berekeningsvaardighede gebruik om die vliegbane van ruimtetuie vir NASA te bepaal.

Voor haar werk in die ruimtebedryf was Johnson een van die eerste drie Afro -Amerikaanse studente wat in 1939 vir die nagraadse program aan die Universiteit van West Virginia toegelaat is. Kort daarna trou sy en begin met 'n gesin, wat haar wiskundige loopbaan in die wiele ry. .

In 1953 begin Johnson werk vir die National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), wat toe nog geskei was.

Haar werk om vlugtoetse te ontleed, het daartoe gelei dat sy by die Space Task Group aangesluit het vir wat later dieselfde jaar NASA sou word. Sy het baanontleding gedoen vir die eerste menslike ruimtevaart en het persoonlik berekeninge uitgevoer vir John Glenn se baanmissie.

Gedurende haar loopbaan van 33 jaar was sy die eerste vrou in haar afdeling wat krediet vir 'n navorsingsverslag ontvang het, en sy het 26 skrywers of mede-outeurs gaan skryf.

Johnson het in 2015 die presidensiële medalje van vryheid van destydse president Barack Obama ontvang.

Mevrou C.J. Walker het die eerste vroulike selfgemaakte miljoenêr in die VSA geword.

Mevrou C.J. Walker het haar eie reeks haarverzorgingsprodukte in 1905 geskep, wat daartoe gelei het dat sy die eerste vroulike selfgemaakte miljoenêr in die Verenigde State geword het.

Haar besigheid het begin nadat sy 'n behandeling vir haar eie haarverlies uitgevind het, en sy het dit as die Walker -stelsel begin verkoop.

Walker se produkte het gewild geword onder Afro -Amerikaanse vroue omdat sy haar persoonlike ervaring gebruik het en die reeks bemark het wat ontwerp is vir 'n spesifieke haartipe.

Sy gebruik haar rykdom om 'n YMCA in Indianapolis te finansier en skenkings aan die NAACP.

Die moed van Katharine Graham het daartoe gelei dat sy die eerste vroulike uitvoerende hoof van 'n Fortune 500 -onderneming geword het.

Katharine Graham het die weg gebaan vir vroue in die sakewêreld as die eerste vroulike uitvoerende hoof van 'n Fortune 500 -onderneming.

Nadat haar man in 1963 oorlede is, het Graham oorgeneem as president van die Washington Post Company en uiteindelik die koerant tot sukses gelei.

Vanweë die moed en deursettingsvermoë van Graham het die Washington Post die Pentagon Papers gepubliseer, wat die harde realiteite van die Viëtnam -oorlog en die Watergate -skandaal blootgelê het, ondanks die terugslag van die Richard Nixon -administrasie.

Bessie Coleman het leer vlieg en het gelykheid bevorder.

Ondanks armoede en diskriminasie, het Bessie Coleman die eerste Afro -Amerikaanse vroulike vlieënier geword.

Nadat sy die opwindende verhale van vlieëniers wat uit die Eerste Wêreldoorlog teruggekeer het, gehoor het, het sy besluit sy gaan leer vlieg.

Dit was byna onmoontlik vir 'n vrou om gedurende hierdie tydperk haar vlieënierlisensie in die Verenigde State te verwerf, so Coleman is in 1920 na Frankryk om te leer.

Toe sy 'n jaar later met haar internasionale vlieënierslisensie na die Verenigde State terugkeer, word daar met fanfare en feesvieringe gepeuter.

Sy gebruik haar nuutgevonde roem om gelykheid te bevorder - Coleman sal lugvertonings afwys wat Afro -Amerikaners nie sou toelaat nie.

Kathy Switzer was die eerste vrou wat die Boston Marathon amptelik voltooi het.

In 1967 word Kathy Switzer die eerste vrou wat die Boston Marathon as 'n geregistreerde hardloper voltooi het.

