Cher Ami: Die duiweheld wat die verlore bataljon gered het

Cher Ami: Die duiweheld wat die verlore bataljon gered het


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Op 4 Oktober 1918 kom 'n posduif by sy hok aan die Wesfront aan nadat hy deur die bors geskiet is. Die boodskapdraer het steeds aan sy gewonde been gehang en bevat die volgende:

Ons is langs die pad parallel met 276.4. Ons eie artillerie val direk op ons neer. Om hemelsnaam, stop dit.

Die boodskap kom van die 'Lost Battalion', meer as 500 man van die 77ste divisie van die VSA, wat afgesny en omring is deur Duitse magte in die Argonne -sektor. Die duif is Cher Ami genoem.

Eerste Wêreldoorlog Kommunikasie

Toe die Eerste Wêreldoorlog begin, was telefoon en telegraaf die oorheersende kommunikasiemiddel op die slagveld. Radio was nog in sy kinderskoene en hoewel draadlose toestelle in die loop van die oorlog meer draagbaar geword het, was dit aanvanklik te omvangryk om prakties te wees.

Telefoon en telegraaf het hul eie nadele. In 'n konflik wat oorheers word deur artillerie, was die drade veral kwesbaar en kon seiners nie tred hou met die herstelwerk wat nodig was om lyne aan die gang te hou nie.

Duiwe vlieg

Duiwe was 'n uitstekende alternatief vir die stuur van boodskappe aan die Wesfront. Na raming het tot 95% van die boodskappe wat deur die duif uit die loopgrawe gestuur is, suksesvol aangekom. Hulle was 'n vinniger en betroubaarder opsie as mens- of hondeboodskappers.

In totaal is meer as 100 000 duiwe deur alle kante tydens die oorlog gebruik. Die belangrikheid daarvan word weerspieël in 'n plakkaat wat deur die Britse regering gedruk is en waarsku dat iemand wat verantwoordelik is vir die doodmaak of verwonding van duiwe, 'n stewige boete opgelê sal word.

Meuse-Argonne en die verlore bataljon

Die Maas-Argonne-offensief was die grootste Amerikaanse aksie van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en die duurste in hul geskiedenis. Dit het op 26 September 1918 begin en het in die beginfase baat gevind by die betraping van die Duitse verdedigers. Maar hul geluk het nie gehou nie en die verdediging het gou verstewig.

Op 2 Oktober is troepe van die 77ste afdeling, onder majoor Charles Whittlesey, beveel om in die digte Argonne -bos aan te val. Hulle het noord gery en 'n hoë grond vasgevang. Whittlesey het 'n hardloper gestuur om te rapporteer dat hulle deur die Duitse lyne gebreek het en dat hulle versterkings nodig het. Maar iets was verkeerd. Regs en links het Duitse teenaanvalle die Franse en Amerikaanse magte teruggedruk en die manne van Whittlesey is blootgestel.

Majoor Charles Whittlesey (regs) het die Erepenning ontvang ter erkenning van sy diens tydens die Meuse-Argonne-offensief

Maar Whittlesey was nog steeds omring, sonder ammunisie en skaars voedsel. Amerikaanse vliegtuie het probeer om voorraad op hul posisie te laat val, maar die meeste het dit misgeloop. 'N Dapper vlieënier vlieg 'n lae vlak pas oor die Amerikaners om 'n akkurate idee van hul ligging te kry. Die vliegtuig is neergeskiet, maar 'n Franse patrollie het die wrak gevind en hul kaart gevind. Geallieerde artillerie kon nou op die omringende Duitsers losgebrand het sonder om die manne van Whittlesey te tref.

Op 8 Oktober, toe die Duitsers onder swaar vuur teruggetrek het, het Whittlesey en wat oorgebly het van sy 'verlore bataljon' uit die Argonne -bos gekom. Meer as 150 van sy mans was dood of vermis.


Herontdek 'Cher Ami' en die verlore bataljon: vrae vir Kathleen Rooney

In die Hyde Park in Londen is daar 'n hartverskeurende reeks beelde wat die Animals in War Memorial genoem word - swaar belaaide brons -esels wat deur 'n gaping in 'n enorme geboë muur sukkel. Dit vereer wesens van olifante tot gloeiende wurms, wat saam met mense in oorlog gedien het, soos die gedenkteken sê, "hulle het geen keuse gehad nie."

Aan die hoof van die diereparade wat teen die muur gekap is, vlieg drie voëls-ek dink graag dat hulle duiwe huisves soos Cher Ami, die voël uit die werklike lewe, wat, hoewel vreeslik gewond deur Duitse gewere, die boodskap gedra het wat gehelp het om 'n vasgekeerde te red bataljon in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog

Cher Ami (wat 'n hen was, ondanks haar manlike naam) is die inspirasie vir die roman van Kathleen Rooney Cher Ami en majoor Whittlesey, wat die parallelle lewens van beide die duif en die bevelvoerder van wat as die verlore bataljon bekend geword het, voorstel.

Rooney leer skryf by die DePaul -universiteit in Chicago.

'Op die oomblik dat ek op Cher Ami se Wikipedia -blad beland, kon ek sien dat sy nie net 'n merkwaardige duif en 'n Eerste Wêreldoorlog was nie, maar ook dat sy 'n ongelooflike komplekse en unieke protagonis vir 'n roman sou wees,' sê Rooney. "As fiksieskrywer is ek aangetrokke tot historiese voorvalle en figure wat in hul tyd verstommend bekend was, maar wat sedertdien vergete is. Beide sy en majoor Charles Whittlesey ('n persoon wat u beslis ook sal raakloop as jy ondersoek Cher Ami) pas by die wetsontwerp. Ek wou hulle twee en hul triomfe en tragedies in die 21ste eeu weer in die lig bring.

Daar is baie parallelle tussen Cher Ami en Major Whittlesey - vertel my hoe u die karakters ontwikkel het.

Geskiedenis

100 jaar gelede het 'n Amerikaanse vlieënier 'n einde aan die hartseer op 'n wapenstilstanddag gesien

Die tweerigting

Op Veterane -dag hou ons 'n pouse om te lees 'In Flanders Fields', geskryf in 1915

Geskiedenis

100 jaar later word die 'Hello Girls' erken vir heldinne van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog

As ek by die aanvanklike haas van Wikipedia val - lank voordat ek my dieper en ernstiger ondersoek ingegaan het - was die resonansie tussen hierdie twee onwaarskynlike helde van die Verlore Bataljon onmiskenbaar. Om mee te begin, was Cher Ami haar hele lewe lank as 'n voëltjie wangedra, en eers nadat hulle haar liggaam in die Smithsonian geïnstalleer het, het hulle ontdek dat sy 'n duif is. En Whittlesey - waarskynlik die mees gevierde held van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog afgesien van Alvin York - het op grond van my ondersoeke (en dié van ander hedendaagse navorsers) gelyk asof dit 'n gay man was wat die aspek van sy identiteit vir homself moes hou, gegewe heersende vooroordele van die 1910's.

As romanskrywer het die eggo's my geboei, want nie net het hierdie eienskappe Cher Ami en Whit ietwat ongewoon gemaak vir hul era nie, maar dit het ook gelyk asof hulle met mekaar rym op 'n manier wat baie onthul het oor Amerika se idees oor heldedom en wie kan of kan nie 'n held wees nie. Soos alle oorloë, was die Eerste Wêreldoorlog 'n ongelooflike manlike en patriargale konflik, sodat hierdie twee belangrike figure wat beslis nie by die voorafvervaardigde, stereotipiese idee van heteroseksuele manlike geweld en dapperheid pas nie, gelyk het na iets wat van naderby gekyk moet word.

Ek was mal oor die duiwekultuur wat jy uitgevind het - dit het my 'n bietjie laat dink Waterskip af. Hoe het jy daardie wêreld gebou? (En was Waterskip af 'n invloed?)

