Wêreld se oudste natuurlike mummie geïdentifiseer deur DNA

Wêreld se oudste natuurlike mummie geïdentifiseer deur DNA



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Wetenskaplikes het die antieke menslike skelet, bekend as die "Spirit Cave Mummy", in 1940 ontdek, weggesteek in 'n klein rotsagtige grot in die Great Basin -woestyn in die noordweste van Nevada. Maar dit was eers in die negentigerjare dat radiokoolstof -dateringstegnieke onthul het dat die skelet ongeveer 10 600 jaar oud was, wat dit die oudste natuurlike mummie maak wat ooit gevind is.

Na 'n lang regstryd het gevorderde DNA -opeenvolging onthul dat die Spirit Cave Mummy verwant is aan 'n moderne inheemse Amerikaanse stam, wat die grot al lank as 'n deel van sy voorvaderlike vaderland geëis het. Die mummie is nou definitief verbind met die Fallon Paiute-Shoshone-stam van Nevada.

Die treffende ontdekking kom as deel van 'n baanbrekende genetiese studie, gepubliseer in Wetenskap tydskrif, wat verskeie kontroversiële ou oorskot ontleed het wat van Alaska tot Patagonië gevind is. Die bevindinge daarvan stel wetenskaplikes in staat om die bewegings van vroeë mensegroepe op te spoor, aangesien dit tydens die ystydperk vinnig oor die Amerikas versprei het.

Die nuwe studie betwis ook die jarelange teorie dat 'n ander groep, bekend as Paleoamerikaners, moontlik Noord -Amerika bevolk het voordat inheemse Amerikaners dit gedoen het. As deel van die nuwe studie het die navorsers die DNA van 'n groep 10,400-jarige menslike oorskot in volgorde wat in die 19de eeu gevind is, in Lagoa Santa, Brasilië, opgestel. Vroeëre studies gebaseer op kraniale morfologie - of ondersoek na die vorm van die skedels - het gelei tot die teorie dat die Lagoa Santa -geraamtes nie inheems kan wees nie, omdat hul skedelvorms anders was.

"Ons studie bewys dat Spirit Cave en Lagoa Santa eintlik geneties nader was aan hedendaagse inheemse Amerikaners as aan enige ander ou of kontemporêre groep wat tot dusver opeenvolgend was," het studieleier Eske Willeslev van die Universiteit van Cambridge en die Universiteit van Kopenhagen gesê in 'n persverklaring .

"As jy na die stampe en vorms van 'n kop kyk, help dit jou nie om die ware genetiese afkoms van 'n bevolking te verstaan ​​nie," het Willeslev bygevoeg. "Ons het bewys dat jy mense kan hê wat baie anders lyk, maar nou verwant is."

Benewens die Spirit Cave en die Lagoa Santa-oorblyfsels, het die studie ook DNA ontleed van die Lovelock-geraamtes (ook van Nevada), 'n Inca-mummie en die 9 000 jaar oue melktand van 'n jong meisie wat in Trail Creek Cave in Alaska gevind is.

Die regstryd oor die lot van die Spirit Cave Mummy strek tot 2000, toe die Amerikaanse Buro vir Landbestuur besluit het om die oorskot nie terug te keer nie. Die Fallon Paiute-Shoshone-stam het die regering aangekla vir die oortreding van die Wet op die beskerming en terugkeer van inheemse Amerikaanse grafte, en 'n regter van die distrikshof het die BLM versoek om dit te heroorweeg. Die saak duur tot 2015, toe die stam Willerslev en sy span toegelaat het om genoomvolgorde op DNA uit die mummie se skedel te neem.

Nadat die DNA-ontleding bewys het dat die mummie in werklikheid verband hou met die huidige inheemse Amerikaners, is die skelet in 2016 aan die stam terugbesorg. In 2018 herbegrawe tydens 'n privaat seremonie, rus die Spirit Cave Mummy uiteindelik uiteindelik in sy moderne tyd afstammelinge.


Genetiese ontleding van die oudste natuurlike mammie ter wêreld verander wat ons weet oor die inheemse Amerikaanse geskiedenis

Gevorderde genetiese toetse van sommige van die mees omstrede menslike oorskot in Noord- en Suid -Amerika verander wat ons weet oor hoe ou mense hulle gedra het en uiteindelik die streek kom bewoon het, wat moontlik historiese tydlyne soos ons dit ken, herskryf.

Die studie, wat vandag in Science gepubliseer is, het geneties geanaliseerde DNA herwin van 15 antieke genome wat regoor die Amerikas ontdek is, van Alaska tot Patagonië. Die resultate van twee besonder omstrede mummies kan nou 'n teorie dat Paleoamerikaners - 'n groep geneties verskillende mense - in Noord -Amerika bestaan ​​het voor inheemse Amerikaners, van die hand wys.

Toe die Deense ontdekkingsreisiger Peter W. Lund in die 19de eeu die Lagoa Santa -oorblyfsels ontdek het, het sy navorsers die 'Paleo -Amerikaanse hipotese' gekry om aan te dui dat die groep geraamtes nie inheemse Amerikaners was nie weens hul verskillende kraniale morfologie. 'N Eeu later is die oorskot van 'n 40-jarige man wat 10 600 jaar gelede gesterf het, gevind in Spirit Cave in die Amerikaanse Groot Bekkenwoestyn, en die "Spirit Cave Mummy" was byna twee dekades lank die kern van 'n regsgeveg . Die Fallon Paiute-Shoshone-stam van Nevada het kulturele verbintenis met die oorskot geëis en versoek dat hulle onder die Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act gerepatrieer word. Die federale regering het hul bewering weerlê en beweer dat die oorblyfsels geneties anders was as inheemse Amerikaners.

Dit is waar die in Kopenhagen gebaseerde navorser Eske Willeslev ingekom het. As deel van 'n internasionale studie was Willeslev reeds besig met 'n opeenvolging van ander omstrede oorskot (soos die Lovelock-geraamtes, 'n Inca-mummie, die oudste menslike oorskot van die Chileense Patagonië, sowel as die 9 000-jarige melktand van 'n jong Alaskaanse meisie) toe die Fallon Paiute-Shoshone-stam hom toestemming verleen om die Spirit Cave Mummy te ontleed.


DNA van die 10,000-jarige Spirit Cave Mummy onthul die geheime van die inheemse Amerikaanse geskiedenis

'N Omvattende studie waarin navorsers die DNA van beroemde en kontroversiële menslike oorblyfsels uit Noord- en Suid-Amerika geneties ontleed het, het fassinerende nuwe besonderhede oor die antieke geskiedenis van die uitgestrekte gebied onthul, sowel as 'n langdurige regsgeveg oor 'n 10 600 jaar oue geraamte wat die oudste natuurlike mummie ter wêreld is.

In die studie, gepubliseer in die joernaal Science, het 'n internasionale span navorsers 'n reeks van 15 prehistoriese genome bepaal, en die volledige stel gene wat in 'n organisme voorkom, onttrek van oorblyfsels wat op plekke so ver as Alaska en Patagonië gevind is. Dit sluit in die Lovelock-geraamtes, die Lagoa Santa-oorblyfsels, 'n Inca-mummie en die oudste oorblyfsels in die Chileense Patagonië, sowel as die 10 600 jaar oue skelet en bekend as die 'Spirit Cave-mummie'.