Die jaar daarvoor het 'n ander vrou die wedloop voltooi, maar sy het sonder 'n amptelike nommer gehardloop. Switzer het dus vasbeslote geraak om die Boston Marathon binne te gaan en te voltooi, ondanks die terugslag van haar afrigter, kêrel en ander.

Sy het net met haar voorletters deelgeneem en meestal positiewe kommentaar van ander hardlopers gekry. But once marathon officials realized a woman was participating, they found her on the course and tried to rip her race bib off her shirt.

She continued on and ultimately finished the race with her coach by her side.

Anthony dedicated her life to fighting for women's suffrage.

Suffragist Anthony dedicated her life's work to getting women the right to vote. After spending 15 years as a teacher, she joined the abolishment movement and temperance rallies.

She wasn't allowed to speak at the rallies because of her gender, so she ultimately joined the women's rights movement in 1852.

In 1872, the movement took a turn and gained attention when Anthony was arrested for voting. She continued to speak out for women's suffrage, gathering signatures for petitions and lobbying in Congress up until her death in 1906.

She died just a few years shy of the 1920 ratification of the 19th amendment, which finally gave women the right to vote. However, this addition to the constitution did not extend that right to many women of color across the nation.

Parks became a symbol of the civil rights movement.

Parks is best known for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus in segregated Alabama.

Prior to this moment, Parks worked as a seamstress while joining her local chapter of the NAACP.

On December 1, 1955, Parks became the face of the modern civil rights movement when she was arrested for not giving her bus seat to a white man.

This event was a catalyst for the civil rights movement and African Americans began boycotting the buses for just over an entire year.

In November 1956, the US Supreme Court ruled bus segregation unconstitutional.

Parks' work as the "mother of the civil rights movement" left a lasting legacy on the fight for equality in the United States and earned her the Congressional Gold Medal in 1999.

Nancy Pelosi was the first female Speaker of the House.

Known now for her strength and grit as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Nancy Pelosi has worked hard to get to this point.

Her early political involvement began while living in San Francisco with her family, where she was a volunteer Democratic organizer with a knack for fundraising.

She eventually served on the Democratic National Committee and went on to run for California's 12th District Congressional seat, just narrowly winning the first election.

After she proved herself in her first term, she continued to be reelected and hold her ground in Washington D.C. She was known to use her stern voice to unite the moderates and liberals of her party to join together.

In 2002, Pelosi was elected as the minority whip, and later that year, she was voted in as the minority leader. So in 2003, she went on to be the first woman to lead a party in Congress.

In 2007, Pelosi was elected as the first woman to serve as Speaker of the House and continues to fill that position today.

Oprah Winfrey has earned remarkable success as an entertainment icon.

Oprah Winfrey has been called "the most powerful woman in the world" for her impact on the entertainment industry and philanthropic endeavors.

Before becoming a household name and hosting her own show, she was a reporter and anchor at a local TV station.

In 1984, she hosted the TV broadcast "AM Chicago," which was renamed "The Oprah Winfrey Show" less than a year later per its success.

After this program became the most popular talk show in national syndication and won several Emmy awards, Winfrey became the youngest person to win broadcaster of the year at the 1988 International Radio and Television Society Awards.

Later that year, Winfrey became America's third woman to have her own studio when she created Harpo Studios. That studio went on to produce "The Oprah Winfrey Show," which ran for 25 years.

In 1990, Winfrey became the first African American woman to be named one of the most influential people in entertainment by Entertainment Weekly.

In 2003, she also became the first African American woman on Forbes' "World's Richest People" list.

And in 2008, Winfrey created the Oprah Winfrey Network, a cable channel with dozens of original series.

In addition to her philanthropy work, Winfrey still impacts today's entertainment industry with her hard-hitting interviews, broadcasts on her network, and ongoing podcast.


September 20, 1973: Billie Jean King defeats Bobby Riggs in the ‘Battle of the Sexes’ tennis match

Billie Jean King, 1973 | Central Press/Getty Images

Bobby Riggs was a former No. 1 tennis player when he challenged Billie Jean King to a “Battle of the Sexes” match. King won the match and gained respect for women in sports for decades to come. Riggs claimed the women’s game was so inferior to the men’s that even a then-55-year-old like him could beat any young woman. King accepted a match invitation with a $100,000 prize and put Riggs in his place while simultaneously putting women on the map in the world of sports.