Waterskip af Dit was beslis 'n invloed, want dit is 'n boek wat gereeld soos jong lesers geduik word (woordspeling bedoel), maar dit kan lesers van enige ouderdom ook baie wys. Ek het geweet dat die maak van een van my twee protagoniste 'n duif wat in die eerste persoon praat, moontlik dat sommige lesers die boek sal verwerp, maar dit is goed, want ek dink dat alle mense oral in 'n baie beter posisie in terme van volhoubaarheid sou wees, die omgewing en respek vir alle lewe as hulle diere en ander nie-mense ernstiger neem. Dit lyk asof dit 'n gebrek aan verbeelding is om te sê dat dierekarakters slegs vir kinders is. Vir hierdie doel was die digter en koerantrubriekskrywer Don Marquis nog 'n groot invloed in my skepping van die stem van Cher Ami. Sy karakters Archy the Cockroach en Mehitabel the Cat is twee van my gunstelinge in die hele literatuur oor hoe hul dierlike perspektiewe Marquis in staat stel om die gereeld verwarrende en ontstellende wêreld van mense te satiriseer, kommentaar te lewer en te kritiseer, maar om dit in 'n geestige wêreld te doen. en vermaaklike manier.

U het ook 'n visueel werklike wêreld geskep in die oefenkampe, onderweg en aan die voorkant - ek kon dit amper ruik. Hoe het jy jou navorsing gedoen?

Ek is 'n reukmens, so ek is opgewonde om te hoor hoe die reuke opkom. Omdat ek nog nooit 'n soldaat of 'n duif was nie, het ek geweet dat ek uiters versigtig en deeglik in my navorsing moes wees om albei wêrelde op 'n respekvolle, aanneemlike en realistiese manier te skep. As navorsing en skryfwerk vergelyk kan word met die beplanning van 'n roete op 'n baie groot kaart, het ek begin deur 'n speld in my bestemming te gooi, so te sê, oor die verhaal van die verlore bataljon, en dan inzoom so ver daarvandaan as ek kon om myself stadig en oplettend weer in te laat loop. Infanterie, 77ste divisie waarin Whit 'n bevelvoerder was, en dan na Whit self en sy en Cher Ami se wrede dae wat die Duitsers in die sak vasgevang het.

Duiwe is deesdae baie kwaad, en as my boek iets doen, hoop ek dat dit lesers wat nie onder die indruk van hierdie voëls voel nie, weer kan kyk.

Boonop het ek baie navorsing gedoen oor duiwe en hoe hulle grootgemaak word en hoe hulle leer hoe om tuis te gaan, en waarom hulle gedurende oorlog tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog sulke belangrike boodskappers was. My gunsteling element van navorsing was egter uiters persoonlik, want toe ek die roman opstel, het 'n duiwepaar onder die dak van ons woonstel ingetrek en twee pragtige babas grootgemaak, en ek het al my duiwe -navorsing kon sien - oor hoe hulle nes, hoe hulle ouer word, hoe hulle leer vlieg en aan en aan - speel voor my oë af. Dit was mooi.

Duiwe is deesdae baie kwaad, en as my boek iets doen, hoop ek dat dit lesers wat nie onder die indruk van hierdie voëls voel nie, weer kan kyk.

Die Eerste Wêreldoorlog was so lank gelede - dit is uiteindelik uit die lewende geheue. Wat het daardie konflik ons ​​vandag te vertel?

Ek het daaraan gedink terwyl ek aan die skryf was - hoe anders as meer onlangse konflikte, leef nog nie net een persoon wat die Eerste Wêreldoorlog direk beleef het nie. Twintig miljoen mense - waaronder ongeveer 10 miljoen soldate en 10 miljoen burgerlikes - en tallose diere - insluitend duiwe , honde, perde, muile, donkies en meer-het gesterf in die bloedbad van vier jaar. En vir wat? Op sy beste verskyn WWI telkens as die antwoord op 'n vraag tydens 'n hoërskoolgeskiedeniseksamen. Die nutteloosheid word minder nutteloos as lesers na hierdie konflik kan kyk en sien dat alles 'n keuse is, 'n keuse wat ons kan maak of nie, maar slegs as ons gesamentlik optree. Die leiers van die verskillende ryke van die wêreld het hul burgers in die rigting van konvulsiewe geweld en massavernietiging gedruk, net soos nou, ryke wat mag bo alle ander doeleindes bevorder en 'n kapitalistiese stelsel wat wins bo mense prioritiseer en alle ander vorme van lewe dryf ons planeet na die breekpunt.

Dit is moeilik om die momentum van dinge soos oorlog, soos aardverwarming, soos menslike aanname van meerderwaardigheid teenoor diere, of soos hiërargieë van alle soorte oorheersing te stop. Maar ek dink ons ​​kon. Dit sal baie mense verg om saam op te tree, maar ons kon. Ek hoop dat fiksie 'n plek is waar ons ons verbeelding kan ontdek watter besluite en alternatiewe moontlik is.


Die hartroerende verhaal van Cher Ami, die duif wat 200 Amerikaanse soldate gered het

Op 4 Oktober 1918 is dit die vooraand. Stadig maar seker eindig 'The War to End All Wars'. In Chatel Chéhéry in die noordooste van Frankryk het die Geallieerde Magte deur die vallei teen die Duitsers geveg

Reeds in die Argonne -woud langs die Maasrivier verloor Duitsland sy geveg en word sy troepe moeg, gedemoraliseer en geraak.

Nie minder nie as 400 000 geallieerde soldate is enkele weke tevore na die plek ontplooi om by hul wapensbroers aan te sluit in een van die grootste konflikte van die oorlog, die Meuse-Argonne-offensief.

Byna 200 000 was dood of ernstig gewond aan die einde van die geveg en die wapenstilstand op 11 November 1918. Ongeveer 25 000 van hulle was Amerikaanse seuns wat nooit teruggekeer het huis toe nie, alhoewel hulle daarvoor gehoop en gebid het, wetende dat dit so was, so naby.

197 mans was egter gelukkig om gered te word en deur niemand anders nie as 'n duif-daardie broodkrummelse ete, gevederde vriende van ons wat by geleentheid selfs die beste van ons dae kan verwoes of ons voorruite kan besmeer met hul verrassende mis van die lug.

Hulle word nie as die helderste voëls beskou nie, maar is uiters lojaal en toegewyd, met 'n buitengewone vermoë om altyd die pad terug huis toe te vind.

As sodanig is duiwe opgelei om aan ons behoeftes te voldoen en is hulle as boodskappers en koeriers vir eons aangestel, wat ons in staat gestel het om 'n tweet of 'n SMS te lewer, lank voordat ons die voorreg van elektrisiteit en gevorderde tegnologie kon geniet.

Krygsduif Cher Ami

Tydens die twee wêreldoorloë het die Amerikaanse weermag byvoorbeeld tot 200 000 duiwe in sy geledere toegelaat om toesig- of vervoerboodskappe te voer. Ons held was een van hulle, opgelei deur die Britse regering en geskenk aan die Amerikaanse weermag reg voor die oorlog, en een van die 600 wat in Frankryk besit en gevlieg is deur die United States Army Signal Corps.

Op daardie dag bevind ons duif hom in die hande van majoor Charles Whittlesey, wat agter die vyandelike linies vasgekeer was met die 308ste bataljon van die 77ste afdeling, op die afwaartse helling van 'n heuwel in die hartjie van die Argonne -woud.

Die Geallieerdes was besig om 'n taktiese toevlug te tref, maar die 308ste het agter vasgesteek - niemand het hul presiese ligging geweet of selfs nie. Whittlesey se "Lost Battalion" van 200 mans was honger, ontwater, onder swaar vuur en kon nie beweeg sonder om hul verblyfplek aan die vyand bekend te maak nie.