"Gedurende die afgelope drie dekades is daar baie metodologiese vordering gemaak wat die herwinning van antieke DNA uit menslike oorskot vergemaklik het," het Jos & eacute Victor Moreno Mayar, eerste skrywer van die studie van die Center for GeoGenetics aan die Universiteit van Kopenhagen, gesê Nuusweek. "Ons kan vandag DNA kry van oorblyfsels wat al duisende jare lank neergelê is, in instellings wat die bewaring van DNA onwaarskynlik maak."

Hierdie tegnieke het die navorsers in staat gestel om die bewegings van die vroegste mense in die Amerikas op te spoor, en onthul beide hoe hulle tydens die ystydperk met 'n "verstommende" spoed oor die gebied versprei het, en hoe hulle in die daaropvolgende millennia met mekaar omgegaan het.

'Vandag weet ons 'n paar dinge oor die bevolking van die Amerikas uit verskillende dissiplines, soos argeologie, antropologie, taalkunde en genetika,' het Mayar gesê. 'Die dinge wat ons weet, is egter net genoeg om 'n baie eenvoudige model te bou vir hoe dinge gebeur het.

'' So 'n model lui dat die eerste inheemse Amerikaners op 'n stadium na Asië na Alaska gereis het na 25 000 jaar gelede, en sodra hulle na die middelbreedtegraad in Amerika getrek het, het hulle 'n noord-na-suid-roete gevolg, terwyl sommige bevolkings op verskillende tye op verskillende tye agtergebly het. dit lyk asof gevestigde bevolkings nie veel met mekaar in wisselwerking was nie, 'het hy gesê.

Daar is egter aanduidings wat daarop dui dat die verhaal baie meer kompleks is, met lang periodes van bevolkingsisolasie op sommige plekke en konstante bevolkingsinteraksie op ander.

"Genetika is 'n goeie manier om hierdie prosesse te kenmerk," het Mayar gesê. "Die genome van die huidige inheemse Amerikaners is egter slegs 'n deelversameling van die teenwoordiges tydens die aanvanklike vestiging. Daarom het ons besluit om te kyk na die genome van individue wat geleef het kort nadat inheemse Amerikaners aanvanklik die Amerikas gevestig het."

Die resultate het die span in staat gestel om 'n jarelange hipotese te ontken dat 'n groep geneties-onderskeie mense, genaamd Paleoamerikaners, in Noord-Amerika bestaan ​​voor inheemse Amerikaners.

"Spirit Cave en Lagoa Santa was baie omstrede omdat hulle geïdentifiseer is as sogenaamde 'Paleoamericans' op grond van kraniometrie, en mdashit het vasgestel dat die vorm van hul skedels anders was as die huidige inheemse Amerikaners," het Eske Willeslev, leier van die studie, beide aan die St John's College, Universiteit van Cambridge en die Universiteit van Kopenhagen, in 'n verklaring gesê.

"Ons studie bewys dat Spirit Cave en Lagoa Santa eintlik geneties nader was aan hedendaagse inheemse Amerikaners as aan enige ander ou of kontemporêre groep wat tot dusver opeenvolgend was."

Die 10,400-jarige Lagoa Santa bly in die Brasiliaanse deelstaat Minas Gerais en is in die 19de eeu ontdek deur die Deense ontdekkingsreisiger Peter W. Lund. Die bevindings het daartoe gelei dat hy die 'Paleo -Amerikaanse hipotese' ontwikkel het, wat daarop dui dat die beroemde versameling geraamtes nie inheemse Amerikaners kan wees nie, as gevolg van die spesifieke vorm van hul skedels en iets wat die jongste studie weerlê.

"As jy na die stampe en vorms van 'n kop kyk, help dit jou nie om die ware genetiese afkoms van 'n bevolking te verstaan ​​nie, en mdashwe het bewys dat jy mense kan hê wat baie anders lyk, maar nou verwant is," het Willeslev gesê.

Die jongste studie is ook 'n belangrike hoofstuk in die geskiedenis van die Spirit Cave -mummie en mdasha -prehistoriese man wat in sy veertigerjare gesterf het en natuurlik behoue ​​gebly het. Die betekenis daarvan, wat in 1940 in die Great Basin Desert ontdek is, is 50 jaar lank nie reg verstaan ​​nie. Die oorskot was aanvanklik tussen 1 500 en 2 000 jaar oud, maar gedurende die negentigerjare het nuwe tekstiel- en haartoetse die bene tot 10 600 jaar oud gedateer.

In 1997 het die Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe & mdasha-groep inheemse Amerikaners, gebaseer in Nevada naby Spirit Cave, 'n onmiddellike terugkeer van die oorskot onder die Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act versoek dat hulle kulturele verbintenis met die skelet het.

Hierdie versoek is egter geweier omdat die afkoms van die oorskot betwis is. In reaksie hierop het die stam die federale regering gedagvaar, met die regsgeding wat stamleiers teen antropoloë geplaas het wat aangevoer het dat die mummie vanweë die historiese waarde daarvan in 'n museum moet verskyn. Die saak was 20 jaar lank vasgelê totdat die stam Willeslev toegelaat het om die genoom van die mummie vir die eerste keer te volg.

'Daar is ooreengekom dat as Spirit Cave geneties 'n inheemse Amerikaner was, die mummie na die stam sou teruggestuur word,' het Willeslev gesê.

Nadat ons vasgestel het dat die Spirit Cave -individu 'n voorouer was van moderne inheemse Amerikaners, is die oorskot in 2016 aan die stam terugbesorg en 'n privaat herbegrafnisgeleentheid het vroeër vanjaar plaasgevind, waarvan die besonderhede pas bekend gemaak is.

"Wat vir my baie duidelik geword het, was dat dit 'n baie emosionele en diep kulturele gebeurtenis was," het Willeslev gesê. "Die stam het ware gevoelens vir Spirit Cave, wat dit as 'n Europeër moeilik kan verstaan, maar vir ons sou dit baie wees soos om ons ma, pa, suster of broer te begrawe. Ons kan ons almal voorstel hoe dit sou wees as ons pa of ma is op 'n uitstalling geplaas, en hulle het dieselfde gevoel vir Spirit Cave. "

Nie net het die opeenvolging van die Spirit Cave-genoom die langdurige regsgeskil tot 'n einde gebring nie, maar het dit ook nuwe lig gewerp op hoe antieke menslike bevolkings oor die Amerikas beweeg en gevestig het. Hierdie bevolkings verdeel dikwels en reis in kleiner geïsoleerde groepe.

"'N Opvallende ding oor die ontleding van Spirit Cave en Lagoa Santa is hul noue genetiese ooreenkoms, wat impliseer dat hul voorvaderlike bevolking met 'n verstommende spoed deur die kontinent gereis het," het David Meltzer, van die Departement Antropologie aan die Southern Methodist University, Dallas gesê. die staat.

"Dit is iets wat ons vermoed het weens die argeologiese bevindings, maar dit is fassinerend om dit deur die genetika te laat bevestig. Hierdie bevindinge impliseer dat die eerste mense baie vaardig was om vinnig oor 'n heeltemal onbekende en leë landskap te beweeg. Hulle het 'n hele vasteland gehad vir hulleself en hulle het oor 'n asemrowende spoed groot afstande afgelê. "

Die jongste navorsing het ook verrassende spore van Australasiese afkoms in die Lagoa Santa -oorblyfsels onthul, wat daarop dui dat inheemse Suid -Amerikaners ou bande met hierdie mense gehad het. Daar is egter geen Australiese genetiese verband by inheemse Noord -Amerikaners gevind nie.

"Ons het ontdek dat die Australiese sein afwesig was by inheemse Amerikaners voor die skeuring van die Spirit Cave en die Lagoa Santa -bevolking, wat beteken dat groepe wat hierdie genetiese sein dra, óf reeds in Suid -Amerika teenwoordig was toe inheemse Amerikaners die streek bereik het, of dat Australasiese groepe later opdaag," het Mayar gesê. gesê.