Volgende: A famous boxing match defined this boxer’s career.


9 Female Athletes Who Broke Barriers in 2016

Every year, female athletes get more and more of the respect they deserve. But we still live in a time when you can go on national TV and insult male athletes by saying they play like girls.

Charles Barkley explains why he doesn't like the way the Golden State Warriors play basketball pic.twitter.com/DaTud8Lwje

&mdash Agent of NBA Chaos (@World_Wide_Wob) December 2, 2016

In 2015, a University of Southern California TV news media study revealed that the previous year, Sportscenter – ESPN’s flagship highlights and analysis show – devoted just about three percent of its time to women’s sports. This media bias has real-life effects. Women athletes don’t get the recognition they deserve, and audiences continue to think of sports as a strictly male arena. In March, ESPNW Brasil had sports fans look at silhouettes of highlights and guess which athlete they were watching. All of the clips showed female accomplishments, but every single person guesses that they were watching a man.

The Olympics is one of the few times that the media covers women’s sports. But even then, the coverage can be slanted. NBC’s Olympic presentation gave more primetime spots to women than men, according to the New York Times. However, a lot of that coverage went to beach volleyball – where the women wear bikinis.

Then, there was the blatantly sexist coverage. After swimmer Katinka Hosszu and shooter Corey Cogdell-Unrein owned their respective sports, the media highlighted the men in their lives. Commentators discussed whether female athletes should wear makeup, they described a judo match between two women as a catfight, and they focused on women’s beauty and their bodies. Unfortunately, fans followed suit. One of the most infuriating moments had a male sports fan mansplaining to an Olympic cyclist how she could get better at her sport.

That trash aside, it shouldn’t be hard to recognize that female athletes are dope and they do dope shit. And there are real moments when you can see that they’re inspiring children of all genders, like this little dude who turned his Neymar jersey into a Marta jersey.

And it wasn’t just at the Olympics, anywhere you can think of women were doing their thing this year. Here are nine amazing athletes and and their accomplishments in 2016:

Amanda Nunes

In the UFC’s history, 11 Brazilian men have won world championships. But until July 9, no woman had accomplished the feat. That changed when Amanda Nunes stopped Miesha Tate in the first round and claimed the Women’s Bantamweight Championship. Nunes also made history by becoming the UFC’s first openly gay champion. Her reward, besides a giant gold belt, is a big money fight headlining the UFC’s end of year card against a returning Ronda Rousey. It’s a tough challenge, but beating the most famous woman in combat sports would set Nunes up for an even bigger 2017.

Mariana Pajón

Pajón medal record summarizes why people nicknamed her the Queen of the BMX. She won gold at six of the last seven BMX World Championships, including the 2016 version which took place in Medellin. For Colombia to have even hosted the event is remarkable, since the country paid the sport very little mind when Pajón was coming up. She then went on to Rio, where she won her second consecutive Olympic gold in Women’s BMX, making her the only Colombian to win two Olympic golds. Pajón’s only 25 years old and in 2020 will have the chance to become the country’s most decorated Olympian ever.

Monica Puig

Puig made history in 2016 when she won Puerto Rico its first-ever Olympic gold. The 32nd ranked tennis player in the world, she upset top-ranked Angelique Kerber in an emotional final match. She then used her platform to write an open letter to the people of her country. “I showed during the Olympics that nothing is impossible,” she said. “When you work hard, stay positive, and never give up, everything is possible. And this doesn’t just apply to sports, but in all areas of life. I know that we, as Puerto Ricans, have been through a lot. But together we’ll return to glory. Together we can do whatever.”