Die verlore bataljon van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog

Majoor Whittlesey het 'n boodskap geskryf, in 'n metaalhouer gesit en hom tot sy veeartsenykantoor gewend om dit af te lewer.

Die eerste duif het dit nie gehaal nie, en ook nie die tweede nie, albei is byna onmiddellik deur die Duitsers doodgeskiet. Daarna het hy hierdie desperate pleidooi aan die been van 'n ander duif geheg, een wat reeds twintig keer kritieke inligting in die Amerikaanse sektor by Verdun deurgegee het.

En soos voorheen, net soos dit uit sy hand gevlieg het, het die Duitsers onmiddellik op hom losgebrand. Die voël is een keer in die bors geskiet. Dit is vir die tweede keer geskiet, maar nou in sy been. Tog vlieg dit nog 25 myl teen die wind en onbewus van die swaar reën van koeëls. En in ongeveer 25 minute of minder bereik dit waar dit veronderstel was om te gaan, verblind in die een oog, met die been wat die boodskap op 'n enkele pees hang.

Een van die geallieerde soldate by die hok het die metaalkas met sagte sorg ontwrig, sodat hy nie die been heeltemal sou skeur nie. Hy maak die boodskap oop:

'Ons is langs die pad parallel met 276.4. Ons eie artillerie val direk op ons neer. Om hemelsnaam, stop daarmee. ”

Hulle het dit dadelik gedoen en majoor Whittlesey en sy hele bataljon teruggeneem na veiligheid, en danksy hierdie duif wat nooit opgegee het nie, terug na hul huise en die omhelsing van hul geliefdes.

Die duif het later die naam Cher Ami gekry, wat "Franse vriend" in Frans beteken. Sy was inderdaad 'n dierbare vriendin en 'n ware held in die 77ste afdeling.

Die mense wie se lewens danksy haar gered is, het alles gegee om te help en nou hul vriendin te red. Hulle het haar lewe gered, maar kon ongelukkig nie die been red nie. In plaas daarvan het die dokters 'n nuwe houtbeen gevorm wat sy kon gebruik. Terug in die Verenigde State nadat die oorlog uiteindelik geëindig het, is die posduif bekroon met 'n Croix de Guerre -medalje, met 'n brons -eikehoutblaar -lintapparaat, om haar groot opoffering en heldhaftigheid in die oorlog te erken.

Die elfde uur op die elfde dag van die elfde maand in 2018 is die 100ste herdenking van die wapenstilstand, en 100 jaar vanaf die oomblik dat die Eerste Wêreldoorlog uiteindelik tot 'n einde gekom het.

Die volgende keer, as ons die mis van voëls van ons voorruite afkrap of kwaad word omdat ons ons beste uitrustings verwoes het, is dit waarskynlik lekker om die bestaan ​​van hierdie klein duifie te onthou en hoe sy haar lewe in gevaar gestel het om honderde te red. Cher Ami is op 13 Junie 1919 oorlede, en haar sorgvuldig bewaarde lyk word in die Smithsonian Institution vertoon.

'N Monument vir die verlore bataljon in die Argonne -woud, Frankryk, wys Cher Ami

'N Duif met die naam Cher Ami, geskiet en verblind, sit haar vlug voort en red aan die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog 197 Amerikaanse soldate

Dit is die vooraand van 4 Oktober 1918. Die oorlog om alle oorloë te beëindig, kom stadig maar seker tot 'n einde. Die geallieerde magte doen hul laaste aanval teen die Duitse troepe deur die vallei in Chatel Chéhéry in die noordooste van Frankryk. Duitsland verloor die oorlog en soldate, uitgeput, gedemoraliseer en deur griep getref, maak 'n laaste stand in die Argonne -woud langs die oewer van die Maasrivier.

Nie minder nie as 400 000 geallieerde soldate is enkele weke tevore na die plek ontplooi om by hul wapensbroers aan te sluit in een van die grootste konflikte van die oorlog, die Meuse-Argonne-offensief. Byna 200 000 was dood of ernstig gewond aan die einde van die geveg en die wapenstilstand op 11 November 1918. Sowat 25 000 van hulle was Amerikaanse seuns wat nooit teruggekeer het huis toe nie, alhoewel hulle daarvoor gehoop en gebid het, wetende dat dit so was, so naby.

197 manne was egter gelukkig om gered te word en deur niemand anders nie as 'n duif, hierdie broodkrummelse ete, gevederde vriende van ons wat selfs die beste van ons dae by tye kan verwoes of ons voorruite kan besmeer met hul verbasende mis van die lug.

Hulle word nie as die helderste voëls beskou nie, maar is uiters lojaal en toegewyd, met 'n buitengewone vermoë om altyd die pad terug huis toe te vind. As sodanig is duiwe opgelei om aan ons behoeftes te voldoen en is hulle as boodskappers en koeriers vir eons aangestel, wat ons in staat gestel het om 'n tweet of 'n SMS te lewer, lank voordat ons die voorreg van elektrisiteit en gevorderde tegnologie kon geniet.

Tydens die twee wêreldoorloë het die Amerikaanse weermag byvoorbeeld tot 200 000 duiwe in sy geledere toegelaat om toesig- of vervoerboodskappe te voer. Ons held was een van hulle, opgelei deur die Britse regering en geskenk aan die Amerikaanse weermag reg voor die oorlog, en een van die 600 wat in Frankryk besit en gevlieg is deur die United States Army Signal Corps. Op daardie dag bevind ons duif hom in die hande van majoor Charles Whittlesey, wat agter die vyandelike linies vasgekeer was met die 308ste bataljon van die 77ste afdeling, op die afwaartse helling van 'n heuwel in die hartjie van die Argonne -woud.

Die Geallieerdes was besig om 'n taktiese toevlug te maak, maar die 308ste het vasgesteek agter niemand weet presies waar hulle is of of hulle nog lewe nie. Whittlesey ’s “ Verlore Bataljon ” van 200 mans was honger, ontwater, onder swaar vuur en kon nie beweeg sonder om hul verblyfplek aan die vyand bekend te maak nie. Majoor Whittlesey het 'n boodskap geskryf, in 'n metaalhouer gesit en hom tot sy veeartsenykantoor gewend om dit af te lewer.

Die eerste duif het dit nie reggekry nie, en ook nie die tweede nie, albei is byna onmiddellik deur die Duitsers doodgeskiet. Daarna het hy hierdie desperate pleidooi aan die been van 'n ander duif geheg, een wat reeds twintig keer kritieke inligting in die Amerikaanse sektor by Verdun deurgegee het.

En soos voorheen, net soos dit uit sy hand gevlieg het, het die Duitsers onmiddellik op hom losgebrand. Die voël is een keer in die bors geskiet. Dit is vir die tweede keer geskiet, maar nou in sy been. Tog vlieg dit nog 25 myl teen die wind en onbewus van die swaar reën van koeëls. En in ongeveer 25 minute of minder bereik dit waar dit veronderstel was om te gaan, verblind in die een oog, met die been wat die boodskap op 'n enkele pees hang. Een van die geallieerde soldate by die hok het die metaalkas met sagte sorg ontwrig, sodat hy nie die been heeltemal sou skeur nie. Hy maak die boodskap oop:

Ons is langs die pad parallel met 276.4. Ons eie artillerie val direk op ons neer. Om die hemel, stop dit. ”

Hulle het dit dadelik gedoen en majoor Whittlesey en sy hele bataljon teruggeneem na veiligheid, en danksy hierdie duif wat nooit opgegee het nie, terug na hul huise en die omhelsing van hul geliefdes. Die duif het later die naam Cher Ami gekry, wat beteken#8220Bear Friend ” in Frans. Sy was inderdaad 'n dierbare vriendin en 'n ware held in die 77ste afdeling.