"Dat hierdie sein nie voorheen in Noord -Amerika gedokumenteer is nie, impliseer dat 'n vroeëre groep wat dit besit het, verdwyn het of dat 'n groep wat later aankom deur Noord -Amerika gegaan het sonder om 'n genetiese spoor na te laat."

Vir Peter de Barros Damgaard, ook van die Sentrum vir GeoGenetika, bied dit 'n interessante raaisel.

'As ons aanvaar dat die migreringsroete wat hierdie Australasiese afkoms na Suid -Amerika gebring het, deur Noord -Amerika gegaan het, het die draers van die genetiese sein as 'n gestruktureerde bevolking ingekom en reguit na Suid -Amerika gegaan waar hulle later met nuwe inkomende groepe gemeng het, of hulle het later ingekom, ”het hy gesê. 'Op die oomblik kan ons nie uitvind watter een hiervan korrek is nie.'

Volgens die navorsers kan die jongste bevindings ons dwing om ons idees oor hoe Amerika in die eerste plek gevestig is, te heroorweeg, wat daarop dui dat hierdie proses baie ingewikkelder was as wat voorheen gedink is, soos verwag is.

'Ons het gevind dat daar baie inheemse Amerikaanse groepe was wat ons nog nie geneties gedokumenteer het voordat ons suid van die ysplate wat Noord -Amerika bedek het gedurende die ystydperk verhuis het nie,' het Mayar gesê. 'Dan, suid van die ys, blyk dit dat inheemse Amerikaners die hele vasteland baie vinnig uitgestraal en verken het, waarskynlik binne 'n paar eeue.'

'Dit was egter nie die einde van die verhaal nie, en dit blyk dat daar vanaf 8 000 jaar gelede 'n tweede bevolkingsuitbreiding uit Meso-Amerika plaasgevind het, wat bygedra het tot die afkoms van die meeste huidige Suid-Amerikaners en ook sommige mense in die VSA Groot wasbak, ”het hy gesê.

Mayar het opgemerk dat ons slegs op die oppervlak krap in terme van die karakterisering van verskillende bevolkingsbewegings op verskillende tye. 'Ons resultate maak dit duidelik dat toekomstige studies verdere, fyner besonderhede van hierdie verhaal sal toon,' het hy gesê.


DNA van die oudste natuurlike mummie ter wêreld ontsluit geheime van die ystydperkstamme in die Amerikas

'N Regsgeveg oor 'n 10,600 jaar oue ou skelet - die' Spirit Cave Mummy 'genoem - is beëindig nadat gevorderde DNS -volgorde gevind het dat dit verband hou met 'n inheemse Amerikaanse stam.

Die openbaring is gepubliseer in Wetenskap vandag (Donderdag 8 November om 14:00 Amerikaanse oostelike tyd) as deel van 'n omvangryke internasionale studie wat die DNA geneties ontleed het van 'n reeks beroemde en omstrede antieke oorblyfsels in Noord- en Suid -Amerika, waaronder Spirit Cave, die Lovelock -geraamtes, die Lagoa Santa -oorblyfsels, 'n Inca -mummie, en die oudste oorblyfsels in die Chileense Patagonië. Die studie kyk ook na die tweede oudste menslike oorskot uit Trail Creek Cave in Alaska - 'n melktand van 9000 jaar van 'n jong meisie.

Wetenskaplikes het 15 antieke genome wat van Alaska tot Patagonië strek, gelys en was in staat om die bewegings van die eerste mense op te spoor toe hulle gedurende die ystydperk met 'n "verstommende" spoed oor die Amerikas versprei het, en ook hoe hulle in die daaropvolgende millennia met mekaar omgegaan het.

Die span akademici het nie net agtergekom dat die Spirit Cave -oorblyfsels - die oudste natuurlike mummie ter wêreld - 'n inheemse Amerikaner was nie, maar hulle kon 'n jarelange teorie dat 'n groep met die naam Paleoamericans in Noord -Amerika bestaan ​​voor Indiane bestaan, verwerp.

Die baanbrekersnavorsing het ook leidrade ontdek van 'n raaiselagtige Australasiese genetiese sein in die 10,400 jaar oue Lagoa Santa -oorblyfsels uit Brasilië wat 'n voorheen onbekende groep vroeë Suid -Amerikaners onthul het - maar die Australasiese skakel het geen genetiese spore in Noord -Amerika gelaat nie. Dit is deur een van die wetenskaplikes beskryf as 'buitengewone bewyse van 'n buitengewone hoofstuk in die geskiedenis van die mens'.

Professor Eske Willeslev, wat posisies beklee by St John's College, Universiteit van Cambridge en die Universiteit van Kopenhagen, en die studie gelei het, het gesê: "Spirit Cave en Lagoa Santa was baie omstrede omdat hulle geïdentifiseer is as sogenaamde 'Paleoamericans' gebaseer op kraniometrie - is vasgestel dat die vorm van hul skedels anders was as die huidige inheemse Amerikaners. Ons studie bewys dat Spirit Cave en Lagoa Santa eintlik geneties nader was aan hedendaagse inheemse Amerikaners as aan enige ander ou of kontemporêre groep wat tot op hede opeenvolgend was. "

Die Lagoa Santa -oorskot is in die 19de eeu deur die Deense ontdekkingsreisiger Peter W. Lund opgespoor, en sy werk het gelei tot hierdie 'Paleoamerikaanse hipotese' gebaseer op kraniale morfologie dat die beroemde groep geraamtes nie 'n inheemse Amerikaner kon wees nie. Maar hierdie nuwe studie weerlê dat die teorie en die bevindinge op Dinsdag, 6 November 2018, deur embargo deur professor Willeslev met verteenwoordigers van die Brasiliaanse nasionale museum in Rio van stapel gestuur is.

Hy het bygevoeg: "As ons na die stampe en vorms van 'n kop kyk, help dit jou nie om die ware genetiese afkoms van 'n bevolking te verstaan ​​nie - ons het bewys dat jy mense kan hê wat baie anders lyk, maar nou verwant is."

Die wetenskaplike en kulturele betekenis van die Spirit Cave -oorblyfsels, wat in 1940 in 'n klein klipperige alkoof in die Groot Bekkenwoestyn gevind is, is 50 jaar lank nie reg verstaan ​​nie. Daar word vermoed dat die oorblyfsels van die man in sy veertigerjare aanvanklik tussen 1500 en 2000 jaar oud was, maar gedurende die negentigerjare het nuwe tekstiel- en haartoetse die skelet op 10 600 jaar oud gedateer.

Die Fallon Paiute-Shoshone-stam, 'n groep inheemse Amerikaners in Nevada naby Spirit Cave, beweer kulturele verbintenis met die skelet en versoek onmiddellike repatriasie van die oorskot ingevolge die Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.

Die versoek is geweier omdat die afkoms betwis is, die stam die federale regering gedagvaar het en die regsgeding het stamleiers teen antropoloë ontken, wat aangevoer het dat die oorblyfsels 'n onskatbare insig in die vroegste inwoners van Noord -Amerika bied en steeds in 'n museum moet verskyn.

Die doodloopstraat het 20 jaar lank voortgeduur totdat die stam ooreengekom het dat professor Willeslev vir die eerste keer genoomvolgorde kan uitvoer op DNA wat uit die Spirit Cave onttrek is.