Laurie Hernandez

Hernandez was one of the true breakout stars of the 2016 Summer Olympics. The Puerto Rican gymnast won medals both individually and with her team. Then, she went pro and made herself some paper as the endorsements rained down. Not content to settle with Olympic glory, Hernandez then went on Dancing With the Stars, where she unsurprisingly took home the coveted mirror ball trophy during the 23rd season. Her personality and expressive face, which earned her the Human Emoji nickname, brought an infectious joy to gymnastics and made her a huge fan favorite. Plus, her signature floor routine remains super fun to watch.

Maya Dirado

Argentine-American swimmer DiRado went into the Rio Olympics knowing that she’d be retiring from the sport afterward, no matter her performance. And even after winning four medals and becoming a breakout star of swimming for Team USA, she decided to stick to her guns. With a job at consulting firm McKinsey & Company lined up, DiRado has plans to exercise her mind in the business world from now on. To be honest, her plans for the next Olympics sound pretty dope regardless. “You will find me in Tokyo in 2020 cheering on Team USA and stuffing my face with the best ramen I can find,” she said.

Brayelin Martínez

Although the Dominican Republic’s women’s volleyball team didn’t make it to this year’s Olympics, it still had a nice year. The team took home gold in the Women’s Pan-American Volleyball Cup, which they hosted in Santo Domingo. Martínez led the way, and got rewarded as the tournament’s MVP. The future is bright for for the squad, with the 20-year-old Martínez being joined by 21-year-old Winifer Fernández and 24-year-old Brenda Castillo. Outside of the volleyball world, they may get a lot of attention for their looks, but they’ve all earned accolades for their skills.

Omara Durand

Although Durand didn’t get to participate in the Summer Olympics, she dominated the Paralympic Games in Rio. The Cuban sprinter won gold in the 100 and 200 meters in the T12 category, which is for visually impaired athletes. She broke the world record in the 100 with a time of 11.40 seconds and the Paralympic record in the 200 with a time of 23.05.

Amalia Pérez

Mexico’s Pérez made it to her first Paralympics in 2000, where she claimed a silver medal in powerlifting. She’s been competing in the games ever since, and at 43 years old is still stronger than any of us. Pérez won her fifth medal in Rio while setting a world record by lifting 286 pounds. She now has gold in three straight Paralympics to go along with silvers won in Sydney and Athens. Pérez, who dedicated the win to her daughter, doesn’t plan on quitting anytime soon.

Daniela Rosas

At 13 years old, Daniela Rosas made history by becoming the youngest woman to surf the break at Pico Alto. The fearless young Peruvian impressively conquered the 15-foot waves with skills she learned from two of the country’s surfing legends, Sofia Mulanovich and Gabriel Villarán, who now coach 10 to 15 year olds at Proyecto Sofia Mulanovich.


7 Asian American sports trailblazers who changed the games

From athletes who broke the color barrier in professional hockey and basketball to multisport stars and hometown heroes, Asian Americans have been a part of the United States' sporting heritage.

In honor of Asian Pacific American Heritage Month, NBC Asian America looks back at some of these trailblazers in sports.

Victoria Manalo Draves (1924 - 2010)

The first Asian American Olympic champion, Victoria Manalo Draves grew up in San Francisco, the daughter of a Filpino father, Teofilo Manalo, and an English mother, Gertrude Taylor.

Interracial marriages were frowned upon in those days, and an early coach made Manalo Draves use her mother's maiden name in competitions.

“When she was young, her mother would say to her and her two sisters, 'You guys look down at the ground, don't look up,'” David Lyle Draves, Manalo Draves’ son, told NBC News. “They always had to walk and keep their heads down."

She also faced a regular indignity when using a public pool -- the water would be drained the day after she used it.

“This really hurt my mom,” Draves said. “She would actually go to a pool and compete, and after she got done with the meet, they would empty the water out of the pool.”

Verwante

APAHM The golden friendship between the two first Asian American Olympic champions

On Aug. 3, 1948, Manalo Draves became the first Asian American to win an Olympic gold medal, placing first in the women's three-meter springboard at the 1948 London Summer Olympics. After the Olympics, Manolo Draves and her husband opened their own diving school. She was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame in 1969.