Die mense wie se lewens danksy haar gered is, het alles gegee om te help en red nou hul vriendin terug. Hulle het haar lewe gered, maar kon ongelukkig nie die been red nie. In plaas daarvan het die dokters 'n nuwe houtbeen gevorm wat sy kon gebruik. Terug in die Verenigde State nadat die oorlog uiteindelik geëindig het, is die posduif toegeken met 'n Croix de Guerre medalje, met 'n lintapparaat van brons van eikebome, om haar groot opoffering en heldhaftigheid in die oorlog te erken.

Die elfde uur op die elfde dag van die elfde maand in 2018 is die 100ste herdenking van die wapenstilstand, en 100 jaar vanaf die oomblik dat die Eerste Wêreldoorlog uiteindelik tot 'n einde gekom het. Die volgende keer, as ons voëlmis uit ons voorruit skraap of kwaad word omdat ons ons beste uitrustings vernietig het, is dit waarskynlik lekker om te onthou van die klein duif se bestaan ​​en hoe sy haar lewe in gevaar gestel het om honderde te red. Cher Ami is op 13 Junie 1919 oorlede, en haar sorgvuldig bewaarde lyk word in die Smithsonian Institution vertoon.


Cher Ami – WW1 tuisduif het 194 mans gered deur haar vlug voort te sit nadat sy 'n been, 'n oog verloor het en deur die bors geskiet is

Diere dien sedert antieke tye saam met mense in die weermag. Net soos mense het hulle ook hul lewens in gevaar gestel, en baie van hulle is saam met hul leërs dood.

Deur die geskiedenis heen is daar baie verhale van diereoorlogshelde wat deurslaggewende rolle gespeel het en net so betroubaar was as soldate. Een so 'n verhaal is die verhaal van 'n duif met die naam Cher Ami.

Meer as 200 000 duiwe is tydens die Eerste en Tweede Wêreldoorlog by die Amerikaanse weermag aangewys. Hulle het baie belangrike boodskappe gelewer, en daardeur het hulle die lewens van duisende in WWI en WW2 gered. Een so 'n duif was Cher Ami (“Bear Friend ” in Frans), wat in 1918 gehelp het om byna 200 Amerikaanse soldate wat agter die vyandelike linies in Frankryk gestrand was, se lewens te red.

Dit was tydens die slag van Argonne, die grootste Amerikaanse slag van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog toe 500 Amerikaanse soldate agter vyandelike linies gestrand geraak het. Hulle het geen kos en geen ammunisie gehad nie en het groot verliese gely sedert die Duitsers hulle omring het. Om dinge te vererger, is hulle ook blootgestel aan vriendelike vuur, aangesien die geallieerde magte gedink het dat hulle die vyand is.

Dit het op 3 Oktober 1918 begin, en teen die tweede dag is meer as 300 Amerikaanse soldate dood. Daar was nie veel hoop vir die oorblywende 194 soldate wat gelukkig was om nog te lewe nie. Hulle laaste hoop was om boodskappe te stuur deur een van die drie posduiwe wat hulle by hulle gehad het.

Die eerste twee duiwe is deur die vyand neergeskiet, en slegs een duif met die naam Cher Ami is oor. Die desperate soldate het geen ander keuse gehad nie en besluit om die laaste noot te skryf:

Ons is langs die pad parallel met 276.4. Ons eie artillerie val direk op ons neer. Om hemelsnaam, stop daarmee. ”

Cher Ami het opgestyg, en terwyl sy oor die slagvelde vlieg, is sy deur die Duitsers neergeskiet, maar sy het op een of ander manier daarin geslaag om weer op te styg. Behalwe dat sy ernstig gewond is, het sy 25 myl afgelê om haar missie te voltooi en die lewens van byna 200 soldate te red.

Cher Ami arriveer binne slegs 25 minute in die hoofkwartier en#8217 duiwehok. Bedek met bloed, met 'n koeël in die bors, verblind in sy een oog en op een been gespring het, kon sy die “ Verlore Bataljon red. ” Uiteindelik, op 7 Oktober, is 194 oorlewendes van die bataljon gered.

Cher Ami -monument in Frankryk

Dokters het daarin geslaag om die lewe van Cher Ami te red en selfs 'n houtbeen gesny om die een wat afgeblaas is, te vervang. Sy word 'n ware oorlogsheld en haal die opslae in baie Amerikaanse koerante.

Die Franse regering versier haar met die Croix de guerre -medalje vir haar dapperheid. As gevolg van haar wonde is Cher Ami minder as 'n jaar later dood.


Lisa se geskiedenis kamer

“Verlore bataljon ” in Argonne Forest deur Frank E. Schoonover. Ladies ’ Home Journal, 1918.

Op 1 Oktober 1918 het ongeveer 550 soldate van die Amerikaanse 77ste divisie hulself omring deur Duitsers in die Argonne -woud. Majoor Charles Whittlesey was hul leier. Hy het net bevele gevolg, om ten alle koste vorentoe te stoot, die vyand verder na die grens en uit die land te stoot. Nadat hulle deur dik borsel en deurmekaar drade, ou verlate Duitse hoofkwartiere en lyke geloop het, was hulle agter vyandelike lyne vasgevang in die Charlevaux -kloof, tussen twee hoë en steil heuwels. Hulle was blootgestel aan 'n onmiddellike en byna konstante spervuur ​​van vyandelike vuur. Teen die einde van die derde dag het die Duitsers 'n kwart van die mans doodgemaak of gewond, en die oorblywende Amerikaners het teruggesak in hul funkgat, met die hoop dat die volgende granaat nie daar sou land nie en hulle stukkend geslaan het. Hulle was honger, dors en het min ammunisie gehad. Die naaste waterbron was 'n modderige stroom wat die Duitsers ywerig bewaak het. Die Amerikaners het geen mediese voorrade gehad om die kreunende gewondes te behandel nie. Hulle is afgesny van enige toevoerroetes. Die weer was koud, nat en grys.

Die majoor het hardlopers om hulp gestuur, maar niemand het die heuwel bereik nie, sonder om onmiddellik deur Duitse skerpskutters afgetrek te word. Erger nog, as gevolg van 'n fout in 'n boodskap wat deur die duif gestuur is, het die geallieerde artillerie hul ligging verkeerd verstaan ​​en op die vasgekeerde eenheid begin skiet. Meer mans is dood, maar hierdie keer, deur 'n vriendelike vuur, en#8221 koeëls per ongeluk deur hul eie Amerikaanse troepe op hulle afgevuur. Hulle situasie was desperaat. Hulle moes die hoofkwartier kontak om hul eie troepe te laat ophou om op hulle te skiet.

Hulle het baie posduiwe gestuur met boodskappe vir die hoofkantoor, maar baie is deur die Duitsers neergeskiet. Dit was middernag op 4 Oktober toe die duiwehanteerder Private Omer Richards in die rietduifmandjie reik om nog 'n duif met 'n boodskap los te laat.

Foto van die Wesfront. Duiwe is aan die voorkant gebruik om bevelvoerders agterin op hoogte te hou van die aksie en vyandelike beweging. (National Archives Identifier 17391468)

Daar was net een voël oor en die eenheid het hul hoop op hierdie tweejarige voël gelê. Hy was 'n ervare posduif met die naam *Cher Ami (wat in Frans Frans “Beaune Friend ” beteken). Sy huis se hok was Mobile #9, en dan gestasioneer in die 77th Division -boodskapsentrum, ongeveer 25 myl daarvandaan in Rampont. Cher Ami het die weg goed geken. Private John Nell onthou,

'... Major Whittlesey het ons laaste huisduif losgemaak met ons laaste boodskap ... As daardie eensame, bang duif nie sy hok kon vind nie ... gaan ons net soos die ander wat vermink en in stukke geblaas word ... ”

'N Krygsduif het 'n boodskap.