Professor Willeslev het gesê: "Ek het die stam verseker dat my groep nie die DNA -toetsing sou doen nie, tensy hulle toestemming gegee het en daar is ooreengekom dat as die geestelike genetika 'n inheemse Amerikaan was, die mummie na die stam sou terugkeer."

Die span het deeglik DNA uit die petrusbeen aan die binnekant van die skedel onttrek, wat bewys dat die skelet 'n voorouer was van die huidige inheemse Amerikaners. Spirit Cave is in 2016 na die stam terugbesorg en daar was vroeër vanjaar 'n privaat herbegrafnisgeleentheid wat professor Willeslev bygewoon het en besonderhede is pas bekend gemaak.

Die genetikus het verduidelik: 'Wat vir my baie duidelik geword het, was dat dit 'n diep emosionele en diep kulturele gebeurtenis was. soos om ons ma, pa, suster of broer te begrawe.

"Ons kan ons almal voorstel hoe dit sou wees as ons pa of ma op 'n uitstalling geplaas word en hulle dieselfde gevoel vir Spirit Cave gehad het. Dit was 'n voorreg om saam met hulle te werk."

Die stam is gedurende die tweejaarprojek op hoogte gehou en twee lede het die laboratorium in Kopenhagen besoek om die wetenskaplikes te ontmoet en hulle was teenwoordig toe al die DNS -monsterneming geneem is.

'N Verklaring van die Fallon Paiute-Shoshone-stam lui: "Die stam het baie ervaring met lede van die wetenskaplike gemeenskap, meestal negatief. Daar is egter 'n handjievol wetenskaplikes wat die perspektief van die stam verstaan ​​en Eske Willerslev was een van hulle.

"Hy het die tyd geneem om hom bekend te maak met die stam, ons op die hoogte gehou van die proses en was beskikbaar om ons vrae te beantwoord. Sy nuwe studie bevestig wat ons altyd uit ons mondelinge tradisie en ander bewyse geweet het - dat die man van sy laaste rusplek in Spirit Cave is ons inheemse Amerikaanse voorouer. "

Die genoom van die Spirit Cave -skelet het 'n groter betekenis, omdat dit nie net die regs- en kulturele geskil tussen die stam en die regering besleg het nie, maar ook gehelp het om te onthul hoe antieke mense oor die Amerikas beweeg en hulle gevestig het. Die wetenskaplikes kon die beweging van bevolkings van Alaska tot so ver suid as Patagonië volg. Hulle het dikwels van mekaar geskei en die kans waag om in klein sakke van geïsoleerde groepe te reis.

Dr David Meltzer, van die Departement Antropologie, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, het gesê: ''n Opvallende ding oor die ontleding van Spirit Cave en Lagoa Santa is hul noue genetiese ooreenkoms, wat beteken dat hul voorvaderlike bevolking met 'n verstommende spoed deur die vasteland gereis het. iets wat ons vermoed het as gevolg van die argeologiese bevindings, maar dit is fassinerend om dit deur die genetika te laat bevestig. Hierdie bevindinge impliseer dat die eerste mense baie vaardig was om vinnig oor 'n totaal onbekende en leë landskap te beweeg. Hulle het 'n hele kontinent vir hulself gehad en hulle het oor 'n asemrowende spoed groot afstande afgelê. "

Die studie onthul ook verrassende spore van Australasiese afkoms in die ou Suid -Amerikaanse inheemse Amerikaners, maar geen Australiese genetiese verband is gevind in Noord -Amerikaanse inheemse Amerikaners nie.

Dr Victor Moreno-Mayar, van die Center for GeoGenetics, Universiteit van Kopenhagen en die eerste skrywer van die studie, het gesê: 'Ons het ontdek dat die Australasiese sein afwesig was by inheemse Amerikaners voor die Spirit Cave en Lagoa Santa bevolkingsverdeling, wat beteken dat groepe hierdie genetiese sein was óf reeds teenwoordig in Suid -Amerika toe inheemse Amerikaners die streek bereik het, óf Australasiese groepe het later opgedaag. Amerika sonder om 'n genetiese spoor agter te laat. "

Dr Peter de Barros Damgaard, van die Center for GeoGenetics, Universiteit van Kopenhagen, verduidelik waarom wetenskaplikes verbaas maar optimisties bly oor die Australasiese afkomssein in Suid -Amerika. Hy het verduidelik: 'As ons aanneem dat die migreringsroete wat hierdie Australasiese afkoms na Suid -Amerika gebring het, deur Noord -Amerika gegaan het, het die draers van die genetiese sein as 'n gestruktureerde bevolking gekom en reguit na Suid -Amerika gegaan waar hulle later gemeng het met nuwe inkomende groepe, of hulle het later ingeskryf. Op die oomblik kan ons nie oplos watter een hiervan korrek kan wees nie, en ons staan ​​buitengewone bewyse voor van 'n buitengewone hoofstuk in die menslike geskiedenis! Maar ons sal hierdie raaisel oplos. "

Die bevolkingsgeskiedenis gedurende die millennia wat gevolg het op die aanvanklike vestiging was baie meer kompleks as wat voorheen gedink is. Die bevolking van die Amerikas is vereenvoudig omdat 'n reeks noord -tot -suid bevolkings verdeel het, met min of geen interaksie tussen groepe na hul stigting.

Die nuwe genomiese analise wat in die studie aangebied is, het getoon dat inheemse Amerikaners ongeveer 8 000 jaar gelede weer aan die gang was, maar hierdie keer van Meso -Amerika na Noord- en Suid -Amerika.

Navorsers het spore van hierdie beweging gevind in die genome van alle huidige inheemse bevolkings in Suid-Amerika waarvoor genomiese data tot dusver beskikbaar is.

Dr Moreno-Mayar het bygevoeg: 'Die ouer genome in ons studie het ons nie net geleer oor die eerste inwoners in Suid-Amerika nie, maar het ook gedien as 'n basis vir die identifisering van 'n tweede stroom genetiese afkoms, wat in die afgelope millennia uit Mesoamerika gekom het, en dit is Dit blyk nie uit die argeologiese verslag nie. Hierdie Meso -Amerikaanse volke het gemeng met die afstammelinge van die vroegste Suid -Amerikaners en het aanleiding gegee tot die meeste kontemporêre groepe in die streek. "

Vrywaring: AAAS en EurekAlert! is nie verantwoordelik vir die akkuraatheid van nuusberigte wat op EurekAlert geplaas word nie! deur bydraende instansies of vir die gebruik van enige inligting deur die EurekAlert -stelsel.


DNA van die oudste natuurlike mummie ter wêreld ontsluit geheime van die ystydperkstamme in die Amerikas

Die openbaring is gepubliseer in Wetenskapvandag (Donderdag 8 November om 14:00 Amerikaanse oostelike tyd) as deel van 'n uitgebreide internasionale studie wat die DNA van 'n reeks beroemde en kontroversiële ou oorblyfsels in Noord- en Suid -Amerika, insluitend Spirit Cave, die Lovelock -geraamtes, geneties ontleed het Lagoa Santa -oorblyfsels, 'n Inca -mummie, en die oudste oorblyfsels in die Chileense Patagonië. Die studie kyk ook na die tweede oudste menslike oorskot uit Trail Creek Cave in Alaska - 'n melktand van 9000 jaar van 'n jong meisie.

Wetenskaplikes het 15 antieke genome wat van Alaska tot Patagonië strek, gelys en was in staat om die bewegings van die eerste mense op te spoor toe hulle gedurende die ystydperk met 'n verstommende "spoed oor die Amerikas versprei het, en ook hoe hulle in die daaropvolgende millennia met mekaar omgegaan het.