In April 2010, Draves passed away because of pancreatic cancer. She was 85.

Walter Achiu (1902 – 1989)

Walter "Sneeze" Achiu was perhaps the first great Asian American multisport star.

Walter's father, Leong Achiu, was born in Shanghai, eventually setting in Hawaii, where he met Walter's Hawaii-born mother. Pronounced "a-choo", Achiu's nickname "Sneeze" seemed a natural thing.

A high school sports star, Walter went to the mainland in 1922 to attend the University of Dayton. The speedy football running back was an All-American honorable mention just three years later. Achiu was considered by the Dayton Daily News to be "the greatest drawing card in the history of the school and also their most popular performer with the fans."

He also starred in baseball, track and wrestling at the University of Dayton.

Achiu reached the National Football League in 1927, playing sparingly for the Dayton Triangles. He's considered the first person of East Asian descent to see NFL action, according to the Washington Post.

Achiu would go on to become a professional wrestling champion, competing into the 1950s.

He was named to the University of Dayton Athletic Hall of Fame in 1974, passing away at the age of 86 in 1989 in Honolulu.

Wataru Misaka (1923 - )

Japanese American Wataru "Wat" Misaka was playing for the New York Knicks at Madison Square Garden over 60 years before "Linsanity."

Selected by the Knicks in the 1947 Basketball Association of America Draft, Misaka became both the first non-white player and first player of Asian descent to play in this precursor league that would become the National Basketball Association.

Because Misaka was from Utah, he was not forced into an incarceration camp during World War II. Instead, Misaka enjoyed a distinguished college career, helping the University of Utah win two national titles. In the 1947 NIT Championship, Misaka was credited with holding All-American Ralph Beard to just one point, leading the Utes to an upset victory over powerhouse Kentucky.

Misaka, however, played just three games for the Knicks in November 1947 before being waived.

"The Knicks had three starting guards already when I joined the team, so there was a certain amount of animosity as players were competing for their positions," Misaka told the Japan Times last year, recalling the circumstances of his departure. "I had been signed by Ned Irish, the Madison Square Garden VP, unbeknownst to the team manager."

He declined an offer to play with the Harlem Globetrotters and went back to school to get his engineering degree.

"The salary for a rookie and the salary for starting engineer weren’t much different," Misaka told Sports Illustrated in 2012.

The 95-year-old Misaka now resides in Utah.

Larry Kwong (1923 – 2018)

A year after Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier with the Brooklyn Dodgers and Wat Misaka broke basketball's with the New York Knicks, Larry Kwong broke hockey's with the New York Rangers.

Hailing from Vernon, British Columbia, Kwong was a leading scorer for the Rangers' farm team, the New York Rovers, earning nicknames "King Kwong" and the "China Clipper".

"He was a big box office draw for them," Kwong's friend Chad Soon told NBC News. "On occasion, the Rovers would outdraw the Rangers at Madison Square Garden."

In March 1948, Kwong appeared as if he was getting his big break. He was summoned by the Rangers to take on the Canadiens at the Montreal Forum. However, the first period passed, and Kwong didn't play. The second period passed, and Kwong didn't play. Finally, in the third period, Kwong got on the ice for exactly one shift.

He was sent back to the Rovers the next day after one NHL shift.

"How can you prove yourself in a minute on the ice?" Kwong asked The Globe & Mail in 2014. "Couldn't even get warmed up."

Soon noted, "Back in 1948, it was hard to catch a break when you looked like Larry did."

Seeing the writing on the wall, Kwong left the Rovers for more lucrative professional opportunities elsewhere.

He played and coached in Europe. When he was hired as player-coach of Switzerland's HC Ambrì-Piotta, he became the first person of Chinese descent to coach a professional hockey team, according to the Calgary Herald.

He also coached tennis in Switzerland.

Verwante

News New generation of Asian American hockey players go pro after historic NHL draft

Kwong died in March 2018 in Calgary. He was 94.