Die boodskap, geskryf deur majoor Whittlesey op 'n bladsy wat uit die duiweboodskapboek geskeur is, is in 'n klein aluminium buis gegooi en aan die duif se been vasgemaak. Richards het Cher Ami opgetel en omstreeks 03:00 hom opgehef om te vlieg. Maar die lug was vol vlieënde skrootstaal en ontploffings, wat die voël bang gemaak het. Hy het bokant die kloof gehardloop voordat hy 'n entjie verder van die heuwel af geland het in 'n uitgebrande, granaatgedraaide boom.

Die manne wat bymekaargekom het, het nou op Cher Ami begin skree, “Go! Gaan weg! ” gooi stokke en rotse na hom. Maar hy het geweier om uit sy sitplek te kom. Richards het uiteindelik met die boom agter hom aan gekom. Duitse skulpe het om Richards ontplof en koeëls het naby sy hande van die bas afgeslaan. Cher Ami knik sy kop na die soldaat en maak sy vere uit vrees uit. Uiteindelik kon Richards opstaan ​​en die tak waar die voël sit, skud en brul, en Cher Ami vertrek, kry sy rigting en draai dan terug oor die kloof in die rigting van sy duiveldwa.

Die Duitsers het Potshots by Cher Ami geneem, probeer om hom af te neem, maar hy het goed geweet wat sy missie was, maar die voël het steeds hoog geword en was gou verlore om te sien. Die Amerikaanse soldate het toe op die heuwel afgedwaal om die gewonde mans te skuif na 'n plek wat ietwat beskerm is teen die beskieting. Hulle het die lyke as 'n muur opgehoop:

Koeëls van oorkant die spruit stamp sieklik in die lykmuur toe die gewondes agter hom neerval.

Dit was 15:30 toe die klokkie van Mobil loft #9 lui, wat beduie dat 'n boodskapperduif net geland het en deur die hek na die hok gegaan het. Korporaal George Gault was aan diens. Wat hy in die hok gevind het, was 'n bloedbevlekte grys en swart geruite duif wat onwankelbaar hurk en eenkant toe leun. Hy steek sy hand in en die duif val heeltemal in duie. Saggies het hy dit opgetel. Cher Ami bloei erg van 'n gapende wond in sy bors en hy mis 'n oog. Hy het skaars gelewe. Toe hy die beseerde voël omdraai om die boodskap te kry, vind hy die buis wat skaars hang aan wat oorgebly het van die geskeurde senings van 'n vermiste been. Gault lees die boodskap, snak na haar mond en hardloop dadelik om die luitenant aan diens te kry. Hulle het generaal Milliken op die veldtelefoon gekry en die dringende boodskap in woorde gelees, nie in kode nie:

Ons is langs die pad parallel 276.4

Ons eie artillerie val direk op ons neer.

Om hemelsnaam, stop dit.

Die afdelingsveearts het opgedaag om die voël wat skaars asemhaal, weg te neem.

Teen 4:22 het die Amerikaanse beskuldiging opgehou. Die Duitsers het die kans gesien en 'n hewige aanval op die vasgekeerde 77ste afdeling begin.

Uiteindelik kon die Amerikaners deur die Argonne weswaarts stoot om die Duitsers te dwing om die voorkant van die 77ste afdeling te laat vaar. Op 8 Oktober het versterkings die eenheid van Whittlesey bereik. Van die mans wat vasgevang was in die beboste kloof, het 194 oorleef. Die eenheid van Whittlesey staan ​​bekend as die Lost Bataljon. Die volgende maand, op 11 November, is 'n wapenstilstand onderteken tussen die strydende faksies wat die oorlog aan die Westelike Front van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog tot 'n einde gebring het.

Lede van die verlore bataljon het hul eerste maaltyd by 'n regimentkombuis geëet na die geveg in die Charlevaux -kloof. Okt 1918. Publieke domein

Cher Ami het die held geword van die 77ste Infanteriedivisie. Legermedici het sy lewe gered. Toe hy genoeg herstel om te reis, word die eenbeen, eenoogvoël op 'n boot na die Verenigde State gesit, met generaal John J. Pershing wat hom afskakel.

Vir sy heldhaftige diens is Cher Ami met die palm van die Franse “Croix de Guerre ” bekroon. Agt maande na sy heldhaftige vlug sterf hy op 13 Junie 1919 in Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, as gevolg van sy wonde. Cher Ami is later in 1931 opgeneem in die Racing Pigeon Hall of Fame en ontvang 'n goue medalje van die Organized Bodies of American Pigeon Fanciers ter erkenning van sy buitengewone diens tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog.

Cher Ami, oorlogsheld, te sien in die Smithsonian Museum, Washington, DC

His stuffed body is on display at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History’s “Price of Freedom: Americans at War” exhibit in Washington, D.C. Cher Ami is one of the heroes of World War I. Although the Germans had shot him through the breast, blinded him in one eye, and shattered his leg, he continued to fly to reach help for the men of his division. He gave his life for his country and so that others could live.

For more on what scientists are learning about the homing instinct of pigeons, check out the new book, The Genius of Birds, by Jennifer Ackerman.

*Cher Ami, at the time, was a 2-year-old black and gray checkered English National Union Racing Pigeon Association cock #615, U. S. Army serial no. 43678 of the Signal Corps 1 st Pigeon Division.


The Lost Battalion of World War I

It's late September of 1918 in northern France. The war will end soon on November 11, but one last massive battle, the Meuse-Argonne Offensive is raging on. It's one of the biggest conflicts of World War I, lasting 47 days until the Armistice. Over a million Allied soldiers are involved and over 25,000 Americans will die by the end of this battle.

A group of 500 American soldiers led by Major Charles Whittlesey were trapped in a small depression of a hill, surrounded by Germans. After the first day, only 200 of Whittlesey's "lost battalion" were left. To make the situation even more FUBAR, their fellow Americans didn't know their location and had begun firing shells at them.

Whittlesey sent out two messages by homing pigeon asking the Americans for help, but both pigeons were shot down. The friendly fire on them continued. A final pigeon named Cher Ami was released with a with a desperate plea:


How a Pigeon Helped Save the 'Lost Battalion'

SARATOGA SPRINGS, N.Y. -- One of World War I’s most heroic battlefield story features a bookish lawyer, a millionaire who charged up San Juan Hill with Teddy Roosevelt, a carrier pigeon that’s now in the Smithsonian, and draftee Soldiers from New York City who served in the 77th Division.

One hundred years later, the story of the 550 men of the “Lost Battalion” –American Soldiers trapped behind enemy lines in the Argonne forest– still resonates.

It’s been the subject of countless books, a 2001 TV movie, and a 2016 song by the Swedish heavy metal band Sabaton.

But the “Lost Battalion” wasn’t actually lost, nor was it even a battalion.

Major Charles Whittlesey, the commander, knew right where his men were located. It was their higher headquarters who weren’t sure where they were.

And Whittlesey was only the commander of the 1st Battalion of the 308th Infantry Regiment. The regiment’s 2nd Battalion was also present, along with a company from the 307th Infantry Regiment. But as senior officer, Whittlesey took charge.

The regiments were part of the 77th Division. The division was a “National Army” division made up of drafted men who were not in the Regular Army and not part of the National Guard.

77th Division Soldiers were mostly from New York City, and the division was nicknamed the “Metropolitan Division” or “Times Square Division” because of that.

By October of 1918 the 77th Division had seen its share of action and taken casualties. A lot of casualties. New Yorkers had been replaced by Soldiers from Midwestern farms who had little training.

The American First Army had kicked off its offensive in France’s Meuse-Argonne region with a goal of reaching the city of Sedan and cutting the railroad which supplied German armies in France.

The American offensive—the largest battle in American history—involved 1.2 million Soldiers and kicked off on Sept. 26, 1918.