Die span akademici het nie net agtergekom dat die Spirit Cave -oorblyfsels - die oudste natuurlike mummie ter wêreld - 'n inheemse Amerikaner was nie, maar hulle kon 'n jarelange teorie dat 'n groep met die naam Paleoamericans in Noord -Amerika bestaan, voor inheemse Amerikaners, afwys.

Die baanbrekersnavorsing het ook leidrade ontdek van 'n verwarrende Australasiese genetiese sein in die 10 400 jaar oue Lagoa Santa-oorblyfsels uit Brasilië, wat 'n voorheen onbekende groep vroeë Suid-Amerikaners onthul het-maar die Australasiese skakel het geen genetiese spore in Noord-Amerika gelaat nie. Dit is deur een van die wetenskaplikes beskryf as 'buitengewone bewyse van 'n buitengewone hoofstuk in die geskiedenis van die mens'.

Professor Eske Willeslev, wat posisies beklee by St John's College, Universiteit van Cambridge en die Universiteit van Kopenhagen, en die studie gelei het, het gesê: 'Spirit Cave en Lagoa Santa was baie omstrede omdat hulle geïdentifiseer is as sogenaamde' Paleoamericans ' gebaseer op kraniometrie - daar is bepaal dat die vorm van hul skedels anders was as die huidige inheemse Amerikaners. Ons studie bewys dat Spirit Cave en Lagoa Santa eintlik geneties nader was aan hedendaagse inheemse Amerikaners as aan enige ander ou of kontemporêre groep wat tot dusver opeenvolgend was. ”

Die Lagoa Santa -oorskot is in die 19de eeu deur die Deense ontdekkingsreisiger Peter W. Lund opgespoor en sy werk het gelei tot hierdie 'Paleoamerikaanse hipotese' gebaseer op kraniale morfologie dat die beroemde groep geraamtes teoreties nie inheems was nie. Maar hierdie nuwe studie weerlê dat die teorie en die bevindings op Dinsdag, 6 November 2018, deur embargo deur professor Willeslev met verteenwoordigers van die Brasiliaanse nasionale museum in Rio van stapel gestuur is.

Hy het bygevoeg: 'As u na die stampe en vorms van 'n kop kyk, help dit u nie om die ware genetiese afkoms van 'n bevolking te verstaan ​​nie - ons het bewys dat u mense kan hê wat baie anders lyk, maar nou verwant is.

Die wetenskaplike en kulturele betekenis van die Spirit Cave -oorblyfsels, wat in 1940 in 'n klein klipperige alkoof in die Groot Bekkenwoestyn gevind is, is 50 jaar lank nie reg verstaan ​​nie. Daar word vermoed dat die oorblyfsels van die man in sy veertigerjare aanvanklik tussen 1500 en 2000 jaar oud was, maar gedurende die negentigerjare het nuwe tekstiel- en haartoetse die skelet op 10 600 jaar oud gedateer.

Die Fallon Paiute-Shoshone-stam, 'n groep inheemse Amerikaners in Nevada naby Spirit Cave, beweer kulturele verbintenis met die skelet en versoek onmiddellike repatriasie van die oorskot ingevolge die Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.

Die versoek is geweier omdat die afkoms betwis is, die stam die federale regering gedagvaar het en die regsgeding het stamleiers teen antropoloë ontken, wat aangevoer het dat die oorskot van onskatbare waarde insig in die vroegste inwoners van Noord -Amerika bied en in 'n museum moet verskyn.

Die doodloopstraat het 20 jaar lank voortgeduur totdat die stam ooreengekom het dat professor Willeslev vir die eerste keer genoomvolgorde kan uitvoer op DNA wat uit die Spirit Cave onttrek is.

Professor Willeslev het gesê: 'Ek het die stam verseker dat my groep nie die DNA -toetsing sou doen tensy hulle toestemming gegee het nie en daar is ooreengekom dat as die geestelike genetika 'n inheemse Amerikaner was, die mummie na die stam sou terugkeer.

Die span het deeglik DNA uit die petrusbeen aan die binnekant van die skedel onttrek, wat bewys dat die skelet 'n voorouer was van die huidige inheemse Amerikaners. Spirit Cave is in 2016 na die stam terugbesorg en daar was vroeër vanjaar 'n privaat herbegrafnisgeleentheid wat professor Willeslev bygewoon het en besonderhede is pas bekend gemaak.

Die genetikus het verduidelik: 'Wat vir my baie duidelik geword het, was dat dit 'n diep emosionele en diep kulturele gebeurtenis was. Die stam het ware gevoelens vir Spirit Cave, wat dit as Europeër moeilik kan verstaan, maar vir ons sou dit baie wees soos om ons ma, pa, suster of broer te begrawe.

'Ons kan ons almal voorstel hoe dit sou wees as ons pa of ma op 'n uitstalling geplaas word en hulle dieselfde gevoel vir Spirit Cave gehad het. Dit was 'n voorreg om saam met hulle te werk. ”

Die stam is gedurende die tweejaarprojek op hoogte gehou en twee lede het die laboratorium in Kopenhagen besoek om die wetenskaplikes te ontmoet en hulle was teenwoordig toe al die DNS -monsterneming geneem is.

In 'n verklaring van die Fallon Paiute-Shoshone-stam lui: 'Die stam het baie ervaring met lede van die wetenskaplike gemeenskap, meestal negatief. Daar is egter 'n handjievol wetenskaplikes wat die perspektief van die stam verstaan, en Eske Willerslev was een van hulle.

'Hy het die tyd geneem om kennis te maak met die stam, ons op hoogte gehou van die proses en was beskikbaar om ons vrae te beantwoord. Sy nuwe studie bevestig wat ons altyd uit ons mondelinge tradisie en ander bewyse geweet het - dat die man wat uit sy laaste rusplek in Spirit Cave geneem is, ons inheemse Amerikaanse voorouer is. ”

Die genoom van die Spirit Cave -skelet het 'n groter betekenis, omdat dit nie net die juridiese en kulturele geskil tussen die stam en die regering besleg het nie, maar ook gehelp het om te onthul hoe antieke mense oor die Amerikas beweeg en gevestig het. Die wetenskaplikes kon die beweging van bevolkings van Alaska tot so ver suid as Patagonië volg. Hulle het dikwels van mekaar geskei en die kans waag om in klein sakke van geïsoleerde groepe te reis.

Dr David Meltzer, from the Department of Anthropology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, said: “A striking thing about the analysis of Spirit Cave and Lagoa Santa is their close genetic similarity which implies their ancestral population travelled through the continent at astonishing speed. That’s something we’ve suspected due to the archaeological findings, but it’s fascinating to have it confirmed by the genetics. These findings imply that the first peoples were highly skilled at moving rapidly across an utterly unfamiliar and empty landscape. They had a whole continent to themselves and they were travelling great distances at breath-taking speed.”

The study also revealed surprising traces of Australasian ancestry in ancient South American Native Americans but no Australasian genetic link was found in North American Native Americans.

Dr Victor Moreno-Mayar, from the Centre for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen and first author of the study, said: “We discovered the Australasian signal was absent in Native Americans prior to the Spirit Cave and Lagoa Santa population split which means groups carrying this genetic signal were either already present in South America when Native Americans reached the region, or Australasian groups arrived later. That this signal has not been previously documented in North America implies that an earlier group possessing it had disappeared or a later arriving group passed through North America without leaving any genetic trace.”