Soon, however, is keeping Kwong's legacy alive. He started a Larry Kwong Appreciation Society on Facebook and is spearheading efforts to get Kwong inducted into both Canada's Sports Hall of Fame and the BC Hockey Hall of Fame.

Wally Yonamine (1925 – 2011)

Japanese American Wally Yonamine faced discrimination from two fronts as a professional athlete.

In 1947, Yonamine was a running back making his debut for the San Francisco 49ers.

"Sometimes when the opposing teams would gang-tackle him, they would punch him, kick him, or pinch him," recalled Bill Mizuno, Yonamine's friend, in "Wally Yonamine: The Man Who Changed Japanese Baseball" by Robert K. Fitts.

After a wrist injury, Yonamine decided to focus on baseball.

In 1951, Yonamine was an American outfielder making his debut for the Yomiuri Giants.

"When the Giants wanted to import an American player, everybody agreed they didn't want a Caucasian American," Fitts told NBC News. "It was still in the middle of the occupation and they felt it wouldn't be good publicity. So they looked for the best Japanese American they could find. That was Wally.

"When he got there, he got chants of 'Yankee, go home' because he was a foreigner. There was also that added issue of being a Nisei," Fitts added, using the Japanese language term for second generation Japanese Americans. "Wally felt that some Japanese really resented that American Japanese did not join their mother country and fight against the Americans."

Yonamine overcame this early resistance to enjoy a long and distinguished baseball career in Japan. He was an 11-time All-Star and became the first foreigner to be a manager. He was also inducted into the Japanese Baseball Hall of Fame in 1994. Yonamine is the only American admitted into the Hall as a player.

He died in Honolulu in 2011, at age 85, because of prostate cancer.

Tiffany Chin (1967 - )

Tiffany Chin became the first Asian American U.S. figure skating champion when she won the 1985 U.S. Figure Skating Championship.

Born in Oakland, California, Chin also won bronze medals at the 1985 and 1986 World Figure Skating Championships and placed fourth at the 1984 Sarajevo Winter Olympics.

She has also been cited as a major role model by Kristi Yamaguchi, the 1992 U.S. champion and 1992 Olympic gold medalist.

“I think it was so key for me to have an Asian American role model and influence to pursue skating,” Yamaguchi told NBC News in February 2018.

Bobby Balcena (1925 – 1990)

When 30-year-old Bobby Balcena stepped up to bat for the Cincinnati Redlegs (now Reds) on Sept. 16, 1956, at Brooklyn's Ebbets Field, he became the first Filipino to appear in a Major League Baseball game.

Ebbets Field was a long way away from the sandlots of Southern California, where the 5-foot-7-inch outfielder grew up playing ball at San Pedro High School. The World War II veteran spent eight years in the minors, bouncing from Mexicali to Toronto to Seattle, before his big league debut in Brooklyn.

"I wasn't up there long. But I was there," a smiling Balcena told the Los Angeles Times .

Balcena struck out against the Dodgers' Sal Maglie, but he had struck a massive blow for Asian Americans in sports.

"As little as he is, he was one helluva football player at San Pedro High as well as a super baseball player," classmate Pete Bentojova recalled. "If he had only been a little bigger, he would have been one of the immortals."

Balcena spent two weeks with Cincinnati, then another six seasons in the high minors with teams from Hawaii to Buffalo.

The 64-year-old died of natural causes in 1990.

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Top 10 Affluent Women Who Broke Gender Stereotypes

For a long time now, the world has been a male-dominated playground where a lot of professions have been reserved for the male species alone to date. From a boardroom meeting to ivy sports leagues, men have been proving their mettle in these fields, while women were ignored or considered incapable of handling many of these jobs with the age-old cliché mentality “She is just a woman”. While women have recently started standing up for equal rights and equal opportunities, a lot of women have faced the heat to prove themselves and build careers in a lot of these male-dominated arenas and have emerged as winners, paving the way for a lot more women to follow.