On October 2, 1918, Whittlesey and his battalion were to attack north into the dense Argonne Forest with the 2nd Battalion of the 308th in support. Both units should have had about 800 men each at full strength, but now they barely had 800 men together.

They were to attack regardless of whether or not they lost contact with units on their left or right.

The 2nd Battalion was led by Capt. George McMurtry. McMurtry, a Harvard graduate was a Wall Street lawyer like Whittlesey as well. But McMurtry had combat experience. He’d served in the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry – known more familiarly as the Rough Riders—during the Spanish American War and had fought in the Battle of San Juan Hill.

Both men thought the mission was too much for two understrength battalions. But they were told to attack no matter what.

"Goed. I’ll attack, but whether you’ll hear from me again I don’t know,” Whittlesey told his regimental commander.

The attack commenced at 6:30 a.m. in foggy and wet weather of that cool October morning.

Whittlesey and McMurtry—with Whittlesey just behind the lead Soldiers -- led their men north. They encountered enemy fire and went to ground.

But a position called Hill 198 on their maps appeared to be undermanned. The two battalion’s—three companies each—overran the German defenders.

They drove north to their objective on high ground beyond the Charlevaux. Whittlesey sent back word that they had broken through the German lines.

In 1918 communicating meant laying a telephone line behind advancing troops—not practical in heavy woods like the Argonne—or sending back a Soldier with a message.

Troops were also equipped with carrier pigeons to fly back to headquarters with a message wrapped on their leg. Whittlesey’s command had eight pigeons.

Whittlesey sent a runner back to let his commander know he had reached his objective and needed reinforcements. Two of the eight understrength companies that had begun the attack had gotten separated from the 1st and 2nd battalions.

The French unit on their right flank had been stopped and the 77th Division regiment on their left had also been stopped.

At nightfall on October 2, the two battalions of the 308th – about 450 men—were set up in an oval position three hundred yards long and 60 yards wide. They had no additional ammunition, and no extra food and water.

A battalion from the 307th Infantry Regiment was ordered forward to reinforce Whittlesey’s position, but only Company K from the 3rd Battalion managed to find the 308th Infantry battalions.

Throughout the following day, October 3rd, the men waited for reinforcements. A platoon sent to find the missing two companies of the 308th got ambushed. Germans reoccupied Hill 198 taken the previous day.

The 77th Division men were now surrounded. With German fire pouring in from all four sides of their perimeter, men were shot, wounded and killed in greater numbers each passing hour.

Whittlesey sent a carrier pigeon with his position and asked for help. 77th Division troops were attacking to reach the men but made no progress. More carrier pigeons were sent.

On Friday, October 4, an American plane flew over their position. The officers hoped that supplies would be airdropped to them. But the pilot thought he was looking at German troops. American artillery began landing on Whittlesey’s men. Americans were now being killed by American fire.

Pvt. Omar Richards, the pigeon handler of the unit, was down to two birds. He took one, a pigeon he had nicknamed “Cher Ami” –French for Dear Friend– and prepared to release it.

Whittlesey wrote a note — “We are along the road parallel to 276.4. Our own artillery is dropping a barrage directly on us. For heaven’s sake stop it” — to be attached to the pigeon’s leg.

Richards released the bird. It flew around and landed on a tree opposite Richards and Whittlesey. The two men yelled and screamed at it. Finally the bird flew away. Twenty-five minutes later the pigeon landed at headquarters. Die skietery het gestop.

Along the way, Cher Ami had been hit by German fire. She had been shot through the breast, blinded in one eye, and her right leg was hanging by a tendon.

On October 5, American Airmen began dropping supplies to Whittlesey’s men. DH-4 two seater planes from the 50th Aero Squadron flew four missions over the lines dropping rations and ammunition in what the Air Force now lists as the first American aerial resupply mission.

Unfortunately, most of the supplies missed.

On October 6 the 50th Aero Squadron flew 13 more missions to drop supplies. More importantly, one crew determined a way to pin down the location of Whittlesey’s command.

Pilot 1st Lieutenant Harold Goettler and 2nd Lt. Erwin Bleckley, his backseat observer flew over the area at 300 feet. They came back to base shot up, but convinced they could pinpoint the location of Whittlesey’s men by drawing enemy fire.

The two men flew back over the area at treetop level. The Germans started shooting. Then they turned around and made another pass.

German machine guns on the high ridges were actually shooting down at the American plane. Goettler was hit, but before he died he turned toward allied lines. The plane crashed and Bleckley was thrown out and died.

But a French patrol found the plane and found the map on which Bleckley noted the American positions. Now American guns could hit the Germans without hitting Whittlesey’s men.

Also that day, the Germans attacked with flame throwers. The Americans fought them off, exploding some of the flame throwers on the backs of the Germans carrying them.

On October 7 a team of Americans searching for supplies were ambushed by the Germans. One man, Pvt. Lowell R. Hollingshead was sent back into the pocket with a message urging the Americans to surrender.

The American commanders read the note and looked at each. “They’re begging us to quit. They’re more worried than we are,” McMurtry said.

But the Americans were almost out of ammunition and the men were so weak they could no longer bury the dead.

Om 19:00. on the night of October 7, 1918 a patrol from the 77th Division’s 307th Infantry Regiment walked into the pocket without meeting any Germans. The attacks against the German lines by the American Army had forced them to fall back.

On October 8, the 190 remaining men of the “Lost Battalion” walked back to American lines. Another 260 were carried out. 107 men were dead and 63 missing.

They had become heroes. American newspapers had coined the term “Lost Battalion” and men and women across the country had followed the battle in their local papers.

Cher Ami, the carrier pigeon, became the mascot of the 77th Division. She was treated for her wounds and a little wooden leg was carved to replace the one she lost in battle. She died in 1919 and her body was stuffed and today is on exhibit in the Smithsonian Institute.

Major Charles Whittlesey was promoted and awarded the Medal of Honor. He was asked to speak at various patriotic events and chair events after the war.

He was part of the select group who escorted the body of America’s World War I Unknown Soldier back to Arlington National Cemetery in 1921.

He headed the Red Cross Roll Call in New York City and as a result, continually met Soldiers suffering and dying from their wounds along with their families. But this work made things worse for Whittlesey.

“Raking over the ashes like this revives all the horrific memories. I’ll hear the wounded screaming again. I have nightmares about them. I can’t remember when I’ve had a good nights sleep,” he told a fellow diner after a Red Cross Dinner.

On Nov. 24, 1921, the 37-year old Whittlesey boarded the passenger ship S.S. Toloa heading for Cuba. After dinner on Nov. 26 he stayed up late before returning to his cabin. He was never seen again. Inside on the cabin bunk he left nine letters for friends and family.

George McMurtry, on the other hand, lived until age 82. The volunteer Soldier turned lawyer turned Soldier again made millions in the stock market and paid for “Lost Battalion” reunion events out of his own pocket until he died on Nov. 22, 1958.


Kry 'n afskrif


Inhoud

The men of the 77th Division, who held the Charlevaux ravine, which became known as the "pocket", were mostly from New York City. The 77th Division is known as the "liberty" division due to the Statue of Liberty patch they wore, but in WWI they were usually referred to as the "Metropolitan" division because of where most of the men hailed from. [4] Most of the enlisted men were recent immigrants or were poor working class from the streets of New York City fighting from a young age for food. These attributes acquired on the streets are seen by some historians [ who? ] as one of the reasons that this group survived in the Argonne.

The 77th Division was trained at what became a prestigious camp called Camp Upton, located in Suffolk County on Long Island. Charles Whittlesey, an east coast lawyer, was assigned as a battalion commander in the 77th upon completion of his officer's training. The camp was located a half mile from the town of Yaphank, New York. "Yaphank, where the hell is Yaphank?" [5] was a common expression heard among the new recruits of Camp Upton.