Dr Peter de Barros Damgaard, from the Centre for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen, explained why scientists remain puzzled but optimistic about the Australasian ancestry signal in South America. He explained: “If we assume that the migratory route that brought this Australasian ancestry to South America went through North America, either the carriers of the genetic signal came in as a structured population and went straight to South America where they later mixed with new incoming groups, or they entered later. At the moment we cannot resolve which of these might be correct, leaving us facing extraordinary evidence of an extraordinary chapter in human history! But we will solve this puzzle.”

The population history during the millennia that followed initial settlement was far more complex than previously thought. The peopling of the Americas had been simplified as a series of north to south population splits with little to no interaction between groups after their establishment.

The new genomic analysis presented in the study has shown that around 8,000 years ago, Native Americans were on the move again, but this time from Mesoamerica into both North and South America.

Researchers found traces of this movement in the genomes of all present-day indigenous populations in South America for which genomic data is available to date.

Dr Moreno-Mayar added: “The older genomes in our study not only taught us about the first inhabitants in South America, but also served as a baseline for identifying a second stream of genetic ancestry, which arrived from Mesoamerica in recent millennia and that is not evident from the archaeological record. These Mesoamerican peoples mixed with the descendants of the earliest South Americans and gave rise to most contemporary groups in the region.”


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Ten years of ancient genome analysis has taught scientists 'what it means to be human'

The late Jim Boyd of the Confederated Tribes of the Colville talking at the press conference in 2015 announcing the results of the DNA analysis of Kennewick Man, the Ancient One. Credit: Linus Mørk/Magus Film

A ball of 4,000-year-old hair frozen in time tangled around a whalebone comb led to the first ever reconstruction of an ancient human genome just over a decade ago.

The hair, which was preserved in arctic permafrost in Greenland, was collected in the 1980s and stored at a museum in Denmark. It wasn't until 2010 that evolutionary biologist Professor Eske Willerslev was able to use pioneering shotgun DNA sequencing to reconstruct the genetic history of the hair.

He found it came from a man from the earliest known people to settle in Greenland known as the Saqqaq culture. It was the first time scientists had recovered an entire ancient human genome.

Now a review of the first decade of ancient genomics of the Americas published in Natuur today written by Professor Willerslev a Fellow of St John's College, University of Cambridge, and director of The Lundbeck Foundation GeoGenetics Centre, University of Copenhagen, with one of his longstanding collaborators Professor David Meltzer, an archaeologist based at Southern Methodist University, Texas, shows how the world's first analysis of an ancient genome sparked an incredible 'decade of discovery'.

Professor Willerslev said: "The last ten years has been full of surprises in the understanding of the peopling of the Americas—I often feel like a child at Christmas waiting to see what exciting DNA present I am about to unwrap! What has really blown my mind is how resilient and capable the early humans we have sequenced DNA from were—they occupied extremely different environments and often populated them in a short space of time.

"We were taught in school that people would stay put until the population grew to a level where the resources were exhausted. But we found people were spreading around the world just to explore, to discover, to have adventures.

"The last 10 years have shown us a lot about our history and what it means to be human. We won't ever see that depth of human experience on this planet again—people entered new areas with absolutely no idea of what was in front of them. It tells us a lot about human adaptability and how humans behave."

For decades, scientists relied on archaeological findings to reconstruct the past and theories weren't always accurate. It was previously thought, that there were early non-Native American people in the Americas but the ancient DNA analysis so far has shown that all of the ancient remains found are more closely related to contemporary Native Americans than to any other population anywhere else in the world.

A ball of 4,000-year-old hair frozen in time tangled around a whalebone comb led to the first ever reconstruction of an ancient human genome just over a decade ago. The hair, which was preserved in arctic permafrost in Greenland, was collected in the 1980s and stored at a museum in Denmark. It wasn't until 2010 that evolutionary biologist Professor Eske Willerslev was able to use pioneering shotgun DNA sequencing to reconstruct the genetic history of the hair. He found it came from a man from the earliest known people to settle in Greenland known as the Saqqaq culture. It was the first time scientists had recovered an entire ancient human genome. Now a review of the first decade of ancient genomics of the Americas published in Natuur today (June 16, 2021) written by Professor Willerslev a Fellow of St John's College, University of Cambridge, and director of The Lundbeck Foundation GeoGenetics Centre, University of Copenhagen, with one of his longstanding collaborators Professor David Meltzer, an archaeologist based at Southern Methodist University, Texas, shows how the world's first analysis of an ancient genome sparked an incredible 'decade of discovery.' Credit: St John's College, University of Cambridge

Professor Meltzer, who worked on the review with Professor Willerslev while the former was at St John's College as a Beaufort Visiting Scholar added: "Genomic evidence has shown connections that we didn't know existed between different cultures and populations and the absence of connections that we thought did exist. Human population history been far more complex than previously thought.

"A lot of what has been discovered about the peopling of the Americas could not have been predicted. We have seen how rapidly people were moving around the world when they have a continent to themselves, there was nothing to hold them back. There was a selective advantage to seeing what was over the next hill."

In 2013, scientists mapped the genome of a four-year-old boy who died in south-central Siberia 24,000 years ago. The burial of an Upper Palaeolithic Siberian child was discovered in the 1920s by Russian archaeologists near the village of Mal'ta, along the Belaya river. Sequencing of the Mal'ta genome was key as it showed the existence of a previously unsampled population that contributed to the ancestry of Siberian and Native American populations.

Two years later, Professor Willerslev and his team published the first ancient Native American genome, sequenced from the remains of a baby boy ceremonially buried more than 12,000 years ago in Anzick, Montana.

In 2015, their ancient genomic analysis was able to solve the mystery of Kennewick Man, one of the oldest and most complete skeletons ever found in the Americas, and one of the most controversial.

The 9,000-year-old remains had been surrounded by a storm of controversy when legal jurisdiction over the skeleton became the focus of a decade of lawsuits between five Native American tribes, who claimed ownership of the man they called Ancient One, and the United States Army Corps of Engineers.

Professor Willerslev, who has rightly learnt to be mindful of cultural sensitivities when searching for ancient DNA, has spent much of the past decade talking to tribal community members to explain his work in detail and seek their support.

This meant he was able to agree with members of the Colville Tribe, based in Washington State where the remains were found, that they would donate some of their DNA to allow Professor Willerslev and his team to establish if there was a genetic link between them and Kennewick Man.

Professor Eske Willerslev with Donna and Joey, two members of the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone tribe, discussing the Spirit Cave individual. Credit: Linus Mørk/Magus Film.

Jackie Cook, a descendant of the Colville Tribe and the repatriation specialist for the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, said: "We had spent nearly 20 years trying to have the Ancient One repatriated to us. There has been a long history of distrust between scientists and our Native American tribes but when Eske presented to us about his DNA work on the Anzick child, the hair on my arms stood up.

"We knew we shouldn't have to agree to DNA testing, and there were concerns that we would have to do it every time to prove cultural affiliation, but our Council members discussed it with the elders and it was agreed that any tribal member who wanted to provide DNA for the study could."

The Kennewick Man genome, like the Anzick baby, revealed the man was a direct ancestor of living Native Americans. The Ancient One was duly returned to the tribes and reburied.

Cook added: "We took a risk but it worked out. It was remarkable to work with Eske and we felt honoured, relieved and humbled to be able to resolve such an important case. We had oral stories that have passed down through the generations for thousands of years that we call coyote stories—teaching stories. These stories were from our ancestors about living alongside woolly mammoths and witnessing a series of floods and volcanoes erupting. As a tribe, we have always embraced science but not all history is discovered through science."