On this International Women’s day, PromptCloud would like to salute these women who have rebelled against the pre-defined gender stereotypes and broken multiple barriers to reach the position they are in today. Let’s have a look at these role models who have lit a thousand dreams in the eyes of many and are a source of tremendous inspiration for everyone.

1. Angela Merkel- Germany’s first female chancellor, Angela, has remained at the top of Forbes’s most powerful women list for 5 years now. Since her introduction to the political office in 2005, she has won many awards for great political work and her party’s progression. She has led Germany through its economic and social prosperity commendably and has catapulted the women’s role in politics to greater heights with such great standards.

2. Susan Wojcicki– The CEO of YouTube and a powerful role model for all women in tech, Susan is a strong believer in creating equal opportunities for women in technology. At the recent Grace Hopper Celebration, she was caught saying “Unless we make a change today, the future of tech will look like just it does today”, referring to the current imbalanced gender gap in one of the largest growing economic and social shift of the century. Now here is a woman striving to revolutionize the technology fields and bring in a more feminine perspective.

3. Janet Yellen– There was a time when banks were defined as home to men in suits. Janet Yellen created history by becoming the first woman head of the Federal Reserve. Nominated by President Obama, Janet Yellen took over her chair in October 2013 and since then created limitless possibilities for women dreaming of making it big in the banking sector. She is a powerful role model for women in the states and across the globe.

4. Col. Jeannie Flynn Leavitt- Col. Jeannie Flynn Leavitt has been breaking gender stereotypes in the aviation industry for nearly two decades. From becoming the first female fighter pilot to the first female wing commander, she has been rewriting rules for girls who wish to join the air force, giving wings to their desires to fly planes which were considered to be only the boys’ toys. Merit and passion do fly higher than stereotypes in this case, doesn’t it?

5. Erin DiMeglio– To change the gender bias, we have to change the system from the root level. Schools, for example, should teach not to discriminate between genders. Erin has emerged as one clear winner against gender-based stereotyping by becoming the first female quarterback in the Florida Boys’ high school football team, playing in a regular-season game. She plays tough and fair and we are sure she is going to win many laurels for her team. Way to go, Erin!

6. Kristen Titus– The executive director of Girls Who Code, Kristen has been creating a high impact against gender imbalances in the tech world. She aims to introduce teenage girls to the field of computer science so they can create a career for themselves in one of the highest growing job sectors. She is committed to closing the gender gap in the industry in the years to come.

7. Chanda Kochhar- Chanda Kochhar, the CEO and MD of ICICI Bank–the largest private bank in India is living proof that hard work always pays off. An inspiration to all the women in the banking industry, Chanda joined ICICI as a management trainee in 1984 and rose through the levels of hierarchy quickly. She believes merit speaks for itself and no special privileges should be given to anyone based on their gender. Way to go, Ms Kochhar, we hear you!


8. Amy Mainzer-
An American astronomer, Amy specializes in astrophysical instrumentation and infrared astronomy. She is a role model for many women who wish to excel in the sciences, especially the field of astronomy. She is currently the Principal Investigator for the NEOWISE project to study minor planets and is well on her path to discover exciting stuff beyond the stars. Oh, and did we mention she has an asteroid named after her too?

9. Megan Knowles-Bacon- She is just 22 years old, and she is already creating magic–literally! Megan Knowles-Bacon has become the first woman to be induced in the highly respected and private organization of some of the best magicians in the world–The Magic Circle. She is definitely creating ripples in the male populated industry of magicians and has gathered a huge fan base for herself. She has exemplified that when girls put their passion and dreams together, they can work wonders!

10. Becky Hammon– Ever seen a female coach? Becky is defying all restrictions and barriers and has become the first female full-time assistant coach in the history of NBA for the San Antonio Spurs in 2015. Though she has been hired for her IQ and knowledge of the game, we sure look forward to seeing more poise and elegance at the next spurs game!

All these women and many more have proven that they cannot be restricted or stereotyped. They put their passion and hard work together and now inspire many such ambitious women, stating it loud and clear–It is time to break the gender stereotypes.


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