While universally known as the "Lost Battalion", this force actually consisted of companies from 4 different battalions - A, B, C Companies of the 1st Battalion, 308th Infantry Regiment (1-308th Inf) E,G, H companies of the 2nd Battalion 308th Infantry (2-308th Inf) K Company of the 3rd Battalion of the 307th Infantry Regiment (3-307th Inf) and C, D Companies of the 306th Machine Gun Battalion. All of these companies belonged to the 154th Infantry Brigade of the 77th Division and with a strength of approximately 545 men was a battalion-sized force. Major Whittlesey was the battalion commander of 1-308th Inf, the senior officer present, and he assumed command of the entire force once he realized it was surrounded.

Argonne Forest before the attack Edit

The Argonne Forest was seized by the Germans at the early stages of the war. They had set up defensive positions throughout the forest, using a string of networked trenches. These defences started with a roughly 550-yard (500 m) deep front line which "served as not much more than an advanced warning system". [6] Beyond the first line, which consisted of trenches, shell holes, and listening posts, the Allies would have to push through the dense forest to the main battle lines. The next battle line, which was about 1 mile (2 km) in depth, had turned back all Allied attacks over the last four years. This battle line, which consisted of wired trenches that were firmly held, was referred to by the Germans as "Hagen Stellung" ("Hagen position"). The Next German battle line, referred to as the "Hagen Stellung-Nord" ("Hagen position-North"), was "basically a machine-gun-covered, pre-sighted artillery target." [7] This was a very well entrenched location utilizing both natural and man-made barriers. Together, these two battle lines formed what was known as "Etzel Stellungen" ("Etzel positions").

Die Hagen Stellung-Nord formed the most difficult problem. Over the years, the Germans had pre-sighted every square inch of the area in case of a hostile takeover. Should attackers take the Hagen Stellung-Nord, they came immediately into danger of annihilation by German artillery. No occupier could remain there for long.

The Germans also spread barbed wire for hundreds of miles. At various points, it was higher than a man's head and several, even many, yards deep. The Germans also placed barbed wire at the bottom of rivers and small streams to prevent any troop movement across these areas.

Orders Edit

The Meuse-Argonne Offensive began on the morning of September 26, 1918. General Evan Johnson, the commander in charge of the Argonne part of the offensive, had a "no retreat" command for his divisions:

It is again impressed upon every officer and man of this command that ground once captured must under no circumstances be given up in the absence of direct, positive, and formal orders to do so emanating from these headquarters. Troops occupying ground must be supported against counterattack and all gains held. It is a favorite trick of the Boche to spread confusion. by calling out "retire" or "fall back." If, in action, any such command is heard officers and men may be sure that it is given by the enemy. Whoever gives such a command is a traitor and it is the duty of any officer or man who is loyal to his country and who hears such an order given to shoot the offender upon the spot. "WE ARE NOT GOING BACK BUT FORWARD!" –General Alexander. [8]

On 1 October, Whittlesey was given his orders: first, he was to advance north up the Ravine d’Argonne until it ended, at the Ravin de Charlevaux. Upon reaching it they were to continue across the brook and take the Charlevaux Mill. Behind this mill was the Binarville-La Viergette road. The securing of the mill was imperative to seize control of the road and a rail line that ran parallel to the north of it. This road was crucial because it allowed for the movement of supplies to the Allied soldiers. The railway was crucial because it would cut off one of the Germans’ major supply routes. The plan was to have the first battalion lead the assault, led personally by Whittlesey. They would be supported by the second battalion, led by Captain McMurtry. Just after 5:00 pm on that evening the attack came to a halt and the men dug in for the night.

On the morning of 2 October, the final orders came at around 05:00. The main objective was still the Binarville-La Viergette road. The attack was to start at 07:00, to give time for the fog to lift and the men to eat. Whittlesey and McMurtry ordered Companies D and F to remain along the western ridge to become a containing force. The rest of the first and second battalions would continue along a prominence known as "Hill 198" to complete a flanking maneuver on the enemy. The problem was that on the hill there was a double trench line of German soldiers. The plan was that once the two battalions took the hill they would then send back companies E and H to create a line to Companies D and F.

The attack and encirclement Edit

By the night of 2 October, after a long day of fighting, Major Whittlesey received information that the men had found a way up the right of Hill 198. At around this same moment the French experienced a massive counterattack by the Germans and were forced to fall back, exposing the left flank of the 308th. The same occurred on the right flank with the other American Division, causing the 308th to be outflanked on both sides. However, they did not discover this until shortly after they reached the peak of Hill 198. The hill was now in their control however, it was too quiet for Whittlesey. He realized that he could hear nothing of the 307th that was supposed to be on their flank. "Either they had broken through the line as well and reached their objective over there, or they had been licked and fallen back. The former would be good news for the 308th . The latter, however, was unthinkable orders forbade it. " [9]

While this was happening, to the rear of the main action George W. Quinn, [10] a runner with the battalion, was killed while attempting to reach Major Whittlesey with a message from Whittlesey's adjutant, Lieutenant Arthur McKeogh. Whittlesey earlier in the day had sent McKeogh back about 150 yd (140 m) with 15 men with light machine guns to silence German machine gunners who had cut communications between Whittlesey's battalion and the American rear during the night. The Germans were taking ground from which they could surround Whittlesey's men. McKeogh's undelivered message asked for a mortar to use against the strong German position. Quinn was found four months later to have killed three German soldiers who had mortally wounded him before he could reach Whittlesey.

The men dug in on Hill 198 and created what is known as "the pocket" in what was a fairly good defensive position. The two best companies were on the flanks, with support from the weaker companies. A single company took up the front of the pocket. The rear was the least protected from attack and was defended by only a few riflemen and several machine guns. The hill sloped steeply from the front of the pocket, making it difficult for Germans to bomb the battalion from that direction. The biggest flaw in their position was that their holes were dug too close together, and too many men were occupying the holes at the same time. This created easy targets for mortars and snipers. By about 22:30, Whittlesey realized that Hill 205 was still occupied by the Germans on the left, and the ravine to the right was also full of enemy soldiers.

The morning of 3 October was spent trying to re-establish contact with the flanks and with the companies that were left behind. Whittlesey sent out runners to the French and American units that were supposed to be on his flanks. None of the runners returned, neither from the flanks nor from trying to connect with the companies that Whittlesey had left behind. All were killed or captured by the enemy. The more time that passed without any messages the more Whittlesey was coming to the conclusion that they were actually surrounded. However, the Germans were not attacking the German forces within the ravine believed that they were outnumbered by the Americans.

German counter-attack Edit

That afternoon, the Germans attacked from all sides. "A single one up front might not have been so bad, but there were others on the flanks, and sniper fire ringing out as well." [11] At this time, Captain Holderman, an officer working with Whittlesey, realized the predicament that the men were in. The German forces had nearly doubled and were closing in on them. Their communication line was cut and so they could not receive supplies of food or ammunition. Holderman tried to lead an assault out through the back of the pocket, but failed to break out, incurring heavy casualties in the process. This infuriated Whittlesey, but seeing that there was nothing he could do he simply sent the survivors back to their defensive positions. Next came a grenade assault followed by mortars raining in on them, but the Americans did not stagger. Another attack came a little after 17:00, and it lasted for about 45 minutes. After this attack was over, the Germans began to settle down for the day. The Americans had suffered many casualties, but inflicted similarly heavy losses on the attacking Germans.