Work led by Professor Willerslev was also able to identify the origins of the world's oldest natural mummy called Spirit Cave. Scientists discovered the ancient human skeleton back in 1940 but it wasn't until 2018 that a striking discovery was made that unlocked the secrets of the Ice Age tribe in the Americas.

The revelation came as part of a study that genetically analysed the DNA of a series of famous and controversial ancient remains across North and South America including Spirit Cave, the Lovelock skeletons, the Lagoa Santa remains, an Inca mummy, and the oldest remains in Chilean Patagonia.

Scientists sequenced 15 ancient genomes spanning from Alaska to Patagonia and were able to track the movements of the first humans as they spread across the Americas at 'astonishing' speed during the Ice Age and also how they interacted with each other in the following millennia.

The team of academics not only discovered that the Spirit Cave remains was a Native American but they were able to dismiss a longstanding theory that a group called Paleoamericans existed in North America before Native Americans. Spirit Cave was returned to The Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe, a group of Native Americans based in Nevada, for burial.

Professor Willerslev added: "Over the past decade human history has been fundamentally changed thanks to ancient genomic analysis—and the incredible findings have only just begun."


Research: DNA of world’s oldest natural mummy unlocks secrets of Ice Age tribes in the Americas —

A legal battle over a 10,600 year old ancient skeleton — called the ‘Spirit Cave Mummy’ — has ended after advanced DNA sequencing found it was related to a Native American tribe.

The revelation has been published in Wetenskap today (Thursday, November 8 at 14:00 US Eastern Time) as part of a wide ranging international study that genetically analysed the DNA of a series of famous and controversial ancient remains across North and South America including Spirit Cave, the Lovelock skeletons, the Lagoa Santa remains, an Inca mummy, and the oldest remains in Chilean Patagonia. The study also looked at the second oldest human remains from Trail Creek Cave in Alaska — a 9,000 year old milk tooth from a young girl.

Scientists sequenced 15 ancient genomes spanning from Alaska to Patagonia and were able to track the movements of the first humans as they spread across the Americas at “astonishing” speed during the Ice Age, and also how they interacted with each other in the following millennia.

The team of academics not only discovered that the Spirit Cave remains — the world’s oldest natural mummy — was a Native American but they were able to dismiss a longstanding theory that a group called Paleoamericans existed in North America before Native Americans.

The ground-breaking research also discovered clues of a puzzling Australasian genetic signal in the 10,400 year old Lagoa Santa remains from Brazil revealing a previously unknown group of early South Americans — but the Australasian link left no genetic trace in North America. It was described by one of the scientists as ‘extraordinary evidence of an extraordinary chapter in human history’.

Professor Eske Willeslev, who holds positions both at St John’s College, University of Cambridge, and the University of Copenhagen, and led the study, said: “Spirit Cave and Lagoa Santa were very controversial because they were identified as so-called ‘Paleoamericans’ based on craniometry — it was determined that the shape of their skulls was different to current day Native Americans. Our study proves that Spirit Cave and Lagoa Santa were actually genetically closer to contemporary Native Americans than to any other ancient or contemporary group sequenced to date.”

The Lagoa Santa remains were retrieved by Danish explorer Peter W. Lund in the 19th century and his work led to this ‘Paleoamerican hypothesis’ based on cranial morphology that theorised the famous group of skeletons could not be Native Americans. But this new study disproves that theory and the findings were published by Professor Willeslev with representatives from the Brazilian National Museum in Rio on Tuesday, November 6 2018.

He added: “Looking at the bumps and shapes of a head does not help you understand the true genetic ancestry of a population — we have proved that you can have people who look very different but are closely related.”

The scientific and cultural significance of the Spirit Cave remains, which were found in 1940 in a small rocky alcove in the Great Basin Desert, was not properly understood for 50 years. The preserved remains of the man in his forties were initially believed to be between 1,500 and 2000 years old, but during the 1990s new textile and hair testing dated the skeleton at 10,600 years old.

The Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe, a group of Native Americans based in Nevada near Spirit Cave, claimed cultural affiliation with the skeleton and requested immediate repatriation of the remains under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.

The request was refused because the ancestry was disputed, the tribe sued the federal government and the lawsuit pitted tribal leaders against anthropologists, who argued the remains provided invaluable insights into North America’s earliest inhabitants and should continue to be displayed in a museum.

The deadlock continued for 20 years until the tribe agreed that Professor Willeslev could carry out genome sequencing on DNA extracted from the Spirit Cave for the first time.

Professor Willeslev said: “I assured the tribe that my group would not do the DNA testing unless they gave permission and it was agreed that if Spirit Cave was genetically a Native American the mummy would be repatriated to the tribe.”

The team painstakingly extracted DNA from the petrus bone from the inside of the skull proving that the skeleton was an ancestor of present day Native Americans. Spirit Cave was returned to the tribe in 2016 and there was a private reburial ceremony earlier this year that Professor Willeslev attended and details have just been released.

The geneticist explained: “What became very clear to me was that this was a deeply emotional and deeply cultural event. The tribe have real feelings for Spirit Cave, which as a European it can be hard to understand but for us it would very much be like burying our mother, father, sister or brother.

“We can all imagine what it would be like if our father or mother was put in an exhibition and they had that same feeling for Spirit Cave. It has been a privilege to work with them.”

The tribe were kept informed throughout the two year project and two members visited the lab in Copenhagen to meet the scientists and they were present when all of the DNA sampling was taken.

A statement from the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe, said: “The Tribe has had a lot of experience with members of the scientific community, mostly negative. However, there are a handful of scientists that seemed to understand the Tribe’s perspective and Eske Willerslev was one of them.

“He took the time to acquaint himself with the Tribe, kept us well-informed of the process, and was available to answer our questions. His new study confirms what we have always known from our oral tradition and other evidence — that the man taken from his final resting place in Spirit Cave is our Native American ancestor.”

The genome of the Spirit Cave skeleton has wider significance because it not only settled the legal and cultural dispute between the tribe and the Government, it also helped reveal how ancient humans moved and settled across the Americas. The scientists were able to track the movement of populations from Alaska to as far south as Patagonia. They often separated from each other and took their chances travelling in small pockets of isolated groups.

Dr David Meltzer, from the Department of Anthropology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, said: “A striking thing about the analysis of Spirit Cave and Lagoa Santa is their close genetic similarity which implies their ancestral population travelled through the continent at astonishing speed. That’s something we’ve suspected due to the archaeological findings, but it’s fascinating to have it confirmed by the genetics. These findings imply that the first peoples were highly skilled at moving rapidly across an utterly unfamiliar and empty landscape. They had a whole continent to themselves and they were travelling great distances at breath-taking speed.”

The study also revealed surprising traces of Australasian ancestry in ancient South American Native Americans but no Australasian genetic link was found in North American Native Americans.

Dr Victor Moreno-Mayar, from the Centre for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen and first author of the study, said: “We discovered the Australasian signal was absent in Native Americans prior to the Spirit Cave and Lagoa Santa population split which means groups carrying this genetic signal were either already present in South America when Native Americans reached the region, or Australasian groups arrived later. That this signal has not been previously documented in North America implies that an earlier group possessing it had disappeared or a later arriving group passed through North America without leaving any genetic trace.”

Dr Peter de Barros Damgaard, from the Centre for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen, explained why scientists remain puzzled but optimistic about the Australasian ancestry signal in South America. He explained: “If we assume that the migratory route that brought this Australasian ancestry to South America went through North America, either the carriers of the genetic signal came in as a structured population and went straight to South America where they later mixed with new incoming groups, or they entered later. At the moment we cannot resolve which of these might be correct, leaving us facing extraordinary evidence of an extraordinary chapter in human history! But we will solve this puzzle.”

The population history during the millennia that followed initial settlement was far more complex than previously thought. The peopling of the Americas had been simplified as a series of north to south population splits with little to no interaction between groups after their establishment.

The new genomic analysis presented in the study has shown that around 8,000 years ago, Native Americans were on the move again, but this time from Mesoamerica into both North and South America.

Researchers found traces of this movement in the genomes of all present-day indigenous populations in South America for which genomic data is available to date.

Dr Moreno-Mayar added: “The older genomes in our study not only taught us about the first inhabitants in South America, but also served as a baseline for identifying a second stream of genetic ancestry, which arrived from Mesoamerica in recent millennia and that is not evident from the archaeological record. These Mesoamerican peoples mixed with the descendants of the earliest South Americans and gave rise to most contemporary groups in the region.”


Inhoud

The Wheelers, working for the Nevada State Parks Commission, were surveying possible archaeological sites to prevent their loss due to guano mining. Upon entering Spirit Cave they discovered the remains of two people wrapped in tule matting. One set of remains, buried deeper than the other, had been partially mummified (the head and right shoulder). This partially mummified individual (actual Spirit Cave mummy) was found to be wearing moccasins and wrapped in a rabbit-skin blanket when laid to rest. [8] The Wheelers, with the assistance of local residents, recovered a total of sixty-seven artifacts from the cave.

These artifacts were examined at the Nevada State Museum where they were initially estimated to be between 1,500 and 2,000 years old. They were deposited at the Nevada State Museum’s storage facility in Carson City where they remained for the next fifty-four years.

Spirit Cave Edit

Spirit Cave is at an elevation of 4,154 feet in the foothills of the Stillwater Mountains [9] the Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge is now established in this area. The location is to the northeast of Fallon, Nevada. [10] Biological similarities between remains found in Spirit Cave have shown undeniable association to remains scattered across a wide geographic location such as the Wizard Beach man and Crypt Cave dog burial. [7]

In 1996 University of California, Riverside anthropologist R. Ervi Taylor examined seventeen of the Spirit Cave artifacts using mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the mummy was approximately 9,400 years old (uncalibrated RCYBP)

11.5 Kya calibrated) — older than any previously known North American mummy. [7] Researchers estimate the death of this person to have occurred about 7420 B.C. [1] The mummy was originally thought to be between 1,500 and 2,000 years old until mass spectrometry carbon dates were carried out. [7]

The findings were published in the Nevada Historical Quarterly in 1997 and drew immediate national attention. [11] [12] [13] [14]

In 2000, further study was unable to establish a definitive affiliation of the remains. [16]

In September, 2006, the United States District Court for the District of Nevada ruled on a lawsuit by the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe and said that the Bureau of Land Management made an error in dismissing evidence without a full explanation. The court order remanded the matter back to the BLM for reconsideration of the evidence. [17]

In October 2015, Eske Willerslev collected bone and tooth samples from the remains with the permission of the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe. DNA analysis indicated that the remains were similar to North and South American indigenous groups. On November 22, 2016, the remains were repatriated to the tribe. [6] Willerslev attended the 2018 burial of the remains by the tribe. [8]

In November 2018, researchers reported that the DNA sequencing of the remains were used in research about Paleoamericans (Y-haplogroup Q1b1a1a1-M848, mt-haplogroup D1). [18]

Wizards Beach Man's remains were also in the collection of the Nevada State Museum, and were radiocarbon dated at the same time. This turned out to be another early Holocene skeleton dating to almost exactly the same era.

Wizards Beach Man was found in 1978 at Wizards Beach [19] on Pyramid Lake, about 100 miles (160 km) to the northwest from Spirit Cave. [20] Radiocarbon dating has established that he lived more than 9,200 years ago. [21] [22]


World's oldest human DNA found in 800,000-year-old tooth of a cannibal

A protein analysis suggests the supposed cannibal species Homo antecessor was distantly related to humans and Neanderthals.

In 1994, archaeologists digging in the Atapuerca Mountains in northern Spain discovered the fossilized remains of an archaic group of humans unlike any other ever seen. The bones were cut and fractured, and appeared to have been cannibalized. The largest skeletal fragments — which came from at least six individuals and dated to at least 800,000 years ago — shared some similarities with modern humans (Homo sapiens), plus other now-extinct human relatives like Neanderthalers en Denisovans, but were just different enough to defy classification as any known species.

Researchers ultimately named the previously unknown hominins Homo voorganger, borrowing the Latin word for "predecessor." Because the bones were among the oldest Homo fossils ever found in Europe, some researchers speculated that H. voorganger may have been the elusive common ancestor of Neanderthals, Denisovans and modern humans. Now, a new study of H. antecessor's DNA the single oldest sample of human genetic material ever analyzed — argues that that's probably not the case.

In the study, published April 1 in the journal Natuur, researchers sequenced the ancient proteïene in the enamel of an 800,000-year-old H. voorganger tooth, using the proteins to decipher the portion of genetic code that created them. After comparing that code with genetic data from more recent human tooth samples, the team concluded that H. antecessor's DNA was too different to fit on the same branch of the evolutionary tree as humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans.

Rather, the team wrote, H. voorganger was probably a "sister species" of the shared ancestor that led to the evolution of modern humans and our extinct hominin cousins.

"I am happy that the protein study provides evidence that the Homo voorganger species may be closely related to the last common ancestor of Homo sapiens, Neanderthals, and Denisovans," study co-author José María Bermúdez de Castro, scientific co-director of the excavations in Atapuerca, said in a statement. "The features shared by Homo voorganger with these hominins clearly appeared much earlier than previously thought."

To reach these results, the researchers used a method called paleoproteomics — literally, the study of ancient proteins. Using mass spectrometry, which displays the masses of all the molecules in a sample, scientists can identify the specific proteins in a given fossil. Our cells build proteins according to instructions contained in our DNA, with three nucleotides, or letters, in a string of DNA coding for a specific amino acid. Strings of amino acids form a protein. So, the amino acid chains that form each person's unique protein sequence reveal the patterns of nucleotides that form that person's genetic code, lead study author Frido Welker, a molecular anthropologist at the University of Copenhagen, told Haaretz.com.

Studying ancient proteins therefore opens a window into our genetic past in a way that DNA analysis cannot. DNA degrades relatively quickly, becoming unreadable within several hundred thousand years. To date, the oldest human DNA ever sequenced was about 430,000 years old (also discovered in Spain), according to a 2016 Natuur study. Proteins, meanwhile, can survive in fossils for millions of years. Scientists have previously used similar protein sequencing methods to study the genetic code of a 1.77-million-year-old rhino found in Dmanisi, Georgia, and a 1.9-million-year-old extinct ape in China.

While protein analysis allows researchers to look much further into the past than other genetic-sequencing methods, the findings are still limited by the quality and number of specimens available to study. Because the present research is based only on a single tooth from a single H. voorganger individual, the results provide only a "best guess" as to where the species lands on the human evolutionary tree, the authors wrote. Different types of cells produce many different kinds of proteins, so this enamel proteome is far from a complete genetic profile. More fossil evidence is needed to flesh out these results.

Of course, the quality of those fossil samples matters, too. As part of this study, the researchers also examined a 1.77-million-year-old molar taken from a fossil Homo erectus (an ancient human ancestor that lived 2 million years ago) previously discovered in Georgia however, the protein sequence was too short and damaged to offer any new insights about the specimen's DNA. Our human family tree will have to remain, for now, a tangled messy bush.

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