On the morning of 4 October, patrols were sent out on their morning routes, and Whittlesey was unsure that any of the carrier pigeons had actually made it through. He was unsure if command actually knew of the desperate situation that was unfolding. Whittlesey believed that his orders to hold this position still applied, because the position was the key to breaking through the German lines. There has been much controversy among different historians regarding how it occurred, but Whittlesey and his men were shelled by their own artillery. Some believe that Whittlesey had relayed the wrong coordinates, while others believe that Whittlesey had gotten the coordinates right and the artillery's aim was off, the truth was that they had advanced to the North slope of the Charlevaux Ravine while the artillery thought he was on the South slope. [12] Whittlesey released his final carrier pigeon, named Cher Ami, to call off the barrage. "A shell exploded directly below the bird, killing five of our men and stunning the pigeon so that it fluttered to the ground midway between the spring. and the bridge we crossed to get into the Pocket." [ aanhaling nodig ]

The pigeon managed to take flight again and despite being severely wounded, successfully delivered the message: "We are along the road parallel to 276.4. Our own artillery is dropping a barrage directly on us. For heavens sake stop it." Cher Ami had been shot through the breast, blinded in one eye, and had a leg hanging only by a tendon. The pigeon was tended to by army medics, and was considered a hero of the 77th Division for helping to save the lives of the 194 survivors. [13]

As soon as the Allied shelling had stopped, the Germans launched an attack. After many losses and much hand-to-hand combat, the German forces were driven back once again. Although many had been killed or captured, the unit still remained intact, but morale was low and sickness was setting in. Many men only had a few bullets left and no food. Bandages were being taken off of the dead and reused on the wounded. A package was reported to have been dropped in for the men to resupply, but all reports point to it falling into German territory. Water was accessible, but getting to it required exposing oneself to German fire.

From 5–8 October, the Germans continued to attack. They also sent messengers asking for the 308th to surrender. Whittlesey did not respond. There were many controversies at the time as to what he had done, but records indicate that he said and did nothing. At least one surrender demand carried by an 18-year-old soldier, captured by the Germans and then released to carry the message, said "the suffering of your wounded men can be heard over here in German lines, and we are appealing to your humane sentiments to stop. please treat (the messenger) as an honorable man. He is quite a soldier. We envy you." The same memoir states that Whittlesey wrote in his official Operations Report in capital letters, "No reply to the demand to surrender seemed necessary." [1]

The attacks to relieve the "Lost Battalion" Edit

While Whittlesey and his men tenaciously defended their position, their parent 154th Brigade and the entire 77th Division launched a ferocious series of attacks to get to them. But with each attack, these efforts grew weaker and weaker as the combat power of the 77th ebbed. In the first 4 days of these attacks, the rest of the 308th infantry alone lost 766 men. [14]

The news of the Lost Battalion's dilemma reached the highest levels of AEF command. While the 77th's power ground down, a powerful U.S. force under General Hunter Liggett's I Corps (United States) was being put together. The veteran 28th Infantry Division was oriented to reach Whittlesey and the fresh 82nd Infantry Division was moved to reinforce the 28th's flank. Meanwhile, Pershing ordered Liggett reinforced by the 1st Infantry Division "The Big Red One" which had received some replacements and some rest after St Mihiel.

Observing the movement of the 1st Division, the Germans ordered a Prussian Guards Division to reinforce their forces in the sector. (p343) [ verduideliking nodig ] The Germans also sent an elite battalion of "Storm Troopers" reinforced with flamethrowers to aid the Germany Infantry attacking Whittlesey.

For the next few days, the Pocket held firm and the powerful American attacks started to push the Germans back and the 77th Division was now trying to infiltrate troops into the pocket.

Whittlesey, meanwhile, asked for a volunteer to sneak through the lines and lead back help. Private Abraham Krotoshinsky undertook this mission and skillfully left the pocket by a circuitous route to the north which ultimately led to an infiltrating company of the 307th Infantry. Krotoshinsky acted as a guide to lead this group to help rescue the trapped company and establish a route for further fresh troops to come into the pocket. So on 8 October, the 77th relief force had linked up with Whittlesey's men. Immediately upon their relief, Whittlesey was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel.

Aftermath Edit

Of the over 500 soldiers who entered the Argonne Forest, only 194 walked out unscathed. The rest were killed, missing, captured, or wounded. Major Charles White Whittlesey, Captain George G. McMurtry, and Captain Nelson M. Holderman received the Medal of Honor for their valiant actions. Whittlesey was also recognized by being a pallbearer at the ceremony interring the remains of the Unknown Soldier. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Former Major League Baseball player, and Captain in the 77th Division, Eddie Grant, was killed in one of the subsequent missions in search of the battalion. A large plaque was placed in the center-field wall at the Polo Grounds New York in his honor.

Brigadier General Billy Mitchell wrote after the rescue that the Germans had managed to prevent supplies being air-dropped to the battalion. He ordered: [15]

. chocolate and concentrated food and ammunition dropped. Our pilots thought they had located it from the panel that it showed and dropped off considerable supplies, but later I found out they had received none of the supplies we had dropped off. The Germans had made up a panel like theirs and our men had calmly dropped off the nice food to the Germans who undoubtedly ate it with great thanksgiving.

Several members of the Lost Battalion portrayed themselves in the 1919 feature film The Lost Battalion, directed by Burton L. King. [16]

A&E made a 2001 film about the event, The Lost Battalion. [17]

Swedish power metal band Sabaton made a song about them titled "The Lost Battalion" in their 2016 album The Last Stand.

In the video game Call of Cthulhu the main character Edward Pierce is mentioned as being a veteran of the lost batalion, and he suffers from post-traumatic-stress-disorder as a result.

  • Maj. Charles W. Whittlesey (Commander, 1-308th Inf )
  • Capt. George G. McMurtry (Commander, 2-308th Inf)
  • Capt. Nelson M. Holderman (Commander, Company K, 3-307th Inf)
  • 1Lt. Harold E. Goettler (Pilot, 50th Aero Squadron)
  • 2 lt. Erwin R. Bleckley (Observer, 50th Aero Squadron)
  • Sers. Benjamin Kaufman (Company K, 3-307th Inf)
  • Pvt. Archie A. Peck (Company A, 1-308th Inf)
  • Pvt. William Begley, Sgt. Raymond Blackburn, Pvt. George W. Botelle, Pvt. James W. Bragg, Pvt. Clifford R. Brown, Pvt. Philip "Zip" Cepaglia, 1Lt. William J. Cullen, Cpl. James Dolan, Cpl. Carmine Felitto, Pvt. Joseph Friel, Pfc. Jack D. Gehris, Sgt. Jeremiah Healey, Cpl. Irving Klein, Pvt. Stanislaw Kosikowski, Pvt. Abraham Krotoshinsky, Cpl. Leo J. Lavoie, Pvt. Irving Louis Liner, Pvt. Henry Miller, Cpl. James J. Murphy, Cpl. Holger Petersen, Pvt. Frank J. Pollinger, 2Lt. Harry Rogers, Cpl. Haakon A. Rossum, Cpl. Joseph C. Sauer, 2Lt. Gordon L. Schenck, Pfc. Irving Sirota, Pvt. Sidney Smith, Pvt. Albert E. Summers and 1Lt. Charles W. Turner, Pfc. Samuel D. Grobtuck, First Sgt. Herman J. Bergasse [18]

2nd Lt Paul Rutherford Knight also was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.


Kyk die video: The Unbelievable Story Of Brave Pigeon Cher Ami During 1st World War


Kommentaar:

  1. Orton

    Die slim dinge sê)

  2. Lester

    Daarin is iets ook vir my, dit lyk of dit 'n goeie idee is. Ek stem saam met jou.

  3. Dubg

    Net die regte hoeveelheid.

  4. Mackendrick

    Dit is jammer dat ek nie nou kan praat nie - ek moet vertrek. Maar ek sal vry wees - ek sal beslis skryf wat ek dink.

  5. Nishicage

    Raadpleeg u om 'n webwerf te besoek wat baie inligting het oor die onderwerp wat u is.

  6. Vishicage

    You can search for a link to a site with a huge number of articles on the topic that interests you.

  7. Lawler

    The futile work.



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